Text: H.R.4255 — 102nd Congress (1991-1992)All Information (Except Text)

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HR 4255 SC
102d CONGRESS
2d Session
 H. R. 4255
To amend the Federal Water Pollution Control Act to further the protection
of wetlands, and for other purposes.
IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
February 19, 1992
Mr. EDWARDS of California (for himself, Mr. BEILENSON, Mr. BENNETT,
Mr. BERMAN, Mrs. BOXER, Mr. CARDIN, Mr. CONYERS, Mr. DELLUMS, Mr. GILCHREST,
Mr. JONTZ, Mr. MILLER of California, Mr. MINETA, Mr. OBERSTAR, Ms. PELOSI,
Mr. RICHARDSON, Mr. SABO, Mr. STARK, Mr. VENTO, Mr. WAXMAN, Mr. WELDON, and
Mr. YATES) introduced the following bill; which was referred jointly to the
Committees on Public Works and Transportation and Merchant Marine and Fisheries
APRIL 28, 1992
Additional sponsors: Mr. ATKINS, Mr. EVANS, Mr. LANTOS, Mr. MACHTLEY,
Mr. MFUME, Mrs. MINK, Mr. ROYBAL, Mr. SERRANO, Mr. SHAYS, Mr. DWYER of New
Jersey, Mr. FRANK of Massachusetts, Mr. LEHMAN of Florida, Mr. KOSTMAYER,
Mr. BLACKWELL, Mr. DE LUGO, Mr. DIXON, Mr. JACOBS, Mr. KENNEDY, Mr. KLECZKA,
Mr. MAVROULES, Mr. MCDERMOTT, Mr. MRAZEK, Mr. NEAL of Massachusetts, Mr. OWENS
of New York, Mr. SANDERS, Mr. SANGMEISTER, Mr. SCHEUER, Mr. SIKORSKI,
Mr. SKAGGS, Mr. STOKES, and Mr. Downey
A BILL
To amend the Federal Water Pollution Control Act to further the protection
of wetlands, and for other purposes.
  Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
  States of America in Congress assembled,
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.
  This Act may be cited as the `Wetlands Reform Act of 1992'.
TITLE I--AMENDMENTS TO THE FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ACT
SEC. 101. STATEMENT OF POLICY.
  Section 101(a) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1251(a))
  is amended--
  (1) in paragraph (6) by striking `and' after the semicolon at the end;
  (2) in paragraph (7) by striking the period and inserting `; and'; and
  (3) by adding at the end the following:
  `(8) it is the national policy to preserve the quantity and quality of the
  Nation's wetlands and to restore those wetlands which have been degraded.'.
SEC. 102. EXPANSION OF SCOPE OF PERMIT PROGRAM.
  (a) PROHIBITION OF ACTIVITIES- Subsection 301(a) of the Federal Water
  Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1311(a)) is amended to read as follows:
  `(a) Except as in compliance with this section and sections 302, 306, 307,
  318, 402, and 404 of this Act, the discharge of any pollutant or other
  alteration of navigable waters by any person shall be unlawful.'.
  (b) CERTIFICATION- The first sentence of section 401(a) of the Federal Water
  Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1341(a)) is amended to read as follows:
  `Any applicant for a Federal license or permit to conduct any activity,
  including the construction or operation of facilities, which may result in
  any discharge into or other alteration of navigable waters, shall provide
  the licensing or permitting agency a certification from the State where
  the activity occurs or will occur, or, if appropriate, from the interstate
  water pollution control agency having jurisdiction over the navigable
  waters where the activity occurs or will occur, that the activity will
  comply with the applicable provisions of sections 301, 302, 303, 306,
  and 307 and will allow for the protection, achievement, and maintenance
  of designated uses included in applicable water quality standards.'.
  (c) ISSUANCE OF PERMITS- Section 404(a) of the Federal Water Pollution
  Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1344(a)) is amended by inserting before the period
  at the end of the first sentence the following: `, or for other alterations
  of navigable waters'.
