Text: H.R.3098 — 102nd Congress (1991-1992)All Information (Except Text)

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HR 3098 IH
102d CONGRESS
1st Session
 H. R. 3098
To improve the college participation rates of groups underserved by
institutions of higher education and for other purposes.
IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
July 30, 1991
Mr. ORTIZ (for himself, Mr. SERRANO, Mr. MARTINEZ, Ms. ROS-LEHTINEN,
Mr. ROYBAL, Mr. RICHARDSON, Mr. TORRES, Mr. BLAZ, Mr. BUSTAMANTE, and
Mr. FUSTER) introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee
on Education and Labor
A BILL
To improve the college participation rates of groups underserved by
institutions of higher education and for other purposes.
  Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
  States of America in Congress assembled,
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; REFERENCES.
  (a) SHORT TITLE- This Act may be cited as the `Hispanic Access to Higher
  Education Act of 1991'.
  (b) REFERENCE- References in this Act to--
  (1) `the Act' are references to the Higher Education Act of 1965; and
  (2) `the Secretary' are references to the Secretary of Education.
SEC. 2. FINDINGS.
  The Congress finds the following:
  (1) Despite the commitment of numerous resources, Federal higher education
  programs fail to adequately serve the Hispanic population and to encourage
  their participation in postsecondary education in numbers comparable to
  the general population.
  (2) Compared to the general population, Hispanics are far less likely
  to complete high school. As of 1989, 85 percent of the total population
  in the United States had completed high school while only 61 percent of
  Hispanic had completed high school.
  (3) Hispanic are also less likely to enter and complete college. Hispanics
  make up 9 percent of the general population but only 6 percent of students
  enrolled in higher education.
  (4) Hispanic are much more concentrated in two-year institutions than
  the general population. In 1988, over 56 percent of Hispanics enrolled in
  higher education attended two-year schools, compared to 37 percent of all
  college students.
  (5) There is a serious lack of Hispanic teachers in elementary and secondary
  school classrooms who can serve as models to encourage Hispanic children
  to pursue higher education. In 1988, only 2.9 percent of all public school
  teachers were Hispanic.
  (6) Hispanic children often lack sufficient bilingual instructors and
  educational materials. In most States, the rate of bilingual education for
  Hispanics has decreased in recent years despite the fact that the number
  of limited English proficient children grew two and one-half times as
  rapidly as school enrollment during the 1980s.
  (7) Hispanic students and their families are often intimidated and confused
  by the complicated process of academic preparation for higher education
  and the process of applying for admission to higher education institutions
  and for financial assistance.
  (8) Hispanic families often lack the resources to finance their children's
  education beyond high school and are unaware of Federal student financial
  assistance or other resources available to them.
  (9) The Nation's economic future requires a highly educated and skilled
  workforce. One-fifth of all new workers in the latter part of the 20th
  century will be Hispanic. Continued low educational achievement in the
  Hispanic community will deprive industry of valuable human resources, and
  handicap the Nation's ability to successfully compete in an increasingly
  sophisticated global society.
  (10) To ensure the full and successful participation of the Hispanic
  population in this society, Federal higher education programs must address
  the unique education difficulties encountered by Hispanics and the particular
  needs of Hispanic students.
SEC. 3. PURPOSES.
  (a) PURPOSE- It is the purpose of this Act to establish programs and
  policies that meet the unique educational needs of the Hispanic community
  and that are also available to racial and ethnic minorities and to other
  disadvantaged populations by--
  (1) early intervention in the educational process to, as early as the
  fourth grade--
  (A) provide Hispanic youth with the academic counseling and other assistance
  necessary to enhance their postsecondary educational options; and
  (B) inform Hispanic students, their parents, and their teachers that
  financial resources can be made available to them to allow college
  attendance;
  (2) recruitment and training of minority and bilingual teachers;
  (3) collection of data on minorities in higher education;
  (4) improvement of existing Federal early outreach programs; and
  (5) encouragement of migrant students who enroll in higher education to
  serve as mentors to migrant students in elementary and secondary education.
SEC. 4. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN EARLY OUTREACH PROGRAM.
  Part A of title IV of the Act is amended by--
  (1) redesignating subparts 4 through 8 as subparts 5 through 9; and
  (2) inserting at the end of subpart 3 the following new subpart:
`Subpart 4--Integrated Early Outreach Program
  `SEC. 416A. (a) GRANTS AND CONTRACTS AUTHORIZED- The Secretary of Education
  shall, in accordance with provisions of this subpart, carry out a program
  of making grants to and contracts with institutions of higher education,
  public and nonprofit private agencies, community based organizations,
  and local educational agencies, for planning, developing, and carrying
  out the services described in subsection (b).
