Summary: H.R.2840 — 102nd Congress (1991-1992)All Information (Except Text)

There is one summary for H.R.2840. Bill summaries are authored by CRS.

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Introduced in House (07/10/1991)

Lead Contamination Control Act Amendments of 1991 - Amends the Public Health Service Act to revise provisions concerning grants for lead poisoning prevention programs to authorize grants to public and nonprofit entities (currently, State and local governments). Requires priority in making grants to be given to applications for programs that will serve areas with a high incidence of elevated blood-lead levels in infants and children.

Prohibits the Secretary of Health and Human Services from making such grants unless, in the case of any service that is made available pursuant to the State plan approved under title XIX of the Social Security Act (Medicaid) for the State involved, the grant applicant: (1) will provide the service directly and has entered into a participation agreement under the State plan and is qualified to receive payments under the plan; or (2) will enter into an agreement with a Medicaid provider under which the provider will provide the service and the provider has entered into a participation agreement and is qualified to receive such payments. Waives the requirement to enter into an agreement for such providers if the provider does not impose a charge or accept reimbursement from a third-party payor with respect to health care services.

Prohibits grant recipients from making payments from the grant for any service to the extent that payment can reasonably be expected to be made for such service: (1) under any State compensation program, under an insurance policy, or under any Federal or State health benefits program; or (2) by an entity that provides health services on a prepaid basis. Waives such prohibition in the case of those providers through which the grantee provides services if the Secretary has provided a waiver with respect to secondary participation agreements.

Extends the authorization of appropriations for the grant program through FY 1996.

Sets forth the requirements for the national primary drinking water regulation for lead. Applies such requirements to community and noncommunity water systems.

Establishes a limit for lead in tap water. Provides that the maximum contaminant level goal for lead in drinking water is zero. Requires requirements set forth in this Act to supersede requirements concerning lead in drinking water promulgated by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on May 6, 1991, except for requirements relating to analytical methods. Permits the Administrator to promulgate regulations concerning lead in drinking water only if they are more protective of human health than corresponding requirements of this Act. Provides that the maximum contaminant level for lead in effect before May 6, 1991, shall be effective upon this Act's enactment date.

Sets forth deadlines by which water systems shall complete applicable corrosion control treatment requirements. Deems a system to have optimized corrosion control and exempts a system from completion of corrosion control treatment steps if the system satisfies one of the following criteria: (1) in the case of a small- or medium-sized system, the system meets the tap water lead limit during two consecutive six-month monitoring periods; or (2) in the case of any water system, the system demonstrates to the State that it has conducted activities equivalent to applicable corrosion control steps required by this Act or it submits monitoring results that demonstrate for two consecutive six-month monitoring periods that the difference between the highest tap water lead concentration and the highest source water lead concentration is not detectable. Permits a small-or medium-sized water system to cease completion of treatment steps whenever such systems meet tap water lead limits during two consecutive monitoring periods and submit the results to the State.

Sets forth corrosion control treatment steps and deadlines for large-, medium-, and small-sized systems.

Requires small- and medium-sized systems exceeding the tap water lead limit to recommend installation of at least one of the following corrosion control treatments: (1) alkalinity and pH adjustment; (2) calcium hardness adjustment; and (3) the addition of a phosphate or silicate corrosion inhibitor to maintain an effective residual concentration in test tap samples. Authorizes a State to require such systems to perform specified corrosion control studies to identify optimal corrosion control treatment. Sets forth study requirements. Requires a State to approve the option recommended by the system or to designate alternative treatments. Directs systems to install and operate the treatments designated by the State.

Requires States to evaluate the results of lead tap and water quality parameter samples submitted by water systems to determine whether a system has properly installed and operated the designated corrosion control treatment. Directs States to designate: (1) a minimum range of values for pH measured at each entry point to the distribution system; (2) a minimum pH value measured in all tap samples; (3) a minimum range of concentrations for a corrosion inhibitor (if used) measured at each entry point to the system and in all tap samples; (4) a minimum range of concentrations for alkalinity (if alkalinity is adjusted) measured at each entry point to the system and in all tap samples; and (5) a minimum range of concentrations for calcium measured in all tap samples (if calcium carbonate stabilization is used as part of corrosion control).

Requires systems to maintain water quality parameter values at or above minimum values or within ranges designated by a State.

Authorizes States to modify optimal corrosion control treatment or water quality parameters, subject to certain conditions.

Establishes a maximum contaminant level for lead in source water. Requires public water systems that fail to meet the tap water lead limit to replace lead service lines. Directs a system to replace such lines at an annual rate that will replace 20 percent of the lead lines or ten percent of all service lines, whichever results in replacement of a greater number of lead service lines. Sets forth a replacement schedule. Provides for extensions of replacement deadlines upon the application of a system with a large number of lead service lines in the distribution system. Exempts a system from replacement requirements if the State determines that the service line does not contribute to tap water lead concentrations in excess of ten parts per billion. Requires a system to replace the entire service line unless it demonstrates to the State that it controls less than the entire service line. Sets forth requirements for replacing portions of service lines.

