Summary: H.R.2585 — 101st Congress (1989-1990)All Information (Except Text)

There is one summary for H.R.2585. Bill summaries are authored by CRS.

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Introduced in House (06/08/1989)

Air Toxics Control Act of 1989 - Amends the Clean Air Act to establish a list of hazardous air pollutants. Permits any person to petition the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency for additions to or deletions from such list. Requires the presentation of adequate data concerning health or environmental effects for such additions or deletions. Prohibits air pollutants for which national air quality standards have been established, with specified exceptions, from being added to such list. Directs the Administrator to review and revise such list at least every five years.

Requires the Administrator to list and establish emissions standards for categories of major emitting facilities. Establishes a timetable for the promulgation of such standards, requiring standards for all categories within eight years of this Act's enactment. Directs the Administrator to review and, if necessary, revise such standards at least every five years.

Requires the Administrator, within four years of promulgating standards for a category, to evaluate risks to human health and the environment remaining after application of such standards. Provides for revisions of such standards for carcinogens or other pollutants not meeting emissions thresholds.

Authorizes the Administrator to promulgate design, equipment, work practice, and operation standards for major emitting facilities under this Act. Directs the Administrator to promulgate such standards when it is infeasible to establish a numerical emission limitation standard for any category. Requires such standards to: (1) achieve reductions comparable to numerical emission limitations under this Act; (2) include leak prevention, detection, and correction requirements unless the Administrator finds such requirements infeasible or unnecessary; (3) require owners or operators of major emitting facilities to carry out annual safety inspections to locate leaks and unpermitted releases and to report the results of such inspections to the permitting authority; and (4) include procedures for monitoring or measuring emissions and for demonstrating compliance with such requirements.

Authorizes the Administrator to establish a de minimis level for emissions from categories of facilities under this Act, provided that such level does not exceed 10 tons annually for any single hazardous air pollutant or 25 tons annually for a combination of such pollutants.

Makes it unlawful to construct or modify a major emitting facility or to emit any pollutant subject to this Act's standards, except in compliance with a permit. Outlines the requirements of the permit program. Limits permits to five-year periods. Requires inspections of facilities for permit issuances or renewals.

Authorizes the issuance of a temporary permit if a facility owner or operator certifies that the facility is in compliance with applicable standards. Requires the permitting authority to review and inspect such facility to determine whether a full permit should be issued.

Requires compliance with standards by existing facilities within three years of the promulgation or revision of such standards. Exempts facilities from standards for carcinogens or nonthreshold air pollutants if a permit contains alternative emission limitations which will prevent adverse health or environmental effects. Grants extensions for permit compliance to existing facilities under specified conditions.

Authorizes the President to exempt any facility from any standards for up to two years if the technology to implement such standards is unavailable and the operation of the facility is required for national security reasons. Authorizes additional two-year extensions of such exemptions. Requires the President to report to the Congress with respect to each exemption or extension. Allows exemptions from emission standards for facilities which achieved reductions of at least 95 percent from uncontrolled emissions of a hazardous air pollutant prior to proposal of the standard.

Directs the Administrator to conduct an urban pollution research program to include: (1) ambient monitoring for a broad range of hazardous air pollutants in a representative number of urban locations; (2) analysis to characterize the area sources of such pollution and the health risks posed by such pollutants; and (3) consideration of factors which elevate such health risks.

Requires State air pollution agencies which receive Federal grants and have responsibility for metropolitan areas with populations over 250,000 to establish monitoring programs to measure the concentrations of hazardous air pollutants.

Directs the Administrator to list and promulgate emissions standards for categories of area sources of hazardous air pollutants. Establishes a timetable for the promulgation of such standards, requiring standards for all categories within eight years of this Act's enactment. Requires the Administrator to review and, if necessary, revise such standards at least every five years.

