Bill summaries are authored by CRS.

Shown Here:
Indefinitely postponed in Senate (07/26/1991)

International Security and Economic Cooperation Act of 1991 - Title I: Statement of Policy; Development Assistance Programs - Amends the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to revise policy provisions. Declares that assistance provided under such Act, the Arms Export Control Act, and any Act authorizing or appropriating funds for use under such Acts should serve the following goals: (1) to promote and consolidate democratic values and institutions; (2) to promote U.S. national security interests and peace; (3) to promote economic growth through competitive markets with equitable distribution of benefits; (4) to promote human resource development and meet urgent humanitarian needs; and (5) to protect against transnational threats.

States that development assistance programs should have the following four objectives: (1) to address the problem of poverty; (2) to promote broad-based free market economies and sustainable economic growth; (3) to promote improved environmental, natural resource, and agricultural management in developing countries; and (4) to promote democracy and political, social, and economic pluralism.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that the United States should: (1) concentrate development assistance in countries which will make the most effective use of such assistance; (2) focus development assistance on activities which the United States can provide most effectively and which meet the particular economic assistance requirements of a country; and (3) not provide assistance if the relevant sector or economic policies of a country are unfavorable to the sustainability or impact of the assisted project.

Authorizes appropriations for FY 1992 and 1993 for agriculture, rural development, and nutrition assistance. Requires special attention in the allocation of such funds to be given to strengthening and expanding marine fisheries and aquaculture programs.

Authorizes the President to furnish assistance to prevent and control acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Declares that 45 percent of such assistance for FY 1992 and 1993 should be provided to the World Health Organization for use in financing its Global Program on AIDS.

Calls upon the agency primarily responsible for administering development assistance (administering agency) to set as a goal the reduction of under five mortality rates by at least one-third by the year 2000.

Earmarks a specified amount of family planning assistance for the United Nations Population Fund only for the provision of contraceptive commodities and related logistics. Pemits such funding only if: (1) none of the funds are made available for China; (2) recipients of such funds are required to maintain funds in a separate account, without commingling; and (3) any agreement to obligate such funds expressly states that all funds will be refunded to the United States if the Fund provides more than a specified amount for family planning programs in China. Applies prohibitions on funding for abortion and involuntary sterilization to such funds.

Authorizes appropriations for FY 1992 and 1993 for: (1) voluntary family planning; (2) health programs; (3) education, public administration, and human resource development; and (4) private sector, environment, energy, and special development activities.

Prohibits funds appropriated by the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 for development assistance programs from being made available unless such programs are implemented in accordance with environmental impact assessment requirements.

Prohibits funds authorized to be appropriated for such Act from being used for projects that would result in any significant loss of primary tropical forests.

Directs the administrator of the administering agency to increase the involvement of private and voluntary organizations and cooperatives in assistance programs. Encourages the administrator to support development education programs.

Increases the percentage of funds to be made available or channeled for each fiscal year (currently, FY 1986 through 1989) to private and voluntary organizations for specified development activities.

Permits funds for child and mother health needs, the Child Survival Fund, and AIDS to be made available notwithstanding restrictions on assistance to foreign countries.

Requires the administrator to ensure that: (1) development assistance activities incorporate the active participation of local women; (2) sex-disaggregated data is included in country development strategy statements for major sectors in which assistance is to be provided and in project papers and program assistance approval documents; (3) programs are designed so that the percentage of women who benefit from such assistance exceeds the approximate transitional level of participation of women in the sector for which assistance is being provided; and (4) program assistance evaluations include an assessment of the extent to which women are participating in the activity and the impact of the activity on the self-reliance of women and improving their incomes.

Requires a specified amount to be made available each fiscal year as matching funds to support activities of the missions of the agency which demonstrate potential for integrating women into programs.

Title II: Other Assistance Programs and Authorizations - Authorizes appropriations for FY 1992 and 1993 for American schools, libraries, and hospitals abroad.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that: (1) U.S. citizens give every consideration to founding or sponsoring American schools in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union to serve as study centers for U.S. ideas and practices; and (2) the American University of Blagoevgrad in Bulgaria is to be commended for its efforts in founding an American school to serve such purposes.

Redesignates the private sector revolving fund as the private sector credit program. Eliminates provisions concerning funding, remittance of excess assets, fees, and the transfer of unobligated funds. Raises the ceiling on the amount authorized to be made available for any project. Applies guarantees to insure against losses for loans made to projects to guarantees and investments made to such projects. Revises loan conditions. Permits fees to be charged for guarantees and loans issued under the program. Limits the amount of contingent liability for guarantees in FY 1992 and 1993. Authorizes appropriations for FY 1992 and 1993 for administrative expenses of the program.

Raises the ceiling on the principal amount of housing guaranties authorized to be issued under the worldwide shelter program. Continues the authority of the housing guaranty program through FY 1993.

Repeals provisions concerning agricultural and productive credit and self-help community development programs.

Provides that guaranties issued in connection with loans made for housing and infrastructure in Israel for Soviet refugees shall not be subject to specified face value limitations.

Requires fees to be charged for housing guaranties. Raises the ceiling on the total face value of guaranties authorized to be issued with respect to any country in a fiscal year. Provides that the principal amount of guaranties issued shall be comparable to the amount issued for FY 1984, subject to dollar value limitations.

Authorizes appropriations for FY 1992 and 1993 to pay the cost of guaranties with a specified face value and for administrative expenses of the housing guaranty program.

Permits the President to continue U.S. participation in, and make contributions to, the International Fund for Agricultural Development.

Authorizes appropriations for FY 1992 and 1993 for specified United Nations programs, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and development assistance programs of the Organization of American States.

Authorizes appropriations for the U.S. contribution to the United Nations University Endowment Fund. Limits such contribution to 25 percent of the total amount contributed to the Fund by other members.

Provides that if Israel is denied its right to participate in any United Nations agency, the United States shall suspend its participation in, and contributions to, any such agency until the denial of rights is reversed.

Authorizes appropriations for FY 1992 and 1993 for international disaster assistance and international narcotics control activities.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that under specified conventions on narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, the parties are required to criminalize drug related activities, provide severe penalties, and cooperate in the extradition of accused offenders.

Revises the authorities of the Director of the Trade and Development Agency (replaces the Trade and Development Program). Requires the Agency to disseminate information about its activities to the private sector. Sets forth the duties of the Inspector General of the administering agency with respect to the Agency. Authorizes appropriations for FY 1992 and 1993.

Prohibits appointments to positions within the administering agency without the advice and consent of the Senate.

Authorizes appropriations for FY 1992 and 1993 for operating expenses of the administering agency and its Office of the Inspector General.

Requires the President to maintain within the administering agency a Center for University Cooperation in Development and a Center for Voluntary Cooperation in Development. Provides that the respective purposes of such Centers shall be to strengthen development partnerships between the U.S. Government and: (1) U.S. institutions of higher education engaged in education, research, and public service programs relevant to development needs of developing countries; and (2) U.S. private voluntary organizations, cooperatives, and credit unions engaged in activities relevant to such needs. Directs the administrator to establish an Advisory Committee on Voluntary Cooperation in Development.

Revises provisions concerning congressional notification for program changes.

Authorizes nongovernmental organizations to invest local currencies accrued as a result of economic assistance provided under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 and to use interest earned on investments for assistance purposes.

Encourages the Agency for International Development (AID) to maintain funding for U.S. training at a level equal to or greater than the FY 1990 level.

Directs AID to develop comprehensive programs for awarding scholarships for the completion of a bachelor's degree in fields of study designed to enhance business, commmercial, and other linkages between the sending country and the State in which the student studies. Requires such programs to demonstrate an appreciation for the free enterprise system and democratic institutions. Directs AID to endeavor to place students with scholarships in States in which the following criteria are met: (1) an international coordinating office exists and reports directly to the State education or commerce official or to the Governor; and (2) State funds match a minimum of 33 percent of total program costs. Authorizes AID to provide one-time start-up funding to State offices, subject to certain restrictions. Encourages AID to develop an incentive program to increase the number of students placed in States with offices complying with criteria.