  `(b) EDUCATIONAL SERVICES- The services authorized by this subpart include--
  `(1) activities and programs to develop the academic skills necessary for
  program participants to succeed in higher education;
  `(2) activities designed to enhance the program participant's self-image,
  confidence level, and self-awareness;
  `(3) activities designed to promote enrollment of program participants in
  the academic courses essential to academic success in higher education;
  `(4) tutorial services;
  `(5) exposure to extracurricular activities, academic enrichment programs,
  and other activities not readily available to racial and ethnic minorities;
  `(6) activities designed to acquaint program participants with the range
  of career options available to them;
  `(7) services designed to encourage program participants to enter careers
  in which persons from racial and ethnic backgrounds are underrepresented;
  `(8) on-campus residential programs;
  `(9) activities designed to allow members of the surrounding community to
  serve as mentors to program participants;
  `(10) activities for parents of program participants designed to train
  them to assist their children in the preparation and continuation of their
  education beyond the high school level;
  `(11) information for program participants and their parents about their
  eligibility for both Federal and non-Federal student financial assistance,
  the process of applying for such assistance, and about the availability
  of programs under subparts 5 and 6 of title IV of the Act;
  `(12) in-service training of counselors and other educational personnel
  who work with program participants; and
  `(13) programs and activities as described in paragraphs (1) through (12)
  shall include students of limited English proficiency.
  `(c) REQUIREMENTS FOR APPROVAL OF APPLICATIONS- In approving grants or
  contracts for programs authorized under this subpart, the Secretary shall--
  `(1) require an assurance that not less than two-thirds of the participants
  of any grant or contract proposed to be carried out be low-income, racial
  or ethnic minorities underrepresented in higher education, who are first
  generation college students;
  `(2) require an assurance that the remaining one-third of the participants
  in any such program be either low-income individuals or be first generation
  college students;
  `(3) require that such participants be persons who have completed 3 years
  of elementary education and are at least 8 years of age but not more than
  19 years of age, unless the imposition of any such limitation would defeat
  the purposes of this subpart; and
  `(4) require that programs maintain and report data to evaluate the success
  of the program and program participants--
  `(A) such data shall, at a minimum, include student academic progress,
  appropriate income measures, gender, English proficiency, and the racial
  and ethnic background of program participants and service providers;
  `(B) such data shall be reported at least annually; and
  `(C) any other information required by the Secretary.
  `(d) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS AND MINIMUM ALLOCATIONS-
  `(1) AUTHORIZATION- For the purpose of making grants and contracts under this
  subpart, there are authorized to be appropriated $50,000,000 for fiscal year
  1992 and such sums as may be necessary for the 4 succeeding fiscal years.
  `(2) MINIMUM ALLOCATION- The Secretary shall allocate not less than $100,000
  for each project awarded under this subpart.
  `(e) DEFINITIONS- For the purpose of this subpart--
  `(1) the term `first generation college student' means an individual
  defined as such under section 417A(d)(1) of subpart 4 of part A of title IV;
  `(2) the term `low-income' refers to individuals from families whose
  taxable income for the preceding year did not exceed 150 percent of an
  amount equal to the poverty level determined by using criteria established
  by the Bureau of the Census.'.
SEC. 5. NATIONAL SURVEY OF FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PARTICIPATION.
  Part G of title IV of the Act is amended by inserting after section 485B
  the following new section:
`NATIONAL SURVEY OF FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PARTICIPATION
  `SEC. 485C. (a) AUTHORITY- In order to assure improved and accurate data on
  the participation of groups underrepresented in postsecondary education,
  the Secretary, through the National Center for Educational Statistics,
  shall bienially conduct a survey of factors associated with participation
  of low-income and minority students in various types of postsecondary
  education including two-year public and private schools, four year public
  and private schools, proprietary schools, graduate and professional schools,
  and vocational schools. The survey data shall include comparisons between
  groups that have characteristically participated at higher rates in higher
  education with students who are underrepresented in higher education.
  `(b) DEVELOPMENT OF THE SURVEY- The Secretary shall consult with the
  Congress and the elementary and secondary and higher education communities
  in developing such a biennial survey. The survey shall include, but not
  be limited to--
  `(1) available local age/grade data on the academic competencies and
  achievements of students throughout elementary and secondary grade levels;
  `(2) rate of academic progress, grade promotion in elementary and secondary
  schools, and graduation from high school;
  `(3) participation in postsecondary education by type and control of
  institution and by program of study;
  `(4) persistence in postsecondary programs, or in the case of short-term
  programs, completion rates;
  `(5) participation by elementary and secondary students in programs
  authorized by the Act; and
  `(6) a breakdown of the data compiled under paragraphs (1) through (4)
  by racial and ethnic backgrounds and by gender.'.
SEC. 6. RECRUITMENT AND TRAINING OF TEACHERS FROM GROUPS UNDERREPRESENTED
IN HIGHER EDUCATION.
