H.R.1454 - Horn of Africa Recovery and Food Security Act of 1991102nd Congress (1991-1992)
|Sponsor:||Rep. Dorgan, Byron L. [D-ND-At Large] (Introduced 03/14/1991)|
|Committees:||House - Banking, Finance, and Urban Affrs; Foreign Affairs|
|Latest Action:||House - 04/01/1991 Referred to the Subcommittee on International Development, Finance, Trade and Monetary Policy. (All Actions)|
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Text: H.R.1454 — 102nd Congress (1991-1992)All Information (Except Text)
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Introduced in House
HR 1454 IH 102d CONGRESS 1st Session H. R. 1454 To assure the people of the Horn of Africa the right to food and the other basic necessities of life and to promote peace and development in the region through grassroots participation. IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES March 14, 1991 Mr. DORGAN of North Dakota (for himself, Mr. WHEAT Mr. BEREUTER, Mr. EMERSON, Mr. HALL of Ohio, Mr. SMITH of Oregon, Mr. DYMALLY, Mr. WOLPE, Mr. BURTON of Indiana, Mr. TOWNS, Mrs. PATTERSON, Mr. DELLUMS, Mr. FLAKE, Mr. ABERCROMBIE, Mr. DICKS, Mrs. UNSOELD, Mr. SAVAGE, Mr. SABO, Mr. ESPY, Mr. VENTO, Mr. FORD of Tennessee, Mr. JEFFERSON, Mr. DIXON, Mr. MFUME, Mr. PENNY, Mr. SERRANO, Mr. OWENS of New York, Mr. PAYNE of New Jersey, Mr. MCNULTY, Mr. SCHEUER, Mr. KLECZKA, Mr. FOGLIETTA, Mr. MCHUGH, Mrs. COLLINS of Michigan, Mr. WAXMAN, Mr. OBERSTAR, Mr. YATES, Mr. ACKERMAN, Mr. UPTON, Mr. WOLF, Mrs. SCHROEDER, Mrs. ROUKEMA, Mr. GILMAN, Ms. LONG, Mr. RANGEL, Mr. SMITH of New Jersey, Mrs. MEYERS of Kansas, Mrs. KENNELLY, Mr. GILCHREST, and Mr. MORRISON) introduced the following bill; which was referred jointly to the Committees on Foreign Affairs and Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs A BILL To assure the people of the Horn of Africa the right to food and the other basic necessities of life and to promote peace and development in the region through grassroots participation. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE. This Act may be cited as the `Horn of Africa Recovery and Food Security Act of 1991'. SEC. 2. FINDINGS. The Congress makes the following findings: (1) The Horn of Africa (comprised of the countries of Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan) is a region that is characterized by an extraordinary degree of food insecurity as a result of war, famine, mounting debt, recurrent drought, poverty, and agricultural disruption, as well as by gross human rights violations, political repression, environmental destruction, and the breakdown of such essential services as primary education and health care. (2) Famine and war have killed an estimated 2,000,000 people in Ethiopia and Sudan since 1985, and generated another 8,000,000 displaced persons and refugees, a number so high as to make millions wards of the United Nations and international community. Relief officials now estimate that another 15-20,000,000 people are threatened by starvation as civil war and drought continue to ravage the area. (3) Governments in Ethiopia, Sudan, and Somalia and armed opposition groups, are guilty of gross human rights violations, including bombing civilians, torture, arbitrary killings and detention, exploiting hunger to achieve political aims, and suppressing basic political rights--all of which further erode food security in the countries. (4) Countries in the Horn of Africa are among the poorest in the world, yet military expenditures by regimes in the region consumed as much as half of all government revenues, thereby diverting scarce resources from development and basic human needs. (5) Until recently, United States and Soviet security aid in the Horn of Africa has served short-term Cold War objectives. This and other foreign security aid have exacerbated the conflicts and suffering in the Horn of Africa by contributing to the militarization of the region and entrenching undemocratic regimes. (6) Assistance from the International Development Association (World Bank) and other international financial institutions have not productively addressed the major causes of hunger and poverty in the Horn of Africa. Neither has the International Monetary Fund been effective at achieving economic reform objectives through lending programs in circumstances of conflict such as have existed in the Horn of Africa in recent years. (7) Such aid policies have failed in large part because they did not target aid to assist the poor majority and did not build upon or support the activities of indigenous and international nongovernmental organizations. Programs to achieve sustainable development and food security must support a grassroots approach which aids the poor majority. (8) Appropriate aid should also promote real food security which means access by all people at all times to enough food for an active and healthy life and the availability of sufficient income and food to prevent a chronic dependency upon food aid. (9) The reversal of the Cold War affords the United States the opportunity to develop a policy which addresses the extraordinary food security problem in the Horn of Africa. (10) Notwithstanding other pressing needs, the United States must accordingly fashion a new foreign policy toward the Horn of Africa and cooperate with other major donors and the United Nations to develop an emergency relief plan which meets the food security and other basic human needs that arise as long as civil strife and famine afflict the region; to promote immediately cease fires, secure relief corridors, and an end to these conflicts; and to provide creative development aid which attacks the root causes of famine and war and assists these nations on the path to long-term food security, reconstruction, voluntary repatriation, economic recovery, democracy, and peace. SEC. 3. THE HORN OF AFRICA RELIEF AND REHABILITATION PROGRAM. (a) STATEMENT OF POLICY CONCERNING UNITED STATES RELIEF AND REHABILITATION AID- It