There is one summary for this bill. Bill summaries are authored by CRS.

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Introduced in House (05/11/1989)

Clean Air Restoration Act of 1989 - Title I: General Provisions for Nonattainment Areas - Amends the Clean Air Act to require the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to publish guidelines for enhanced State monitoring of ozone, oxides of nitrogen, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide, and particulate matter 10 (PM 10) and for improved inventories of emissions of such substances. Directs the Administrator to establish emissions factors for estimating emissions of such substances from stationary sources which emit less than 25 tons per year of such pollutants.

Requires State plan revisions submitted after this Act's enactment for ozone, carbon monoxide, or PM 10 nonattainment areas to provide for the maintenance of the attainment standard for 20 years after such submission. Directs the Administrator to periodically review and revise such plans, as necessary, to insure the maintenance of such standard.

Revises the boundaries of ozone and carbon monoxide nonattainment areas which are classified as Extreme or Severe and are located within Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) or Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (CMSA) to include the entire MSA or CMSA. Authorizes the Administrator to modify nonattainment areas classified as Moderate or serious for ozone, carbon monoxide, or PM 10 to encompass the entire MSA or CMSA if such modification is necessary to attain the air quality standard.

Requires permits issued in nonattainment areas for stationary sources to provide for: (1) quarterly reports to the permitting authority on monitoring measures; and (2) annual certifications to such authority demonstrating compliance with such permit. Prohibits the issuance of any permit unless such authority has conducted an on-site inspection of the source or emissions unit.

Allows new or modified stationary sources to comply with any offset requirement for increased emissions of any air pollutant by obtaining enforceable emissions reductions of such pollutant from other sources in the same nonattainment area. Requires such reductions to be in effect by the time such sources commence operation and to insure that the total tonnage of increased emissions is offset by a greater reduction in the actual emissions from other area sources.

Title II: Provisions Applicable to Ozone Nonattainment Areas - Classifies ozone nonattainment areas as Moderate, Serious, Severe, or Extreme, based upon the percentage by which the air quality standard is exceeded in the area. Authorizes the Administrator to adjust the classification of areas which would be classified in another category if the ozone level in such areas were ten percent greater or less. Requires the Administrator to promulgate special rules for rural nonattainment areas where area sources do not make significant contributions to the ozone concentration in such areas.

Directs States with classified ozone nonattainment areas to submit compliance strategies to the Administrator. Requires such strategies to provide for: (1) meeting an initial milestone for emissions reductions; (2) improved monitoring of ozone, oxides of nitrogen, and VOCs; (3) annual statements from owners or operators of stationary sources showing emissions of oxides of nitrogen and VOCs; and (4) annual emissions inventories to be submitted to the Administrator. Waives the requirement for owners or operators of stationary sources which emit less than 25 tons annually of VOCs if the State provides an inventory of emissions of such sources. Applies requirements for State permits with respect to air quality standards to statements for stationary sources which emit 25 tons or more annually of oxides of nitrogen or VOCs. Deems such sources to be major stationary sources. Establishes fees to be collected by States for each ton of emissions of such substances and approval procedures for compliance strategies.

Directs the Administrator to publish oxides of nitrogen and VOC emissions reduction targets for Serious, Severe, and Extreme ozone nonattainment areas. Provides for reductions or increases in such targets based upon percentage reductions or increases over a 1988 emissions inventory.

Directs the Administrator to publish a VOC emissions reduction milestone for such areas to require a 20 percent reduction in emissions within four years of this Act's enactment based upon the 1988 emissions inventory. Requires additional milestones to be achieved within eight and 12 years of this Act's enactment. Sets forth attainment dates of four, eight, 12, and 16 years, respectively, for Moderate, Serious, Severe, and Extreme areas.

Requires State implementation plans for Serious, Severe, and Extreme areas to be revised to include measures for meeting targets and milestones, conforming with compliance strategies, and attaining and maintaining revised ozone standards. Sets forth approval procedures for such plans. Requires the Administrator to audit biennially and, if necessary, revise such plans to assure compliance.

