Text: H.R.1454 — 102nd Congress (1991-1992)All Information (Except Text)

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HR 1454 IH
102d CONGRESS
1st Session
 H. R. 1454
To assure the people of the Horn of Africa the right to food and the other
basic necessities of life and to promote peace and development in the region
through grassroots participation.
IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
March 14, 1991
Mr. DORGAN of North Dakota (for himself, Mr. WHEAT Mr. BEREUTER, Mr. EMERSON,
Mr. HALL of Ohio, Mr. SMITH of Oregon, Mr. DYMALLY, Mr. WOLPE, Mr. BURTON of
Indiana, Mr. TOWNS, Mrs. PATTERSON, Mr. DELLUMS, Mr. FLAKE, Mr. ABERCROMBIE,
Mr. DICKS, Mrs. UNSOELD, Mr. SAVAGE, Mr. SABO, Mr. ESPY, Mr. VENTO, Mr. FORD
of Tennessee, Mr. JEFFERSON, Mr. DIXON, Mr. MFUME, Mr. PENNY, Mr. SERRANO,
Mr. OWENS of New York, Mr. PAYNE of New Jersey, Mr. MCNULTY, Mr. SCHEUER,
Mr. KLECZKA, Mr. FOGLIETTA, Mr. MCHUGH, Mrs. COLLINS of Michigan, Mr. WAXMAN,
Mr. OBERSTAR, Mr. YATES, Mr. ACKERMAN, Mr. UPTON, Mr. WOLF, Mrs. SCHROEDER,
Mrs. ROUKEMA, Mr. GILMAN, Ms. LONG, Mr. RANGEL, Mr. SMITH of New Jersey,
Mrs. MEYERS of Kansas, Mrs. KENNELLY, Mr. GILCHREST, and Mr. MORRISON)
introduced the following bill; which was referred jointly to the Committees
on Foreign Affairs and Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs
A BILL
To assure the people of the Horn of Africa the right to food and the other
basic necessities of life and to promote peace and development in the region
through grassroots participation.
  Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
  States of America in Congress assembled,
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.
  This Act may be cited as the `Horn of Africa Recovery and Food Security
  Act of 1991'.
SEC. 2. FINDINGS.
  The Congress makes the following findings:
  (1) The Horn of Africa (comprised of the countries of Ethiopia, Somalia,
  and Sudan) is a region that is characterized by an extraordinary degree
  of food insecurity as a result of war, famine, mounting debt, recurrent
  drought, poverty, and agricultural disruption, as well as by gross human
  rights violations, political repression, environmental destruction, and the
  breakdown of such essential services as primary education and health care.
  (2) Famine and war have killed an estimated 2,000,000 people in Ethiopia
  and Sudan since 1985, and generated another 8,000,000 displaced persons
  and refugees, a number so high as to make millions wards of the United
  Nations and international community. Relief officials now estimate that
  another 15-20,000,000 people are threatened by starvation as civil war
  and drought continue to ravage the area.
  (3) Governments in Ethiopia, Sudan, and Somalia and armed opposition groups,
  are guilty of gross human rights violations, including bombing civilians,
  torture, arbitrary killings and detention, exploiting hunger to achieve
  political aims, and suppressing basic political rights--all of which
  further erode food security in the countries.
  (4) Countries in the Horn of Africa are among the poorest in the world,
  yet military expenditures by regimes in the region consumed as much as
  half of all government revenues, thereby diverting scarce resources from
  development and basic human needs.
  (5) Until recently, United States and Soviet security aid in the Horn of
  Africa has served short-term Cold War objectives. This and other foreign
  security aid have exacerbated the conflicts and suffering in the Horn of
  Africa by contributing to the militarization of the region and entrenching
  undemocratic regimes.
  (6) Assistance from the International Development Association (World Bank)
  and other international financial institutions have not productively
  addressed the major causes of hunger and poverty in the Horn of
  Africa. Neither has the International Monetary Fund been effective
  at achieving economic reform objectives through lending programs in
  circumstances of conflict such as have existed in the Horn of Africa in
  recent years.
