Summary: S.618 — 102nd Congress (1991-1992)All Information (Except Text)

There is one summary for S.618. Bill summaries are authored by CRS.

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Introduced in Senate (03/12/1991)

Violent Crime Control Act of 1991 - Title I: Safer Streets and Neighborhoods Act - Safer Streets and Neighborhoods Act of 1991 - Amends the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1991 (Omnibus Act) to: (1) authorize appropriations ($1,000,000,000 for FY 1992 and such sums as necessary in FY 1993 and 1994) for grants to State and local law enforcement agencies; and (2) continue the Federal-State funding formula for such agencies for FY 1992.

Title II: Death Penalty - Federal Death Penalty Act of 1991 - Amends the Federal criminal code to establish criteria for the imposition of the death penalty for Federal crimes.

Requires the Government, for any offense punishable by death, to serve notice upon the defendant a reasonable time before trial or acceptance of a plea, of its intention to seek the death penalty and of the aggravating factors upon which it will rely.

Requires a separate sentencing hearing before a jury, or the court upon motion by the defendant, when the defendant is found guilty or pleads guilty to an offense punishable by death.

Allows the defendant and the Government to present any information relevant to sentencing, without regard to the rules of evidence, but permits information to be excluded where its probative value is substantially outweighed by the danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or misleading the jury.

Specifies mitigating factors which the defendant must establish by a preponderance of the information and aggravating factors which the Government must prove beyond a reasonable doubt.

Includes as threshold aggravating factors for homicide that the defendant: (1) intentionally killed the victim; (2) intentionally inflicted serious bodily injury which resulted in the death of the victim; (3) intentionally participated in an act, contemplating that the life of a person would be taken, and the victim died as a direct result of the act; (4) attempted to kill the President of the United States; or (5) intentionally engaged in an act constituting reckless disregard for human life, knowing that the act created a grave risk of death to someone other than the participants, and the victim died as a direct result of the act.

Sets forth special aggravating factors with respect to the crimes of treason, espionage, homicide, and attempted murder of the President.

States that no person who was less than 18 years of age at the time of the offense may be sentenced to death. Prohibits the execution of mentally retarded persons or pregnant women.

Directs the court, or the jury by unanimous vote, to impose the death penalty upon a finding that such sentence is justified based on consideration of both the aggravating and mitigating factors.

Requires the court to instruct the jury: (1) not to consider the race, color, national origin, creed, or sex of the defendant or any victim in its consideration of the sentence; and (2) that it is not required to return a death sentence.

Establishes procedures for appeal from a death sentence. Requires the Court of Appeals to review the record, address all substantive and procedural issues raised on appeal, and consider whether such sentence was imposed under the influence of passion, prejudice, or any other arbitrary factor whether the evidence supports the special finding of the existence of the required aggravating factor. Specifies that whenever such court finds that the sentence was imposed under such influence, the admissible evidence adduced does not support such special finding, or other legal error requires reversal of the sentence, the court shall remand the case for reconsideration or impose a sentence other than death (and, in any other case, remand for reconsideration). Requires the court to provide a written explanation of its determination.

Prohibits requiring any employee of any State department of corrections, the Federal Bureau of Prisons, or any provider of services under contract to participate in any execution if participation is contrary to his or her moral or religious convictions.

Bars the imposition of a death sentence for a death-eligible offense committed in Indian country unless the Indian tribe having criminal jurisdiction over land and persons subject to such jurisdiction has elected to have this title apply in such cases.

Limits the circumstances under which the offense of delivering defense information to aid foreign governments is punishable by death.

Provides for the imposition of the death penalty for: (1) murders committed by prisoners in Federal correctional institutions; (2) kidnappings which result in the death of any person; (3) attempting to kill the President of the United States (if such attempt results in bodily injury or comes dangerously close to causing the President's death); (4) murder for hire; (5) murder in the aid of a racketeering activity; (6) engaging in a criminal enterprise activity which results in death; and (7) other specified offenses, including civil rights murders and certain murders involving damage to religious property or obstruction of persons in the free exercise of religious beliefs.

