Summary: H.R.3735 — 101st Congress (1989-1990)All Information (Except Text)

There is one summary for H.R.3735. Bill summaries are authored by CRS.

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Introduced in House (11/19/1989)

Waste Materials Management Act of 1989 - Authorizes appropriations for FY 1990 through 1993 to carry out the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

Title I: Provisions Relating Primarily to Subtitles A and B of the Solid Waste Disposal Act - Amends the Solid Waste Disposal Act to revise provisions concerning congressional findings and objectives.

Declares it to be U.S. national policy that: (1) the creation of surplus and remnant material from production processes shall be reduced and residuals from post-consumer products shall be managed as material resources; (2) materials are to be managed at Federal, State, and local levels using specified waste reduction and management strategies; and (3) the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the States shall not differentiate in the enforcement of this Act on the basis of whether an owner or person engaged in waste disposal activities is a public or private person, whether a facility is located on or off the premises where waste is generated, or whether an activity is carried out on or off the premises where the waste is generated.

Requires the Inspector General of the EPA to report annually to the Congress on the implementation of, and compliance with, the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

Adds specified annual reporting requirements.

Directs the Administrator, for five years following the date of enactment of this Act, to identify five of the most toxic and common constituents of municipal waste. Requires the Administrator to consider, with respect to each of the constituents, imposing the following: (1) a ban on the use of such a constituent in production; (2) a ban on disposal in landfills or treatment in incinerators of any product containing such a constituent; (3) a requirement for special management standards for such products after discard; and (4) a requirement for the use of a substitute constituent. Permits the Administrator to impose such bans or requirements only by promulgating regulations. Requires the Administrator to publish annually in the Federal Register any information on such actions.

Prohibits the disposal of used lead-acid batteries other than by recycling in accordance with this Act. Requires persons to dispose of such batteries only by delivery to: (1) battery retailers or wholesalers; or (2) secondary lead smelters or collection or recycling facilities permitted by a State or the Administrator. Sets forth battery disposal requirements for retailers, wholesalers, and manufacturers. Makes violators of such requirements subject to fines under the Federal criminal code.

Requires battery retailers, wholesalers, and manufacturers to accept from customers used batteries of the same type as the batteries sold. Directs retailers to post a notice for customers containing information about the illegality of improperly disposed batteries, the requirements for accepting and disposing of batteries, and the merits of conservation. Permits the Administrator to inspect any establishment pursuant to this Act and to issue warnings and citations for noncompliance. Subjects persons who fail to post notices after receiving a warning to penalties of up to $1,000 per day. Requires battery wholesalers who sell batteries to retailers to provide for removal of batteries from the retailers' place of business. Prohibits the charging of fees for accepting batteries from customers. Considers violations of battery collection requirements to be misdemeanors.

Requires the Administrator to study and report to the Congress on the disposal and potential recyclability of household dry-cell batteries and the need for legislation, regulation, or further study on the disposal and recyclability of such batteries.

Title II: Provisions Relating Primarily to Subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act - Identifies as a hazardous waste a waste containing more than .1 percent of any constituent listed in appendix VIII to part 261 of title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, unless the Administrator establishes another level for such constituent. Provides that: (1) the mixing of a hazardous waste with any other matter constitutes treatment requiring a permit; and (2) dilution of a hazardous waste through such mixing, such that the resulting mixture does not exceed the established concentration levels, does not alter the character of the material as a hazardous waste.

Authorizes the granting of petitions to remove from the list a hazardous waste for periods of up to five years. Permits subsequent renewals of such petitions. Requires the Administrator to charge fees for the submission of such petitions.

Directs the Administrator to promulgate regulations on the following characteristics of hazardous waste: (1) acute and aquatic toxicity; (2) persistence and bioaccumulation potential; (3) radioactivity; (4) carcinogenicity; (5) mutagenicity; and (6) phytotoxicity.

Directs the Administrator to promulgate regulations requiring: (1) owners or operators of facilities which use materials containing hazardous constituents listed in the Code of Federal Regulations in a manufacturing process to test the waste generated for the presence of such constituents; and (2) owners or operators of facilities generating hazardous waste subject to land disposal prohibitions to test the waste to determine if it meets applicable treatment standards. Provides for routine testing at least every two years and additional testing when a significant change in generation or waste management processes occurs.