Includes specified ratios for offsets of increased emissions by new or modified sources in permit requirements for Moderate areas. Requires compliance strategies or revised implementation plans for Serious and Severe areas to contain a permit program covering the construction and operation of certain new or modified emissions units. Requires certain emissions offsets by the time such units enter operation. Provides that such plans or strategies shall: (1) contain a motor vehicle inspection and maintenance program to reduce in-use emissions of VOCs and oxides of nitrogen in Serious areas; and (2) require the use of fill nozzles in such areas which prevent vapor discharge and vehicle fuel tank overflows on nozzle disconnect. Applies the nozzle requirement only to facilities which sell more than 10,000 gallons of gasoline per month (50,000 gallons per month in the case of certain independent small business gasoline marketers). Waives such requirement when the Administrator determines that onboard emissions control systems are in widespread use throughout the motor vehicle fleet. Requires such plans or strategies to require all buses which are purchased or leased by State or local governments after January 1, 1992, (for which such governments enter into contracts or for which engines are replaced after such date) and which are used for public transportation in Serious areas to be low-emission vehicles using low-emission fuels. Requires permits for the operation of certain existing stationary sources in Serious, Severe, and Extreme areas.

Requires such strategies or plans to establish a schedule requiring at least 30 percent of the new motor vehicles registered in Severe areas by 1998 to be low-emission vehicles using low-emission fuels. Prohibits the use of an emissions reduction trading program to comply with the reasonably available control technology requirement applicable to such sources under the Clean Air Act. Requires tanks used for motor vehicle liquid fuel storage in such areas to be capable of storing methanol. Prohibits the use of Federal funds for transportation planning in such areas unless the Administrator determines that such planning uses all available techniques for reducing aggregate vehicle emissions. Requires all new motor vehicles owned or operated by persons owning or operating 15 or more vehicles in a Severe area after 1992 to be low-emission vehicles using low-emission fuels.

Provides that compliance strategies and State implementation plans for Extreme areas shall contain the same requirements as those for Severe areas. Provides that, eight years after this Act's enactment, each electric utility and industrial and commercial boiler emitting more than 25 tons annually of oxides of nitrogen in such areas shall: (1) burn natural gas, methanol, or ethanol (or a comparably low polluting fuel) as a primary fuel; or (2) use advance control technology for reduction of such emissions. Establishes a schedule for increasing in annual increments the percentage of new motor vehicles registered in such areas which are low-emission vehicles. Requires all model year 2000 vehicles to be low-emission vehicles. Authorizes the establishment of traffic control measures during heavy traffic hours to reduce the use of high polluting vehicles in such areas. Allows an Extreme area to apply for a four-year extension of the attainment date. Directs the Administrator to grant such extension if the area is reasonably expected to meet minimum emissions reduction targets and the implementation plan is adequate to meet the attainment standard by the extended date.

Sets forth procedures to be applied in the case of noncompliance with plan and compliance strategy requirements, including emissions offsets for new or modified stationary sources or emissions units at a ratio of three to one and a prohibition on the approval of, or awarding of Federal funds for, highway projects in non-complying areas.

Sets forth deadlines for States to demonstrate that all measures in compliance strategies have been implemented and that milestones have been met. Provides for reclassification of areas or the implementation of additional measures, including economic incentive programs in Severe and Extreme areas, if a State fails to meet emissions reduction milestones or to submit a demonstration. Directs the Administrator to establish guidelines for such programs.

Sets forth administrative procedures for making determinations, including provisional determinations, of attainment of air quality standards during a three-year period. Directs the Administrator to reclassify Moderate, Serious, or Severe areas which fail to meet attainment deadlines into the next, more stringent, category. Requires States with Extreme areas failing to meet such deadlines to submit plan revisions providing for: (1) emissions offsets at a ratio of three to one for new or modified sources or emissions units in such areas; and (2) an economic incentives program to aid in reducing the total tonnage of VOC and oxides of nitrogen emissions by at least five percent annually prior to attainment of the standard.

Establishes an ozone transport region comprised of coastal States on the east coast between Maine and Maryland and the CMSA including the District of Columbia. Authorizes the creation of additional regions, as necessary. Directs the Administrator to establish an ozone transport commission for each region. Requires each State within a region to submit to the Administrator a revised implementation plan which requires compliance with emission levels as if the region were classified as a Serious area for ozone. Exempts regions within a State that do not contribute significantly to ozone concentrations in Serious, Severe, or Extreme areas. Permits States or subdivisions to petition the Administrator for the inclusion of another State or portion of a State within an ozone transport region. Requires the Administrator to develop criteria for determining transboundary pollution for ozone. Authorizes the Administrator to pay up to 100 percent of the program costs of such commissions for two years.