Racial Justice Act of 1991 - Amends the Federal judicial code to prohibit the imposition or execution of sentences of death under color of State or Federal law in a racially discriminatory pattern. Specifies that to establish such a pattern: (1) ordinary methods of statistical proof shall suffice; and (2) it shall not be necessary to show discriminatory intent on the part of any individual or institution.

Specifies that: (1) to establish a prima facie showing of a racially discriminatory pattern it shall suffice that death sentences are being imposed or executed upon persons of one race with a frequency disproportionate to their representation among the number of persons arrested for, charged with, or convicted of death-eligible crimes, or as punishment for crimes against persons of one race with a frequency that is disproportionate to their representation among persons against whom death-eligible crimes have been committed; and (2) to rebut such a showing, a State or Federal entity must establish by clear and convincing evidence that identifiable and pertinent nonracial factors persuasively explain the observable racial disparities comprising the pattern.

Requires any State or Federal entity that provides for the death penalty to designate a central agency to collect and maintain pertinent data on the charging, disposition, and sentencing patterns for all cases of death-eligible crimes. Directs each such entity to: (1) monitor compliance by local officials and agencies; (2) devise and distribute to every local official or agency responsible for the investigation or prosecution of death-eligible crimes a standard form to collect pertinent data; (3) maintain, compile, and index such forms and data and make them available to the public; (4) maintain a centralized, alphabetically indexed file of all police and investigative reports transmitted to it by local officials or agencies in every case of death-eligible crime; and (5) allow access to its file of police and investigative reports to the counsel of record for persons charged with death-eligible crimes.

Requires each local official responsible for the investigation or prosecution of death-eligible crimes to: (1) complete such form on every case of death-eligible crime; (2) transmit such form to the central agency within three months after disposition of each such case; and (3) transmit to such agency a copy of all police and investigative reports made in connection with each case of death-eligible crime.

Requires such data to include, at a minimum: (1) pertinent demographic information on all persons charged with the crime and all victims (including race, sex, age, and national origin); (2) information on the principal features of the crime; (3) information on the aggravating and mitigating factors of the crime, including the background and character of every person charged with the crime; and (4) a narrative summary of the crime.

Requires the court to appoint counsel for those financially unable to retain counsel and to furnish investigative, expert, or other services as necessary for the development of the claim of any such person, subject to certain limitations.

Specifies that no determination on the merits of a factual issue made by a State court pertinent to any claim under this Act shall be presumed to be correct unless: (1) the State is in compliance with the provisions of this Act; (2) the determination was made in a proceeding in a State court in which the person asserting the claim was afforded rights to counsel and to the furnishing of investigative, expert, and other such services which were substantially equivalent to those provided in this Act; and (3) the determination is one which is otherwise entitled to be presumed correct under the criteria specified under Federal habeas corpus provisions.

Title III: Death Penalty for Murder of Law Enforcement Officer Act - Authorizes the death penalty for the murder of: (1) Federal law enforcement officials; and (2) State law enforcement officers working with Federal agents.

Title IV: Death Penalty for Drug Criminals Act - Death Penalty for Drug Criminals Act of 1991 - Amends the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) to authorize the death penalty for first degree murders committed in the course of: (1) drug distribution conspiracies; (2) drug import and export conspiracies; (3) drug distribution to minors, near schools, or while employing minors; and (4) the export, import, or distribution of major quantities of drugs.

Title V: Prevention and Punishment of Terrorist Acts - Comprehensive Counter-Terrorism Act of 1991 - Subtitle A: Punishing Domestic and International Terrorist Acts - Part I: Terrorist Death Penalty Act of 1991 - Terrorist Death Penalty Act of 1991 - Amends the Federal criminal code to: (1) make it a Federal offense, punishable by up to life imprisonment, to commit terrorist acts against U.S. nationals abroad; and (2) authorize the imposition of the death penalty where terrorist acts against U.S. nationals result in first degree murder.

Part II: Terrorist Acts Committed in the United States - Authorizes the imposition of the death penalty for domestic terrorist acts that involve an individual acting as an agent of a foreign power and that result in first degree murder, and up to life imprisonment for acts that result in death that does not constitute first degree murder.

Sets forth penalties for attempts or conspiracy to kill (up to life imprisonment) and for engaging in physical violence that results in serious bodily injury (up to ten years' imprisonment, a fine, or both).