  (a) LOAN FORGIVENESS FOR TEACHERS DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM-
  (1) GENERAL AUTHORITY-
  (A) IN GENERAL- Notwithstanding the provisions of the Higher Education Act of
  1965, and in order to encourage individuals to enter the teaching profession
  and to assist in the recruitment of minority teachers, the Secretary shall,
  in accordance with the provisions of this title, assume the obligation to
  repay a Stafford loan (a loan made, insured, or guaranteed under part B
  of title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965) for any borrower who is
  employed as a full-time teacher--
  (i) in a school which qualifies under section 465(a)(2)(A) of the Higher
  Education Act of 1965 for loan cancellation for Perkins loan recipients
  who teach in such schools; and
  (ii) of mathematics, science, foreign languages, special education,
  bilingual education, or any other field of expertise where the State
  educational agency determines there is a shortage of qualified teachers.
  (B) REGULATIONS- The Secretary is authorized to issue such regulations as
  may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.
  (2) LOAN REPAYMENT-
  (A) IN GENERAL- (i) For the first or second academic year in which the
  borrower of any Stafford loan is employed as a full-time teacher in a school
  described in section 101(a), the Secretary shall assume the obligation to
  repay 15 percent of the total amount of Stafford loans incurred by the
  student borrower during such borrower's last 2 years of undergraduate
  education.
  (ii) For the third or fourth academic year in which the borrower of any
  Stafford loan is employed as a full-time teacher in a school described in
  clause (i), the Secretary shall assume the obligation to repay 20 percent
  of the total amount of Stafford loans incurred by the borrower during the
  borrower's last 2 years of undergraduate education.
  (iii) For the fifth academic year in which the borrower of any Stafford
  loan is employed as a full-time teacher in a school described in subsection
  (a), the Secretary shall assume the obligation to repay 30 percent of
  the total amount of Stafford loans incurred by the borrower during the
  borrower's last 2 years of undergraduate education.
  (iv) Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to authorize the refunding
  of any repayment of a Stafford loan.
  (v) If a portion of a loan is repaid by the Secretary under this subsection
  for any year, the proportionate amount of interest on such loan which
  accrues for such year shall be repaid by the Secretary.
  (B) SPECIAL RULE- (i) In the case where a student borrower who is not
  participating in loan repayment pursuant to subparagraph (A) returns to
  an institution of higher education after graduation from an institution of
  higher education for the purpose of obtaining a teaching certificate, the
  Secretary is authorized to assume the obligation to repay the total amount
  of Stafford loans incurred for a maximum of 2 academic years in returning to
  an institution of higher education for the purpose of obtaining a teaching
  certificate or additional certification. Such Stafford loans shall only
  be repaid for borrowers who qualify for loan repayment pursuant to the
  provisions of section 101(a), and shall be repaid in accordance with the
  provisions of section 103.
  (ii) If a portion of a loan is repaid by the Secretary under this section
  for any year, a proportionate amount of interest on such loan which accrues
  for such year shall be repaid by the Secretary.
  (3) REPAYMENT OF ELIGIBLE LENDERS- The Secretary shall pay to each eligible
  lender or holder for each fiscal year an amount equal to the aggregate
  amount of Stafford loans which are subject to repayment pursuant to this
  part for such year.
  (4) APPLICATION FOR REPAYMENT- Each eligible individual desiring assistance
  under this part shall submit an application to the Secretary at such
  time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Secretary
  may reasonably require.
  (5) DEFINITION- For the purpose of this subsection, the term `eligible
  lender' has the same meaning provided in section 435(d) of the Higher
  Education Act of 1965.
  (6) EFFECTIVE DATE- The provisions of this subsection shall take effect
  on June 1, 1992, for Stafford loans made for academic year 1992-1993 and
  succeeding academic years.
  (b) TEACHER CORPS-
  (1) TEACHER CORPS PROGRAMS AUTHORIZED-
  (A) PROGRAM AUTHORIZED- The Secretary is authorized to make grants, in
  accordance with the provisions of this subsection, to State educational
  agencies to conduct Teacher Corps activities.
  (B) AMOUNT OF GRANTS- The amount awarded to each State educational agency
  pursuant to subparagraph (A) shall be an amount awarded on the basis of the
  school-age population in the State compared to the school-age population
  in all States.
  (C) DESIGNATION- (i) A scholarship awarded under this subsection shall be
  referred to as a `Teacher Corps scholarship'.
  (ii) A recipient of a scholarship under this part shall be referred to as a
  `Teacher Corps member'.
  (2) SECRETARY'S USE OF FUNDS- The Secretary shall use funds provided
  pursuant to this subsection to--
  (A) disseminate information nationally about the availability of scholarships
  under this part to individuals leaving the armed services; and
  (B) conduct activities, with the cooperation of the State educational
  agency, which foster communication among, and bring together, members of
  the Teacher Corps including activities such as written communications,
  meetings, or training sessions.