  (d) DEFINITION- Section 502 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act
  (33 U.S.C. 1362) is amended by adding at the end the following:
  `(21) The term `other alteration' means draining, dredging, excavation,
  channelization, flooding, clearing of vegetation, driving of pilings or
  placement of other obstructions, diversion of water, or other activities in
  navigable waters which impair the flow, reach, or circulation of surface
  water, or which result in a more than minimal change in the hydrologic
  regime, bottom contour, or configuration of such waters, or in the type,
  distribution, or diversity of vegetation in such waters.'.
SEC. 103. DEFINITION OF FILL MATERIAL.
  Section 404(d) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1344(d))
  is amended--
  (1) by inserting `(1)' after `(d)'; and
  (2) by adding at the end the following:
  `(2) The term `fill material' as used in this section means any pollutant
  which has the effect of replacing portions of navigable waters or changing
  the bottom elevation or configuration of a water body.'.
SEC. 104. PERMIT REVIEW BY RESOURCE AGENCIES.
  (a) REVIEW BY SECRETARY OF INTERIOR AND SECRETARY OF COMMERCE- Section 404(m)
  of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1344(m)) is amended
  by striking `Secretary of the Interior, acting through the Director of the
  United States Fish and Wildlife Service' each place it appears and inserting
  `Secretary of the Interior, acting through the Director of the United States
  Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Secretary of Commerce, acting through
  the Assistant Administrator of the National Marine Fisheries Service'.
  (b) RESPONSE IN WRITING- Section 404(m) of the Federal Water Pollution
  Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1344(m)) is amended by adding at the end the
  following: `The Secretary shall adopt the recommendations made in the
  comments or respond in writing to the Secretary of the Interior or the
  Secretary of Commerce, as appropriate, describing his or her reasons for
  not adopting the recommendations and explaining how his or her determination
  is consistent with the goals and purposes of this Act.'.
SEC. 105. CLARIFICATION OF GENERAL PERMIT PROGRAM.
  Paragraph (1) of subsection 404(e) of the Federal Water Pollution Control
  Act (33 U.S.C. 1344(e)(1)) is amended to read as follows:
  `(e)(1)(A) In carrying out the functions of the Secretary under this section
  relating to the discharge of dredged or fill material or other alteration
  of navigable waters, the Secretary may, after notice and opportunity for
  public hearing, and with the concurrence of the Administrator, issue general
  permits on a State, multi-State, or nationwide basis for any narrowly defined
  category of activities involving discharges of dredged or fill material or
  other alterations of navigable waters if the Secretary determines that the
  activities in such category are similar in nature, will cause only minimal
  adverse environmental effects when performed separately, and will have
  only minimal cumulative adverse effect on the environment. Any general
  permit issued under this subsection shall be consistent with the goals
  and purposes of this Act, shall be based on the guidelines described in
  subsection (b)(1), shall set forth the requirements and standards which
  shall apply to any activity authorized by such general permit, and shall
  include adequate measures to enable the Secretary to be apprised of and
  to monitor activities conducted pursuant to such general permit.
  `(B) Before any activity is authorized under a general permit, notice and
  opportunity to comment shall be given by the Secretary to the Administrator,
  the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Commerce, and to State
  agencies responsible for water quality, fish, and wildlife resources which
  may be affected by such activity.
  `(C) No activity shall be authorized under a general permit within a State
  that has denied or revoked water quality certification pursuant to section
  401 for such activities under that general permit.
  `(D) Each general permit shall be reviewed by the Secretary biennially,
  taking into account the information contained in reports required by section
  106, and shall, after notice and hearing, be revised or revoked as necessary
  to avoid or minimize cumulative adverse effects on navigable waters.'.
SEC. 106. REPORTS ON EFFECTS OF PERMIT PROGRAM ON WETLANDS.
  Section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1344)
  is amended by adding at the end the following:
  `(u) REPORTS ON PERMIT PROGRAM-
  `(1) The Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator, the Secretary
  of the Interior, and those States which have a permit program approved
  under subsection (h)(2), shall report biennially to the Congress on
  the effects on navigable waters of activities conducted under permits
  issued pursuant to this section, including general permits. Such reports
  shall contain estimates of the acreage and functions of navigable waters
  affected by each general permit, with a view towards determining whether
  the individual and cumulative adverse environmental effects of activities
  authorized by each general permit are minimal.