Specifies that, for purposes of this Act, a person possesses an intent to commit a terrorist act if such person intends to: (1) intimidate or coerce a civilian population; (2) influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion; or (3) affect the conduct of a government by assassination, kidnapping, or other violent act.

Part III: Increasing Penalties for International Terrorist Acts - Increases the penalties for terrorist acts committed against U.S. nationals abroad.

Subtitle B: Preventing Domestic and International Terrorist Acts - Part I: Attacking the Infrastructure of Terrorist Organizations - Makes it a Federal criminal offense for an individual, acting as an agent of a foreign power, to provide material support or resources (including currency, securities, communications equipment, facilities, weapons, personnel, and other physical assets), or to conceal or disguise the nature, location, source, or ownership of such support or resources, knowing that such resources or support are intended to be used to commit a terrorist act.

Provides for the civil and criminal seizure and forfeiture of any real or personal property used to commit, or facilitate the commission of, terrorist acts.

Part II: Electronic Communications - Expresses the sense of the Congress that providers of electronic communications services and manufacturers of electronic communications service equipment should ensure that communications systems permit the Government to obtain the plain text contents of voice, data, and other communications when appropriately authorized by law.

Part III: Cooperation of Witnesses in Terrorist Investigations - Alien Witness Cooperation Act of 1991 - Authorizes the Attorney General to waive immigration admission, and other legal, requirements and grant permanent resident status for alien witnesses who cooperate with the Government in Federal or State prosecutions. Bars the granting of such status to an alien who would be excluded because of felony convictions unless the Attorney General determines that the granting of such status to such alien is necessary in the interests of justice and comports with the safety of the community.

Limits the number of aliens and members of their immediate families entering the United States under such authority to 100 persons in any single fiscal year. Makes the decision to grant or deny permanent resident status under this Act at the discretion of the Attorney General and not subject to judicial review.

Subtitle C: Preventing Aviation Terrorism - Makes the willful violation of certain Federal Aviation Administration regulations relating to airport and airline security punishable by a fine, imprisonment for up to one year, or both.

Subtitle D: Preventing Economic Terrorism - Makes it a Federal criminal offense to counterfeit, or to make, deal, or possess any plate or other item used in the counterfeiting of, U.S. securities abroad.

Establishes an Economic Terrorism Task Force to: (1) assess the threat of terrorist actions directed against the U.S. economy and the adequacy of existing policies and procedures designed to prevent such actions; and (2) recommend administrative and legislative responses to prevent such actions.

Sets forth provisions: (1) regarding the makeup of such Task Force; (2) making provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act inapplicable to such Task Force; and (3) establishing reporting requirements. Specifies that if the report of the Task Force is classified, an unclassified version shall be prepared for public distribution.

Subtitle E: Authorizations to Expand Counter-Terrorist Operations by Federal Agencies - Authorizes appropriations for counter-terrorist operations and programs.

Title VI: Drive-By-Shooting Act - Drive-By-Shooting Prevention Act of 1991 - Sets penalties for any individual who, in furtherance or to escape detection of a major drug offense, with intent to intimidate, harass, injure, or maim, fires a weapon into a group of two or more people causing: (1) grave risk to human life (subject to a fine, up to 25 years' imprisonment, or both); and (2) death of one of those persons (including a sentence of death or life imprisonment without release).

Title VII: Assault Weapons - Antidrug, Assault Weapons Limitation Act of 1991 - Amends the Federal criminal code to prohibit the transfer, importation, receipt, or possession of any assault weapon, except: (1) by the Federal, State, or local government; and (2) with respect to weapons lawfully possessed before enactment of this Act. Specifies firearms to be included as assault weapons. Authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury to recommend to the Congress the addition or deletion of firearms to be designated as assault weapons.

Increases the length of imprisonment for an individual who uses or carries an assault weapon during and in relation to the commission of a crime of violence or a drug trafficking crime.

Prohibits the sale, shipment, or delivery (or purchase, possession, or acceptance of delivery) of an assault weapon to (or by) any person who does not fill out a specified form. Establishes recordkeeping requirements. Directs the Secretary to prescribe regulations for the request and delivery of such form.

Directs the Attorney General to: (1) investigate and study the effect of this title on violent and drug trafficking crime; and (2) submit to the Senate a report on its findings.