Establishes the Office for International Rehabilitation and Therapy in AID to provide assistance and encourage scientific and technical exchange with entities in foreign countries providing medical and rehabilitation related assistance. Earmarks funds out of the amount authorized for the Development Fund for Africa for the Office to provide assistance to disabled children in Subsaharan African countries. Earmarks a specified amount of health assistance for the Office to provide assistance to disabled children in other countries (with specified amounts for Romanian children with disabilities and for a Latin American/Caribbean and U.S. disabilities exchange program and conference).

Expresses the sense of the Congress that, in providing such assistance, special attention should be given to providing assistance to children with disabilities incurred as a result of war or civil conflict or exacerbated by atrocities committed by totalitarian regimes.

Establishes the Advisory Board on International Rehabilitation and Therapy to advise the AID Administrator on the Office's program.

Title III: Economic Support Fund - Authorizes appropriations for FY 1992 and 1993 for economic support fund (ESF) assistance for: (1) Israel; (2) Egypt; (3) regional cooperative programs in the Middle East; (4) Cyprus (to be for scholarships, bicommunal projects, and confidence building measures to reduce tensions and promote peace between the two communities on Cyprus); (5) the International Fund for Ireland; (6) Turkey; and (7) other recipients or purposes.

Permits the President to provide administration of justice assistance to the Philippines. Continues funding for specified administration of justice and law enforcement assistance through FY 1993.

Authorizes the President to use ESF assistance for capital and infrastructure assistance. Applies environmental impact and assessment requirements to such assistance.

Restricts the use of ESF assistance for nuclear facilities.

Permits ESF assistance to be provided as a cash transfer only if the recipient country spends an amount equal to such cash transfer to purchase U.S. goods and services. Makes exemptions to such requirement under certain circumstances. Prohibits U.S. flag carriers from being reimbursed for more than 30 percent above the average competitive international rate for international ship transportation with respect to such purchases.

Title IV: Military Assistance and Sales and Related Programs - Authorizes the President to furnish military assistance on a grant basis (currently, loan or grant). Permits such assistance to be provided for the financing of defense articles or services.

Authorizes financing for the procurement by leasing of defense articles from U.S. commercial suppliers to be provided to Israel and Egypt if there are compelling foreign policy or national security reasons for such articles being provided by lease rather than by government-to-government sale. Permits the financing of the procurement of defense articles and services not sold by the U.S. Government only if the country or international organization proposing to make such procurement has signed an agreement with the United States specifying the conditions under which the procurement may be financed.

Authorizes funds to be made available to a foreign country to make payments of principal and interest owed to the United States in connection with sales of defense articles or services.

Authorizes appropriations for FY 1992 and 1993 for military assistance and sales for: (1) Israel (makes certain amounts available, at the request of the Government of Israel, for research and development in the United States and the procurement of defense articles and services in Israel); (2) Egypt; (3) Turkey; (4) Greece; and (5) other recipients or purposes.

Declares that the President should consider the practice of a country with respect to the law of war when furnishing military assistance under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 and the Arms Export Control Act.

Raises the ceiling on the amount of defense articles and services and military education and training to be drawn down under certain emergencies.

Places a ceiling on the value of additions to stockpiles for FY 1992 and FY 1993.

Extends the President's authority to transfer excess defense articles to countries on NATO's southern flank through FY 1993.

Authorizes appropriations for FY 1992 and 1993 for: (1) international military education and training; (2) peacekeeping operations; and (3) antiterrorism assistance.

Makes technical and conforming amendments to the Arms Export Control Act.

Provides that charges for defense articles (other than major defense equipment) that are sold, licensed, or approved for export under such Act after FY 1991 may not include nonrecurring costs of research on or development or production of such articles.

Revises a provision regarding the Guaranty Reserve Fund and redesignates the Fund as the Foreign Military Loan Liquidating Account.

Raises the ceiling on the aggregate acquisition cost to the United States of excess defense articles ordered by the President.

Revises requirements of a report by the President on military exports.

Repeals provisions concerning information to the Congress on credit sales and guaranties and the availability of funds for procurement of defense articles and services outside the United States.

Deems Australia, New Zealand, Egypt, Israel, Japan, and the Philippines to be major non-NATO allies.

Prohibits funds made available by any Act from being used to facilitate the sale of M-833 antitank shells or any comparable antitank shells containing a depleted uranium penetrating component to any country other than a NATO member country or a major non-NATO ally.

Sets forth U.S. policy on Middle East arms sales.

Prohibits presidential certifications concerning arms sales, exports, or agreements required by memoranda of understanding (MOU) between the United States and a foreign government for the coproduction or codevelopment of major defense equipment from being received by the Congress, unless the President, prior to the entry into force of the MOU, transmitted the MOU to the Speaker of the House and the President of the Senate.

Title V: Special Authorities, Restrictions and Reports - Amends the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to raise the ceiling on funds available for unanticipated contingencies. Authorizes a specified amount to be made available in any fiscal year (currently, FY 1986 and 1987) for emergency military assistance.

Authorizes the President to adopt as a U.S. contract or obligation any contract with a U.S. or third-country contractor that had been funded with assistance prior to the termination of such assistance.

Revises provisions concerning prohibitions on assistance. Requires the President to maintain a list of Communist countries for purposes of restricting assistance. Authorizes the President to remove or exempt a country from the list or prohibitions on assistance if he reports to the Congress that such removal or exemption is important to the U.S. national interest.

Prohibits assistance to any country whose elected head of government is deposed by military coup. Permits the President to resume assistance to such a country if he reports to the Congress that subsequent to the coup a democratically elected government has taken office.

Prohibits assistance to any country which is more than one year in arrears to the U.S. Government on loan or credit payments extended under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 or former authorities of the Arms Export Control Act unless the President reports to the Speaker of the House and the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that such assistance is in the national interest.

Requires the AID Administrator to ensure that for every assistance project there is prominently displayed an acknowledgment that the project was funded by the people of the United States.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that the President should continue to make efforts to improve the management of the foreign economic assistance program. Requires the President to study the feasibility and impact of reducing the number of countries receiving such assistance and improving coordination and management of the foreign assistance programs. Directs the AID Administrator to report to the Speaker of the House and the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on: (1) actions taken by AID and any other proposals to improve management of such programs; and (2) the findings of the President's study.

Requires the President to report to the House Foreign Affairs Committee and the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on the extent to which ESF assistance provided in excess of $10,000,000 in FY 1987 through 1991 to a country has contributed to economic reform along market economic principles in such country.

Prohibits the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) from financing an investment unless the investor certifies that any contract for the export of goods as part of the investment requires that U.S. insurance companies have a fair and competitive opportunity to provide insurance against risk of loss of the export. Applies the same condition to financing for exports provided by the Export-Import Bank. Prohibits, whenever the U.S. Trade Representative finds that U.S. insurance companies have been denied such opportunity, OPIC assistance for the investment in question or Export-Import Bank or Commodity Credit Corporation credit for the export in question, unless the transaction involves a U.S. firm doing business in a foreign country with which the United States has an agreement regarding the insurance of international transactions.

Prohibits assistance to the Government of the Soviet Union unless the President certifies to specified congressional members that the Soviet Union has ceased all military or economic assistance to Cuba.