  `(2) For purposes of preparing reports under this subsection, the Secretary,
  the Administrator, and the Secretary of the Interior shall jointly monitor
  the achievement of the policy stated in section 101(a)(8) under permits
  issued under this section.
  `(3) Reports under this subsection shall include consideration of relevant
  information contained in individual and general permit applications,
  compliance monitoring records and maps, and any other relevant information.'.
SEC. 107. EXPEDITED PERMIT REVIEW.
  Section 404(q) the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1344(q))
  is amended to read as follows:
  `(q)(1) REDUCTION IN PAPERWORK AND DELAYS- Not later than the 180th day
  after the date of the enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall enter
  into agreements with the Administrator, the Secretaries of the Departments
  of Agriculture, Commerce, and Interior, and the heads of other appropriate
  Federal agencies to minimize, to the maximum extent practicable, duplication,
  needless paperwork, and delays in the issuance of permits under this section.
  `(2) FAST TRACK FOR MINOR PERMITS-
  `(A) Not later than 6 months after the date of enactment of this subsection,
  the Secretary shall establish in each district office a special Fast Track
  team to expedite the review and processing of minor permits. Each team
  shall consist of not more than 25 percent of all personnel assigned to
  review permit applications under this section, and shall not be assigned
  to review or process any permits other than minor permits, unless final
  decisions have been reached with respect to all such minor permits within
  60 days after the notice of application for such permits is published
  pursuant to subsection (a).
  `(B) The District Engineer in each district office shall review the
  operations of the Fast Track team in that office every 6 months. If final
  decisions on a significant percentage of minor permits have not been
  reached within 60 days after the notice of application for such permits
  is published pursuant to subsection (a), additional personnel shall be
  assigned to the Fast Track team.
  `(C) For purposes of this subsection, a minor permit is a permit for an
  activity that would disturb no more than 1 acre of wetlands, is being
  performed by a private individual or a business that employs no more than
  10 people, and is not part of a larger common plan or proposal that would
  disturb additional acreage, except that a permit shall not be a minor
  permit if--
  `(i) the Secretary is required under the National Environmental Policy
  Act of 1969 to issue an environmental impact statement;
  `(ii) the permit involves an activity that would affect any species that is
  listed as an endangered species or threatened species under the Endangered
  Species Act of 1973, or the habitat of such a species; or
  `(iii) the Secretary, the Administrator, or a Federal department or agency
  referred to in paragraph (1) requests that the permit application receive
  additional review.'.
SEC. 108. AVOIDANCE AND MINIMIZATION OF ADVERSE EFFECTS.
  Section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1344),
  as amended by this Act, is amended by adding at the end the following:
  `(v)(1) No individual or general permit shall be issued for an activity
  pursuant to this section if there is a practicable alternative to the
  proposed activity which would have less adverse impact on navigable waters.
  `(2) All unavoidable adverse impacts to wetlands and other waters of the
  United States shall be fully mitigated so as to achieve full restoration
  of the functions and values lost due to such impacts.'.
SEC. 109. EXEMPTIONS FOR AGRICULTURE AND OTHER ACTIVITIES.