Specifies the effective period of this title.

Title VIII: Police Corps and Law Enforcement Training and Education Act - Police Corps and Law Enforcement Training and Education Act - Establishes within the Department of Justice (DOJ) an Office of the Police Corps and Law Enforcement Education to be headed by a Director.

Requires a State that desires to participate in the Police Corps program or the Law Enforcement Scholarship program to designate a lead agency and submit a State plan containing assurances with respect to: (1) lead agency cooperation with other State and local agencies; (2) the State advertising of the assistance available; (3) State screening and selection of law enforcement personnel for participation in the program; and (4) compliance with other specified requirements.

Subtitle A: Police Corps Program - Authorizes the Director to award scholarships (including direct payments to institutions and reimbursement of educational costs) to participants who agree to work for four years in a State or local police force after completion of a baccalaureate program and police corps training, subject to specified conditions. Sets forth provisions with respect to: (1) scholarship assistance for dependent children of law enforcement officers; (2) the selection of participants; (3) minority recruitment; and (4) leaves of absence.

Requires the Director to establish up to three training centers to provide basic law enforcement training to State Police Corps program participants. Requires participants to attend two eight-week training sessions at such training centers and to meet certain performance standards in order to remain in the Police Corps program. Requires the Director to pay participants a weekly stipend during training.

Requires a State, in order to participate in the Police Corps program, to submit a plan for implementing such program to the Director for approval. Requires such plan to: (1) include assurances that participants will receive additional State or local training after completing Federal training which shall count toward the four-year service obligation; and (2) provide that program participants shall be assigned to community and preventive patrol in geographic areas with the greatest need for additional law enforcement personnel. Provides for the swearing in of participants as members of the police force to which they are assigned after completing Federal training and meeting the requirements of that police force.

Authorizes appropriations.

Subtitle B: Law Enforcement Scholarship Program - Directs each State to pay from funds under this Act the Federal share (not more than 60 percent) of the cost of awarding scholarships to in-service law enforcement personnel for further education.

Sets forth State plan requirements, including identifying model curricula and existing programs and providing assurances that the State will promote cooperative agreements to enhance law enforcement personnel recruitment efforts in high schools and community colleges.

Sets forth application requirements. Grants priority in awarding scholarships to members of underrepresented groups and to those pursuing an undergraduate degree.

Requires each individual awarded a scholarship to work in a law enforcement position in the State which made the award for a period of one month for each credit hour of financial assistance (with a six-month minimum and two-year maximum).

Authorizes appropriations.

Subtitle C: Reports - Sets forth provisions requiring: (1) annual reports by the Director to the Attorney General, the President, and specified Members of Congress; and (2) a special report by the Attorney General to the Congress on a plan to expand scholarship assistance to eligible Federal law enforcement officers.

Title IX: Federal Law Enforcement Agencies - Federal Law Enforcement Act of 1991 - Authorizes appropriations for the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), U.S. attorneys, U.S. marshals, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, U.S. courts, and defender services.

Title X: Habeas Corpus Reform Act - Habeas Corpus Reform Act of 1991 - Amends the Federal judicial code to set forth special habeas corpus procedures in capital cases. Applies such procedures to Federal habeas corpus cases brought by prisoners in State custody who are subject to a capital sentence. Makes the applicability to such procedures contingent upon a State establishing a mechanism for the appointment, compensation, and payment of reasonable fees and litigation expenses of competent counsel consistent with this Act. Sets forth procedures for the appointment of counsel or for allowing a prisoner to proceed pro se.

Provides for a mandatory stay of execution during the post-conviction review initiated pursuant to this Act. Details conditions which will cause such stay to expire. Prohibits a Federal court, if one of such conditions has occurred, from entering a stay of execution or granting relief in a capital case unless: (1) the basis for the stay and request for relief is a claim not previously presented by the prisoner in the State or Federal courts, and the failure to raise the claim is the result of State action in violation of the Constitution or laws of United States, is the result of Supreme Court recognition of a new Federal right that is retroactively applicable, or is based on a factual predicate that could not have been discovered through the exercise of reasonable diligence; (2) the facts underlying the claim would be sufficient, if proven, to undermine the court's confidence in the jury's determination of guilt on the offense for which the death penalty was imposed; or (3) a stay and consideration of the requested relief are necessary to prevent a miscarriage of justice.