Presumes that a system controls the entire lead service line (up to the building inlet) unless the State determines that it does not have the following forms of control over the entire line: (1) legal authority; (2) authority to set standards for construction or maintenance or to replace, repair, or maintain the line; or (3) ownership of the line.

Provides for shorter replacement schedules, where feasible. Permits a system to cease replacing such lines whenever the tap water samples meet lead limits during two consecutive monitoring periods and the results are submitted to the State.

Requires States to establish programs to encourage public water systems to: (1) provide a voluntary service of referring building owners in a system's service area to approved contractors to remove lead plumbing, fixtures, or solder from the buildings; and (2) offer to fund such removal and to bill their water customers in a manner that allows easy payment for such removal. Directs the Administrator to distribute a model State program.

Requires water systems that exceed the tap water limit to deliver certain public education materials and public service announcements with respect to lead in drinking water. Sets forth required texts of such materials. Provides that in communities where a significant proportion of the population speaks a language other than English, such materials shall be communicated in the appropriate languages. Sets forth delivery requirements with respect to such materials. Permits a system to discontinue delivery if the system has met the tap water lead limit during the most recent six-month monitoring period. Requires systems failing to meet such limit to offer to sample the tap water of any customer who requests such sampling.

Directs systems which fail to comply with a maximum contaminant level for lead or any related requirement to notify persons served by such systems of the violation.

Requires water systems to complete a materials evaluation of their distribution systems to identify a pool of targeted sampling sites sufficiently large to ensure the collection of required lead tap samples. Prohibits faucets with devices designed to remove inorganic contaminants from being included as sampling sites.

Requires systems to use information relating to special monitoring for corrosivity characteristics when conducting materials evaluations. Sets forth sources of information to be used when such systems' information is insufficient to locate the requisite number of lead sampling sites. Sets forth required sampling sites. Requires water systems whose distribution systems contain lead service lines to draw 50 percent of samples from sites that contain lead pipes or copper pipes with lead solder and 50 percent of those samples to be from sites served by a lead service line.

Designates tap samples collected for lead (except for lead service line samples) as first draw samples. Requires: (1) first draw tap samples for lead to be one liter in volume and to have stood motionless in the plumbing system of each sampling site for at least six hours; and (2) service line samples to be one liter in volume and to have stood motionless in the lead service line for at least six hours. Sets forth collection requirements.

Requires systems to collect at least one sample during each monitoring period (at six-month intervals) from the number of sites listed under this Act. Bases the number of sites required to be monitored on the size of the system. Provides for reduced monitoring for systems that meet lead limits during consecutive monitoring periods.

Requires water systems that exceed the tap water lead limit to monitor water quality parameters. Provides that tap samples shall be representative of water quality throughout a distribution system, taking into account the number of persons served, the different sources of water, the different treatment methods, and seasonal variability. Requires samples collected at entry points to distribution systems to be from locations representative of sources after treatment.

Directs systems to collect two tap samples for water quality parameters at six-month intervals. Bases the number of sites required to be monitored on the size of the system. Sets forth parameters to be measured and general monitoring requirements. Provides for reduced monitoring for systems that maintain the range of values for water quality parameters during consecutive monitoring periods.

Requires systems to collect (at six-month intervals) lead source water samples in accordance with requirements specified in regulations of the Administrator relating to inorganic chemical sampling. Provides for reduced monitoring for systems using groundwater, surface water, or a combination of the two which demonstrate that finished drinking water entering distribution systems has been maintained below the source water maximum contaminant level during specified consecutive periods.

Requires systems to: (1) report to States on tap water samples, source water monitoring, corrosion control treatment, lead service line replacements, and public education requirements; and (2) submit to States annually a letter certifying the extent of compliance with such requirements. Sets forth recordkeeping and reporting requirements for public water systems.

Sets forth provisions concerning EPA review of State determinations concerning drinking water regulation for lead. Provides that issuance of a final order by the Administrator shall constitute requirements of the national primary drinking water regulation for lead and shall supersede any inconsistent State treatment requirements. Withdraws enforcement responsibility from States which fail to implement this Act's requirements for public water systems.

Authorizes States to require public water systems to use bottled water or other means as a condition of: (1) granting variances or exemptions from requirements of the national primary drinking water regulations to avoid an unreasonable health risk; or (2) granting an exemption from corrosion control treatment requirements for lead or source water and lead service line replacement requirements to avoid such risk.

Requires systems that use bottled water as a condition for receiving a variance or exemption to meet specified requirements, including: (1) a State-approved monitoring program for bottled water or a certification from the bottled water company that the water has been taken from an approved source (as defined by the Administrator of the Food and Drug Administration) and the company has conducted monitoring; and (2) the provision of sufficient quantities of bottled water to every person supplied by the public water system.

Prohibits the EPA Administrator from promulgating any national primary drinking water regulations under the Public Health Service Act which are based on an action level in lieu of a maximum contaminant level or a treatment technique prescribed by such Act. Voids any such regulations promulgated before this Act. Requires the Administrator to promulgate drinking water regulations consistent with such Act for any contaminant, other than lead, for which regulations are voided.