  (3) STATE USE OF FUNDS-
  (A) IN GENERAL- Each State educational agency receiving a grant under this
  subsection may use such funds to--
  (i) award grants to local educational agencies to establish or expand
  induction and mentor programs in accordance with this subsection;
  (ii) establish and operate in-service and mentoring programs for Teacher
  Corps members at the State and local levels;
  (iii) provide technical assistance to local educational agencies for
  establishing and operating Teacher Corps and induction programs;
  (iv) evaluate applications for Teacher Corps membership and award
  scholarships to Teacher Corps members;
  (v) make Teacher Corps awards to individuals in training to become a school
  psychologist, school social worker, or a school counselor;
  (vi) ensure that Teacher Corps members understand the obligation to
  repay such scholarships upon failure to comply with the conditions of
  the scholarship;
  (vii) assist in employment placement of Teacher Corps members; and
  (viii) collect scholarship repayments from individual Teacher Corps members,
  in accordance with the provisions of section 129.
  (B) PRIORITY- In carrying out the provisions of subparagraph (A), the
  State educational agency shall give priority in awarding grants to local
  educational agencies with the greatest proportion of disadvantaged students,
  including racial and ethnic minorities.
  (C) SPECIAL RULE- Each State educational agency may choose to administer
  the program assisted under this subsection through a preexisting panel
  which is experienced in administering similar programs.
  (4) LOCAL USE OF FUNDS-
  (A) IN GENERAL- Each local educational agency receiving a grant under this
  subsection may use such funds to--
  (i) establish, operate, and expand induction programs for new Teacher
  Corps members and other new teachers, including--
  (I) orientation;
  (II) using mentor teachers to work with new teachers;
  (III) curriculum guidance; and
  (IV) increasing the preparedness of all classroom teachers for the
  participation of particular populations of students, such as disadvantaged
  students, students with disabilities, students who are limited English
  proficient, students from diverse cultural backgrounds, and racial and
  ethnic minorities, in the classrooms of such teachers; and
  (ii) ensure that Teacher Corps members participate in an induction program
  for a minimum of one year, including working with a mentor teacher designated
  by the local educational agency.
  (B) INDUCTION PROGRAMS- The induction programs described in subparagraph
  (A)(i) may be developed in cooperation with institutions of higher education.
  (5) TEACHER CORPS-
  (A) SELECTION- The State educational agency, in cooperation with the State
  higher education agency, shall select Teacher Corps members.
  (B) CRITERIA- The State educational agency, in cooperation with the State
  higher education agency, shall establish criteria to select Teacher Corps
  members, intended to attract highly qualified individuals to teaching,
  and to meet the needs of States in addressing teacher shortages, including--
  (i) in the case of students or recent graduates, strong academic promise,
  or in other cases contributions which can be made by individuals working
  in other careers; and
  (ii) a demonstrated interest in teaching, or skill or professional
  experience in substantive fields of expertise in which the State is
  experiencing teacher shortages.
  (C) SPECIAL CONSIDERATION- The State educational agency, in cooperation
  with the State higher education agency shall give special consideration
  in the selection of Teacher Corps members to individuals who--
  (i) intend to teach or provide related services to students with
  disabilities;
  (ii) intend to teach limited English proficient students; or
  (iii) intend to teach preschool age children.
  (D) PRIORITY CONSIDERATION- The State education agency, in cooperation with
  the State higher educational agency shall give priority consideration in
  the selection of Teacher Corps members to individuals from disadvantaged
  backgrounds, including racial and ethnic minorities and individuals with
  disabilities, who are underrepresented in the teaching profession or in
  the curricular areas in which they are preparing to teach.
  (E) APPLICATION- Each individual wishing to participate in the Teacher
  Corps shall submit an application to the State educational agency for
  the State in which such individual wishes to be employed as a teacher,
  if such State has a Teacher Corps program. Each application shall contain
  such information as such State educational agency may reasonably require.
  (6) STATE APPLICATION- Each State educational agency desiring a grant
  under this subsection shall submit an application to the Secretary at such
  time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Secretary
  may reasonably require. Each such application shall--
  (A) describe teacher shortages in the State including shortages in specific
  substantive fields of expertise and geographic areas, and shall describe
  steps to be taken to place Teacher Corps members in areas experiencing
  teacher shortages; and
  (B) provide assurances that the State educational agency, in cooperation
  with local educational agencies, shall assist in employment placement
  within the State for Teacher Corps members in areas which have induction
  programs for new teachers.
  (7) LOCAL APPLICATION- Each local educational agency desiring a grant under
  this subsection shall submit an application to the State educational agency
  at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the State
  educational agency may reasonably require. Each such application shall--
  (A) describe teacher shortages in the local educational agency; and
  (B) describe the induction program for new Teacher Corps members and other
  new teachers which will be established, expanded, or both, with funds made
  available under this subsection.
  (8) SCHOLARSHIPS-
  (A) ELIGIBILITY- (i) An individual is eligible to receive Teacher Corps
  scholarships for a maximum of 3 years during enrollment in any of the
  following programs of study, or a combination thereof:
  (I) a program of study leading to a baccalaureate or associate's degree;
  (II) a 1- or 2-year post-baccalaureate program of study leading to a
  masters or specialist degree or a teaching certificate; or
  (III) a 2-year program of study leading to an associate's degree in early
  childhood education or early childhood development, or a 1-year program
  of study leading to a child development associate credential.