Directs the Administrator to: (1) list all categories of commercial and consumer solvents, architectural and other surface coatings, pesticide applications, traffic coatings, and military specification coatings which release significant evaporative emissions of VOCs; and (2) promulgate standards biennially, for eight years, to reduce emissions from the highest priority group of such substances to the lowest feasible emissions rate.

Requires the Administrator to publish a list of the 12 categories of stationary sources for which control technologies have not been published and which make the most significant contribution to the formation of ozone air pollution. Directs the Administrator to publish guidance for such sources, including guidelines for monitoring emissions of VOCs and oxides of nitrogen, and review and, if necessary, update such guidelines. Requires owners or operators of sources emitting ten tons or more of VOCs annually to reduce such emissions by a specified percentage if guidance for such source has not been published.

Directs the Administrator to publish a control technology document regarding control of VOC emissions from the loading of petroleum products on or off of vessels. Provides that such emissions shall be considered to be direct emissions of the onshore terminal.

Title III: Provisions Applicable to Carbon Monoxide Nonattainment Areas - Classifies carbon monoxide nonattainment areas as Moderate, Serious, or Severe. Authorizes the Administrator to adjust such classifications under conditions parallel to those for ozone nonattainment areas.

Requires the Administrator to publish carbon monoxide concentration milestones for Serious and Severe areas to be achieved within four and eight years of this Act's enactment, respectively. Sets forth attainment dates of four, eight, and twelve years, respectively, for Moderate, Serious, and Severe areas.

Sets forth requirements parallel to those for ozone nonattainment areas for State plan revisions, content, approval, and auditing.

Requires plans for Serious and Severe areas to include: (1) motor vehicle inspection and maintenance programs to reduce in-use carbon monoxide emissions; and (2) provisions requiring the use of oxygenated fuels for all gasoline-powered motor vehicles during periods identified as having carbon monoxide concentrations potentially in excess of air quality standards. Directs the Administrator to promulgate guidelines allowing the use of marketable oxygen credits from fuels with higher oxygen contents than required to offset the sale or use of fuels with lower contents than required. Waives the oxygenated fuel requirement upon a demonstration that the use of such fuels would prevent or interfere with an area's attainment of a standard for any other air pollutant. Requires persons selling oxygenated fuel to label the fuel dispensing system accordingly.

Sets forth requirements parallel to those for ozone nonattainment areas for: (1) permit programs and emissions offsets in Severe areas; (2) persons owning or operating more than 15 vehicles in such areas; and (3) funding for transportation planning. Provides for a $5 per vehicle annual registration fee in such areas. Makes registration revenues available to the State air pollution control agency for developing carbon monoxide emissions reduction strategies.

Sets forth requirements parallel to those for ozone nonattainment areas for noncompliance procedures and State demonstrations. Provides for the implementation of an incentives program to reduce vehicle miles traveled in Severe areas if milestones or demonstration requirements have not been met.

Provides for reclassification and plan revision procedures parallel to those required for Severe and Extreme ozone nonattainment areas.

Title IV: Provisions Applicable to PM 10 Nonattainment Areas - Classifies PM 10 nonattainment areas as Serious or Severe. Sets forth attainment dates of four and eight years after this Act's enactment, respectively, for Serious and Severe areas. Directs the Administrator to publish PM 10 concentration milestones for Severe areas to require a 50 percent reduction in concentrations within four years of this Act's enactment.

Sets forth requirements parallel to those for ozone and carbon monoxide nonattainment areas for: (1) State plan revisions, content, approval, and auditing; and (2) permit programs for Serious and Severe areas. Requires permits for the operation of: (1) certain existing sources in Severe areas; and (2) new, modified, and existing sources of PM 10 precursors where such emissions contribute significantly to PM 10 concentrations in nonattainment areas.

Sets forth requirements parallel to those for ozone and carbon monoxide nonattainment areas for noncompliance, State demonstrations, reclassifications, and plan revisions. Allows States which have submitted plan revisions for Severe areas to apply for a two-year extension of the attainment date. Provides that three to one offset requirements shall not apply to areas granted such extensions.

Waives any PM 10 requirements if determined that anthropogenic sources of PM 10 do not contribute significantly to the violation of the PM 10 standard in the area.