Directs local educational agencies to complete testing for lead contamination in drinking water from coolers and other drinking water outlets at schools under their jurisdiction. Requires the Administrator to revise a guidance document and protocol concerning lead in school drinking water to provide for follow-up sampling and to recommend remedial steps whenever the lead concentration exceeds a specified level. Directs local educational agencies, if lead concentration in such water exceeds such level, to submit to school personnel, parents of children, and the agency with primary enforcement responsibility for the public water system serving the school a lead disclosure statement and a description of actions to be taken in response to test results.

Requires (currently, permits) grants made to States for programs regarding lead in school drinking water to be used to reimburse local educational agencies for expenses incurred in testing and remedial action. Extends the authorization of appropriations for such grants.

Imposes civil penalties upon local educational agencies that fail to comply with requirements for testing and remedying lead in school drinking water.

Requires pipe fittings and fixtures used in public water systems or in plumbing providing water for human consumption to be lead-free. Makes it unlawful to: (1) introduce into commerce any pipe, pipe fitting, or fixture that is not lead free; (2) sell solder or flux plumbing supplies which are not lead free; or (3) introduce into commerce any solder or flux which is not lead free unless such solder or flux bears a label stating that is illegal to use such materials in the installation or repair of plumbing providing water for human consumption. Revises the definition of "lead free" to provide that four years after this Act's enactment, such term refers to pipes, pipe fittings, fixtures, solder, and flux that have no lead content or that have been certified as lead free by the Administrator. Prescribes civil penalties for violations of such prohibitions.

Applies provisions authorizing citizens' civil actions against the Administrator for violations of safety requirements for public water systems to States with primary enforcement responsibility.

Applies recordkeeping and inspection provisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act to any person subject to requirements of this Act.

Directs the Secretary to establish programs to: (1) accredit individuals to train lead inspectors to comply with lead inspection standards and deleaders to comply with lead abatement standards; (2) license lead inspectors and deleaders; and (3) certify laboratories as qualified to test substances for lead. Requires the Secretary to maintain lists (by State or metropolitan area) of licensed lead inspectors and deleaders, accredited instructors, and certified laboratories. Makes such lists available to the public. Provides for annual fees for accreditations, certifications, or licensings. Authorizes suspensions or revocations whenever the Secretary determines that the holder of an accreditation, license, or certification has violated relevant requirements.

Directs the Secretary to: (1) report on methods and devices available to inspect for lead paint and lead hazards and to abate lead hazards; and (2) promulgate standards for the performance of lead inspections and lead abatement of covered premises. Sets forth requirements for lead inspection and abatement standards. Permits petitions for the modification of such standards to include or delete an inspection or abatement methods or device.

Prohibits: (1) the performance of a lead inspection or lead abatement of a covered premise for compensation, except in compliance with such standards; (2) the sale or distribution in interstate commerce of any device for lead inspection or abatement, unless the device is approved under such standards.

Directs the Secretary to promulgate regulations for the disclosure of indoor lead paint and lead hazards. Requires persons who sell or lease covered residential premises to provide purchasers or lessees with lead hazard inspection reports (and, in cases where a lead hazard is present, with lead disclosure statements) before such individuals are obligated to purchase or lease the premises. Directs persons who perform renovations of covered premises for compensation to provide lead disclosure statements to owners and occupants prior to commencing renovations. Requires the Secretary to publish and periodically revise a standard lead disclosure statement. Sets forth statement requirements.

Requires the Secretary to undertake a public education program to inform the public about the risks of lead poisoning and the requirements for lead inspection, abatement, and disclosure.

Directs the Secretary to require local educational agencies to conduct lead inspections for covered schools or day care centers and to provide all school or day care personnel and parents of children attending the school or day care center with a copy of the inspection report and disclosure statement (as well as response actions) in each case in which a lead hazard is detected. Requires the Secretary to make grants to States for assisting such agencies in testing for, and abating, lead hazards in schools and day care centers. Authorizes appropriations.

Authorizes States which seek to administer the indoor lead contamination program to submit programs to the Secretary. Provides for the approval of programs that are at least as protective of human health and welfare as the Federal program and that provide for adequate enforcement. Requires the Secretary to promulgate a model State program.

Prescribes civil penalties and authorizes civil actions for violations of indoor lead contamination inspection and abatement requirements. Applies Federal, State, interstate, and local lead hazard control requirements to Federal facilities in the same manner as such requirements apply to nongovernmental entities. Authorizes the Secretary to promulgate rules under which an Indian tribe may be treated as a State for purposes of such requirements.

Amends the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act to deem a food to be adulterated if: (1) it is packaged in a can or other container that contains solder or flux with lead content; or (2) it contains lead, unless the Secretary of Health and Human Services has determined that the level of lead contained in the food is safe.

Directs the Secretary to promulgate regulations to establish standards, testing, and certification procedures with respect to lead in ceramic and crystal ware as are necessary to make food that contacts such ware safe.

Prohibits the introduction into interstate commerce of any ceramic or crystal ware that has not been certified as safe with respect to lead by the Secretary.