shall be the policy of the United States in promoting equitable distribution of relief and rehabilitation aid in the Horn of Africa-- (1) to assure noncombatants (particularly refugees and displaced persons) equal and ready access to all food, emergency, and relief assistance and, if relief or relief agreements are blocked by one faction, to continue supplies to the civilian population located in the territory of the opposing faction; (2) to provide relief that would routinely include forms of rehabilitation to promote self-reliance such as seeds, tools, water management technology, training, credit, child immunization and other health care, school construction, animal inoculation, and veterinary and medical supplies; (3) to assure that relief shall be provided on the basis of need without regard to political affiliation, geographic location, or the ethnic, tribal, or religious identity, of the recipient; (4) to redouble its efforts to secure safe corridors of passage for emergency food and relief supplies in affected areas and to expand its support for the growing refugee population; and (5) to commit sufficient Food for Peace and Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance resources to meet urgent needs in the region and to utilize unobligated security assistance to bolster these resources. (b) INTERNATIONAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE- Chapter 9 of part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2292-2292p) is amended by adding at the end thereof the following new section: `SEC. 415. HORN OF AFRICA CIVIL STRIFE ASSISTANCE. `(a) AUTHORIZATION OF ASSISTANCE- The President is authorized to provide assistance for civil strife relief and rehabilitation in the Horn of Africa. Assistance under this section shall be provided for humanitarian purposes and shall be provided on a grant basis. Such assistance shall include relief and rehabilitation projects to benefit the poorest people, including, as needed, the furnishing of seeds for planting, fertilizer, pesticides, farm implements, farm animals and vaccine and veterinary services to protect livestock on which people depend; blankets, clothing, and shelter; disease prevention and health care projects, including vaccination and water projects (including water purification and well-drilling); small-scale agricultural projects, and food protection and preservation projects; the rehabilitation of schools and the general education system; and, the inland transport and storage of emergency food assistance, including the provision of trucks and other such measures. `(b) USE OF FUNDS- `(1) USE OF PVOS FOR RELIEF, REHABILITATION, AND RECOVERY PROJECTS- The maximum utilization of United States, international, and indigenous private and voluntary organizations (PVOs) prudent to carry out the provisions of this section is urged. `(2) EMERGENCY HEALTH PROJECTS- The maximum inclusion of emergency health projects, including efforts to rehabilitate the primary health care systems in the Horn of Africa prudent to carry out the provisions of this section is urged. `(3) EDUCATION REHABILITATION PROJECTS- The maximum inclusion of school and general education system rehabilitation projects, including efforts to support the teaching of displaced children, prudent to carry out the provisions of this section is urged. `(4) MANAGEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES- Of the amount made available for the purposes of this section, not to exceed two percent shall be transferred to the `Operating Expenses of the Agency for International Development' account and used for management support activities associated with the planning, monitoring, and supervision of emergency humanitarian assistance for the Horn of Africa. `(5) AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS- Amounts under this section are authorized to remain available until expended. `(6) TRANSFER OF FUNDS- The President is authorized to transfer such funds as are necessary from unobligated Economic Support Funds and military assistance to carry out provisions in this section.'. (c) EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE- Title II of the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 is amended by adding at the end thereof the following new section: `SEC. 207. HORN OF AFRICA CIVIL STRIFE ASSISTANCE. `(a) AUTHORIZATION OF ASSISTANCE- The President is authorized to provide supplemental emergency food assistance for the various civilian victims of civil strife in the Horn of Africa. Assistance under this section shall be provided for humanitarian purposes and shall be provided on a grant basis. Such assistance shall include emergency food assistance (primarily wheat, maize, other grains, processed foods and oils) for the needs of the affected and displaced civilian population of the Horn of Africa through title II of the `Food for Peace' program and the ocean and inland transport of such food supplies. The President is further authorized to transfer such funds as are necessary from unobligated balances in the Economic Support Fund and military assistance accounts to carry out this section. `(b) USE OF FUNDS- `(1) USE OF PVOS FOR EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROJECTS- The maximum utilization of grants to United States, international, and indigenous private and voluntary organizations prudent to carry out the provisions of this section is urged. `(2) MANAGEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES- Of the amount transferred pursuant to this section, not to exceed two percent shall be transferred to the `Operating Expenses of the Agency for International Development' account and used for management support activities associated with the planning, monitoring, and supervision of emergency food assistance for the Horn of Africa. `(3) AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS- Amounts transferred under this section are authorized to remain available until expended.'