Summary: H.R.4446 — 100th Congress (1987-1988)All Information (Except Text)

There is one summary for H.R.4446. Bill summaries are authored by CRS.

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Introduced in House (04/21/1988)

Drug-Free America Act of 1988 - Amends the Controlled Substances Act to establish criteria for the imposition of the death penalty when, during the course of a continuing criminal enterprise drug offense, an individual knowingly causes the death of another.

Requires the Government, for such offense, to serve notice upon the defendant a reasonable time before trial or acceptance of a plea, disclosing that it intends to seek the death penalty and the aggravating factors upon which it will rely.

Requires a separate sentencing hearing before a jury, or the court upon motion by the defendant, when the defendant is found guilty or pleads guilty to such offense.

Allows the defendant and the Government to present any information relevant to sentencing without regard to the rules of evidence, but permits information to be excluded if its probative value is substantially outweighed by the danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or misleading of the jury.

Directs the court, or the jury by unanimous vote, to impose the death penalty upon finding that such sentence is justified based on consideration of both aggravating and mitigating factors.

Sets forth some mitigating factors to be considered by the jury or the court when imposing its sentence. Includes as aggravating factors: (1) the intentional nature of the act which resulted in the victim's death; (2) previous convictions for offenses for which life imprisonment or death is authorized; and (3) the especially heinous, cruel, or depraved nature of the offense.

Requires the court to instruct the jury not to consider the race, color, national origin, creed, or sex of the defendant in its consideration of the sentence.

Allows the court to impose a sentence of life imprisonment without the possibility of parole for such offenses when the death penalty is not imposed.

Establishes procedures for appeal from a death sentence. Requires the Court of Appeals, upon consideration of the record and the information and procedures of the sentencing hearing, to affirm the decision if: (1) the sentence was not imposed under the influence of passion, prejudice, or arbitrariness; and (2) the information supports the finding of aggravating factors or the absence of mitigating factors. Requires the court to provide a written explanation of its determination.

Provides increased criminal penalties for the possession of a mixture or substance which contains cocaine base (crack).

Establishes recordkeeping and reporting requirements for the manufacture, distribution, importation, and exportation of listed precursor and essential chemicals. Prohibits the distribution of such chemicals unless the recipient provides a certification of lawful use and proper identification.

Establishes exemptions from such requirements: (1) for the distribution of such chemicals between agents or employees within a single facility; (2) for the delivery of such chemicals to or by common carriers; (3) if the Attorney General determines that such requirements are not necessary for the enforcement of this Act; and (4) if products containing such chemicals are lawfully marketed under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

Establishes an import-export permit requirement for listed precursors and a declaration requirement for listed essential chemicals.

Includes as precursor chemicals: (1) N-Acetylanthranilic acid; (2) Anthranilic acid; (3) Ergotamine tartrate; (4) Ergonovine maleate; (5) Phenylacetic acid; (6) Ephedrine; (7) Pseudoephedrine; (8) Benzyl cyanide; (9) Benzyl chloride; and (10) Piperidine. Includes as essential chemicals: (1) Potassium permanganate; (2) Acetic anhydride; (3) Acetone; and (4) Ethyl ether. Establishes a mechanism and criteria for adding or deleting chemicals from such lists.

Prohibits the transfer of commercial tableting and encapsulating machines unless a certification of lawful use and proper identification are provided. Establishes reporting requirements for such transfers.

Establishes criminal penalties for the unlawful: (1) possession, manufacture, distribution, sale, importation, or exportation of a precursor or essential chemical; and (2) possession, manufacture, distribution, or importation of drug manufacturing equipment, tableting or encapsulating machines, and gelatin capsules.

Subjects all listed precursor and essential chemicals, drug manufacturing equipment, tableting and encapsulating machines, and gelatin capsules which have been imported, exported, manufactured, possessed, or distributed in violation of such Act (as well as all conveyances and equipment) to forfeiture to the United States.

Directs the Attorney General to maintain an active program, both domestic and international, to curtail the diversion of precursor and essential chemicals. Grants the Attorney General subpoena power with respect to precursor and essential chemicals.

Provides additional civil penalties for certain Controlled Substances Act violations involving heroin or cocaine.

States that individuals who have been convicted of violations involving a controlled substance, or of criminal violations regarding certain reporting or recordkeeping requirements, shall be ineligible for any license or permit issued under the authority of the United States for a specified period of time. Provides that any permit or license held at the time of the conviction shall be revoked.

Amends the Public Health Service Act to require States receiving Alcohol and Drug Abuse and Mental Health Services Block Grants to make grants for demonstration projects which provide treatment services to expectant mothers.

Establishes in the Executive Office of the President the Office of the Director of National Drug Control Policy to be headed by a Director, who shall be responsible for: (1) developing, reviewing, implementing, and enforcing U.S. policy with respect to drug control and abuse; (2) directing and coordinating U.S. efforts to halt the importation, manufacture, distribution, and use of illicit drugs; and (3) preparing a National and International Drug Control Strategy. Terminates the National Drug Enforcement Policy Board 90 days after the appointment of the Director. Makes conforming amendments to the Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984 and the Drug Abuse Prevention, Treatment, and Rehabilitation Act. Authorizes appropriations for FY 1988 through 1996.