  (7) Such aid policies have failed in large part because they did
  not target aid to assist the poor majority and did not build upon or
  support the activities of indigenous and international nongovernmental
  organizations. Programs to achieve sustainable development and food security
  must support a grassroots approach which aids the poor majority.
  (8) Appropriate aid should also promote real food security which means access
  by all people at all times to enough food for an active and healthy life
  and the availability of sufficient income and food to prevent a chronic
  dependency upon food aid.
  (9) The reversal of the Cold War affords the United States the opportunity
  to develop a policy which addresses the extraordinary food security problem
  in the Horn of Africa.
  (10) Notwithstanding other pressing needs, the United States must accordingly
  fashion a new foreign policy toward the Horn of Africa and cooperate with
  other major donors and the United Nations to develop an emergency relief
  plan which meets the food security and other basic human needs that arise as
  long as civil strife and famine afflict the region; to promote immediately
  cease fires, secure relief corridors, and an end to these conflicts; and to
  provide creative development aid which attacks the root causes of famine
  and war and assists these nations on the path to long-term food security,
  reconstruction, voluntary repatriation, economic recovery, democracy,
  and peace.
SEC. 3. THE HORN OF AFRICA RELIEF AND REHABILITATION PROGRAM.
  (a) STATEMENT OF POLICY CONCERNING UNITED STATES RELIEF AND REHABILITATION
  AID- It shall be the policy of the United States in promoting equitable
  distribution of relief and rehabilitation aid in the Horn of Africa--
  (1) to assure noncombatants (particularly refugees and displaced persons)
  equal and ready access to all food, emergency, and relief assistance and, if
  relief or relief agreements are blocked by one faction, to continue supplies
  to the civilian population located in the territory of the opposing faction;
  (2) to provide relief that would routinely include forms of rehabilitation
  to promote self-reliance such as seeds, tools, water management technology,
  training, credit, child immunization and other health care, school
  construction, animal inoculation, and veterinary and medical supplies;
  (3) to assure that relief shall be provided on the basis of need without
  regard to political affiliation, geographic location, or the ethnic,
  tribal, or religious identity, of the recipient;
  (4) to redouble its efforts to secure safe corridors of passage for
  emergency food and relief supplies in affected areas and to expand its
  support for the growing refugee population; and
  (5) to commit sufficient Food for Peace and Office of Foreign Disaster
  Assistance resources to meet urgent needs in the region and to utilize
  unobligated security assistance to bolster these resources.
  (b) INTERNATIONAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE- Chapter 9 of part I of the Foreign
  Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2292-2292p) is amended by adding at the
  end thereof the following new section:
`SEC. 415. HORN OF AFRICA CIVIL STRIFE ASSISTANCE.
  `(a) AUTHORIZATION OF ASSISTANCE- The President is authorized to provide
  assistance for civil strife relief and rehabilitation in the Horn of
  Africa. Assistance under this section shall be provided for humanitarian
  purposes and shall be provided on a grant basis. Such assistance shall
  include relief and rehabilitation projects to benefit the poorest people,
  including, as needed, the furnishing of seeds for planting, fertilizer,
  pesticides, farm implements, farm animals and vaccine and veterinary services
  to protect livestock on which people depend; blankets, clothing, and shelter;
  disease prevention and health care projects, including vaccination and water
  projects (including water purification and well-drilling); small-scale
  agricultural projects, and food protection and preservation projects;
  the rehabilitation of schools and the general education system; and, the
  inland transport and storage of emergency food assistance, including the
  provision of trucks and other such measures.
  `(b) USE OF FUNDS-
  `(1) USE OF PVOS FOR RELIEF, REHABILITATION, AND RECOVERY PROJECTS- The
  maximum utilization of United States, international, and indigenous private
  and voluntary organizations (PVOs) prudent to carry out the provisions of
  this section is urged.
  `(2) EMERGENCY HEALTH PROJECTS- The maximum inclusion of emergency health
  projects, including efforts to rehabilitate the primary health care systems
  in the Horn of Africa prudent to carry out the provisions of this section
  is urged.
  `(3) EDUCATION REHABILITATION PROJECTS- The maximum inclusion of school
  and general education system rehabilitation projects, including efforts
  to support the teaching of displaced children, prudent to carry out the
  provisions of this section is urged.
