Summary: S.2364 — 101st Congress (1989-1990)All Information (Except Text)

Bill summaries are authored by CRS.

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Passed House amended (05/24/1990)

Supplemental Assistance for Emerging Democracies Act of 1990 - Title I: Supplemental Assistance for Fiscal Year 1990 - Authorizes supplemental appropriations for assistance to Panama for FY 1990. Earmarks specified amounts of such assistance for: (1) development assistance; (2) private sector and public investment revitalization; (3) payments of arrearages to international financial institutions; and (4) public administration, administration of justice, and law enforcement training, education, and equipment (includes assistance for other countries in Latin America and the Caribbean). Permits only nonlethal law enforcement equipment to be provided to Panama. Makes limitations on the amount of assistance for law enforcement and the administration of justice under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 inapplicable to assistance provided under this Act.

Sets forth reprogramming and notification procedures for specified assistance provided under this title.

Commends the Endara Government for taking specified steps with respect to narcotic trafficking and money laundering.

Declares that the United States should pursue information sharing and law enforcement arrangements with Panama and use funds to implement financial transaction requirements and the prosecution of drug traffickers and money launderers.

Deems Panama to be one of the "highest priority" countries under the International Narcotics Control Act of 1988 for purposes of negotiations concerning laundering of U.S. currency.

Prohibits more than 50 percent of funds appropriated for Panama from being expended until the Secretary of the Treasury has reported to the Congress that Panama is negotiating in good faith to reach an agreement for exchanging records with respect to international currency transactions in connection with narcotics investigations.

Permits the President to make a bilateral assistance certification under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (related to countries cooperating with respect to narcotic traffic and money laundering) for Panama for FY 1991 only if an agreement has been signed by the United States and Panama that provides for mutual access to financial transaction and bank records for purposes of drug law enforcement proceedings.

Waives provisions of law which prohibit assistance to countries in default on loan repayments to the United States with respect to assistance to Panama and Nicaragua under this Act.

Authorizes supplemental appropriations for assistance to Nicaragua for FY 1990. Earmarks specified amounts of such assistance for: (1) the Nicaraguan economy; (2) payments of arrearages to international financial institutions; and (3) the voluntary demobilization, repatriation, and resettlement of members of the Nicaraguan Resistance and their families (subject to certain conditions) and of refugees and displaced persons.

Repeals a provision which prohibits assistance for victims of civil strife from being channeled through the Nicaraguan Government.

Permits assistance to Nicaragua to be used for law enforcement training and services.

Authorizes the suspension of assistance to Nicaragua if: (1) there is not a peaceful and complete transition from the existing Sandinista government to the elected Government of Nicaragua; or (2) it is in U.S. interests to suspend such assistance.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that the President should work toward an orderly, peaceful, and complete transfer of power to the duly elected Government of Nicaragua.

Earmarks a specified amount of funds made available under this Act for administrative expenses of the Agency for International Development (AID).

Authorizes supplemental appropriations for FY 1990 assistance to Haiti for election assistance and the financing of critical imports. Permits anti-terrorism assistance to be provided to Haiti for FY 1990. Makes the provision of such assistance subject to the conditions of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1990, except for the requirement that Haiti restore its 1987 Constitution.

Authorizes supplemental appropriations for assistance to the Caribbean for FY 1990. Earmarks a specified amount of such assistance for the Eastern Caribbean.

Amends the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 to increase the amount authorized to be appropriated for migration and refugee assistance for FY 1990.

Amends the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 to raise the limit on the amount authorized to be appropriated for the U.S. Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund. Provides for the transfer of excess amounts in the Fund for: (1) the reimbursement of State and local governments for expenses incurred with respect to migrants; (2) assistance to the African-American Hebrew community in Israel; and (3) a U.S. contribution to the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestinian Refugees in the Near East.

Authorizes supplemental appropriations for FY 1990 for Namibia to finance budgetary support and development activities. Earmarks a specified amount of such assistance for an AID mission in Namibia.

Authorizes supplemental appropriations for FY 1990 for economic and development assistance for Subsaharan Africa.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that as of the date Namibia became self-governing, the definition of South Africa in the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986 ceased to apply to Namibia.

Authorizes supplemental appropriations for FY 1990 for assistance to encourage negotiations for a peaceful transition to democracy in South Africa. Provides that assistance shall only be available for organizations committed to a suspension of violence in the context of such negotiations.

Amends the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to authorize the issuance of guaranties to eligible investors to assure against losses incurred in connection with loans made for housing projects for immigrants in Israel.

Makes funds for military credit sales under the Arms Export Control Act available for economic assistance purposes.

