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Introduced in Senate (03/25/1987)

Federal Fiscal Procedures Improvement Act of 1987 - Title I: Two-Year Budget Cycle - Amends the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Act of 1974 to revise the Federal and congressional budget processes by establishing a two-year budgeting cycle.

Amends the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act) to provide enforceable deficit targets for odd-numbered fiscal years.

Defines a two-fiscal-year budget period as the period of two consecutive fiscal years beginning on October 1 of any odd-numbered year.

Sets forth a revised timetable for a biennial budget. Requires the Congress, by September 30 of each odd-numbered year, to complete action on the concurrent resolution on the budget, all regular appropriation bills, and the reconciliation bill or resolution for the two-fiscal-year budget period beginning on October 1 of that year. Requires the President, by the following January 15th, to transmit to the Congress any revisions the President may desire in such budget. Requires the Director of the Congressional Budget Office, by the following March 31, to transmit to the Committees on the Budget of the House and the Senate, any revisions of the Office's fiscal policy report needed due to the President's revisions or changing economic conditions. Requires each Congress, by the last day of the second session, to complete action on bills and resolutions authorizing new budget authority for the two-fiscal-year budget period beginning on October 1 of the succeeding odd-numbered calendar year.

Makes it out of order in the House or the Senate, unless waived or suspended by a three-fifths vote, to consider any regular appropriation bill for a budget period until the Committee on Appropriations of that House has reported all of the regular appropriation bills. Requires all regular appropriation bills to be reported to the House by June 1 and passed by the House by June 15 of each odd-numbered year. Requires all regular appropriation bills to be reported by the Senate by June 30 and passed by the Senate by July 31 of each odd-numbered year.

Permits a change in budget accounts of the President's budget or estimates of outlays and proposed budget authority only in consultation with the House and Senate Appropriations and Budget Committees and the committees having jurisdiction over the affected programs and activities.

Sets forth technical and conforming amendments.

Title II: Procedures for Expedited Rescissions - Sets forth procedures for the expedited consideration by the Congress of rescission bills submitted by the President.

Title III: Budgetary Treatment of Credit Transactions of the United States Government - Establishes procedures for the budgetary treatment and financing of Federal direct loan and loan guarantee programs.

Defines "subsidy" as: (1) the difference between the face value of a direct loan and the estimated proceeds from the sale of the loan in the investment securities markets; and (2) the estimated net cost to the Government to reinsure a loan guarantee with a private insurer.

Makes any direct loan obligation of a Federal agency an obligation of the Federal Credit Revolving Fund.

Requires each agency to include in its budget proposal for a fiscal year: (1) the planned level of new direct loan obligations; and (2) the estimated subsidy associated with such obligations. Prohibits an agency from making a direct loan obligation unless: (1) funds have been appropriated for the loan subsidy; or (2) the use of funds otherwise available to the agency for the subsidy has been limited. Provides that the subsidy amount shall constitute the obligation of the agency and the difference between such amount and the face value of the loan shall constitute the obligation of the Fund. Requires the subsidy to be paid as the loan is disbursed.

Requires the Secretary of the Treasury to sell direct loans to the private sector.

Makes any loan guarantee commitment of a Federal agency a commitment of the Fund.

Requires each agency to include in its budget proposal for a fiscal year: (1) the level of new loan guarantee commitments; and (2) the estimated subsidy associated with such commitments. Prohibits an agency from making a loan guarantee commitment unless: (1) funds have been appropriated for the guarantee subsidy; or (2) the use of funds otherwise available to the agency for the subsidy has been limited. Provides that the subsidy amount shall constitute the obligation of the agency. Requires the subsidy to be paid to the Fund when the underlying loan agreement is executed.

Directs the Secretary to purchase reinsurance of loan guarantees from private insurers.