Authorizes States to submit to the Administrator for approval programs for the implementation and enforcement of permits or standards concerning areas sources. Permits the transfer of the Administrator's enforcement authorities to a State. Requires the Administrator to publish guidance for use in program development. Sets forth provisions regarding approval of such programs. Requires the Administrator to review State programs at least every two years and to withdraw approval of any program if determined that a State is not administering or enforcing such program. Authorizes the Administrator to make grants to States for program development.

Requires the Administrator to: (1) investigate the sources of atmospheric deposition of hazardous air pollutants on the Great Lakes and tributary waters and evaluate the adverse human health and environmental effects of such deposition; (2) report the results of such investigation to the Congress; and (3) promulgate further emissions standards or control measures necessary to prevent the effects of such deposition.

Directs the Administrator to report to the Congress on the implementation of certain requirements under this Act and to maintain a database on pollutants and sources subject to provisions of this Act. Requires such report to identify specific metropolitan areas which experience high risks to human health as the result of hazardous air pollutant emissions and the sources of such emissions.

Makes available to the public any information submitted to a permitting authority. Directs the Administrator to establish and maintain an air toxics clearinghouse, control technology center, and risk information center to provide technical assistance and information to States, local agencies, and the public on emissions reduction.

Requires the Administrator to review and, if necessary, revise risk evaluation guidelines at least every five years. Require such evaluations to evaluate direct and indirect exposure pathways. Directs the Administrator to establish standards and procedures for the certification of persons preparing such evaluations.

Requires the Administrator to publish a list of air pollutants which: (1) are emitted by motor vehicles into the ambient air or into the interior of a motor vehicle; and (2) cause or contribute to air pollution which may result in serious adverse effects to human health or the environment. Sets forth the same petitioning, review, revision, and risk evaluation procedures as those applicable to major emitting facilities.

Establishes diesel particulates emissions standards for: (1) passenger vehicles and light trucks manufactured after 1991; and (2) heavy trucks and buses manufactured after 1990.

Makes it unlawful, on the later of one year after this Act's enactment or January 1, 1991, to sell or introduce into commerce any leaded gasoline for use as a motor vehicle fuel.

Requires the Administrator to promulgate regulations for the reduction of particulates from existing diesel buses. Permits requirements for municipal transit buses to be more stringent than those applicable to other buses.

Directs the Administrator to list at least 100 substances which, as the result of an accidental release, may cause adverse human health or environmental effects. Treats liquids and gases identified by the Secretary of Transportation as toxic by inhalation as listed under this section if the Administrator fails to list 100 substances by the required deadline. Requires the Administrator to review substances which are not on such list but are listed under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, this Act, and the list identified by the Secretary for possible additions to the list. Provides for petitioning and modification of such list, as appropriate. Requires the Administrator to update such list at least every five years.

Directs the Administrator to: (1) establish de minimis quantities of listed substances; and (2) promulgate regulations to provide for prevention and detection of accidental releases of such substances from covered facilities and for response to such releases by owners or operators of such facilities. Requires such regulations to include monitoring, inspection, recordkeeping, storage, design, equipment, work practice, and operational requirements. Directs owners or operators of such facilities to implement risk management plans to detect and prevent or minimize accidental releases. Requires such plans to include hazard assessments, prevention programs, and response measures. Directs the Administrator to promulgate guidelines to assist in the preparation of such plans. Sets forth compliance and enforcement provisions.

Requires the President to establish within the EPA an independent Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board to: (1) investigate and report on accidental chemical releases; (2) propose corrective safety steps for chemical facilities; and (3) promulgate requirements for the reporting of such releases. Authorizes the Board to hold hearings, secure written reports from persons handling chemicals, obtain autopsy reports, and conduct inspections of any facility where an accidental release has occurred. Makes information obtained by the Board, with the exception of information concerning trade secrets, available to the public. Directs the Administrator to set forth reasons for any refusal to implement a recommendation of the Board. Requires the Board to report annually to the Congress on recommendations submitted to the Administrator regarding accidental releases. Authorizes appropriations.

Repeals certain provisions of the Clean Air Act concerning the revision of stationary source regulations. Increases penalties for specified violations of such Act.