Requires the Administrator to carry out hazardous waste programs directly in States unless a State is authorized to administer such requirements. Requires the Administrator, if a State's program is equivalent, to grant interim authorization to such State to administer such program in lieu of direct administration by the Administrator. Directs States with hazardous waste programs to report annually to the Administrator on such programs.

Prohibits the Administrator from identifying used oil as a hazardous waste under the Solid Waste Disposal Act. Provides that any fuel derived from used oil that does not meet used oil specifications established by the Administrator and would otherwise be identified as a hazardous waste shall be deemed to be a hazardous waste.

Directs the Administrator to promulgate regulations for persons who generate, transport, recycle, or dispose of used oil. Requires the Administrator, in developing such regulations, to conduct an analysis of the economic impact of such regulations on the used oil recycling industry.

Provides that regulations for used oil generators shall: (1) prohibit the storage of used oil in an underground storage tank unless such tank meets requirements under this Act; (2) prohibit the storage of used oil for more than 12 months; (3) require generators to transfer such oil to specified permitted used oil recycling or disposal facilities or transporters; and (4) require generators to keep specified records on such oil.

Requires used oil transporter regulations to provide that such transporters: (1) acquire identification numbers from EPA; (2) meet applicable financial responsibility requirements; and (3) keep specified records.

Provides that used oil recycler regulations shall require recyclers to: (1) keep specified records; (2) test fuel produced from the recycling process before departure from the facility; and (3) obtain certain permits.

Requires used oil disposal regulations to prohibit mixing used oil with any hazardous waste identified under the Solid Waste Disposal Act unless the resulting mixture does not exhibit hazardous waste characteristics or the mixture is burned to recover useful energy in a device designed such that protection of human health and the environment is assured.

Directs the Administrator to promulgate regulations requiring owners or operators of new and existing recycling facilities to have class permits. Provides for annual inspections of such facilities to assure permit compliance. Sets forth requirements for interim class permits. Exempts from permit requirements: (1) facilities which refine at least 10,000 barrels daily of crude oil into petroleum products, are classified as S.I.C. number 2911 (pursuant to the Office of Management and Budget Standard Classification Manual) facilities, and whose volume of refined used oil is less than one percent of the total crude oil refined into lubricant base stock annually; and (2) facilities which compound or blend lubricating base oil into finished lubricant products as their principal activity, are classified as S.I.C. number 2899 or 2992 facilities, and whose volume of used oil compounded or blended into such products is no more than ten percent of the lubricating base oil compounded or blended annually.

Exempts from used oil regulation requirements on-site activities at facilities classified as S.I.C. number 4911 facilities. Directs the Administrator to promulgate regulations governing such facilities.

Requires the Administrator to promulgate regulations establishing specification standards for fuel derived from used oil to be burned in furnaces and boilers.

Sets forth requirements to be effective if the Administrator fails to promulgate used oil regulations by the applicable deadline.

Requires the Administrator to implement education programs to inform the public and small businesses about the environmental and safety hazards associated with improper handling and disposal of used oil and the benefits derived from used oil recycling.

Authorizes appropriations.

Requires producers or importers of lubricating oil to recycle for a period of ten years an amount of used oil equal to at least the amount determined by multiplying the amount of lubricating oil produced or imported that year by such persons by the recycling percentage established by the Administrator. Authorizes such individuals to comply with this Act by: (1) recycling (through re-refining) used oil or purchasing re-refined oil for purposes of producing lubricating oil; or (2) purchasing recycling credits under this Act. Requires producers and importers to report annually to the Administrator on the amount of oil produced or imported by such persons.

Directs the Administrator to establish a recycling percentage that is two points higher than the existing recycling rate for lubricating oil. Provides for increases in such percentage of two points annually for ten years.