Establishes the Fund within the Department of the Treasury to serve as a central revolving fund and financing mechanism for all new Federal direct loans and loan guarantees. Directs the Secretary to receive into the Fund: (1) subsidy payments from Federal agencies; (2) payments due the Government for direct loans; (3) proceeds from the sale of direct loans and from the sale of any collateral received as the result of defaults on direct or guaranteed loans; and (4) fees due the Government for loan guarantees. Sets forth the Secretary's duties in managing the Fund, which include: (1) disbursing direct loans to borrowers according to agency loan agreements; (2) making claim payments for guaranteed loans in default that have not been reinsured; (3) identifying separately the credit activity of each agency; (4) requiring uniform reporting by agencies on loan performance, borrower characteristics, and debt collection efforts; and (5) estimating the subsidy amount for each direct loan and loan guarantee.

Requires the head of each agency authorized to make or guarantee loans to: (1) request annual appropriations for the subsidized portions of agency loans; (2) conduct loan programs within the lower of appropriations limitations for such programs or annual appropriations available to cover subsidy costs; and (3) pay to the Fund all relevant loan collections.

Provides for the budgetary treatment of direct loan and loan guarantee subsidies as agency obligations and of financing requirements of credit programs exceeding agency subsidies as Fund obligations.

Authorizes the Secretary to use the proceeds of the sale of any securities issued under the Second Liberty Bond Act to: (1) finance direct loans to the extent not covered by agency subsidy payments and direct loan sales; and (2) pay claims, resulting from federally-guaranteed loans, in excess of Fund reserves.

Authorizes the appropriation of funds necessary to liquidate debt incurred by the Fund due to operating losses.

Authorizes appropriations to agencies for subsidies associated with proposed direct loan obligations and proposed loan guarantee commitments.

Includes as "deposit insurance agencies" the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation, the National Credit Union Administration, and the Securities and Exchange Commission. Provides that: (1) obligations of deposit insurance agencies to make direct loans to the public or to assume loan assets shall remain obligations of such agencies; and (2) commitments to guarantee loans shall remain commitments of such agencies. Requires each deposit insurance agency to include in its budget proposal the estimated subsidy costs associated with proposed direct loan obligations and loan guarantee commitments. Requires no appropriations or limitations on the use of funds otherwise available for subsidies.

Makes technical and conforming amendments. Prohibits a Federal agency other than the Department of the Treasury from issuing, selling, or guaranteeing an obligation that is ordinarily financed in investment securities markets unless such obligation may be held by only the Secretary. Permits the Secretary to waive such prohibition under specified circumstances. Deems any obligation guaranteed by a Federal agency and financed by the Secretary to be a direct loan of the Fund.

Provides that purchases by the Secretary of obligations issued by local public bodies and guaranteed by a Federal agency shall be upon such terms as necessary to avoid an increase in borrowing costs of such bodies. Authorizes such an agency to make payments to the Secretary to offset the Secretary's costs of purchasing such obligations.

Title IV: Sequestration Procedures - Amends the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act) to revise sequestration procedures.

Directs the Comptroller General to submit the General Accounting Office's (GAO) initial and revised sequestration reports for a fiscal year to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). (Current law requires such reports to be submitted to the President.) Requires the GAO reports to contain the Comptroller General's views concerning the estimates, determinations, and specifications contained in the report submitted by the Directors of OMB and the Congressional Budget Office (CBO). Requires the Director of OMB to issue to the President and the Congress: (1) on September 1 preceding the fiscal year, an initial sequestration report based on the initial GAO report, providing the same items of information as contained in the OMB-CBO report, and explaining any deviations between the estimates, determinations, and specifications included and the views of the Comptroller General in the GAO report; and (2) on October 15, a revised report as necessary in light of the revised GAO report. Requires such revised report to contain the same estimated amounts of budget authority, outlays, spending authority, revenues, obligation limitations, obligated balances, unobligated balances, loan guarantee commitments, and direct loan obligations as contained in the initial report unless a change is required because legislation is enacted, a final regulation is promulgated, or notice of a sale of assets is published after such initial report. Requires the President to issue any necessary initial sequestration order on September 3 (currently, September 1) and the final order on October 17 (currently, October 15). Requires the President's initial and final orders to be in accordance with the initial and revised OMB (currently, GAO) reports.