. SEC. 4. THE HORN OF AFRICA PEACE INITIATIVE. (a) POLICY IN SUPPORT OF GRASSROOTS PARTICIPATION- It is the policy of the United States in promoting peace and development in the Horn of Africa-- (1) to support expanded pluralistic and popular participation, the process by which all groups of people are empowered to involve themselves directly in creating the structures, policies, and programs to contribute effectively to equitable economic development, and to local, national, and regional peace initiatives; (2) to ensure that all citizens enjoy the protection of civil, political, economic, social, religious, and cultural rights, an independent judiciary and representative governmental institutions regardless of gender, religion, ethnicity, occupation, or association; and (3) to provide assistance to indigenous nongovernmental institutions working in government-controlled or opposition-controlled territories that have the capacity or potential to promote conflict resolution, to advance development programs, or to carry out relief, which routinely includes rehabilitation activities (as described in section 3(a)(2)). (b) CONSULTATIONS- The President shall undertake immediate consultations with the Soviet Union and other nations, with armed and unarmed parties in the Horn of Africa, and with the Secretary General of the United Nations in order to bring about negotiated settlements of the wars in the region. (c) MECHANISMS- To best achieve the policy under subsection (a), it is the sense of the Congress that the President should-- (1) direct the United States representative to the United Nations to-- (A) urge the Secretary General of the United Nations to make cease fires, safe corridors for emergency relief, and negotiated settlements of the armed conflicts in the Horn of Africa a high and urgent priority; (B) propose that the United Nations Security Council establish a United Nations arms embargo to end the supply of arms to the region, pending the resolution of civil wars and other armed conflict; (C) pledge diplomatic and material resources for enhanced United Nations peacekeeping and peacemaking activities in the region, including monitoring of cease fires. (2) play an active and ongoing role in other fora in pressing for negotiated settlements to such wars; and (3) support and participate in regional and international peace consultations that include broad representation from the nations and factions concerned. SEC. 5. HORN OF AFRICA FOOD SECURITY AND RECOVERY STRATEGY. (a) POLICY IN SUPPORT OF TARGETING ASSISTANCE TO AID THE POOR MAJORITY AND CERTAIN INDIGENOUS, INTERNATIONAL, AND MULTILATERAL ORGANIZATIONS- (1) Wherever possible, United States development assistance in the Horn of Africa should be targeted to aid the poor majority of the people of the region (particularly refugees, women, the urban poor, and small-scale farmers and pastoralists). United States Government aid institutions should seek to (A) build upon the capabilities and experiences of United States, international and private and voluntary indigenous organizations active in local grassroots relief, rehabilitation and development efforts; (B) consult closely with such organizations and significantly incorporate their views into the policymaking process; and (C) support the expansion and strengthening of their activities without compromising their private and independent nature. (2) The African Development Foundation (ADF), a United States funding agency, is forming equitable partnerships with grassroots communities that are designed to serve human needs and local interests. The African Development Foundation responds to grassroots initiatives by funding projects that are planned and managed by the grant recipients. The ADF should be encouraged to initiate such activities in the Horn of Africa. (3) Sustainable development and food security in the Horn of Africa can be enhanced through the active participation of indigenous private and voluntary organizations as well as international private and voluntary organizations and international organizations with demonstrated ability to work as partners with local nongovernmental organizations and a commitment to promote local grassroots activities on behalf of long-term development and self-reliance in the Horn of Africa. (4) Current legislative provisions that restrict or prohibit United States foreign assistance to the governments of Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan should be retained until concrete steps toward peace, democracy, and human rights are achieved. Meanwhile, programs of development assistance should be promoted by supporting United States, indigenous, and international private and voluntary organizations working in the afflicted countries. Assistance of this sort must be expanded as quickly as possible. (b) PROVISION OF DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE- Any provision of law which would otherwise prohibit foreign assistance to Ethiopia, Somalia, or Sudan under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 shall not apply to assistance to such country under chapter 1 of part I (relating to development assistance) and chapter 10 of part I (relating to development assistance for Sub-Saharan Africa) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, which is provided in accordance with this section. Such funds as are needed are authorized to carry out provisions in this section. (c) USE OF FUNDS- (1) Assistance provided under this section shall be made available pursuant to chapter 1 of part I and chapter 10 of part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, including programs to-- (A) reforest and restore degraded natural areas and reestablish resource management programs, (B) reestablish veterinary services, local crop research, and agricultural development projects, (C) educate young people outside of their countries if conflict continues, restore primary education, and rebuild