Requires the Administrator to promulgate regulations allowing recyclers to create credits for used oil recycling and producers or importers of lubricating oil to purchase such credits. Provides that such regulations shall require: (1) owners or operators of used oil collection centers to keep receipts issued by transporters who take delivery of such oil and copies of agreements under which the transporter agrees to take such oil to a recycling facility; (2) such owners or operators to certify that oil taken by transporters is not mixed with hazardous wastes; (3) owners or operators of recycling facilities to be the only persons to create a recycling credit for the recycling credit system; (4) recyclers to certify that the substance being recycled is used oil that has not been mixed with hazardous wastes; (5) oil proposed to be recycled to have come from a used oil collection place or a transporter with an identification number; (6) specified records to be kept by recyclers and by importers or producers; and (7) recyclers to sell or distribute in commerce such oil as specification used oil, off-specification used oil, industrial specification used oil, or re-refined oil.

Directs the Administrator to report to the Congress on such regulations and to include: (1) a discussion of the effects of such regulations on the oil industry and the environment; and (2) an evaluation of the level of the recycling percentage and whether such percentage should be increased in future years. Requires an updated version of such report to be submitted within ten years of this Act's enactment. Applies recycling requirements to persons who import or produce more than 100,000 gallons of lubricating oil annually. Sets the recycling percentage at 40 percent if the Administrator fails to promulgate such regulations.

Directs the Administrator to promulgate regulations requiring owners or operators of existing and new hazardous waste facilities to have class permits. Requires such permits to include provisions for: (1) public notice and comment; (2) environmental monitoring; (3) closure and post closure requirements; (4) financial responsibility; (5) annual on-site inspections; and (6) penalties for noncompliance. Requires the Administrator to impose additional requirements, as necessary. Requires the following facilities, unless excluded from regulation, to have such permits: (1) recycling facilities; (2) facilities engaged in precious metal recovery; (3) facilities engaged in spent lead-acid battery reclamation; and (4) hazardous waste storage facilities.

Title III: Provisions Relating Primarily to Subtitle D of the Solid Waste Disposal Act - Subtitle A: Provisions Relating to Solid Waste Management Plans - Revises requirements for State solid waste management plans. Requires such plans to include: (1) an estimate of the capacity of the State to manage such waste; (2) permit programs; (3) solid waste recycling, reduction, incineration, and land disposal elements; (4) an overall waste materials strategy to cover one of two specified planning periods; (5) waste inventories; (6) personnel training and public education; (7) requirements for the management of household hazardous waste, tires, yard waste, and large household appliances; and (8) annual reporting requirements.

Sets forth submission, approval, and implementation procedures for State plans.

Authorizes a State with an approved plan and certification of compliance to: (1) prohibit the transportation of solid waste generated from another State into such State for disposal, storage, or incineration purposes; (2) prohibit the incineration, disposal, or storage of such waste; and (3) levy fees on solid waste or solid waste transporters that differentiate rates or other aspects of payment on the basis of waste origin. Requires such State, prior to exercising such authority, to certify to the Administrator that it has: (1) completed construction on facilities that will provide at least 70 percent of the capacity for solid waste management needed to implement the State plan; and (2) completed siting approval on facilities that will provide 100 percent of such capacity.

Prohibits the interstate transport of solid waste in any State: (1) that does not have an approved plan within a specified time period; (2) that cannot certify continuing compliance; or (3) for which that the Administrator has withdrawn approval of the State plan.

Permits the Administrator to develop a plan for, and charge, any State that has not submitted a plan.

Requires States to establish permit programs and issue permits to solid waste management facilities in compliance with this Act. Prohibits the incineration, storage, or disposal of such waste at, or the transportation of such waste to, facilities without permits. Sets forth transitional permit requirements and deadlines. Limits permit terms to ten years and provides for permit modifications, as appropriate. Authorizes States to grant variances from permit requirements if demonstrated that no adverse effects to human health or the environment will result from such variances.

Subtitle B: Provisions Relating to Federal Requirements - Directs the Administrator to promulgate standards, guidelines, and regulations for: (1) municipal solid waste landfills; (2) municipal solid waste incinerators; (3) industrial waste; (4) above-ground storage tanks; and (5) other waste categories, as appropriate. Permits State Governors to petition the Administrator for the promulgation of additional standards, guidelines, and regulations.