  (ii) An individual pursuing a program of study described in clause (i)(II)
  is eligible to receive a Teacher Corps scholarship during any of the first
  3 years that such individual is employed as a teacher to defray the costs
  of pursuing such post-baccalaureate instruction.
  (iii) An individual in possession of a bachelor's degree, who wishes to
  enter teaching from another profession, is eligible to receive a Teacher
  Corps scholarship to enable such individual to receive the instruction
  necessary to enter the teaching profession, as determined by the State in
  which the individual wishes to teach. Such instruction may be provided while
  the individual is employed as a provisional teacher, at the discretion of
  the State educational agency and local educational agency.
  (B) LIMITATIONS ON AMOUNT AND DURATION- Subject to subparagraph (D), each
  Teacher Corps member shall receive a $5,000 scholarship for each academic
  year of postsecondary education, except that no individual shall receive
  scholarship assistance for more than 3 years of postsecondary education
  (including post-baccalaureate), as determined by the Secretary.
  (C) CONSIDERATION OF AWARD IN OTHER PROGRAMS- Each Teacher Corps scholarship
  awarded pursuant to this subsection shall be considered in determining
  eligibility for student assistance under title IV of the Higher Education
  Act of 1965.
  (D) ASSISTANCE NOT TO EXCEED NEED- Each Teacher Corps scholarship, when added
  to assistance received under title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965,
  if any, shall not exceed the cost of attendance, as defined in section 472
  of such Act, at the institution the individual is attending. If the amount
  of the Teacher Corps scholarship and assistance received under title IV of
  such Act, exceeds the cost of attendance, loans received under parts B,
  D, or E of such title shall be reduced by an amount equal to the amount
  by which the combined awards exceed the cost of attendance.
  (E) CONTINUED ELIGIBILITY- Each individual who receives a Teacher Corps
  scholarship shall continue to receive such scholarship payments only
  during such periods that the State educational agency finds that such
  individual is--
  (i) enrolled as a full-time student in an accredited postsecondary
  institution; and
  (ii) maintaining satisfactory progress defined under title IV of the Higher
  Education Act of 1965.
  (9) SCHOLARSHIP CONDITIONS-
  (A) SCHOLARSHIP AGREEMENT- (i) Each individual receiving a scholarship
  under this subsection shall enter into a written agreement with the State
  educational agency which shall provide assurances that each such individual--
  (I) will pursue a course of study which meets State requirements for
  teacher preparation;
  (II) will maintain satisfactory academic progress and participate in
  teaching-related activities while in undergraduate or post-baccalaureate
  programs;
  (III) will work as a teacher upon completion of such individual's education
  for 5 years in a school which qualifies under section 465(a)(2)(A) of
  the Higher Education Act of 1965 for loan cancellation for Perkins loan
  recipients who teach in such schools, except that Teacher Corps members
  may transfer to another such school in a local educational agency within
  the State or in another State with a Teacher Corps program upon approval
  of the sending and receiving local educational agency, or State;
  (IV) will repay all or part of a Teacher Corps scholarship received under
  section 128(b) plus interest and, if applicable, reasonable collection fees,
  in compliance with regulations issued by the Secretary under subparagraph
  (B), in the event that the conditions of subparagraph (A) are not complied
  with, except as provided for in subparagraph (C);
  (V) at least during the first year of employment, will participate in an
  induction program which includes working with a mentor teacher selected by
  the local educational agency in which the Teacher Corps member is employed
  and who, to the extent practicable, has the same substantive field of
  expertise as the Teacher Corps member;
  (VI) who is not enrolled in a program of study as set forth in paragraph
  (8)(A)(i)(III) will obtain full State teacher certification within 3 years
  of employment as a teacher or as soon as possible thereafter as State law
  requires; and
  (VII) will, subject to approval of the local educational agency, participate
  in an induction program for new teachers during the fifth year of employment,
  by serving as a mentor to new Teacher Corps members, or to other new
  teachers, or by making some other contribution to the induction program.
  (ii) For the purpose of clause (i)(III), section 465(a)(2)(A) of the Higher
  Education Act of 1965 shall be applied by substituting `25 percent' for
  `50 percent'.
  (B) SCHOLARSHIP REPAYMENT- (i) Individuals found by the State educational
  agency to be in noncompliance with the agreement entered into under
  subparagraph (A) shall be required to repay to the State educational agency
  a pro rata amount of the scholarship awards received, plus interest at the
  highest rate applicable to loans under part B of title IV of the Higher
  Education Act of 1965 and, where applicable, reasonable collection fees,
  in accordance with the provisions of clause (iii).
  (ii) An individual shall not be considered to be in violation of the
  agreement entered into pursuant to subparagraph (A) during any period
  in which such individual meets the exception to repayment provisions set
  forth in section 558(a)(2), 558(a)(3) or 558(b) of the Higher Education
  Act of 1965, or if the individual dies.