  (a) IN GENERAL- Section 404(f) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act
  (33 U.S.C. 1344) is amended to read as follows:
  `(f)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the discharge of dredge or
  fill material in or other alterations of navigable waters--
  `(A) from normal farming, silviculture, and ranching activities, such
  as plowing, seeding, cultivating, minor drainage, harvesting for the
  production of food, fiber, and forest products, and upland soil and water
  conservation practices;
  `(B) for the purpose of maintenance, including emergency reconstruction of
  recently damaged parts, of currently serviceable structures such as dikes,
  dams, levees, groins, riprap, breakwaters, causeways, bridge abutments or
  approaches, and transportation structures;
  `(C) for the purpose of construction or maintenance of farm or stock ponds
  or irrigation ditches, or the maintenance of drainage ditches;
  `(D) for the purpose of construction of temporary sedimentation basins on
  a construction site which does not involve placement of fill material into
  navigable waters;
  `(E) for the purpose of construction or maintenance of farm roads or forest
  roads, or temporary roads for moving mining equipment, where such roads are
  constructed and maintained, in accordance with best management practices,
  to assure that flow and circulation patterns and chemical and biological
  characteristics of the navigable waters are not impaired, that the reach
  of the navigable waters is not reduced, and that any adverse effect on
  the aquatic environment will otherwise be minimized; or
  `(F) resulting from any activity with respect to which a State has an
  approved program under section 208(b)(4) which meets the requirements of
  subparagraphs (B) and (C) of that section;
is not prohibited by or otherwise subject to regulation under this section
or section 301(a) or 402 (except for effluent standards or prohibitions
under section 307).
  `(2) Any discharge of dredged or fill material into, or other alterations
  of, the navigable waters incidental to any activity having as its purpose
  bringing an area of the navigable waters into a use to which it was not
  previously subject, where the flow or circulation of navigable waters may
  be impaired or the reach of such waters be reduced, shall be required to
  have a permit under this section.
  `(3) An activity which does not result in the discharge of dredge or fill
  material into, or other alterations of, the navigable waters shall not be
  prohibited or otherwise subject to regulation under this section.
  `(4)(A) For purposes of this section, the following shall not be considered
  to be navigable waters:
  `(i) Nontidal drainage and irrigation ditches excavated in uplands.
  `(ii) Artificially irrigated areas which would revert to uplands if the
  irrigation ceased.
  `(iii) Artificial lakes or ponds created by excavating or diking uplands to
  collect and retain water, and which are used exclusively for stock watering,
  irrigation, or rice growing.
  `(iv) Artificial reflecting or swimming pools or other small ornamental
  bodies of water created by excavating or diking uplands to retain water
  for primarily aesthetic reasons.
  `(v) Waterfilled depressions created in uplands incidental to construction
  activity and pits excavated in uplands for the purpose of obtaining fill,
  sand, or gravel, unless and until the construction or excavation operation
  is abandoned and the resulting body of water meets the definition of waters
  of the United States.
  `(B) Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to a particular water body unless
  the person desiring to conduct an activity in that water body is able
  to demonstrate that the water body qualifies under subparagraph (A) for
  exemption from regulation under this section.
  `(5) Except as provided in paragraph (2), normal plowing, seeding,
  cultivating, minor drainage for crop production, or harvesting shall not
  be prohibited or otherwise subject to regulation under this section in
  waters of the United States which have been maintained as cropland at
  least once in the 5-years prior to such plowing, seeding, cultivating,
  minor drainage, or harvesting.'.
SEC. 110. RULEMAKING ON PRIOR CONVERTED WETLANDS.
  Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this subsection,
  the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Secretary
  of the Army shall, after opportunity for public notice and comment,
  promulgate final regulations determining the circumstances, if any, under
  which discharges of dredged or fill material into or other alterations of
  navigable waters which were converted to production of commodity crops prior
  to December 23, 1985, shall be exempt from the requirements of section 404
  of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended by this Act. Such
  regulations shall be consistent with the goals and purposes of that Act.
SEC. 111. CITIZEN SUITS AMENDMENTS.