Sets forth requirements for municipal solid waste landfills, to include: (1) specified detection and monitoring controls; (2) daily cover; (3) closure and postclosure requirements; (4) financial responsibility and corrective action requirements; (5) groundwater monitoring; (6) liners and leachate collection and removal systems, as appropriate; (7) construction quality assurance plans; and (8) prohibitions on landfills being located within the 100-year flood plain, within specified distances of faults, or within seismic impact zones or other unstable areas, unless certain conditions have been met.

Requires the Administrator to publish guidelines for identifying materials which should be removed from solid waste before its incineration in a municipal solid waste incinerator.

Directs the Administrator to promulgate regulations applicable to the operation and management of municipal solid waste incinerators and to the disposal or recycling and reuse of municipal solid waste incinerator ash. Prohibits the disposal of ash in units that are created as a result of vertical expansion of an existing waste disposal facility unless it is demonstrated that there will be no settling of waste that would impair the integrity of the liners. Requires that landfills into which such ashes are disposed provide for groundwater monitoring and: (1) place such ashes in a monofill having a leachate collection system and a single liner designed and operated to prevent the migration of any constituent into such liner; or (2) have two or more liners and a leachate collection system above and between such liners. Provides that landfill design requirements shall not apply to alternatively-designed units if demonstrated that such designs prevent such migration.

Directs the Administrator to prescribe criteria and testing procedures for identifying the hazardous properties of municipal incinerator ash so that ash which does not exhibit such properties may be placed in sanitary landfills meeting current criteria under specified conditions. Requires ash which is hazardous to human health or the environment to be treated prior to recycling or reuse.

Prohibits, four years after this Act's enactment, the operation of incinerators and the receipt of ash for treatment, storage, disposal, reuse, or recycling without a permit or prior approval under a State program. Requires civil penalties imposed against local governments for violations of this Act to be deposited into a trust fund for programs that serve to enhance the protection of human health and the environment.

Sets forth transitional provisions.

Requires the Administrator to identify, classify, and report to the Congress and States on specified types of industrial waste. Directs generators or transporters of such waste and owners or operators of facilities handling such waste to file notifications with the State concerning facility locations and descriptions of activities and wastes handled.

Sets forth requirements for industrial waste management, to include: (1) authorizations to operate; (2) monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements; (3) performance standards; (4) financial responsibility assurances; (5) design, operating, closure, and postclosure criteria; and (6) corrective action requirements.

Applies such requirements to the following facilities: (1) industrial waste facilities that produce such waste and are not implementing closure or postclosure plans; and (2) inactive or abandoned facilities that are reactivated.

Requires the Administrator to study the adverse effects on human health and the environment of the disposal of other nonhazardous waste.

Directs the Administrator to promulgate solid waste storage regulations. Excludes from such regulations storage at transportation-related facilities.

Requires State plans and permits to include requirements for municipal solid waste landfills and incinerators and for industrial wastes.

Subtitle C: Other Provisions - Directs the Administrator to compile and periodically update a non-hazardous solid waste inventory to determine, by State or region: (1) an estimate of the amount of such waste to be generated annually and likely to be generated in each of the next 20 years; and (2) the capacity of existing and proposed waste management facilities.

Sets forth Federal enforcement provisions. Prescribes civil and criminal penalties for violations of solid waste management requirements.

Title IV: Provisions Relating Primarily to Subtitle H of the Solid Waste Disposal Act - Requires the Administrator to: (1) develop model recycling programs for States and localities; and (2) carry out a continuing program to evaluate demonstrated waste management technologies that could be used by municipalities and report periodically on such program. Prohibits the Administrator from funding the development or demonstration of such technologies.

Title V: Provisions Relating Primarily to Subtitle I of the Solid Waste Disposal Act - Directs the Administrator to promulgate regulations applicable to above-ground storage tanks. Applies such requirements to all tanks except those subject to the requirements of subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act. Exempts from this Act's requirements releases of small quantities of regulated substances which will not endanger human health and the environment and particular tanks, as appropriate.