Makes supplemental appropriations for Coast Guard drug enforcement activities.

Authorizes Coast Guard vessels and aircraft to fire at or into vessels which are liable to seizure or examination that do not bring-to after being ordered to do so by an authorized vessel or aircraft. Grants the commanding officer of the authorized vessel or aircraft immunity for such actions. Allows the Commandant of the Coast Guard to indemnify members or employees of the Coast Guard against any claim arising out of an act committed within the scope of their official drug enforcement duties.

Amends the Controlled Substances Act to extend jurisdiction over possession offenses to U.S. vessels and aircraft (and vessels and aircraft subject to the operation of the law of the United States). Subjects any U.S. citizen or resident on board any vessel to Federal criminal penalties for manufacturing, possessing, or distributing a controlled substance.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that the suppression of international narcotics trafficking is a major security objective of the United States and the most important national security objective within the Western Hemisphere.

Allows the Secretary of Defense to provide equipment to, or assign members of the armed forces to assist, foreign governments in the enforcement of drug laws. Provides for the assignment of members of the armed forces to assist Federal agencies in drug interdiction activities. Requires the Secretary to prepare a plan to implement such provision.

Directs the Secretary of the Treasury to evaluate alternatives to the use of deadly force as a means of forcing suspected drug-smuggling aircraft entering the United States to land. Requires the Secretary to submit such recommendations to the Congress in the form of proposed legislation.

Directs the Secretary to submit proposed legislation to the Congress relating to special restrictions and inspections for vessels and aircraft arriving from drug-producing countries.

Amends the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to modify the factors to be considered by the President when determining whether to certify a country as having cooperated with United States drug interdiction programs. Directs the President to consider whether such countries have taken the steps necessary to eliminate the laundering of drug-related profits.

Amends Federal law to include electronic fund transfers within the definition of "money instruments."

Amends the National Forest System Drug Control Act of 1986 to provide additional law enforcement authority for the Forest Service in dealing with Controlled Substances Act violations by: (1) removing the limitation on the number of Service personnel who may exercise specified law enforcement powers; and (2) permitting the exercise of such powers by Service personnel outside of the boundaries of the National Forest System.

Grants the Service authority, with respect to the specified law enforcement powers, to: (1) coordinate investigations and enforcement activities and prepare national and regional strategy plans in coordination with the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI); and (2) cooperate with the Attorney General in carrying out the seizure and forfeiture provisions of the Controlled Substances Act as such activities relate to the manufacture, distribution, or dispensing of controlled substances within the System.

Establishes criminal penalties for polluting Federal lands while manufacturing, distributing, or dispensing a controlled substance.

Amends the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 to grant the Postal Service certain seizure and law enforcement authority with respect to Controlled Substances Act violations. States that all moneys and proceeds from such seizures shall be deposited in the Postal Service Fund (and later withdrawn and paid into the Department of Justice Assets Forfeiture Fund).

States that any person convicted of a drug-related offense shall be ineligible for any form of student assistance provided under title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965. Requires any person applying for such assistance to file a statement with the institution certifying that the person has not been convicted of a drug-related offense. Requires the Secretary of Education to prescribe methods for verifying such statements.

Amends the Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act of 1986 to require State educational agencies to distribute funds for State and local programs for drug abuse education and prevention programs on the basis of relative enrollments in public and private, nonprofit schools (currently, on the basis of the relative number of children in the school-age population) within an area.

Requires local applications for funds for a three-year period to include a description of: (1) the extent and nature of the current drug and alcohol problem in the schools of the applicant; (2) the applicant's drug and alcohol policy; and (3) how the applicant will monitor program effectiveness.

Requires applicants to submit a progress report to State educational agencies for the preceding two years in order to receive funds for the third year. Requires the report to show reasonable progress toward accomplishing program objectives or a modified plan to meet such objectives.

Requires States to report annually to the Secretary with specified information on programs funded under this Act.

Authorizes appropriations for FY 1988 through 1991 to carry out the provisions of such Act.

Authorizes appropriations for FY 1989 to the building and facilities account, Federal Prison System, for the construction, acquisition, remodeling, and equipping of prisons.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that the National Institute of Justice should conduct a research project to obtain, on a voluntary basis, and analyze urine samples from individuals who are arrested to determine whether they use controlled substances.

Amends the Federal criminal code to make regular drug testing and refrainment from any use of controlled substances mandatory conditions of parole and probation.

Amends the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 to require Drug Law Enforcement Program grant recipients to provide additional matching funds.

Amends the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 to exclude any individual who uses or is addicted to illegal drugs from the definition of an individual with handicaps, for purposes of specified provisions.

Amends specified Federal law which prohibits discrimination against Federal employees or applicants for Federal employment to provide that such prohibition shall not be construed to permit or require the employment of an individual who uses illegal drugs.