  `(4) MANAGEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES- Of the amount made available for the
  purposes of this section, not to exceed two percent shall be transferred
  to the `Operating Expenses of the Agency for International Development'
  account and used for management support activities associated with the
  planning, monitoring, and supervision of emergency humanitarian assistance
  for the Horn of Africa.
  `(5) AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS- Amounts under this section are authorized to
  remain available until expended.
  `(6) TRANSFER OF FUNDS- The President is authorized to transfer such funds
  as are necessary from unobligated Economic Support Funds and military
  assistance to carry out provisions in this section.'.
  (c) EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE- Title II of the Agricultural Trade Development
  and Assistance Act of 1954 is amended by adding at the end thereof the
  following new section:
`SEC. 207. HORN OF AFRICA CIVIL STRIFE ASSISTANCE.
  `(a) AUTHORIZATION OF ASSISTANCE- The President is authorized to provide
  supplemental emergency food assistance for the various civilian victims of
  civil strife in the Horn of Africa. Assistance under this section shall
  be provided for humanitarian purposes and shall be provided on a grant
  basis. Such assistance shall include emergency food assistance (primarily
  wheat, maize, other grains, processed foods and oils) for the needs of the
  affected and displaced civilian population of the Horn of Africa through
  title II of the `Food for Peace' program and the ocean and inland transport
  of such food supplies. The President is further authorized to transfer
  such funds as are necessary from unobligated balances in the Economic
  Support Fund and military assistance accounts to carry out this section.
  `(b) USE OF FUNDS-
  `(1) USE OF PVOS FOR EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROJECTS- The maximum
  utilization of grants to United States, international, and indigenous
  private and voluntary organizations prudent to carry out the provisions
  of this section is urged.
  `(2) MANAGEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES- Of the amount transferred pursuant
  to this section, not to exceed two percent shall be transferred to the
  `Operating Expenses of the Agency for International Development' account
  and used for management support activities associated with the planning,
  monitoring, and supervision of emergency food assistance for the Horn
  of Africa.
  `(3) AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS- Amounts transferred under this section are
  authorized to remain available until expended.'.
SEC. 4. THE HORN OF AFRICA PEACE INITIATIVE.
  (a) POLICY IN SUPPORT OF GRASSROOTS PARTICIPATION- It is the policy of
  the United States in promoting peace and development in the Horn of Africa--
  (1) to support expanded pluralistic and popular participation, the process by
  which all groups of people are empowered to involve themselves directly in
  creating the structures, policies, and programs to contribute effectively
  to equitable economic development, and to local, national, and regional
  peace initiatives;
  (2) to ensure that all citizens enjoy the protection of civil, political,
  economic, social, religious, and cultural rights, an independent judiciary
  and representative governmental institutions regardless of gender, religion,
  ethnicity, occupation, or association; and
  (3) to provide assistance to indigenous nongovernmental institutions
  working in government-controlled or opposition-controlled territories that
  have the capacity or potential to promote conflict resolution, to advance
  development programs, or to carry out relief, which routinely includes
  rehabilitation activities (as described in section 3(a)(2)).
  (b) CONSULTATIONS- The President shall undertake immediate consultations
  with the Soviet Union and other nations, with armed and unarmed parties in
  the Horn of Africa, and with the Secretary General of the United Nations
  in order to bring about negotiated settlements of the wars in the region.
  (c) MECHANISMS- To best achieve the policy under subsection (a), it is
  the sense of the Congress that the President should--
  (1) direct the United States representative to the United Nations to--
  (A) urge the Secretary General of the United Nations to make cease fires,
  safe corridors for emergency relief, and negotiated settlements of the
  armed conflicts in the Horn of Africa a high and urgent priority;
  (B) propose that the United Nations Security Council establish a United
  Nations arms embargo to end the supply of arms to the region, pending the
  resolution of civil wars and other armed conflict;
  (C) pledge diplomatic and material resources for enhanced United Nations
  peacekeeping and peacemaking activities in the region, including monitoring
  of cease fires.