Prohibits assistance to the Soviet Union during FY 1992 and 1993 unless the President certifies to the Congress that: (1) the Government of the Soviet Union has taken steps toward observing human rights; (2) the threat to the United States from the Soviet armed forces has been reduced; (3) the Soviet Union is no longer engaged in acts of subversion or of support for international terrorism that are directed at the United States or its allies; (4) the Soviet Union no longer provides assistance in the form of arms sales, military assistance, grants, credits, commodities, or technology transfer to other countries engaged in activities inimical to the U.S. national interest; (5) the Soviet Union has placed a high priority on reaching an accord in the Defense and Space Talks; (6) full transparency exists with respect to data necessary for the United States to determine the creditworthiness of the Soviet Union and its ability to repay debt; (7) the Soviet Union, in order to demonstrate its creditworthiness, has adopted specific provisions with timelines for deregulating prices, selling government-owned assets to privately-owned entities, and introducing competition into the Soviet economy; (8) the Soviet Union is committed to environmental restoration and rehabilitation of unsafe nuclear facilities; (9) the Soviet Union will not transfer to any country any equipment, technology, or services to build VVERS nuclear reactors; and (10) any prohibited assistance will be provided, whenever feasible, to the democratically elected governments of the Baltic states and republics.

Waives such prohibition if the President determines that such assistance is in the national interest and certain conditions are met.

Expresses the sense of the Congress with respect to nuclear non-proliferation regimes. Requires the President to report annually to the Congress on the progress made and obstacles encountered in establishing regional nuclear non-proliferation regimes.

Authorizes the President, notwithstanding nuclear non-proliferation conditions on assistance to Pakistan, to provide assistance under the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 or the Agricultural Act of 1949 if he reports to the Congress that such assistance is in the national interest and would advance U.S. nuclear non-proliferation objectives.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that the President should seek review and auditing of programs of the United Nations, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Development Association, the International Finance Corporation, the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, the Inter-American Investment Corporation, the African Development Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, the African Development Fund, the Asian Development Fund, and the Asian Development Bank.

Sets forth reporting requirements concerning voluntary contributions to international organizations.

Withholds the U.S. proportionate share for international organization programs for Cuba, Iran, Libya, Iraq, North Korea, Yemen, Syria, or the Palestine Liberation Organization.

Title VI: Special Assistance Initiatives and Other Region or Country Specific Provisions - Chapter 1: East Asia and the Pacific - Subchapter A: Assistance to the Philippines - Multilateral Assistance Initiative for the Philippines Act of 1991 - Expresses the sense of the Congress that: (1) the United States should continue to participate with multilateral financial institutions and other bilateral donors in an economic reform and development program in the Philippines; and (2) a multiyear commitment of resources by the United States, donors, and institutions with a continued reform effort and leadership role by the Government of the Philippines will continue to be necessary to ensure continued economic growth in the Philippines and enhanced participation of the Filipino people in the democratic process.

Authorizes the President to provide assistance on such terms as determined necessary to carry out this Act. Links assistance to progress by the Government of the Philippines in implementing its economic, structural, and administrative reform program and provides that such assistance may include programs to stimulate and strengthen private sector growth, including voluntary debt reduction, greater U.S. participation in such sector, and sustained economic growth.

Authorizes appropriations. Limits the amount of appropriations for FY 1992 and 1993.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that: (1) coordination of programs by donors, institutions, and the Government of the Philippines is critical to the success of the Multilateral Assistance Initiative; (2) all donors should simplify procurement and disbursement procedures and ensure that conditions on the provision or use of assistance are complementary; and (3) the Philippines will ensure the most effective use of such assistance.

Declares that it is the policy of the Senate that: (1) the accession of Taiwan to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is in the best interest of the United States and of the world trading system and should be achieved in an expeditious manner; and (2) the United States should take the necessary steps to assure such country's membership in the GATT.

Subchapter B: Humanitarian Assistance for Cambodian Democracy - Makes specified amounts of development and ESF assistance for FY 1992 and 1993 available for humanitarian and development assistance for civilians and civilian members of the Cambodian noncommunist resistance. Requires the President to terminate assistance to any Cambodian organization that is cooperating with the Khmer Rouge in military operations.

Directs the administrator of the administering agency to: (1) contract with a private sector employee to establish an office in Phnom Penh to oversee program activities; and (2) conduct an on-site assessment within Cambodia to determine requirements for the development of infrastructure and the eradication of explosive mines.

Requires the President to report to the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate on all instances of military cooperation since January 1, 1991, between the Khmer Rouge and any faction of the noncommunist resistance and all instances of human rights abuses by the Khmer Rouge.

Makes available an additional amount of development and ESF assistance for FY 1992 and 1993 for humanitarian assistance to children and victims of wars in Cambodia.

Subchapter C: Other Provisions Relating to the Region - Permits funds authorized by this Act and funds made available in prior foreign assistance appropriations Acts for Burma (Myanmar) to be made available for training and education assistance for Burmese outside of Burma who are displaced as a result of civil conflict and for activities which support democratic pluralism in Burma.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that additional assistance should be provided for Mongolia in recognition of Mongolia's movement toward democracy and a free market economy.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that: (1) the future of Taiwan should be settled peacefully, free from coercion, and in a manner acceptable to the Taiwanese people; and (2) good relations between the United States and China depend on the willingness of the Chinese authorities to refrain from the use or the threat of force in resolving Taiwan's future.

Chapter 2: Near East and South Asia - Extends a certain waiver on a prohibition on assistance to Pakistan through April 1, 1993.

Amends the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985 to earmark development and ESF assistance for humanitarian assistance to the Afghan people and for the implementation of bilateral and multilateral reconstruction efforts for Afghanistan and the establishment of a broad-based freely-elected Afghan Government.

Sets forth provisions concerning human rights abuses in Sri Lanka. Requires the President, in determining whether to provide assistance or make sales of defense articles or services to Sri Lanka during FY 1992 and 1993, to take into account whether the Government of Sri Lanka has: (1) established a public register of detainees and ensured that detainees have access to lawyers and family members; (2) taken steps to deter disappearances and killings of civilians by persons under control of government forces; (3) taken measures to minimize civilian casualties in combat operations in the north and east; and (4) made serious efforts to investigate and prosecute those involved in the murder of journalist Richard DeZoysa. Encourages the Government of Sri Lanka to provide human rights education and training.

Chapter 3: Europe - Subchapter A: SEED Program Support for Transformation From Communism to Free-Market Democracy - Support for East European Democracy Act of 1991 (or SEED II Act) - Amends the Support for East European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 to include within the definition of "Eastern Europe" all nations of Europe which experienced Communist rule after World War II. Permits the President, where an authority in such Act is available for a bilateral activity for Poland or Hungary, to exercise such authority with respect to another Eastern European country or a constituent republic of such country if he determines that: (1) such country or republic has taken steps toward democracy and market-oriented economy; (2) such activity would promote the institutions of democracy and a free-market economy; and (3) such activity would not sustain or fortify organizations which are inimical to the development of democracy and a free-market economy.

Authorizes appropriations for FY 1992 and 1993 for assistance under SEED.

Expresses the sense of the Congress with respect to: (1) establishing, and providing ESF and technical assistance for, nondiplomatic liaison offices in the Baltic states and in constituent republics of East European countries to facilitate liaison with entities aspiring to achieve democracy and free-market institutions; and (2) providing technical and humanitarian assistance and observer status in the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) for the Baltic states.

Supports adoption of agricultural policies in East European countries that are based on free-market policies and discourages policies that distort market signals through protective import barriers or government export subsidies. Provides for the establishment of Institutes for Agricultural Policies in Eastern Europe and the United States for the education and training of policy makers in agricultural free-market economics. Declares that 20 percent of SEED food assistance for FY 1992 and 1993 should be in the form of value added agricultural products.

Applies limitations and authorities for the Enterprise Funds for Poland and Hungary to any other Enterprise Fund to which the President determines the United States should contribute.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that the President should: (1) designate a director within the Department of Commerce for American business initiative in Eastern Europe to promote the development of American business opportunities in East European countries; and (2) establish American Business Centers to support American business initiative in Eastern Europe.