Directs the Administrator to: (1) list all important categories of PM 10 emissions and precursors; and (2) publish biennial guidelines concerning the best available control technology for PM 10 emissions from stationary sources in the highest priority group.

Requires the Administrator to promulgate regulations for PM 10 emissions reduction from existing diesel buses in Severe areas to require the use of lower polluting fuels.

Requires State plans to include annual PM 10 emissions inventories to be submitted to the Administrator. Provides for revisions of such plans if air quality standards are modified. Requires plans to contain measures to improve the ambient monitoring of PM 10.

Title V: Mobile Sources - Sets standards for emissions of hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and particulates from: (1) passenger cars and light duty trucks manufactured after 1991; and (2) heavy duty trucks and buses manufactured after 1990.

Directs the Administrator to promulgate standards for vehicles using low-emissions fuel. Requires the Administrator to evaluate and, if necessary, revise such standards at least every four years. Directs the Administrator to establish a minimum percentage of new motor vehicles to be certified as low-emissions vehicles.

Requires the Administrator to promulgate emissions standards for internal combustion engines used in any vehicle or machine manufactured after January 1, 1993. Requires such standards to be proportional to those for motor vehicle engines of comparable horsepower using the same fuel.

Directs the Administrator to add an idle test to the Federal Test Procedure for emissions from light duty vehicles manufactured after 1991.

Permits only ten percent of vehicles manufactured after 1990 in a selective enforcement audit to fail motor vehicle testing. Requires the Administrator to review and revise, as necessary, testing regulations to insure that vehicles are tested under circumstances reflecting actual current driving conditions.

Requires each vehicle and engine to comply with the applicable emissions standard (Current law permits averaging).

Provides that the useful life of vehicles and engines manufactured after 1994 shall be ten years or 100,000 miles.

Makes technical amendments to prohibitions on tampering with vehicle emission control devices.

Directs the Administrator to require the use of best available technology to control evaporative emissions from motor vehicles for a vehicle's useful life.

Sets standards for emission of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and evaporative hydrocarbons from motorcycles manufactured after 1991.

Requires the installation of onboard emission diagnostic equipment on motor vehicles.

Directs the Administrator to: (1) promulgate regulations to reduce evaporative emissions from motor vehicle fuels; and (2) establish a standard for gasoline volatility.

Requires new light duty motor vehicles manufactured in the second year after standards are promulgated to be equipped with onboard evaporative emissions control systems.

Provides for carbon monoxide emissions testing at 20 degrees Fahrenheit of passenger cars and light duty trucks manufactured after model year 1992. Sets emissions standards at such temperature.

Title VI: Miscellaneous Provisions - Requires the Administrator to establish requirements to control air pollution from Outer Continental Shelf sources. Authorizes States adjacent to such sources to submit to the Administrator procedures for enforcing such requirements. Directs the Administrator to delegate enforcement authority to States with adequate procedures.

Authorizes the Administrator to substitute maximum allowable increases in particulate matter smaller than or equal to ten micrometers (PM 10) for maximum allowable increases in such matter specified under the Clean Air Act.

Authorizes the Administrator to: (1) treat Indian tribes as States under the Clean Air Act; (2) delegate to such tribes primary responsibility for assuring air pollution control; and (3) provide such tribes grant and contract assistance to carry out such functions. Outlines requirements for such authorization. Authorizes the Administrator to promulgate other means for administering such authorities where such treatment is inappropriate.

Directs the Administrator to list nonattainment areas for air pollutants other than those covered by this Act when a new or revised air quality standard is promulgated. Applies the PM 10 standards, excepting attainment deadlines and provisions relating to diesel buses, to such areas.

Requires the Administrator to make information regarding emissions control technology available to States and the public through a central database.

Repeals provisions concerning enforcement orders and violations by owners or operators of major stationary sources.

Requires States to submit plan revisions for nonattainment areas failing to meet attainment deadlines for air pollutants other than those covered by this Act. Requires new or modified sources of such pollutants to comply with provisions of this Act and applies an emissions offset ratio of three to one to such pollutants.

Directs the Administrator to conduct biennial audits of motor vehicle inspection and maintenance programs in Severe or Extreme ozone or carbon monoxide nonattainment areas.

Increases and expands the scope of penalties and violations of the Clean Air Act.

Authorizes appropriations for FY 1990 through 1994.