schools, (D) reconstitute and expand the delivery of primary and maternal health care, (E) establish credit, microenterprise, and income generation programs for the poor. (2) Such assistance should also be targeted to the voluntary relocation and voluntary repatriation of displaced persons and refugees, once peace arrives. Such aid should include food, potable water, shelter, medical care, clothing, seeds, livestock, and agricultural and household implements. (3) Development assistance should be carried out in coordination with long-term strategies for debt relief of countries in the region and with emerging efforts to establish an International Fund for Reconstruction of developing nations which settle civil wars. (d) LIMITATIONS ON USE OF FUNDS- (1) ASSISTANCE THROUGH PVOS AND MULTILATERAL ORGANIZATIONS- Except as provided in paragraph (3) and subsection (f), funds made available pursuant to this section shall be used for development assistance to the people of Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan provided through United States, international and indigenous private and voluntary organizations (as defined in section 496(e)(1) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961) in such countries or through international private and voluntary or international organizations with demonstrated effectiveness in working in partnership with local nongovernmental organizations and a commitment to the promotion of local grassroots activities on behalf of development and self-reliance in the Horn of Africa (such as the United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), and the World Food Program (WFP)). This paragraph may not be construed to prohibit eligible providers from working with appropriate ministries or departments of the governments of Ethiopia, Sudan, or Somalia. (2) RELOCATION ASSISTANCE- None of the funds authorized to be appropriated pursuant to this Act may be made available for any costs associated with any program of involuntary or forced resettlement of persons. (3) PROHIBITION- None of the assistance pursuant to this section may be provided to or through the governments of Ethiopia, Somalia, or Sudan, unless, with respect to the government of a country, the President makes the certification described in subsection (f). (e) STATEMENT OF POLICY CONCERNING UNITED STATES VOLUNTARY CONTRIBUTIONS TO INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE FOR THE HORN OF AFRICA- It is the policy of the United States to provide increasing voluntary contributions to United Nations agencies (including the United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), and the World Food Program (WFP)) for expanded programs of assistance in the countries of the Horn of Africa. (f) CERTIFICATION- The certification required by subsection (d) is a certification by the President to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate that the government of such country-- (1) has begun to implement peace and or national reconciliation agreements; (2) has demonstrated a commitment to human rights within the meaning of section 502B of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961; (3) has manifested a commitment to democracy and has held, or scheduled, free and fair elections; and (4) has agreed to distribute development assistance without discrimination. SEC. 6. PROHIBITIONS ON SECURITY ASSISTANCE TO ETHIOPIA, SOMALIA, AND SUDAN. (a) PROHIBITION OF MILITARY ASSISTANCE- Except as provided in section 3, none of the funds authorized to be appropriated for fiscal year 1992 or fiscal year 1993 to carry out chapter 2 of part II (relating to grant military assistance) or chapter 5 of part II (relating to international military education and training ) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 may be used to provide assistance to the governments of Ethiopia, Somalia, or Sudan, unless with respect to a government of a country, the President makes the certification described in subsection (c). (b) PROHIBITION OF ECONOMIC SUPPORT FUNDS- Except as provided in section 3, none of the funds authorized to be appropriated for fiscal year 1992 and fiscal year 1993 to carry out chapter 4 of part II (relating to economic support funds) may be used to provide assistance to the governments of Ethiopia, Somalia, or Sudan, unless, with respect to a government of a country, the President makes the certification described in subsection (c). (c) CERTIFICATION- The certification required by subsections (a) and (b) is a certification by the President to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate that the government of such country-- (1) has begun to implement peace and or national reconciliation agreements; (2) has demonstrated a commitment to human rights within the meaning of section 502B of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961; and (3) has held, or scheduled, free and fair elections. SEC. 7. DIRECTIVE ON MULTILATERAL AID BY INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS. (a) INSTRUCTIONS FOR UNITED STATES EXECUTIVE DIRECTORS- The Secretary of the Treasury shall instruct the United States Executive Directors of each multilateral development bank to use the voice and vote of the United States to oppose any loan or other use of the funds, except to meet basic human needs, of the respective institution to or for Ethiopia, Somalia, or Sudan until the President makes the certification described in section 5(f) for such country. (b) DEFINITION- For purposes of this section, the term `multilateral development bank' includes the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Development Association, the African Development Fund, and the African Development Bank. SEC. 8. REPORTING REQUIREMENTS. Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, and each 180 days thereafter, the President shall submit a report to the appropriate committees of the Congress concerning efforts and progress in carrying out the provisions of this Act.