Andrei Sakharov Educational Exchange Act - Amends the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961 to establish the Andrei Sakharov Educational Exchange Program to further U.S.-Eastern European cooperation in the fields of environmental protection and the health sciences through the exchange of graduate students. Urges the President to use the authority provided by such Act as an integral part of the SEED program.

Amends the SEED Act to express the sense of the Congress that the President should allocate a specified amount annually for NATO's plan for expanded East European participation.

Eastern European Security Assistance Act of 1991 - Makes a specified amount of administration of justice assistance under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 for U.S. participation in a program aimed at strengthening democratic institutions in Eastern European countries by promoting the empowerment of civilian managers in the justice, defense, and internal security establishments. Prohibits such programs from taking place with the authorities of a nonelected government or with a regime that carries out human rights violations or is negligent in the prosecution of hate crimes.

Authorizes the President to: (1) include an appropriate number of students from East European countries in the training offered by the National Academy of the Federal Bureau of Investigation; and (2) furnish international criminal investigative training assistance and administration of justice assistance to Eastern European countries.

Urges the Director of the U.S. Information Agency to arrange for the translation into the appropriate languages of books and other materials relevant to purposes of this Act for distribution to parliaments, ministries, and institutions of higher education in Eastern Europe.

Directs the Secretary of State, together with the Attorney General, to report to specified congressional committees on possible sites for the establishment of at least three legal attache posts at U.S. embassies in Eastern Europe.

Treats the Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe in Budapest, Hungary, as an international organization for purposes of detailing U.S. Government personnel.

Makes a specified amount of nonconvertible Polish currencies held by the United States available for the Research Center on Jewish History and Culture of the Jagiellonian University of Krakow, Poland.

Condemns the resurgence of organized anti-Semitism and ethnic animosity in Romania.

Calls on: (1) the Government of Romania to condemn those organizations promulgating anti-Semitism and animosity toward ethnic Hungarians, Gypsies, and other minorities, use every lawful means to curb such organizations and their activities, and ensure full respect for internationally recognized human rights; and (2) the President of the United States to ensure that progress by such Government in combating anti-Semitism and in protecting the rights and safety of its ethnic minorities shall be a significant factor in determining levels of assistance to Romania.

Authorizes the President to make Federal civil service employees available for temporary duty in SEED countries to assist in the development of essential governmental services.

Urges the President to cooperate with and support the American Bar Association in its efforts to assist SEED countries in establishing the modern legal framework necessary for a transformation to democracy and free market economies.

Subchapter B: Baltic Humanitarian Relief - Amends the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to declare that the Congress recognizes that prompt U.S. assistance is desirable to help alleviate suffering in the Baltic republics.

Directs the AID Administrator to: (1) furnish humanitarian assistance for the relief of the Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian people; and (2) solicit donations of humanitarian assistance for Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania and cooperate with private relief agencies attempting to provide such assistance. Authorizes the Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Transportation Command to provide all necessary airlift and sealift to transport donations of medical supplies to the Baltic peoples. Earmarks ESF assistance for such purposes.

Urges the President to begin negotiations with the nations surrounding Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, including Poland and the U.S.S.R., regarding the importation of humanitarian assistance.

Subchapter C: CSCE Assembly - CSCE Assembly Participation Act - Provides that up to 17 Members of the Congress shall be appointed to meet annually with representative parliamentary groups from other CSCE member nations to: (1) assess the implementation of CSCE objectives; (2) discuss subjects addressed during the meetings of the Council of Ministers for Foreign Affairs and the biennial Summit of Heads of State or Government; and (3) initiate and promote national and multilateral measures to further cooperation and security in Europe.

Earmarks amounts from funds available to the Department of State for contributions to international organizations for the U.S. contribution toward the maintenance of the CSCE Assembly and for meeting the expenses of the U.S. delegation.

Subchapter D: The American Centers Act - American Centers Act - Declares that the President should establish American Centers to promote commercial, professional, civic, and other partnerships between the people of the United States and the Soviet republics.

Authorizes the President to: (1) appoint an Executive Board of up to ten U.S. citizens to advise the President and to provide policy and technical direction to the American Centers; and (2) designate directors for the Centers. Encourages the President to designate an American Centers coordinator.

Earmarks specified amounts of ESF assistance for FY 1992 and 1993 to carry out this subchapter.

Defines an "eligible recipient in the Soviet Union" as the government of any republic or local government that was elected through free and fair elections or any nongovernmental organization or governmental agency (limits the amount of funds to such agencies) that promotes democratic or market oriented reforms or the rule of law.

Prohibits cash grants from being made to any governmental agency or organization in the Soviet Union under this subchapter. Authorizes the Centers to accept private contributions from U.S. citizens and organizations.

Chapter 4: Middle East - Subchapter A: Arms Suppliers Regime - Arms Suppliers Regime Act of 1991 - Declares that the Secretary should undertake to convene a conference of appropriate nations to establish an arms suppliers regime.

States that the purpose of such regime should be to: (1) halt the flow of unconventional arms and technologies necessary to produce such arms to nations in the Middle East; (2) limit and control the proliferation of advanced conventional arms to such nations; and (3) provide incentives for regional arms control agreements in the Middle East.

Declares that the United States should consider introducing a proposal regarding the annual international exchange of information on the sale and transfer of major defense equipment.

Lists actions to be taken to carry out such purposes.

Authorizes the President to negotiate and commit the United States to participating in a multilateral moratorium prohibiting the transfer of advanced conventional arms to the Middle East.

Requires the President to report annually to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and the House Foreign Affairs Committee on: (1) all transfers of arms to the Middle East over the previous five years; (2) the current military balance in the region; (3) the current and projected military threat to allied and friendly nations in the Middle East and the military equipment needed to deter and defend against such threat; (4) the operation of agreements comprising the arms suppliers regime; (5) the supplier nations that have refused to participate in such regime; and (6) specific actions of supplier nations that have engaged in conduct that violates or undermines the regime.

Prohibits the sale of defense articles or services, or the issuance of export licenses for such articles or services, to any nation in the Middle East unless the President: (1) certifies that the Secretary has undertaken to convene the conference for the establishment of an arms suppliers regime; and (2) submits a specified report on such regime.

Subchapter B: Miscellaneous - Declares that specified amounts of development assistance should be used to finance the Cooperative Development Program, cooperative development research projects among the United States, Israel, and developing countries, and cooperative development projects among the United States, Israel, and Eastern Europe.

Prohibits assistance to Syria until the President reports to the House Foreign Affairs Committee and the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that the Government of Syria: (1) has demonstrated willingness to enter into negotiations with Israel; (2) does not deny its citizens the right to emigrate and does not impose taxes with respect to emigration; (3) is assisting the U.S. Government in obtaining the release of American hostages in Lebanon; (4) no longer supports international terrorist groups; (5) is withdrawing its armed forces from Lebanon; (6) is no longer acquiring chemical, biological, or nuclear weapons and will not use weapons currently in its arsenal to threaten its neighbors; (7) is cooperating with U.S. antinarcotics efforts and taking steps to remove members of the government who are involved in the drug trade; and (8) has made progress in improving human rights.

Requires the President to report to such committees on third country transfers of weapons and military equipment to Syria.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that the United States should support educational, cultural, and humanitarian activities that bring Israelis together with Palestinians living in the West Bank and Gaza.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that: (1) all Arab nations which have refused to recognize Israel and have maintained a state of belligerency against Israel should recognize Israel, end the state of belligerency and economic boycott against Israel, and enter into negotiations with Israel; and (2) the United States should encourage the Arab states which were allied with the United States in the Persian Gulf War to achieve such objectives.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that the United States should work with its Arab coalition partners to: (1) encourage their support for efforts to achieve peace and stability in the Middle East and to settle the Arab-Israeli conflict; and (2) take specific steps with respect to Israel and terrorism.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that the United States and the Soviet Union should lead an effort to repeal United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379 (equating Zionism with racism).