Requires such regulations to include requirements for field-erected tanks. Directs owners and operators of such tanks to implement release prevention plans which provide for release prevention systems capable of: (1) catching and holding 110 percent of the full capacity of the tank and preventing releases beyond tank boundaries; and (2) restraining drainage and preventing contamination of soil and water. Requires the plan and system to be inspected by a registered engineer who is not employed by the owner or operator. Directs the engineer, if the system does not reflect good engineering practices or the tank does not comply with the regulations, to notify the Administrator or the State. Provides for amendments of release prevention plans whenever there is a major modification in the tank which affects the tank's potential to release substances. Sets forth recordkeeping and reporting requirements for field-operated tanks. Prohibits the operation of such tanks after a release unless the Administrator determines that such prohibition is not necessary.

Requires the regulations to include requirements for shop-fabricated tanks. Directs the Administrator to: (1) establish an inspection program for such tanks in the factory when construction is complete and before the tanks enter interstate commerce; and (2) require such tanks to bear labels with specified manufacturing, capacity, and use information. Provides for requirements relating to the installation of such tanks.

Directs the Administrator, as necessary, to promulgate financial responsibility requirements for taking corrective action and compensating third parties for bodily injury and property damage caused by accidental releases from above-ground storage tanks.

Permits the establishment of financial responsibility for a spill by any means the Administrator deems appropriate. Authorizes the assertion of claims against guarantors providing evidence of financial responsibility for claims against insolvent owners or operators of tanks. Limits guarantor liability to the aggregate amount which the guarantor has provided as evidence of financial responsibility to the owner or operator. Authorizes the Administrator to establish coverage requirements which may vary among particular classes or categories of above-ground storage tanks. Permits the Administrator to make grants to States for carrying out enforcement requirements.

Authorizes a State to submit for the Administrator's review and approval a program under which such State would assume primary responsibility for the enforcement of regulations pertaining to above-ground storage tanks. Requires that State regulation and enforcement procedures be at least as stringent as those used by the Administrator. Requires the Administrator to: (1) monitor State programs for compliance with this Act's requirements; and (2) provide technical assistance to assist States, local governments, and owners and operators in complying with this title.

Authorizes the Administrator to issue compliance orders or commence civil actions against violators of this Act's requirements, but requires that prior notification be given to States operating their own programs. Imposes criminal and civil monetary penalties for violations of this Act's requirements.

Makes tank owners and operators liable for the Administrator's corrective action costs and damages.

Authorizes the Administrator to require a tank owner or operator to undertake corrective action in response to any release of a regulated substance from the tank when such action will be done properly and promptly. Permits the Administrator, upon notification of a release, to prohibit operations in a facility until such action has been taken. Authorizes the Administrator to take corrective action where the owner or operator fails to take prompt and effective action and human health and the environment are endangered.

Prohibits indemnification agreements from transferring liability under this title.

Prohibits States or political subdivisions from enforcing requirements for shop-fabricated tanks that are more stringent than those imposed under this title.

Authorizes appropriations.

Prohibits the Administrator from enforcing financial responsibility regulations with respect to an owner or operator of an underground storage tank if such owner or operator has applied for insurance. Revises provisions concerning financial responsibility for such tanks. Requires the Administrator to evaluate and report to the Congress on the effects of financial responsibility regulations on the cost and availability of insurance used to demonstrate financial responsibility.

Title VI: Waste Materials Reduction - Authorizes any person to petition a Federal agency to undertake a waste reduction action if such action would bring about at least a ten percent increase in recycling of the petitioned item, reduce by at least ten percent the total volume or toxic constituents of a waste described in the petition, or would bring about a net savings in true cost to the Federal Government or be neutral in effect or cost. Requires each Federal agency to designate a waste reduction officer to oversee compliance with Federal agency waste reduction requirements, prepare agency waste reduction plans, and report annually to the Administrator on the implementation of such plans.

Directs the Administrator to establish a clearinghouse within EPA to collect and disseminate information on waste reduction and recycling. Makes such information available to the public.

Requires the Administrator to establish a commission to study and report to the President and the Congress on waste reduction with respect to consumer products and packaging. Provides for the submission of periodic reports by the commission on the status of waste reduction efforts by the Federal Government and industry. Terminates the commission five years after the date of its establishment.