Imposes time limits on filing for habeas corpus relief. Requires such time limits to be tolled under specified conditions.

Requires the district court, upon the development of a complete evidentiary record, to rule on the merits of the claims properly before it. Authorizes a district court to refuse to consider a claim under this Act if: (1) the prisoner previously failed to raise the claim in State court at the time and in the manner prescribed by State law; (2) the State courts, for that reason, refused or would refuse to entertain the claim; and (3) such refusal would constitute an adequate and independent State law ground that would foreclose direct review of the State court judgment in the U.S. Supreme Court. Provides an exception to such authorization.

Makes the requirement for a certificate of probable cause inapplicable, with an exception.

States that a mechanism for the provision of counsel services to indigents sufficient to invoke the provisions of this Act shall provide for counsel to indigents: (1) charged with offenses for which capital punishment is sought; (2) who have been sentenced to death and who seek appellate or collateral review in State court; and (3) who have been sentenced to death and who seek certiorari review in the U.S. Supreme Court. Prescribes minimum qualifications for appointed counsel. Authorizes payment of fees and expenses for investigative, expert, or other services reasonably necessary for the representation of the defendant. Allows the court to fix the compensation to be paid to an attorney appointed under this Act.

Specifies which law is applicable in Federal habeas corpus proceedings.

Title XI: Punishment of Gun Criminals - Gun Criminals Punishment Act of 1991 - Requires that any individual who, during and in relation to any crime of violence or drug trafficking crime, discharges a firearm that kills another person, with intent to kill, be sentenced to death or life imprisonment without release. Increases penalties to be imposed in addition to penalties provided for a crime of violence or drug trafficking crime for carrying, possessing, or discharging a firearm during and in relation to such crime to up to ten years for any firearm and ten to 15 years for an assault weapon. Requires an individual to be sentenced to life imprisonment for a second conviction of such an offense if the firearm is an assault weapon. Directs the U.S. Sentencing Commission to promulgate, or amend existing, guidelines to provide for a sentencing enhancement in accord with such provisions.

Establishes penalties for possessing (current law covers only using and carrying) an explosive during the commission of a felony. Provides for 20 years imprisonment for using, carrying, or possessing an explosive, in the case of a second or subsequent conviction.

Increases (from five to ten years) the term of imprisonment for knowingly making a false, material statement in connection with the acquisition of a firearm from a licensed dealer.

Sets penalties for: (1) knowingly failing to acquire the proper form or its equivalent with respect to the transfer, transport, receipt, or possession of an assault weapon; and (2) theft of explosive materials.

Bars the sale of firearms and explosives to, or possession of firearms and explosives by, persons convicted of a violent or serious drug misdemeanor.

Permits a judicial officer to consider pretrial detention of a defendant for certain firearms and explosives offenses.

Amends provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 with respect to the disposal of forfeited firearms to authorize public sale to a licensed dealer, under specified conditions.

Title XII: Prison for Violent Drug Offenders - Authorizes appropriations for the construction, and operation for one year, of ten regional prisons. Sets forth provisions with respect to the location and population of such prisons, prisoner eligibility (State and Federal prisoners with release dates of not more than two years from the date of assignment to the prison who have long-term drug abuse problems and serious criminal histories, and who agree to the assignment), State responsibilities, and the powers of the Director of the Bureau of Prisons (e.g., to return any prisoner not complying with program requirements and conditions). Requires any State seeking to refer a State prisoner to a regional prison to submit to such Director an aftercare plan setting forth the provisions that the State will make for the continued treatment of the prisoner in a therapeutic community following release and providing for vocational job training where appropriate.

Title XIII: Boot Camps - Directs the Attorney General, within one year, to establish within the Bureau of Prisons ten military-style boot camp prisons. Sets forth provisions with respect to prison capacity, proportion of State to Federal prisoners, and eligibility requirements. Authorizes appropriations.

Title XIV: Youth Violence Act - Subtitle A: Increasing Penalties for Employing Children to Distribute Drugs Near Schools and Playgrounds - Amends the CSA to increase the penalty for employing, using, inducing, or coercing individuals under age 18 to violate provisions of such Act, or to assist in avoiding detection or apprehension for certain offenses under such Act by Federal, State, or local law enforcement officials.