Chapter 5: Latin America and the Caribbean - Subchapter A: Provisions Pertaining to Central America and the Caribbean - Requires advance congressional notification for the transfer of helicopters or military aircraft to any country in Central America or the Caribbean. Directs the Secretary to notify the appropriate congressional committees whenever any helicopters or other military aircraft are provided to such countries by any foreign country.

Prohibits military assistance under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to Guatemala during FY 1992 and 1993, except in connection with a peace agreement.

Establishes the Lasting Peace Fund for Guatemala. Authorizes the President to transfer amounts available for military assistance to the Fund. Makes funds available only upon notification to the appropriate congressional committees that the Guatemalan Government and the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unit have signed a peace agreement. Permits funds to be available for: (1) costs of retraining, relocation, and reemployment in civilian pursuits of former combatants and noncombatants affected by the conflict; and (2) costs of monitoring activities associated with the peace agreement.

Prohibits the authorities of the Arms Export Control Act from being used to sell to the Guatemalan Government, or issue licenses for the export to Guatemala of: (1) weapons or ammunition; or (2) aircraft, unless the aircraft are unarmed and the Guatemalan Government has agreed that they will not be armed.

Permits FY 1992 and 1993 development and ESF assistance and assistance under the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 for Guatemala to be used only by civilian government agencies and nongovernmental organizations. Requires such assistance to be targeted for: (1) programs that address poverty, basic human needs, and environmental concerns; (2) the improvement of democratic institutions and the promotion of political pluralism; (3) the National Reconciliation Commission; (4) fiscal reform and administration; or (5) programs that promote trade and investment. Prohibits such assistance from being used for partisan political purposes or as an instrument of counterinsurgency. Waives assistance target requirements if the President notifies the appropriate congressional committees that Guatemala has made progress in eliminating human rights violations and in bringing to trial those responsible for major human rights cases.

Prohibits foreign assistance for any member of the Nicaraguan resistance who has not disarmed or is not abiding by the terms of the cease-fire agreement and the addenda to the Toncontin Agreement.

Earmarks a specified amount of FY 1992 and 1993 ESF assistance for Central America for implementing programs consistent with the purposes of the Concerted Plan of Action in Favor of Central American Refugees, Returnees and Displaced Persons.

Prohibits funds authorized to be appropriated by any Act to be made available for the Sandinista Popular Army unless requested and authorized in advance by the President of Nicaragua.

Subchapter B: Provisions Pertaining to the Caribbean - Congratulates Haiti on its transition to democracy.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that the United States should: (1) provide assistance to the Haitian Government so long as it abides by the Haitian Constitution and respects freedom of expression and human rights; (2) continue to provide assistance to Haitian private voluntary organizations to institutionalize democracy and promote economic development; and (3) provide a specified amount of food, development, and economic assistance to Haiti during FY 1992 and 1993.

Prohibits military assistance to Haiti during FY 1992 and 1993, except for nonlethal military assistance provided through a democratically-elected head of state and pursuant to specified notification procedures.

Encourages the Government of the Dominican Republic to improve respect for the human rights of Haitian laborers engaged in the sugar cane harvesting industry in the Dominican Republic. Declares that the President should consider increasing the Dominican Republic's allocation of the U.S. sugar quota and providing additional economic and development assistance if the Government of the Dominican Republic makes progress in specified matters concerning such laborers.

Permits assistance under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 or the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 to be provided to the Government of Guyana only if the President reports to the appropriate congressional committees that such government is in power as a result of free and fair elections. Exempts from such restriction international narcotics control assistance or assistance for the holding of free and fair elections.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that: (1) following the submission of the report regarding Guyana, the President should provide economic assistance for Guyana under such Acts; and (2) a specified amount of assistance should be used to meet basic human needs.

Subchapter C: Andean Initiative - Amends the International Narcotics Control Act of 1990 to make development and ESF assistance available for Andean countries for FY 1992 and 1993. Requires priority in the use of funds for Bolivia and Peru to be given to support programs that focus on providing coca farmers with alternative sources of income. Earmarks a specified amount for each fiscal year (currently, FY 1991) for administration of justice assistance for Bolivia, Columbia, and Peru. Declares that a specified amount of such assistance should be made available for the Office of Human Rights in the Office of the Attorney General of the Government of Peru.

Makes military assistance for FY 1992 and 1993 available for Andean countries. Applies certain limitations on FY 1991 military and law enforcement assistance to such countries to assistance for FY 1992 and 1993. Decreases the amounts of assistance to be made available for armed forces and law enforcement units in such countries. Prohibits Peru's Sinchi Police from being considered as a law enforcement unit.

Extends certain conditions on assistance to such countries to assistance for FY 1992 and 1993. Exempts from such conditions assistance for programs that focus on providing coca farmers with alternative sources of income. Extends a certain waiver of a prohibition on assistance to countries in default on loans to narcotics-related assistance to Andean countries for FY 1992 and 1993.

Subchapter D: South America - Congratulates the Governments of Argentina and Brazil for taking certain steps with respect to nuclear nonproliferation.

Permits military assistance to Chile during FY 1992 and 1993 only if the appropriate congressional committees are notified in advance.

Expresses the sense of the Congress with respect to actions by the Government of Colombia to combat drug trafficking.

Subchapter E: Other Provisions Pertaining to the Region - Earmarks an amount of funds made available for narcotics-related assistance for the Andean countries for efforts to deal with the cholera epidemic in Latin America.

Makes law enforcement assistance available for countries with democratically-elected governments in Latin America and the Caribbean. Prohibits the use of such funds for: (1) lethal equipment; and (2) the participation of Department of Defense personnel and members of the U.S. armed forces in law enforcement training. Permits law enforcement training in the Caribbean to be provided only under the auspices of the Department of Justice Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program. Earmarks funds for such assistance.

Amends the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to permit the delivery of military assistance and sales to the armed forces of a Latin American or Caribbean country with a civilian government only with the prior approval of the country's head of government.

Subchapter F: Miscellaneous Provisions - Amends the Foreign Assistance Act of 1969 to authorize appropriations for the Inter-American Foundation for FY 1992 and 1993. Revises provisions concerning the composition of the Foundation's Board of Directors and the principal office.

Declares that the Senate applauds the actions of the United Nations Human Rights Commission of March 6, 1991 (concerning human rights in Cuba), and calls on the Government of Cuba to cooperate fully with the Commission.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that the President should: (1) negotiate a new base rights agreement with the Government of Panama to allow the permanent stationing of U.S. military forces in Panama beyond 1999; and (2) consult with the Congress throughout such negotiations.

Chapter 6: Africa - Amends the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to authorize appropriations for FY 1992 and 1993 for the Development Fund for Africa.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that a certain amount of funds should be made available to support sector projects supported by the Southern African Development Coordination Conference.

Amends the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1980 to authorize appropriations for FY 1992 and 1993 for the African Development Foundation.

Permits assistance to Sudan during FY 1992 and 1993 only if the President reports to the Congress that the Government of Sudan has: (1) taken actions to begin a process of national reconciliation; and (2) demonstrated a commitment to hold free and fair elections monitored by international observers.

Permits military and ESF assistance to Kenya during FY 1992 and 1993 only if the President reports to the Congress that the Government of Kenya has taken steps to: (1) release political detainees and end the prosecution of individuals for the expression of their political beliefs; (2) cease mistreatment of political prisoners; and (3) restore judicial independence and freedom of expression.

Authorizes military and ESF assistance and international military education and training for Zaire during FY 1992 and 1993 only if the President reports to the Congress that: (1) a neutral, transitional government has been formed to oversee the drafting of a new constitution for Zaire; (2) free and fair elections are held in Zaire; and (3) the elected government demonstrates a commitment to bring about freedom of expression, a reformed and independent judiciary, and reform of the security forces. Prohibits development assistance to Zaire, except as provided through nongovernmental organizations.