  (2) play an active and ongoing role in other fora in pressing for negotiated
  settlements to such wars;  and
  (3) support and participate in regional and international peace consultations
  that include broad representation from the nations and factions concerned.
SEC. 5. HORN OF AFRICA FOOD SECURITY AND RECOVERY STRATEGY.
  (a) POLICY IN SUPPORT OF TARGETING ASSISTANCE TO AID THE POOR MAJORITY
  AND CERTAIN INDIGENOUS, INTERNATIONAL, AND MULTILATERAL ORGANIZATIONS-
  (1) Wherever possible, United States development assistance in the Horn
  of Africa should be targeted to aid the poor majority of the people of
  the region (particularly refugees, women, the urban poor, and small-scale
  farmers and pastoralists). United States Government aid institutions should
  seek to (A) build upon the capabilities and experiences of United States,
  international and private and voluntary indigenous organizations active
  in local grassroots relief, rehabilitation and development efforts; (B)
  consult closely with such organizations and significantly incorporate
  their views into the policymaking process; and (C) support the expansion
  and strengthening of their activities without compromising their private
  and independent nature.
  (2) The African Development Foundation (ADF), a United States funding
  agency, is forming equitable partnerships with grassroots communities
  that are designed to serve human needs and local interests. The African
  Development Foundation responds to grassroots initiatives by funding
  projects that are planned and managed by the grant recipients. The ADF
  should be encouraged to initiate such activities in the Horn of Africa.
  (3) Sustainable development and food security in the Horn of Africa can
  be enhanced through the active participation of indigenous private and
  voluntary organizations as well as international private and voluntary
  organizations and international organizations with demonstrated ability to
  work as partners with local nongovernmental organizations and a commitment
  to promote local grassroots activities on behalf of long-term development
  and self-reliance in the Horn of Africa.
  (4) Current legislative provisions that restrict or prohibit United States
  foreign assistance to the governments of Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan
  should be retained until concrete steps toward peace, democracy, and human
  rights are achieved. Meanwhile, programs of development assistance should be
  promoted by supporting United States, indigenous, and international private
  and voluntary organizations working in the afflicted countries. Assistance
  of this sort must be expanded as quickly as possible.
  (b) PROVISION OF DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE- Any provision of law which would
  otherwise prohibit foreign assistance to Ethiopia, Somalia, or Sudan under
  the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 shall not apply to assistance to such
  country under chapter 1 of part I (relating to development assistance) and
  chapter 10 of part I (relating to development assistance for Sub-Saharan
  Africa) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, which is provided in
  accordance with this section. Such funds as are needed are authorized to
  carry out provisions in this section.
  (c) USE OF FUNDS-
  (1) Assistance provided under this section shall be made available pursuant
  to chapter 1 of part I and chapter 10 of part I of the Foreign Assistance
  Act of 1961, including programs to--
  (A) reforest and restore degraded natural areas and reestablish resource
  management programs,
  (B) reestablish veterinary services, local crop research, and agricultural
  development projects,
  (C) educate young people outside of their countries if conflict continues,
  restore primary education, and rebuild schools,
  (D) reconstitute and expand the delivery of primary and maternal health care,
  (E) establish credit, microenterprise, and income generation programs for
  the poor.
  (2) Such assistance should also be targeted to the voluntary relocation
  and voluntary repatriation of displaced persons and refugees, once peace
  arrives. Such aid should include food, potable water, shelter, medical care,
  clothing, seeds, livestock, and agricultural and household implements.
  (3) Development assistance should be carried out in coordination with
  long-term strategies for debt relief of countries in the region and with
  emerging efforts to establish an International Fund for Reconstruction of
  developing nations which settle civil wars.
  (d) LIMITATIONS ON USE OF FUNDS-
  (1) ASSISTANCE THROUGH PVOS AND MULTILATERAL ORGANIZATIONS- Except
  as provided in paragraph (3) and subsection (f), funds made available
  pursuant to this section shall be used for development assistance to the
  people of Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan provided through United States,
  international and indigenous private and voluntary organizations (as
  defined in section 496(e)(1) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961) in such
  countries or through international private and voluntary or international
  organizations with demonstrated effectiveness in working in partnership
  with local nongovernmental organizations and a commitment to the promotion
  of local grassroots activities on behalf of development and self-reliance
  in the Horn of Africa (such as the United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF),
  the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), United Nations
  High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), United Nations Development Program
  (UNDP), and the World Food Program (WFP)). This paragraph may not be
  construed to prohibit eligible providers from working with appropriate
  ministries or departments of the governments of Ethiopia, Sudan, or Somalia.