Title VII: Procurement and Marketing of Recycled Materials - Applies Federal procurement requirements concerning recycled goods to States or other entities if such entities use funds appropriated to a Federal agency to which such procurement requirements apply.

Directs the Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy to report to the Congress on the effect of a certain price preference concerning the procurement of recycled paper products.

Requires affirmative procurement programs to include: (1) programs for monitoring compliance by States, political subdivisions, and contractors with recovered materials procurement requirements; and (2) a requirement that paper procured for uses which have enduring value be permanent paper. Requires such agencies to report annually to the Administrator on such programs and on the amount and value of recovered materials procured. Makes such report available to the public.

Directs the EPA Administrator to: (1) report biennially to the Congress on the progress made by Federal agencies in implementing recovered materials procurement programs; and (2) review and revise, if necessary, guidelines concerning such programs which were prepared before this Act's enactment.

Prohibits Federal agencies from entering into procurement contracts with any persons convicted of specified offenses of the Solid Waste Disposal Act if such a contract is to be performed at the facility at which the violation occurred. Authorizes the President to make exemptions to such prohibition. Requires the President to report annually to the Congress on the implementation of such prohibition.

Directs the Secretary of Commerce to conduct a biennial survey that: (1) identifies the major domestic uses for, and users of, recovered and recycled materials; (2) documents or estimates the amounts of such materials used, exported, and imported annually; and (3) identifies the markets for such materials and the products made from such materials.

Requires the Secretary and the Administrator to establish an interagency working group to: (1) promote markets in recovered and recycled materials and link sources of such materials with potential markets; (2) work cooperatively with generators, collectors, transporters, users, and regulators of such materials and with manufacturers of products containing such materials; (3) link businesses dealing in such materials with potential sources of capital; (4) educate government and business officials about potential commerce in such materials; (5) coordinate efforts to promote lawful commerce in such materials; (6) encourage reuse and recycling of solid waste; and (7) identify the institutional, economic, and technical barriers to the use of such materials.

Directs the Secretary to take such actions as may be necessary to stimulate the development of new domestic markets for such materials.

Requires the Secretary and the U.S. Trade Representative to: (1) identify foreign markets for recovered materials and products containing a high content of recycled materials; and (2) assist exporters in selling such materials and products in foreign markets.

Title VIII: Financial Assistance - Authorizes the Administrator to provide financial assistance to States with approved solid waste management plans to develop programs to encourage and facilitate recycling. Permits the Administrator to: (1) provide financial assistance to States and local authorities for solid waste management planning; (2) make bonus grants to municipalities or other agencies that demonstrate achievement of a recycling rate greater than 25 percent; (3) make loans to States for waste reduction activities and programs in rural areas to collect household hazardous waste and waste from small quantity generators.

Title IX: Other Provisions - Permits Government agencies to retain any amounts received from sales of materials or energy recovered from solid waste.

Requires the Administrator to promulgate regulations for the use and composition of compost made from yard waste.

Revises oil labeling requirements to direct the Administrator to promulgate regulations requiring packages of lubricating oil (of less than five gallons) sold in commerce to bear a label stating that used oil should be taken to collection centers.

Directs the Administrator to promulgate regulations requiring rigid and semi-rigid plastic packaging and products sold in commerce to bear a label identifying the plastic resin used in such packaging and products.

Authorizes the Administrator, subject to certain conditions, to: (1) treat Indian tribes as States under the Solid Waste Disposal Act; (2) delegate to such tribes primary enforcement responsibility for programs under such Act; and (3) provide such tribes grant and contract assistance to carry out such functions. Permits States and Indian tribes, subject to the Administrator's approval, to enter into cooperative agreements to administer such Act.

Requires the Administrator to report to the Congress on measures for addressing hazardous and solid wastes and underground storage tanks in Indian country.

Directs the Administrator to undertake a continuing program to establish an inventory of hazardous waste sites and solid waste open dumps in Indian country. Requires the Administrator to assist Indian tribes that operate such dumps in upgrading such facilities.