Expresses the sense of the Senate that the President should continue to support the peacekeeping efforts in Liberia carried out by the Economic Community of West Africa Monitoring Group.

Permits funds authorized by this Act and funds made available in prior foreign assistance appropriations Acts for military assistance to be made available to support the members of the Economic Community of West Africa in expanding military involvement in Liberia for peacekeeping purposes.

Amends the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to authorize the President to provide assistance for civil strife relief, rehabilitation, and general recovery in Liberia. Permits assistance to Liberia during FY 1992 and 1993 only if the President reports to the Congress that the Government of Liberia has achieved progress toward reconciliation and free and fair elections monitored by international observers. Provides that such restriction shall not apply to humanitarian assistance.

Authorizes the President to furnish assistance for strengthening judicial institutions in African countries.

Expresses the sense of the Senate that a study should be undertaken by the Office of Technology Assessment, in a cross-section of Subsaharan African countries, of the formulation and the economic, social, and environmental impact of adjustment programs supported or leveraged by AID through the Development Fund for Africa.

Declares that it is the policy of the Senate that: (1) the Internal Revenue Code should be amended to allow U.S. companies operating in Angola a foreign tax credit for taxes paid to the Government of Angola; and (2) such tax benefits should not come into effect until national elections in Angola have been held.

Expresses the sense of the Senate concerning a review of human rights abuses in Uganda and of economic assistance to such country.

Urges: (1) the United Nations Secretary General to appoint United Nations field coordinators for each country in the Horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan) to bring greater coordination to the international relief effort and to mobilize donor contributions; and (2) the President to lend the support of the United States to all aspects of the relief operation in the Horn of Africa.

Requires the President, beginning with FY 1992, to provide: (1) nonpartisan election and democracy-building assistance to Angola for support in developing democratic institutions; and (2) assistance for the voluntary relocation and resettlement of refugees and for the demobilization and retraining of former military members of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) and the armed forces of the Government of Angola, emergency medical assistance, and assistance to implement the Estoril peace accords. Prohibits such assistance if the Angolan Government or UNITA violates the peace accords.

Title VII: Enterprise for the Americas Initiative - Enterprise for the Americas Act of 1991 - Chapter 1: Statement of Findings and Purpose - Sets forth findings and purposes with respect to the Enterprise for the Americas Initiative.

Chapter 2: Programs to Facilitate Investment Flows - Requires the Secretary of the Treasury to work with the Inter-American Development Bank to ensure the implementation of the Bank's investment sector reform program and the coordination of U.S. bilateral assistance programs with multilateral efforts to enhance liberalization efforts in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Authorizes the Secretary, subject to certain conditions, to make a payment to the Enterprise for the Americas Fund. Requires U.S. assistance to the Fund to be disbursed only for technical assistance for resolving domestic constraints to investment, human capital programs, and assistance to private enterprises.

Chapter 3: Eligibility Requirements for Benefits - Makes eligible for participation in activities under this Act any Latin American or Caribbean country that: (1) has in effect, or is making progress toward, policies designed to liberalize its investment regime and to undertake economic reforms in conjunction with specified multilateral financial institutions; and (2) qualifies for assistance under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (waives prohibitions on assistance to countries in default on loans to the United States).

Chapter 4: Enterprise for the Americas Facility - Establishes the Enterprise for the Americas Facility in the Department of the Treasury. Declares that the purpose of the Facility is to serve as the coordinating mechanism within the U.S. Government to carry out provisions of this Act related to debt reductions, sales, and cancellations of loans or assets for eligible countries.

Chapter 5: Debt Reduction - Authorizes the President to reduce the amount owed to the United States (as a result of concessional loans made pursuant to the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 or predecessor foreign economic assistance legislation) by any eligible country. Deems debt reductions to be assistance for purposes of provisions of law limiting assistance to a country (waives restrictions on assistance to countries in default on loans to the United States).

Requires the President, prior to announcing an intention to reduce debt of an eligible country, to report to the Congress on: (1) efforts undertaken to make possible the repayment of debt; (2) the country's financial health; and (3) the effect of reforms in the country and upon the balance of trade between the country and the United States.

Sets forth requirements with respect to the exchange of obligations, repayment of principal, and interest on new obligations issued by eligible countries. Encourages the President to consider undertaking the full liquidation of outstanding obligations to the United States for an eligible country if such liquidation will assist in significant progress toward economic reform.

Chapter 6: Enterprise for the Americas Accounts - Requires eligible countries that enter into Enterprise for the Americas Agreements to establish Enterprise for the Americas Accounts. Authorizes the President to enter into Enterprise for the Americas Agreements with eligible countries concerning the operation and use of Americas Accounts. Sets forth required contents of such Agreements.

Permits grants from an Americas Account to be used only for funding activities that: (1) support local nongovernmental organizations in child health programs; (2) link the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources with local community development; (3) support community-based primary and secondary education programs; and (4) support alternative development programs that seek to reduce dependence on the production of crops from which narcotic and psychotropic drugs are derived. Lists eligible grant recipients.

Declares that: (1) the President should encourage other official creditors of eligible countries whose debt is reduced to provide comparable debt reduction to such countries; and (2) the Secretary should encourage private creditors of eligible countries to explore mechanisms for reducing outstanding debts to levels that more accurately reflect the market value of such debts.

Chapter 7: Sales, Reductions, or Cancellations of Loans or Assets - Authorizes the President to: (1) sell to any eligible purchaser any loan of an eligible country made pursuant to the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945; and (2) reduce or cancel any loans or assets made or acquired before 1991 upon receipt of payment from an eligible purchaser. Permits loans to be sold only to purchasers who present plans to AID for using such loans or assets to engage in debt-for-child survival, debt-for-education, debt-for-equity, debt-for-development, or debt-for-nature swaps. Authorizes loans to be sold, reduced, or canceled only for purposes of facilitating such swaps.

Directs the AID Administrator to identify activities that practice sound environmental management and to promulgate environmental standards to review proposed activities. Requires such standards to prohibit the sale of credits to support activities that involve threats to the environment and public health.

Chapter 8: International University for the Americas - Requires the Secretary of State to determine the most appropriate location for the International University for the Americas, an institution to be established for promoting economic integration and the strengthening of democratic institutions in the Western Hemisphere and for commemorating the 500th anniversary of the discovery of the Americas by Christopher Columbus. Authorizes appropriations.

Chapter 9: Reports - Sets forth annual reporting requirements with respect to this Act.

Title VIII: Repeal of Obsolete Provisions - Repeals provisions of specified Acts.

Title IX: Multilateral Development Banks - Chapter 1: International Monetary Fund - Amends the Bretton Woods Agreements Act to authorize the U.S. Governor of the International Monetary Fund to consent to: (1) an increase in the U.S. quota in the Fund; and (2) the amendments to the Articles of Agreement of the Fund approved in resolution 45-3 of the Fund's Board of Governors.

Authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury to instruct the U.S. Executive Director of the Fund to approve the Fund's pledge to sell a specified amount of the Fund's gold to restore the resources of the Reserve Account of the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility Trust to meet obligations to lenders who have made loans to the Trust for financing programs of members previously in arrears to the Fund.

Requires the Secretary to instruct the U.S. Executive Director of the Fund to oppose Soviet membership in the Fund and future expansion of Fund quotas in which the Soviet Union would participate until the President certifies to the Congress that the Soviet Union has taken specified actions to indicate: (1) the implementation of free market policies; (2) the reduction in size and scope of government expenditures; and (3) the embracement of democratic processes.

Directs the Secretary to instruct the Executive Director of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) to oppose expansion of access by the Soviet Union to the Bank's resources unless the President makes such certification.

Chapter 2: African Development Fund - Amends the African Development Fund Act to authorize the U.S. Governor of the African Development Fund to contribute a specified amount to the sixth replenishment of the Fund. Authorizes appropriations.