Terminates procedures providing for sequestration from national defense accounts through the termination or modification of existing contracts.

Requires the Directors of OMB and CBO and the Comptroller General, by July 25 preceding each fiscal year, to submit to the Temporary Joint Committee on Deficit Reduction a report proposing economic assumptions for specified items for use in preparing sequestration reports for each such fiscal year. Directs the Committee, before September 15, to report a joint resolution which: (1) specifies amounts for economic assumptions, within the range of amounts submitted by the Directors and the Comptroller, to be used by OMB, CBO, and GAO for sequestration reports for the upcoming fiscal year; and (2) directs the President to modify the most recent sequestration order for such fiscal year to implement the amount specified for each economic assumption. Requires each Director or the Comptroller General to use the amounts he or she proposed in preparing sequestration reports if such joint resolution is not enacted.

Sets forth rules by which the Directors and the Comptroller General, in preparing sequestration reports for a fiscal year, shall calculate budget outlays resulting from specified items of budgetary resources for an account for purposes of determining budget outlays for non-defense programs for such fiscal year. Requires the Directors, in determining the amount of budget base outlays resulting from obligated balances for defense and non-defense programs for a fiscal year, to use the methodology they used in determining such outlays in the sequestration report for FY 1986. Requires the Directors and the Comptroller General, in preparing initial and final sequestration reports for a fiscal year, to assume that: (1) only those regulations which have been promulgated as final regulations by August 15 (with respect to initial reports) or October 5 (with respect to final reports) will be in effect during such fiscal year; and (2) only those sales of assets by the Government for which a notice has been published in the Federal Register by August 15 (for initial reports) or October 5 (for final reports) will occur during such fiscal year. Requires the Directors and the Comptroller General, in preparing sequestration reports, to: (1) include amounts of budget resources and budget outlays necessary to pay for any adjustments for Federal statutory pay systems or military pay enacted by law; and (2) assume that the percentage of the amounts of budget resources and budget outlays necessary to pay for such adjustments that will be absorbed by all Federal agencies will not exceed the average of the percentage of such amounts absorbed by all agencies for the three most recently completed pay adjustment absorption fiscal years.

Requires the budget base, for purposes of determining sequestration reductions for a fiscal year, to be determined assuming the continuation of current law with respect to entitlements funded through annual appropriation Acts and with respect to the Food Stamp Act of 1977.

Requires the Comptroller General's report to the Congress on the compliance of the President's sequestration order with sequestration procedures to include information on the compliance of OMB's sequestration reports with such procedures and any recommendations for improving such procedures.

Exempts the budget account for Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority interest payments from reduction pursuant to a sequestration order.

Restores the provisions of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 as in effect before enactment of this Act if provisions of law are enacted which: (1) establish the Comptroller General as an officer in the executive branch; or (2) establish an independent agency in the executive branch to carry out the functions of the Comptroller General.

Requires an affirmative vote of three-fifths of the members of the Senate to sustain an appeal of the ruling of the Chair on a point of order raised under certain sequestration procedures in the Senate.

Title V: Miscellaneous Fiscal Reforms - Amends the Congressional Budget Act to make it out of order in the House or the Senate, unless waived or suspended by a three-fifths' vote, to consider any bill or resolution that provides for budget outlays or new budget authority for nondefense discretionary spending in excess of the appropriate allocation of outlays or authority after the Congress has completed action on the concurrent resolution on the budget.

Provides for automatic continuing appropriations where a regular appropriations bill does not become law prior to the beginning of two-fiscal-year budget cycle. Lists the categories of projects and activities to be funded under such automatic appropriations, which include: (1) the executive departments; (2) the legislative branch; (3) foreign assistance and related programs; and (4) the government of the District of Columbia.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that a balanced budget amendment to the Constitution should be adopted by the Congress and ratified by the Senate.