  Section 505 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1365)
  is amended--
  (1) in subsection (f) by striking `or (7)' and inserting the following:
  `(7) a permit or condition thereof issued under section 404, which has
  been, or is, in effect under this Act (including a requirement applicable
  by reason of section 313); or (8)';
  (2) in subsection (a)(1)(B) by inserting after `Administrator', the
  following: `, the Secretary of the Army';
  (3) in subsection (a) in the matter following paragraph (2) by inserting
  after `under section 309(d)' the following: `and section 404(s)';
  (4) in subsection (b)(1)(A) by striking `and (iii)' and inserting the
  following: `(iii) to the Secretary of the Army (if the alleged violation
  is under section 404); and (iv)';
  (5) in subsection (b)(1)(B) by inserting after `if the Administrator'
  the following words: `, the Secretary of the Army,';
  (6) in subsection (c)(2) by inserting after `the Administrator' the
  following: `(and the Secretary of the Army, if the alleged violation is
  under section 404)';
  (7) in subsection (c)(3) by inserting after `Attorney General' each place
  it appears the following: `, the Secretary of the Army (if the alleged
  violation is under section 404 of this Act),';
  (8) in subsection (e) by inserting after `Administrator' the following:
  `, the Secretary of the Army,';
  (9) in subsection (h) by inserting after `Administrator' each place it
  appears the following: `or the Secretary of the Army'
  (10) in paragraph (2) of subsection (a) and in the matter following that
  paragraph by inserting after `Administrator' each place it appears the
  following: `or the Secretary of the Army'; and
  (11) subsection (b)(2) is amended by inserting after `Administrator'
  the following: `or the Secretary of the Army'.
TITLE II--OTHER PROVISIONS
SEC. 201. IMPROVEMENT OF ADMINISTRATION OF WETLANDS PERMITTING.
  (a) NEEDS ANALYSIS-
  (1) IN GENERAL- Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of
  this Act, the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit to
  the Congress an analysis of the needs of the Corps of Engineers and the
  Environmental Protection Agency for additional personnel, administrative
  resources, and funding to improve implementation of section 404 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1344).
  (2) CONTENTS- The analysis submitted under this subsection shall--
  (A) give particular emphasis to the needs of the Corps of Engineers and the
  Environmental Protection Agency with respect to improving and expediting
  wetlands delineation and wetlands permitting generally;
  (B) include recommendations regarding additional appropriations necessary
  for that improvement and expedition; and
  (C) identify the Corps of Engineers district offices and Environmental
  Protection Agency regions that have the greatest need for those additional
  appropriations.
  (b) FUNDING FOR TRAINING AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAM FOR WETLANDS DELINEATORS-
  Of amounts appropriated for each fiscal year beginning after the date of
  the enactment of this Act for administration of section 404 of the Federal
  Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1344) by the Corps of Engineers,
  the Secretary of the Army (hereinafter in this title referred to as the
  `Secretary') shall use such amounts as are necessary to carry out the
  program for training and certification of individuals as wetlands delineators
  authorized by section 307(e) of the Water Resources Development Act of 1990
  (Public Law 101-640).
  (c) FUNDING FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SECTION 404 EDUCATION AND OUTREACH PROGRAMS-
  Of amounts appropriated for each fiscal year beginning after the date of
  the enactment of this Act for administration of section 404 of the Federal
  Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1344) by the Corps of Engineers or the
  Environmental Protection Agency, the Secretary or the Administrator of the
  Environmental Protection Agency (hereinafter in this Act referred to as the
  `Administrator') respectively, shall use such amounts as are necessary to
  improve existing education and outreach programs of the Corps of Engineers or
  the Environmental Protection Agency regarding requirements of that section.
  (d) FUNDING FOR EXPEDITING AND COMPLETING WETLANDS MAPPING-
  (1) COMPLETION OF MAPPING- Of amounts appropriated for each fiscal year
  beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act for programs of the
  United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the Director of the United States
  Fish and Wildlife Service shall use--
  (A) such amounts as are necessary to complete the existing wetland mapping
  program of the Service by not later than 1 year after the date of the
  enactment of this Act;
  (B) such amounts (in addition to amounts used pursuant to subparagraphs (A)
  and (C)) as are necessary to conduct mapping under that program in areas
  where there is the potential for delineating particularly large areas of
  wetlands; and
  (C) such amounts as may be necessary (in addition to amounts used
  pursuant to subparagraphs (A) and (B)) to delineate wetlands under that
  program in watersheds and ecosystems for which the need for delineation
  is particularly acute, such as where wetlands are particularly difficult
  to identify or where pressure for development of wetlands is intense,
  by as soon as practicable after the date of the enactment of this Act.