Chapter 3: Asian Development Bank - Amends the Asian Development Bank Act to authorize the U.S. Governor of the Asian Development Bank to subscribe to additional shares of the Bank's capital stock.

Authorizes appropriations.

Title X: Presidential Contingency Fund - Authorizes appropriations to the President for FY 1992 and 1993 for unanticipated contingencies in programs within the International Affairs Budget Function.

Title XI: Peace Corps - Amends the Peace Corps Act to: (1) extend authorizations of appropriations for the Peace Corps for FY 1992; (2) establish the Foreign Currency Fluctuations, Peace Corps, Account to pay expenses for Peace Corps operations which exceed appropriations for such expenses as a result of currency exchange rate fluctuations.

Authorizes appropriations for such Account.

Requires the Director of the Peace Corps to contract with an eligible organization to conduct three evaluations of the health care needs of Peace Corps volunteers and the adequacy of the Peace Corps health care system. Provides for the submission of such evaluations to the Director and the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and the House Foreign Affairs Committee.

Requires the Director and the Secretary of Labor to report to such committees on: (1) the information provided by the Peace Corps to its volunteers and applicants on the benefits and services to which volunteers or trainees may be entitled in the event they sustain injuries or become disabled during their Peace Corps service or training; (2) the efforts by the Peace Corps and the Department of Labor to coordinate the provision of such information to Peace Corps volunteers and applicants and the processing of claims by volunteers under the Federal Employees Compensation Act (FECA); (3) the number of Peace Corps volunteers and applicants who have filed claims under FECA and the percentage of claims that have been approved; and (4) the timeliness of approvals or denials of such claims.

Encourages the Director to continue to develop, assist, and implement education-related programs which enable volunteer experiences to be shared with primary and secondary school students and communities in the United States.

Title XII: Support for Democracy and Free Market Economies in the Baltic and Soviet Republics - Declares that: (1) the President should be authorized to appoint a special advisor for Baltic and Soviet Republics assistance; and (2) assistance should be provided to the Citizens' Democracy Corps to establish a program for the Baltic and Soviet Republics.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that the National Endowment for Democracy, acting through specified organizations, should establish programs for the Baltic and Soviet Republics for the promotion of democracy and a free trade union movement, with a pilot program for the Baltic and Armenian Republics.

Sets forth steps that should be taken by the Congress with respect to a gift of democracy to the Baltic and Soviet Republics. Declares that certain U.S. agencies should establish exchange, trade, and training programs with the Baltic or Soviet Republics.

States that a commercial officer should be assigned to the U.S. embassy in Moscow for purposes of developing better economic relations between the U.S. Government and business community and the Baltic and Soviet Republics.

Declares that assistance should be provided to the International Executive Service Corps to implement a program in such republics to advise private and public industry on how to make the transition to a market economy.

States that: (1) the U.S. ambassador to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) should request the OECD to study the economies of the Baltic and Soviet Republics and that the Secretary of State should report the findings of such study to the Congress; and (2) the U.S. Executive Director of the EBRD should discuss programs that can be developed to aid such republics with the EBRD's directors.

Title XIII: Industrial Development for Eastern Europe Foundation - Expresses the sense of the Congress that: (1) there may be established the Industrial Development for Eastern Europe Foundation; and (2) the President should negotiate with foreign nations for participation by such nations in carrying out the Foundation's activities.

Declares that the purposes of the Foundation may be to: (1) promote and support joint, nondefense, industrial research and development activities of benefit to the nations involved with the Foundation; (2) develop nondefense high technology industry in such nations; (3) aid in the modernization of such nations' economies by helping them to create a more sophisticated manufacturing base; and (4) help such nations become economically viable by providing benefits to their industrial sector. Authorizes the Foundation to support research and development activities which: (1) involve applied science activities through which an innovation becomes a commercial product; and (2) assist with product engineering and manufacturing start up. Permits projects to be supported through direct investment and joint ventures. Authorizes technology and products developed as a result of the Foundation's work to be freely transferable among nations participating in a project. Allows more than one Foundation member nation to participate in a project.

Sets forth provisions concerning the Foundation's Board of Governors. Permits the Board to consist of: (1) the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Commerce, and the Secretary of the Treasury; and (2) a representative from the Foreign Ministry, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Trade and Industry, and the national science foundation from the governments of Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia. Makes other East European countries eligible for membership in the Foundation whenever the Board determines that such countries have made progress toward marketization and democratization and are not in violation of specified human rights provisions of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.

Authorizes an Advisory Council for the Foundation to: (1) help evaluate projects; and (2) make proposals as to which sectors of member nation economies offer the best opportunities for returns on investments.

Permits the Foundation to be administered by an Executive Secretariat, to be headed by an Executive Director who is a U.S. citizen.

Sets forth provisions concerning the Foundation's operations, financing, and proposed projects.

Title XIV: Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1991 - Aid, Trade, and Competitiveness Act of 1991 - Requires the AID Administrator to establish a capital projects office within the AID Bureau for Private Enterprise to: (1) develop a program that would focus solely on developmentally sound capital projects; and (2) consider opportunities for U.S. high-technology firms in putting together capital projects for developing nations and the nations of Eastern Europe. Sets forth activities of the capital projects office.

Requires the AID Administrator, acting through such office, to: (1) help to develop the infrastructure of Eastern Europe by meeting the challenge of infrastructure assistance provided by foreign governments to the nations of Eastern Europe; (2) study the infrastructure of such nations; and (3) establish an Eastern European program within the capital projects office.

Establishes the Capital Projects Interagency Board to: (1) coordinate a strategic approach to the support of capital projects among the agencies represented on the Board; and (2) report to the Congress annually on the extent to which U.S. Government resources have been expended to support capital projects, the extent to which the activities of the agencies on the Board have been coordinated, and the extent to which U.S. Government capital projects and tied-aid projects have affected U.S. exports.

Requires the Secretary of the Treasury, if a new agreement within OECD that meets the objective of reducing the level of concessional financing by member countries other than the United States has not been reached by December 31, 1991, to report to the Congress, together with the President of the Export-Import Bank, on: (1) the status of the negotiations; (2) the causes for the failure to reach an agreement by that date; and (3) the reasons the U.S. Government believes that continued negotiations will result in achieving such objective.

Authorizes appropriations for FY 1992 and 1993 for capital projects. Permits such funds to be used only for procurement of U.S. goods and services.

Requires the President to report to the Congress on the feasibility of allowing AID to offer credit guarantees for the financing of capital projects.

Limits the amount of ESF assistance in FY 1992 and 1993 to be provided through cash transfers. Prohibits reductions in cash transfer assistance to be made out of funds used for the purchase of U.S. goods and services or for the repayment of debt arising out of obligations owed to or guaranteed by the Treasury.

Requires the Comptroller General to study and report to the Congress on cash payment assistance.

Amends the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to prohibit the administrator of the administering agency, in determining the authorized geographic code for the purchase of goods and services, to grant any waivers from Geographic Code 000 (United States only) unless: (1) the good or service is not available from countries or areas included in the authorized geographic code; (2) an emergency requirement can be met in time only from suppliers in a country or area not included in such code; (3) for project assistance, when Geographic Code 000 is authorized and the lowest available price from the United States is estimated to be 50 percent or more higher than the delivered price from a country or area included in Geographic Code 941 (in which case, a waiver may be granted to 941); and (4) for nonproject assistance, an acute shortage exists in the United States for a commodity generally available elsewhere.

Title XV: Republic of China and Tibet - Expresses the sense of the Congress that U.S. nationals conducting industrial cooperation projects in China or Tibet should adhere to specified principles, including to: (1) suspend the use of merchandise manufactured by convict or forced labor; (2) seek to ensure political and religious freedom without fear of one's employment status; (3) ensure that methods of production do not pose a danger to project employees and the surrounding environment; (4) strive to use business enterprises that are not controlled by China; and (5) promote human rights in China. Requires the Secretary of State to forward a copy of such principles to member nations of the OECD and encourage them to promote such principles.