  (2) RELOCATION ASSISTANCE- None of the funds authorized to be appropriated
  pursuant to this Act may be made available for any costs associated with
  any program of involuntary or forced resettlement of persons.
  (3) PROHIBITION- None of the assistance pursuant to this section may be
  provided to or through the governments of Ethiopia, Somalia, or Sudan,
  unless, with respect to the government of a country, the President makes
  the certification described in subsection (f).
  (e) STATEMENT OF POLICY CONCERNING UNITED STATES VOLUNTARY CONTRIBUTIONS
  TO INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE FOR THE HORN
  OF AFRICA- It is the policy of the United States to provide increasing
  voluntary contributions to United Nations agencies (including the United
  Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) and the International Fund for Agricultural
  Development (IFAD), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
  (UNHCR), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), and the World Food
  Program (WFP)) for expanded programs of assistance in the countries of
  the Horn of Africa.
  (f) CERTIFICATION- The certification required by subsection (d) is a
  certification by the President to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the
  House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the
  Senate that the government of such country--
  (1) has begun to implement peace and or national reconciliation agreements;
  (2) has demonstrated a commitment to human rights within the meaning of
  section 502B of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961;
  (3) has manifested a commitment to democracy and has held, or scheduled,
  free and fair elections; and
  (4) has agreed to distribute development assistance without discrimination.
SEC. 6. PROHIBITIONS ON SECURITY ASSISTANCE TO ETHIOPIA, SOMALIA, AND SUDAN.
  (a) PROHIBITION OF MILITARY ASSISTANCE- Except as provided in section 3,
  none of the funds authorized to be appropriated for fiscal year 1992 or
  fiscal year 1993 to carry out chapter 2 of part II (relating to grant
  military assistance) or chapter 5 of part II (relating to international
  military education and training ) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961
  may be used to provide assistance to the governments of Ethiopia, Somalia,
  or Sudan, unless with respect to a government of a country, the President
  makes the certification described in subsection (c).
  (b) PROHIBITION OF ECONOMIC SUPPORT FUNDS- Except as provided in section 3,
  none of the funds authorized to be appropriated for fiscal year 1992 and
  fiscal year 1993 to carry out chapter 4 of part II (relating to economic
  support funds) may be used to provide assistance to the governments of
  Ethiopia, Somalia, or Sudan, unless, with respect to a government of a
  country, the President makes the certification described in subsection (c).
  (c) CERTIFICATION- The certification required by subsections (a) and (b)
  is a certification by the President to the Committee on Foreign Affairs
  of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of
  the Senate that the government of such country--
  (1) has begun to implement peace and or national reconciliation agreements;
  (2) has demonstrated a commitment to human rights within the meaning of
  section 502B of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961; and
  (3) has held, or scheduled, free and fair elections.
SEC. 7. DIRECTIVE ON MULTILATERAL AID BY INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS.
  (a) INSTRUCTIONS FOR UNITED STATES EXECUTIVE DIRECTORS- The Secretary
  of the Treasury shall instruct the United States Executive Directors of
  each multilateral development bank to use the voice and vote of the United
  States to oppose any loan or other use of the funds, except to meet basic
  human needs, of the respective institution to or for Ethiopia, Somalia,
  or Sudan until the President makes the certification described in section
  5(f) for such country.
  (b) DEFINITION- For purposes of this section, the term `multilateral
  development bank' includes the International Bank for Reconstruction
  and Development, the International Development Association, the African
  Development Fund, and the African Development Bank.
SEC. 8. REPORTING REQUIREMENTS.
  Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act,
  and each 180 days thereafter, the President shall submit a report to the
  appropriate committees of the Congress concerning efforts and progress in
  carrying out the provisions of this Act.