  (iii) Each individual found by the State to be in noncompliance with the
  agreement entered into under paragraph (9)(A) shall be required to repay--
  (I) 100 percent of the total amount of scholarships awarded under this part
  if such individual does not teach pursuant to the agreement described in
  subparagraph (A) or teaches pursuant to such agreement for less than 1 year;
  (II) 90 percent of the total amount of scholarships awarded under this
  part if such individual teaches pursuant to the agreement set forth in
  subparagraph (A) for at least 1 year but less than 2 years;
  (III) 80 percent of the total amount of scholarships awarded under this
  part if such individual teaches pursuant to the agreement set forth in
  subparagraph (A) for at least 2 years but less than 3 years;
  (IV) 60 percent of the total amount of scholarships awarded under this
  part if such individual teaches pursuant to the agreement set forth in
  subparagraph (A) for at least 3 years but less than 4 years; and
  (V) 30 percent of the total amount of scholarships awarded under this
  part if such individual teaches pursuant to the agreement set forth in
  subparagraph (A) for at least 4 years but less than 5 years.
  (iv) If a portion of scholarship is repaid under this subparagraph in any
  year, the entire amount of interest on such portion of such scholarship
  which accrues for such year shall be repaid.
  (v) Any repayments of scholarships made to the State educational agency
  pursuant to the provisions of this paragraph shall be used by the State
  educational agency to award additional scholarships in accordance with
  the provisions of this part.
  (C) WAIVER- The Secretary may provide for the partial or total waiver or
  suspension of any service obligation or repayment by an individual who
  received a Teacher Corps scholarship whenever compliance by such individual
  is impossible or would involve extreme hardship to such individual, or
  if enforcement of such obligation with respect to such individual would
  be unconscionable.
  (10) PUBLICATION AND RECRUITMENT-
  (A) IN GENERAL- Each State educational agency receiving assistance under
  this subsection shall--
  (i) publicize the availability of, and procedure to apply for, Teacher Corps
  scholarships, particularly among students participating in teaching-related
  activities through summer teaching institutes, future teacher clubs, and
  other teaching-related activities, at institutions of higher education
  throughout the State, particularly in institutions eligible under part A of
  title III of the Act, secondary schools throughout the State, particularly
  those with minority enrollment in excess of the statewide average minority
  enrollment, and with--
  (I) individuals participating in programs funded under subpart 4 of part
  A of title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965;
  (II) individuals leaving the armed services;
  (III) community-based organizations working in minority education; and
  (IV) other agencies and entities likely to attract individuals interested
  in entering teaching from another career; and
  (ii) recruit minority students to participate in such program.
  (B) SPECIAL RULE- The publications required under subparagraph (A) shall
  describe substantive fields of expertise and geographic areas experiencing
  teacher shortages within the State.
  (11) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS-
  (A) IN GENERAL- There are authorized to be appropriated $50,000,000
  for fiscal year 1992 and such sums as may be necessary for each of the
  fiscal years 1993, 1994, 1995, and 1996 to carry out the provisions of
  this subsection.
  (B) SPECIAL RULES- (i) Not more than $20,000,000 of the amount appropriated
  pursuant to the authority of subparagraph (A) in fiscal year 1992 shall
  be available to carry out the provisions of paragraphs (3)(A)(i) and (4).
  (ii) No funds shall be appropriated pursuant to the authority of subparagraph
  (A) unless the amount appropriated to carry out the provisions of subpart
  1 of part D of title V of the Higher Education Act of 1965 equals or
  exceeds $15,000,000.
  (c) ESTABLISHMENT OF TEACHER OPPORTUNITY CORPS-
  (1) AMENDMENT- Title V of the Higher Education Act of 1965 is amended by
  adding at the end thereof the following new part:
`PART F--TEACHER OPPORTUNITY CORPS
`SEC. 581. PURPOSE.
  `It is the purpose of this part to encourage institutions of higher education
  to offer educational programs and financial assistance that would enable
  paraprofessionals working in shortage area schools serving disadvantaged
  students to become certified teachers.
`SEC. 582. DEFINITIONS.
  `For the purpose of this part--
  `(1) the term `certified teacher' means an individual who possesses a
  document certifying that the individual has met the requirements of a
  State for employment as a teacher in the public schools of that State;
  `(2) the term `shortage area' means an area the Secretary has designated
  as an area with a shortage of elementary and secondary school teachers,
  or in a designated subject area, under section 428(b)(4) of this Act;
  `(3) the term `chapter 1' means chapter 1 of title I of the Elementary
  and Secondary Education Act of 1965; and
  `(4) the term `paraprofessional' means an individual with, at least, a high
  school diploma or recognized equivalent who is employed in a preschool
  or elementary or secondary school under the supervision of a certified
  teacher to assist in providing instruction, which may include (but is not
  limited to) bilingual education, special education, multicultural education,
  and migrant education.
`SEC. 583. ALLOCATION AMONG STATES.