Requires each U.S. national to register with the Secretary and indicate whether they agree to implement such principles. Sets forth specified reporting requirements.

Requires the Secretary to report annually to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and the House Foreign Affairs Committee concerning China and Tibet and: (1) enforcement procedures with respect to prohibitions on the importation of convict-made goods; and (2) investigations with respect to goods produced by convict or forced labor.

Title XVI: United States-Mexico Border Environmental Protection - United States-Mexico Border Environmental Protection Act - Establishes the United States-Mexico Border Environmental Protection Fund to be used by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to investigate and respond to conditions which present a threat to the land, air, or water resources of the United States-Mexico border region.

Authorizes the Administrator, whenever conditions exist which present a substantial threat to the land, air, or water resources in such region, to declare an environmental emergency. Permits the Governors of the States of Arizona, California, New Mexico, or Texas or federally recognized Indian tribes to petition for the declaration of an environmental emergency in such region.

Authorizes the Administrator to establish a system for information sharing and for early warning to the United States and affected States, political subdivisions, and Indian tribes of environmental problems affecting the United States-Mexico border region.

Requires the Administrator to establish a United States-Mexico Border Environmental Protection Advisory Committee to: (1) monitor and study environmental conditions within the border region; and (2) make recommendations for ongoing environmental protection in such region.

Directs the Secretary of State, acting through the United States Commissioner, International Boundary and Water Commission, United States and Mexico, to conclude agreements with the Ministry of Foreign Relations of Mexico for: (1) the correction of border sanitation problems in international streams crossing the boundary between the United States and Mexico; and (2) a joint response through the construction of works, repair of existing infrastructure, and other measures to correct water pollution emergencies in such streams. Authorizes the Secretary, acting through the Commissioner, to correct sanitation emergencies in such streams in the United States.

Permits the Administrator to enter into an agreement with Mexico to establish a binational advisory committee to monitor and study environmental conditions within the border region and make recommendations for ongoing environmental protection in such region.

Prohibits the expenditure of U.S. funds for emergency investigation or remediation in Mexico without a cost-sharing agreement unless the Secretary can demonstrate that the expenditure of such funds would be cost-effective and in the U.S. interest.

Establishes the United States International Boundary and Water Commission Fund to carry out this Act.

Authorizes appropriations.

Title XVII: Microenterprise Development Act of 1991 - Microenterprise Development Act of 1992 - Authorizes the President, acting through the AID Administrator to provide assistance for microenterprises in developing countries. Directs AID to establish specified criteria for determining the financial intermediaries that will receive such assistance. Requires a significant portion of such assistance to be used to support direct credit assistance by, and the institutional development of, financial intermediaries with a primary emphasis on assisting people living in absolute poverty, especially women. Outlines funding sources for such assistance.

Permits the President, in order to generate local currencies for providing such assistance, to use development and ESF assistance to provide assistance to developing countries on a loan basis repayable in local currencies.

Authorizes appropriations for FY 1992 and 1993 for microenterprise assistance.

Requires the Administrator to develop a monitoring system to evaluate AID's microenterprise development activities.

Title XVIII: Index of Economic Freedom Act of 1991 - Index of Economic Freedom Act of 1991 - Amends the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to direct the AID Administrator to develop a system for evaluating the economic freedom and opportunities of individuals in countries receiving development assistance. Designates such system as the Index of Economic Freedom. Declares that the Index should take into account property rights, business regulations, informal sector formation, wage and price controls, taxation, trade policy, restrictions on investment and capital flows, size of the state sector, and banking.

Requires the Administrator to apply the Index to eligible countries and to report to the Speaker of the House and the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on the findings of such evaluation. Prohibits development assistance to a country unless the Index data has been considered.

Directs the Administrator to use the Index to: (1) promote improvements in the underlying economic conditions evaluated by the Index while retaining flexibility in implementing development programs; and (2) evaluate the direction of policy changes in less developed countries.

Requires the Secretary of the Treasury to direct the U.S. executive directors of specified multilateral financial institutions to consider opposing financial assistance to countries that have rated poorly under Index evaluations.

Title XIX: Middle East Environmental Cooperation and Restoration Act of 1991 - Middle East Environmental Cooperation and Restoration Act of 1991 - Directs the President, through AID, to establish the Middle East Environmental Defense Network (to be known as Project EDEN) to: (1) develop a Middle East Regional Environmental Protection Plan; (2) assess the environmental problems affecting Middle East States; (3) advance ways in which such States can work cooperatively to ameliorate natural resource and environmental degradation; (4) promote national and cross-boundary natural resource and environmental restoration and maintenance activities; (5) disseminate environmental protection education programs; (6) encourage initiatives to improve the management of natural resources and the environment; (7) encourage the safe handling and cleanup of hazardous substances and the restoration of degraded desert and marine ecosystems; (8) conserve and promote the historical, cultural, social, archaeological, and geophysical resources and heritages of the peoples of the Middle East; (9) conserve and enhance biodiversity; (10) promote environment-related technology transfer; (11) initiate environmental research and development projects between Middle Eastern countries; and (12) research and mitigate adverse effects on public health from environmental degradation. Authorizes appropriations.

Establishes an interagency Environmental Planning Council to carry out Project EDEN.

Requires the Administrator to: (1) fund a postgraduate fellowship program focused on issues of environmental public policy in the Middle East; and (2) coordinate the work of the U.S. Environmental Center.

Authorizes the President to enter into negotiations and agreements with governments of the Middle East for purposes of concluding an agreement establishing a Permanent Conference on Environmental Security and Cooperation, a Conference Secretariat, a Middle East Regional Environmental Fund, and Middle East Environmental Centers.

Declares that the Secretariat should work through the United Nations to seek 25 percent of future reparations paid by Iraq for war damages for the Middle East Regional Environmental Fund.

Requires the Secretariat to establish the Project EDEN Environmental Data Network.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that the President should establish an Environmental Center within AID dedicated to Project EDEN and linked to the Middle East Environmental Centers and the Data Network.

Title XX: Miscellaneous Provisions - Expresses hope that Palestinian schools and universities in the West Bank and Gaza Strip will remain open and be respected by all parties as places of learning.

Authorizes funds allocated for victims of apartheid and necklacing in South Africa that are in excess of amounts allocated for FY 1991 to be made available to nongovernmental organizations for assistance for apartheid victims in the health, education, and housing sectors. Prohibits the transfer of such funds to any entity controlled by the South African Government, unless specified conditions are met.

Authorizes the President to provide assistance to Liberia, Ethiopia, and Nicaragua upon certification to specified congressional committees that the country has made significant progress toward democratization and that such assistance will further such progress and is in the U.S. national interest.

Expresses the sense of the Senate that: (1) U.S. businesses engaged in the rebuilding of Kuwait should use U.S. subcontractors and U.S. goods and services; and (2) the Department of Commerce should monitor and encourage the implementation of such policy.

Expresses the sense of the Senate with respect to the situation in Nagorno-Karabakh in Azerbaijan.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that the United States should: (1) urge developing nations to pursue policies conducive to growth through private direct investment; (2) urge industrialized nations to avoid erecting trade barriers which could have the effect of restricting imports from developing nations; and (3) encourage developing nations to pursue a policy that supports "national treatment" for private direct investors.

Amends the Trading with the Enemy Act to prohibit the issuance of licenses for certain transactions involving U.S.-controlled firms in third countries and Cuba unless a license would be authorized for such transactions if undertaken by a firm organized under any State law.

Requires the Administrator to outline a program for the training of foreign civilian officials in the administration of military establishments and budgets and in the creation of military judicial systems and codes of conduct.

Title XXI: Effective Date - Provides that this Act shall take effect on October 1, 1991.