Permits funds appropriated for counter-narcotics programs under the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1990 to be used to finance the leasing of helicopters to Bolivia and Peru under the Arms Export Control Act. Provides for the reimbursement of the Special Defense Acquisition Fund if the helicopters are acquired with Fund moneys. Makes a specified congressional certification requirement inapplicable to the entering into of such leases, but requires advance certifications for lease renewals.

Title II: Other Authorizations - Authorizes the Director of the U.S. Information Agency (USIA) to make grants to the Claude and Mildred Pepper Scholarship Program of the Washington Workshops Foundation to enable foreign students to study the workings of the U.S. Government. Authorizes appropriations.

Amends specified Acts to increase the amounts authorized for interparliamentary conferences with Canada and Mexico.

Urges the Secretary of State to enter into negotiations with Panama and the Pan American Health Organization to assure a satisfactory transition of control of the Gorgas Memorial Institute of Tropical and Preventive Medicine to the Pan American Health Organization. Authorizes appropriations to the Pan American Health Organization for the Institute.

Continues the USIA au pair programs until another U.S. agency is authorized to implement such programs.

Amends the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 to make funds for the Seville World's Fair available for the International Exposition in Genoa, Italy.

Center for Cultural and Technical Interchange between North and South Act of 1990 - Declares that it is the purpose of this Act to promote better relations between the United States and Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean by supporting a Center for Cultural and Technical Interchange Between North and South and through cooperative study, training, and research by scholars and students from such regions.

Requires the USIA Director to provide for the operation in Florida of an educational institution to be known as the North-South Center. Authorizes appropriations.

Title III: Development Fund for Africa - Development Fund for Africa Act - Amends the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to authorize the President to provide assistance for long-term development in Subsaharan Africa. Provides that the purpose of such assistance is to help the poor majority of Subsaharan Africans to participate in development through economic growth that is equitable, participatory, environmentally sustainable, and self-reliant.

Requires AID to take into account the local-level perspective of poor Subsaharan Africans during the planning process for project and program assistance. Declares that AID should make available funds for private and voluntary organizations which have demonstrated effectiveness in, or a commitment to, the promotion of local activities on behalf of development in Subsaharan Africa. Provides for the participation and integration of African women in such development activities.

Requires such assistance to emphasize projects to address critical sectoral priorities for long-term development. Designates such priorities as: (1) increased agricultural production and the maintenance and restoration of renewable natural resources; (2) improved health conditions; (3) increased access to voluntary family planning services; (4) improved relevance, equity, and efficiency of education; and (5) the development of income-generating opportunities for the unemployed and underemployed. Imposes minimum levels of assistance for certain critical sectors.

Requires the assistance to be concentrated in countries that will make the most effective use of such assistance.

Sets forth uses for local currencies generated by assistance. Permits funds made available under this Act to be used to assist Subsaharan African countries in increasing their capacity to participate in donor coordination mechanisms. Provides that it is U.S. policy that such funds are not used by a country to repay loans, with exceptions.

Sets forth transfer authorities and reprogramming notifications with respect to such funds.

Permits such funds to be used to assist specified sector projects supported by the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC).

Expresses the sense of the Congress that the authorization of appropriations to carry out this Act should be extended whenever appropriate.

Authorizes the AID Administrator to transfer a specified amount of funds to increase AID resources for development activities in Subsaharan Africa.

Amends the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to repeal provisions concerning educational assistance for victims of apartheid and the Sahel development program.

Title IV: Caribbean Regional Development - Sets forth U.S. policy with respect to development and economic assistance for the Caribbean. Requires priority in providing development assistance to be given to supporting indigenous democratic Caribbean institutions that represent and benefit the poor. States that in determining the eligibility of a Caribbean country for development assistance, the per capita income of such country shall be no greater than the per capita income of the Caribbean as a whole.

Requires priority in the allocation of assistance to the Caribbean to be given to: (1) food self-sufficiency; (2) rural development; (3) community-based agro-industries; (4) small- and medium-sized farm and manufacturing enterprises; (5) the expansion of tourism; (6) regional integration; (7) the upgrading of technical and managerial skills; (8) support for renewable natural resources; (9) private sector development; (10) democratic development and the administration of justice; and (11) human services and human resources development.

Denies assistance under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 and the Arms Export Control Act to any Caribbean country not enforcing workers' rights. Exempts development or narcotics control assistance from such prohibition.

Prohibits AID from providing assistance for the use of any substance in a Caribbean country if such use is prohibited under the country's or U.S. public health laws.

Requires AID to ensure the active participation of women in the development process.

Directs AID to: (1) take into account the perspectives of the poor in the development process; and (2) monitor socioeconomic conditions in the Caribbean and the effect of U.S. assistance on such conditions.