  (2) UPDATING MAPS- The Director of the United States Fish and Wildlife
  Service shall update each map prepared under the existing wetlands mapping
  program at least once--
  (A) in the 15-year period beginning on the date of the completion of the
  map, and
  (B) in every 15-year period thereafter.
SEC. 202. STUDY OF WETLANDS DELINEATION.
  (a) IN GENERAL- The Administrator shall contract for an independent study
  of the scientific basis for wetlands identification and delineation to
  be conducted by the National Academy of Sciences. The President of the
  Academy shall appoint to conduct such study a panel of individuals who
  have scientific expertise and special knowledge of wetlands ecology and
  the identification and delineation of wetlands, and who are not employed
  by the Federal Government.
  (b) PURPOSE OF STUDY- The purpose of such independent study is to determine
  scientifically and technically sound methods for identifying wetlands and
  delineating their boundaries, with consideration of regional differences
  and other practical concerns related to performing such identification and
  delineation, and to recommend methodologies for identifying and delineating
  wetlands which are technically accurate and based on sound science.
  (c) SCOPE OF STUDY- Such study shall specifically address the following
  issues--
  (1) the scientific basis of the Federal Manual for Identifying and
  Delineating Jurisdictional Wetlands as published on January 10, 1989,
  and of previous Federal manuals or other methodologies for identifying
  and delineating wetlands;
  (2) the scientific basis of the revisions to the Federal Manual for
  Delineating Wetlands proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency on
  August 14, 1991; and
  (3) recommendations for appropriate scientific methods and procedures,
  including the technical criteria and indicators, for identifying wetlands
  and delineating their boundaries, with consideration of regional differences
  and other practical concerns related to performing such identification
  and delineation.
  (d) COMPLETION AND SUBMISSION OF REPORT- Before completion of such study,
  the panel shall provide an opportunity for individuals with scientific and
  special knowledge of wetlands ecology and the identification and delineation
  of wetlands to present relevant information. A report of such study shall
  be submitted by the Administrator, together with recommendations by the
  Administrator in connection therewith, to the Committee on Public Works and
  Transportation and the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries of the
  House of Representatives and the Committee on Environment and Public Works
  of the Senate by not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of
  this Act.
  (e) RECOMMENDATIONS OF ADMINISTRATOR- The Administrator, after receipt
  of the study from the panel, shall consider the following before making
  recommendations referred to in subsection (d):
  (1) The scientific and technical recommendations of the independent panel.
  (2) Written views and information on scientific or technical issues
  related to the identification and delineation of wetlands from interested
  parties with scientific and special knowledge of wetlands ecology and the
  identification and delineation of wetlands.
  (f) ADOPTION OF REVISIONS OR REGULATIONS- After the date of the enactment
  of this Act, no revisions to or clarifications of the Federal Manual for
  Identifying and Delineating Jurisdictional Wetlands shall be adopted,
  and no guidance or regulations related to the definition, delineation,
  or identification of wetlands shall be issued, until such time as such
  study has been completed. All subsequent revisions to any Federal manual
  for the identification and delineation of wetlands shall be consistent with
  the scientific and technical recommendations of the panel as set forth in
  the report submitted under subsection (d).
TITLE III--WETLANDS RESTORATION PILOT PROGRAM
SEC. 301. WETLANDS RESTORATION PILOT PROGRAM.
  The Secretary, in cooperation with the Administrator, the Director of the
  United States Fish and Wildlife Service, and appropriate State and local
  government entities, shall initiate, with opportunity for public notice
  and comment, a pilot program of wetlands restoration. The purposes of the
  pilot program are--
  (1) to identify areas where the restoration of significant wetland
  acreage and functions, including fish and wildlife habitat, water quality
  protection, and natural hydrologic functions, could contribute substantially
  to preserving the quantity and quality of the Nation's wetlands;
  (2) to test methods and techniques for wetlands restoration in such areas,
  and in areas previously identified as suitable for restoration; and
  (3) to develop a means of evaluating the success over the long term of
  such wetlands restoration efforts.