  `From the sums appropriated for this part pursuant to section 502(f) for
  any fiscal year, the Secretary shall allocate to any State an amount which
  bears as nearly as possible the same ratio to such sums as the allocation
  of funds under chapter 1 in that State to the total allocation of funds
  under chapter 1 in all States receiving grants under this part, except
  that no State grant shall be less than $500,000 in any fiscal year.
`SEC. 584. AGREEMENTS.
  `Each State receiving a grant authorized by this part shall enter into an
  agreement with the Secretary. Each such agreement shall include provisions
  designed to ensure that--
  `(1) the State education agency or higher education agency will administer
  the program authorized by this part in the State;
  `(2) the State education agency or higher education agency will use no more
  than 5 percent of the grant it receives to cover administrative expenses; and
  `(3) the State education agency or higher education agency will keep such
  records and provide such information to the Secretary as may be required for
  fiscal audit and program evaluation, consistent with the responsibilities
  of the Secretary.
`SEC. 585. STATE GRANT APPLICATIONS.
  `(a) AUTHORITY- The Secretary is authorized to make grants to the States
  to support programs at institutions of higher education that serve the
  purposes of this part.
  `(b) SUBMISSION OF APPLICATIONS- In order to receive a grant under this
  part, a State shall submit an application at such time or times, in such
  manner, and containing such information as the Secretary may prescribe
  by regulation. Such application shall set forth a program of activities
  for carrying out the purposes set forth in this part in such detail as
  will enable the Secretary to determine the degree to which such program
  will accomplish such purposes and such other policies, procedures, and
  assurances as the Secretary may require by regulation.
`SEC. 586. GENERAL CRITERIA FOR STATE GRANTS.
  `(a) GRANT REQUIREMENTS- The following criteria shall apply to each State
  grant made under this part:
  `(1) The grant shall assure the involvement of institutions of higher
  education and schools or school districts that are located in shortage areas.
  `(2) The grant shall assure that all regular and developmental credit-bearing
  courses taken in educational programs offered under this part be fully
  creditable to a baccalaureate program leading to teacher certification.
  `(3) The grant shall assure that paraprofessionals have the opportunity to
  receive appropriate `practice or student teaching' academic credit applicable
  to baccalaureate degrees and teacher certification for classroom knowledge,
  skills, and competencies gained through paraprofessional employment.
  `(4) The grant shall require that any paraprofessional who receives student
  financial assistance under this part enter into an agreement under which
  the paraprofessional shall--
  `(A) within the 10-year period after completing the postsecondary education
  for which the assistance was provided, act as a teacher in a shortage area
  school for a period of not less than one year for each year for which the
  assistance was received;
  `(B) provide to the State evidence of compliance with subparagraph (A); and
  `(C) repay all or part of the student financial assistance received under
  this part, plus interest and reasonable collection costs (if applicable),
  in the event that the paraprofession fails to comply with the conditions
  of subparagraph (A), in accordance with the regulations prescribed by the
  Secretary under section 557 and except in the circumstances provided in
  section 558.
  `(5) The grant shall require that student financial assistance awarded
  for programs under this part be supplemental to other Federal and State
  assistance for which the student would otherwise qualify and not supplant
  such assistance.
  `(6) The grant shall establish a system for the evaluation of the programs
  conducted.
  `(b) DURATION OF GRANT- Each grant under this part shall be for a term of
  no less than 5 years, subject to the availability of appropriations.
  `(c) USES OF FUNDS- Funds made available under this part to any State may
  be used for--
  `(1) providing student financial assistance to paraprofessionals to pay
  part or all of the costs of attendance (as determined under section 472, and
  including child care expenses as provided in paragraph (7) of such section)
  in programs of postsecondary education required for teacher certification;
  `(2) supportive services for such paraprofessionals during participation
  in such programs; and
  `(3) paying the wage costs of substitute paraprofessionals so that employed
  paraprofessionals may be afforded release-time to attend classes in programs
  of postsecondary education required for teacher certification.'.
  (2) CONFORMING AMENDMENTS-
  (A) Section 501 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 is amended--
  (i) by striking `and' at the end of paragraph (5);
  (ii) by striking the period at the end of paragraph (6) and inserting `;
  and'; and
  (iii) by adding at the end thereof the following new paragraph:
  `(7) to encourage paraprofessionals working in shortage area schools with
  disadvantaged students to become certified teachers.'.
  (B) Section 502 of such Act is amended by adding at the end thereof the
  following new subsection:
  `(f) TEACHER OPPORTUNITY CORPS- For part F, there are authorized to be
  appropriated $50,000,000 for fiscal year 1993, and such sums as may be
  necessary for the 4 succeeding fiscal years.'.
SEC. 7. ENHANCEMENT OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS FOR STUDENTS FROM DISADVANTAGED
BACKGROUNDS.
  (a) EQUITABLE GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION- Section 417A(b)(2) of the Act is
  amended to read as follows:
  `(2) In making grants and contracts under this subpart, the Secretary shall--
  `(A) consider the prior experience of service delivery under the particular
  program for which funds are sought by each applicant; and
  `(B) consider the geographic location of first time applicants for funding
  under this subpart in order to ensure that projects are evenly distributed
  geographically and are able to service the needs of large concentrations
  of disadvantaged students.'.