Subtitle B: Antigang Grants - Amends the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 to authorize the Administrator of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention to make grants to States and units of general local government to assist them in planning, coordinating, and evaluating projects to reduce the formation or continuation of juvenile gangs and the use and sale of illegal drugs by juveniles. Specifies the allocation (50-50) of funds available to each State for juvenile drug supply and drug demand reduction programs. Directs the Administrator to give priority to programs aimed at juvenile involvement in organized gang- and drug-related activities. Authorizes appropriations.

Sets forth provisions with respect to application, and review and approval, procedures.

Subtitle C: Juvenile Penalties - Amends the Federal criminal code to: (1) add certain firearms offenses to the offenses over which the United States has juvenile delinquency jurisdiction; and (2) provide for the treatment of violent juveniles who commit firearms offenses as adults under certain circumstances. Specifies factors to be considered in transferring a juvenile to adult status.

Classifies as serious drug offenses for purposes of the Armed Career Criminal Act of 1984 serious drug offenses committed by juveniles.

Title XV: Rural Crime and Drug Control Act - Subtitle A: Fighting Drug Trafficking in Rural Areas - Amends the Omnibus Act to authorize appropriations, and increase the base allocation, for rural drug enforcement assistance.

Directs the Attorney General to establish a Rural Drug Enforcement Task Force in each of the Federal judicial districts which encompass significant rural lands. Specifies the membership of such task forces. Directs the Attorney General to cross-designate up to 100 Federal officers with jurisdiction to enforce CSA provisions on non-Federal lands to the extent necessary to effect the purposes of this title.

Requires the Director of the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center to develop a specialized course of instruction devoted to training law enforcement officers from rural agencies in the investigation of drug trafficking and related crimes. Authorizes appropriations.

Subtitle B: Increasing Penalties for Certain Drug Trafficking Offenses - Ice Enforcement Act of 1991 - Amends the CSA to increase penalties for specified offenses involving crystalline methamphetamine.

Subtitle C: Rural Drug Prevention and Treatment - Amends the Public Health Service Act to require the Director of the Office for Treatment Improvement to establish a program to provide grants to hospitals, community health centers, and other appropriate entities that serve nonmetropolitan areas to assist in developing and implementing projects that provide, or expand the availability of, substance abuse treatment services. Authorizes appropriations.

Requires the alcohol and drug abuse information clearinghouse required to be established under the Public Health Service Act to: (1) gather information pertaining to the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration and other rural drug abuse treatment and education projects operating throughout the United States; and (2) disseminate information to rural hospitals, community health centers, community mental health centers, treatment facilities, community organizations, and other interested individuals.

Subtitle D: Rural Land Recovery Act - Specifies that each of the Rural Drug Enforcement Task Forces shall include one Director of Rural Land Recovery.

Requires that assets seized from rural clandestine methamphetamine and other dangerous drugs laboratory operations and their operators be used primarily to fund the decontamination of the property and immediate environment chemically fouled by such operations or operators (and any remaining assets used to decontaminate other such sites throughout the jurisdiction of the task force).

Directs State and Federal prosecutors, when bringing charges against the operators of such laboratories, to include, in addition to drug-related charges, counts involving infringements of applicable environmental protection laws, including illegal disposal of hazardous waste and knowing endangerment of the environment. Authorizes such prosecutors and private citizens to bring suit against the operators of such laboratories for environmental and health-related damages caused by the operators in their manufacture of illicit substances.

Title XVI: Drug Emergency Areas Act of 1991 - Drug Emergency Areas Act of 1991 - Amends the National Narcotics Leadership Act of 1988 to replace language with respect to the designation of high intensity drug trafficking areas with provisions authorizing the President to declare a State or part of a State to be a drug emergency area.

Requires requests for such a declaration to be made, in writing, by the Governor or chief executive officer of any affected State or local government and forwarded to the President through the Director of National Drug Control Policy. Allows cities, counties, or States to submit a joint request. Requires requests to be based on a written finding that the emergency is of such severity and magnitude that Federal assistance is necessary to ensure an effective response.