  (b) DATA COLLECTION- Subpart 5 of part A of title IV of the Act is amended
  by inserting after section 417F the following new section:
`DATA COLLECTION OF STUDENTS SERVED
  `SEC. 417G. The Secretary is authorized to compile data on the students
  served by the projects assisted under this subpart in order to aid in the
  evaluation of the success of the program and program participants. These
  data shall, at a minimum, include--
  `(1) the ages, gender, income level, English proficiency, and racial or
  ethnic background of program participants;
  `(2) available local age/grade data on the academic competencies and
  achievements of students throughout elementary and secondary grade levels;
  `(3) rate of academic progress, grade promotion in elementary and secondary
  schools, and graduation from high school; and
  `(4) enrollment in postsecondary education by type of institution and by
  program of study.'.
  (c) COMMUNITY-BASED ORGANIZATIONS- Section 417A(b)(1) of the Act is amended
  by inserting `community-based organizations' after `institutions of higher
  education'.
SEC. 8. MIGRANT STUDENT EDUCATION.
  (a) EXPANSION OF DEFINITION OF ELIGIBLE STUDENTS-
  (1) Section 418A(b)(1) of the Act is amended to read as follows:
  `(1) recruitment services to reach persons who are 17 years of age and
  over who, themselves or whose parents have spent 75 days during the last
  24 months in migrant and seasonal farmwork or who have participated in
  programs under section 1201 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act
  of 1965 or section 402 of the Job Training Partnership Act, and who lack
  a high school diploma or its equivalent.'.
  (2) Section 418A(c)(1) of the Act is amended to read as follows:
  `(1) outreach and recruitment services to reach persons who themselves or
  whose parents have spent a minimum of 75 days during the past 24 months in
  migrant and seasonal farmwork or who have participated in programs under
  section 1201 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 or
  section 402 of the Job Training Partnership Act, and who meet the minimum
  qualifications for attendance at a college or university;'.
  (b) EXTENSION OF GRANT PERIOD- Section 418A(e) of the Act is amended--
  (1) by striking out `Three' and inserting `Five'; and
  (2) by striking out `3' and inserting in lieu thereof `5'.
  (c) INCREASED AUTHORIZATION- Section 418A(g) of the Act is amended by--
  (1) in paragraph (1), by striking `$7,000,000 for the fiscal year 1987'
  and inserting in lieu thereof `$5,000,000 for fiscal year 1993'; and
  (2) in paragraph (2), striking `$2,000,000 for fiscal year 1987' and
  inserting `$5,000,000 for fiscal year 1993'.
  (d) ESTABLISHMENT OF A NATIONAL MINI-CORPS PROGRAM- Part B of title V of
  the Act is amended by inserting after section 525 the following new section:
`NATIONAL MINI-CORPS PROGRAM
  `SEC. 526. (a) PROGRAM AUTHORIZED- In addition to the grants awarded under
  sections 523 and 525, the Secretary is authorized to carry out a program
  to be known as the National Mini-Corps Program.
  `(b) PURPOSE OF NATIONAL MINI-CORPS PROGRAM- The national mini-corps
  program shall be designated to--
  `(1) provide migrant students, who meet the requirements of section
  418A(c)(1) and who are enrolled, or plan to enroll, in an institution of
  higher education, with advisement, training, and instructional services,
  to be role models for migrant children, and to provide a link with the
  migrant community;
  `(2) provide outreach and recruitment services to encourage migrant
  students, who meet the requirements of section 418A(c)(1) and who are
  currently enrolled in a teacher training program, to be role models for
  migrant children;
  `(3) provide support and instructional services to migrant students,
  who meet the requirements of section 418A(c)(1) and who are enrolled in
  an institution of higher education, to enable such migrant students to
  provide direct instructional services to migrant children participating
  in programs under section 1201 of the Primary and Secondary Education Act
  of 1965 during the regular summer terms. Such services may include--
  `(A) lessons and provision of materials that are designed to meet the
  academic needs of migrant children in the classroom;
  `(B) supplemental instruction to reinforce the basic skills and concepts
  provided by the teacher; and
  `(C) instructions in other areas, including environmental and health
  education;
  `(4) designate college coordinators at participating institutions to train,
  supervise and assign migrant students in cooperation with the operating State
  agency in which migrant children with special needs have been identified;
  `(5) provide academic assistance, home visits, parental involvement,
  parent-student advisement services and family advocacy;
  `(6) provide that the instructional services for migrant children are to
  be coordinated with the overall educational goals of the operating State
  agency; and
  `(7) provide that migrant students, participating in programs under this
  subsection, work from 10 to 15 hours per week and receive stipends for
  such services.
  `(c) AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS- There are authorized to be appropriated
  for the National Mini-Corps Program $15,000,000 for fiscal year 1993 and
  such sums as may be necessary for each of the four succeeding fiscal years.'.

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