Prohibits the President from limiting declarations made under this Act to highly-populated centers of drug trafficking, drug use, or drug-related violence. Requires the President to consider applications from governments of less populated areas where the magnitude and severity of such activities are beyond the capability of the State or local government to respond.

Requires Governors or chief executive officers, as part of such requests and as a prerequisite to such assistance, to: (1) take appropriate action under State or local law to respond to the crisis and furnish information on the nature and amount of State and local resources which have been or will be committed to alleviating the emergency; (2) certify that State and local government obligations and expenditures will comply with all applicable cost-sharing requirements; and (3) submit a detailed plan outlining the State or local government's short- and long-term plans to respond to the emergency.

Requires the Director to review requests submitted and forward the application to the President, along with a recommendation.

Authorizes the President to make grants to State or local governments of up to $50,000,000 for any single emergency. Limits the Federal share to 75 percent of the costs necessary to implement the short- and long-term plan.

Limits the duration of assistance to a drug disaster area to one year, after the Governors or chief executive officers may apply for an extension of up to 180 days.

Requires any State or local government receiving Federal assistance to balance the allocation of such assistance evenly between drug supply and demand reduction efforts, unless State or local conditions dictate otherwise.

Authorizes the President to: (1) direct any Federal agency to utilize its authorities and resources to support State and local efforts; and (2) provide technical and advisory assistance.

Title XVII: Drunk Driving Child Protection Act - Drunk Driving Child Protection Act of 1991 - Amends the Assimilative Crimes Statute to require the imposition of a Federal penalty (if not already imposed by a State) of one year imprisonment and a $1,000 fine in addition to any term of imprisonment under State law for driving under the influence of drugs or alcohol if a non-driving minor was present in the vehicle at the time of the offense.

Amends the common carrier provisions of the Federal criminal code to increase the penalty for operating a common carrier under the influence of drugs or alcohol if a non-driving minor is present in the vehicle by up to one year's imprisonment and an additional $1,000 fine.

Title XVIII: Commission on Crime and Violence - Establishes the National Commission on Crime and Violence in America to: (1) develop a comprehensive crime control plan to serve as a blueprint for action in the 1990s; (2) bring attention to successful models and programs; (3) reach beyond the traditional criminal justice community for ideas; and (4) recommend improvements in local, State, and Federal coordination.

Sets forth the composition of the Commission, its responsibilities, administrative provisions, reporting requirements, and its termination date.

Title XIX: Protection of Crime Victims - Victims' Rights and Restitution Act of 1991 - Amends the Victims of Crime Act of 1984, as amended, to eliminate the cap on the crime victims fund. Requires all Federal law enforcement agencies to make their best efforts to accord victims of crime with the right to: (1) be treated with fairness and respect for the victim's dignity and privacy; (2) be protected against their accused offenders; (3) be notified of court proceedings; (4) attend public court proceedings related to the offense under certain conditions; (5) confer with the Government attorney assigned to the case; (6) receive restitution; and (7) receive information about the conviction, sentencing, imprisonment, and release of the offender.

Directs Federal law enforcement agency heads to designate the persons required by this Act to identify and provide certain services to the victims of a crime such as informing victims about where to receive medical care, counseling, and police protection and about developments during the investigation and prosecution of the crime and after the trial (such as the arrest of a suspected offender or an escape of a convicted offender).

Directs the Attorney General or the head of another department or agency that conducts an investigation of a sexual assault to pay, either directly or by reimbursement, the cost of a physical examination of the victim which an investigating officer determines was necessary or useful for evidentiary purposes.

Directs that a responsible official provide the victim with general information regarding the corrections process, including information about work release, furlough, and probation.

Requires (current law authorizes) the court to order restitution payments for specified violations of the Federal criminal code and the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. Authorizes the court, in addition to ordering restitution of the victim of the offense of which a defendant is convicted, to order restitution of persons harmed physically, emotionally, or pecuniarily by defendant's unlawful conduct during which the offense occurred or during the course of a scheme, conspiracy, or pattern of unlawful activity related to the offense. Sets forth additional provisions with respect to determination of amounts owed to the victim, set-offs, enforcement of restitution orders, and procedures for issuing such orders.

Amends the Federal Bankruptcy code to make an exception to a discharge in bankruptcy to the extent that the debt arises from a proceeding brought by a governmental unit to recover a civil or criminal restitution, or to the extent that such debt arises from an agreed judgment or other agreement by the debtor to pay money or transfer property in settlement of such an action by a governmental unit.

Title XX: Crack House Eviction Act - Amends the CSA to authorize: (1) the Attorney General to bring a civil action against violators of prohibitions against maintaining places for the manufacture, distribution, or use of controlled substances; and (2) the court to assess a civil penalty of up to $100,000 and grant such other relief, including injunctions and evictions, as appropriate.

Directs the Attorney General to: (1) aggressively pursue the use of criminal penalties, civil injunctions, forfeiture sanctions, and other remedies against drug offenders; and (2) report annually to the Congress on the manner and extent to which such remedies are being used and their effect in curtailing drug trafficking.

Title XXI: Organized Crime and Dangerous Drugs Division - Subtitle A: Establishment of an Organized Crime and Dangerous Drugs Division in the Department of Justice - Justice Department Organized Crime and Drug Enforcement Enhancement Act of 1991 - Establishes within DOJ the Organized Crime and Dangerous Drugs Division, consisting initially of specified offices within the Criminal Division of DOJ and the Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force Program. Transfers to such Division all functions, personnel, and available funds of such offices and program.

Requires such Division to be headed by an Assistant Attorney General for the Organized Crime and Dangerous Drug Division and a Deputy Assistant.

Establishes within such Division such sections and offices as the Attorney General deems appropriate to maintain or increase the level of enforcement activities with respect to criminal racketeering, narcotics trafficking, money laundering, asset forfeiture, international crime, and civil enforcement.

Directs the Attorney General to establish at least 20 field offices of the Division to be known as Organized Crime and Dangerous Drug Strike Forces. Sets forth additional provisions with respect to coordination of field activities and the transfer of staff assigned to the Task Forces to the Division (designated the Criminal Narcotics Section).

Specifies that the agents assigned to the Strike Forces shall be dedicated exclusively to, and located with, the Strike Forces and shall be given credit for the work of the Strike Forces.

Requires the Assistant Attorney General for Organized Crime and Dangerous Drugs to report to the Congress on the areas of the United States that may require increased assistance from DOJ through the establishment of additional strike forces.

Authorizes appropriations for salaries and expenses of the Division for FY 1992, subject to certain limitations.

Subtitle B: International Prosecution Teams - Requires the Division to include at least ten International Drug Enforcement Teams: (1) devoted exclusively to investigating, prosecuting, and supporting the investigation and prosecution of international drug cases; and (2) responsible for developing expertise in handling civil and criminal cases involving extradition, money laundering, drug-related corruption, and other complex cases relating to international drug trafficking.

Specifies relationships of team members and goals, including improved coordination and cooperation between the United States and foreign countries in the suppression of international money laundering and narcotics trafficking.

Title XXII: Exclusionary Rule - Amends the Federal criminal code to bar the exclusion of evidence obtained as a result of a search or seizure that was in violation of the fourth amendment to the Constitution if the search or seizure was carried out in reasonable reliance on a warrant that was issued by a detached and neutral magistrate and that was ultimately found to be invalid, unless: (1) the judicial officer in issuing the warrant was materially misled by information in an affidavit that the affiant knew was false or would have known was false except for this reckless disregard of the truth; (2) the judicial officer provided approval of the warrant without exercising a neutral and detached review of the application for the warrant; (3) the warrant was based on an affidavit so lacking in indicia of probable cause as to render official belief in its existence entirely unreasonable; or (4) the warrant is so facially deficient that the executing officers could not reasonably presume it to be valid.

Title XXIII: Drug Testing - Federal Prisoner Drug Testing Act of 1991 - Amends the Federal criminal code to require, as a condition of probation, supervised release, or parole, that the defendant pass a drug test prior to the imposition of sentence, refrain from any unlawful use of a controlled substance, and submit to at least two periodic drug tests (as determined by the court) for use of a controlled substance.

Specifies that no action may be taken against a defendant pursuant to such a drug test unless the test confirmation is a urine drug test confirmed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques or one determined to be of equivalent accuracy.