Text: H.R.2501 — 103rd Congress (1993-1994)All Information (Except Text)

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Introduced in House (06/23/1993)

 
[Congressional Bills 103th Congress]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]
[H.R. 2501 Introduced in House (IH)]

103d CONGRESS
  1st Session
                                H. R. 2501

   To assist in implementing the Plan of Action adopted by the World 
                          Summit for Children.


_______________________________________________________________________


                    IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

                             June 23, 1993

Mr. Hall of Ohio (for himself, Mr. Walsh, Mrs. Kennelly, Mr. McCollum, 
 Mr. McDermott, Mr. Schiff, Mr. Synar, Mr. Coyne, Mrs. Schroeder, Mr. 
Jacobs, Mr. Beilenson, Ms. Norton, Mr. Ravenel, Mr. Bacchus of Florida, 
   Mr. Deutsch, Mr. Sanders, Ms. Byrne, Mr. Filner, and Mr. Pastor) 
   introduced the following bill; which was referred jointly to the 
   Committees on Education and Labor, Foreign Affairs, and Banking, 
                       Finance and Urban Affairs

_______________________________________________________________________

                                 A BILL


 
   To assist in implementing the Plan of Action adopted by the World 
                          Summit for Children.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ``World Summit for Children 
Implementation Act of 1993''.

SEC. 2. FINDINGS AND PURPOSES.

    (a) Findings.--The Congress finds the following:
            (1) The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) estimates 
        that 35,000 children die each day from malnutrition and 
        preventable disease.
            (2) The World Summit for Children held in 1990, the largest 
        gathering of heads of state and heads of government up until 
        that time, united the world in a commitment to protect the 
        lives of children, diminish their suffering, and enhance their 
        futures.
            (3) This commitment is reflected in specific goals that 
        require international cooperation and the commitment of all 
        nations, goals which were incorporated in Agenda 21 at the 1992 
        Earth Summit and which were also endorsed in the World 
        Declaration on Nutrition adopted at the 1992 International 
        Conference on Nutrition. The World Summit for Children goals 
        include cutting child deaths by at least \1/3\, halving 
        maternal mortality and child malnutrition, providing all 
        children access to a basic education, and providing all 
        families access to clean water, safe sanitation, and family 
        planning services.
            (4) The United Nations Children's Fund estimates that these 
        goals could be implemented by the year 2000 with a global 
        commitment of just $25,000,000,000 annually, to be achieved 
        through reallocation of resources to increase the proportion of 
        resources going to meet basic human needs, with \2/3\ of those 
        resources coming from the developing nations themselves and \1/
        3\ from the industrialized nations.
            (5) The United Nations Children's Fund estimates that 
        currently only 10 percent of developing country budgets and 
        less than 10 percent of all international assistance for 
        development is devoted to meeting basic human needs.
            (6) If that proportion were doubled to just 20 percent, 
        through reallocation of current resources and without requiring 
        additional resources, this would provide the additional 
        $25,000,000,000 the United Nations Children's Fund estimates is 
        required annually to achieve by the year 2000 the goals of the 
        World Summit for Children.
            (7) The United States Government participated in the World 
        Summit for Children and signed the Declaration and Plan of 
        Action adopted at that Summit.
            (8) Participants in the Summit committed themselves and 
        their governments--
                    (A) to prepare, before the end of 1991, national 
                programs of action to help implement the goals and 
                objectives of the Summit, and
                    (B) to take steps to ensure that child survival, 
                protection, and development programs will have a 
                priority in the allocation of resources.
            (9) The United States Government should implement a plan of 
        action to fulfill its commitment to children, both at home and 
        abroad.
    (b) Purposes.--The purposes of this Act are--
            (1) to help fulfill the commitment of the United States 
        Government to children; and
            (2) to provide the necessary authorities to implement the 
        United States plan of action.

SEC. 3. SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS, AND 
              CHILDREN (WIC).

    (a) Findings.--The Congress finds the following:
            (1) In 1990, the Surgeon General and the United States 
        Public Health Service announced Healthy People 2000 goals for 
        America's children. These goals include reducing the United 
        States infant mortality rate and the incidence of low 
        birthweight by \1/3\ by the year 2000, as well as the 
        initiation of breastfeeding by 75 percent of mothers and the 
        continuation of breastfeeding at 6 months postpartum by 50 
        percent of mothers.
            (2) The special supplemental food program for women, 
        infants, and children authorized under section 17 of the Child 
        Nutrition Act of 1966 (in this section referred to as the ``WIC 
        Program'') is intended to benefit low-income women at risk of 
        delivering low birthweight babies, low-income infants and 
        children at risk of malnutrition, and low-income nursing 
        mothers.
            (3) It has been demonstrated that participation in the WIC 
        Program reduces, in a cost-effective manner, the number of 
        premature births and the percentage of infants born at low 
        birthweight, a major cause of infant mortality and 
        developmental disabilities, and decreases the prevalence of 
        iron deficiency anemia in children, and improves children's 
        cognitive development.
            (4) Increasing the rate of breastfeeding among mothers 
        participating in the WIC Program would result in greater 
        improvements in the health of infants and mothers, further 
        reductions in infant mortality, and decreases in health care 
        costs and infant formula expenditures.
            (5) Particular attention needs to be given to promoting 
        breastfeeding within the WIC Program through activities which 
        include support of peer counselors working through the WIC 
        Program, utilization of lactation consultants in WIC Program 
        clinics and in hospitals, and training of health professionals 
        in lactation management and development of education materials.
            (6) The WIC Program currently serves 58 percent of the 
        eligible population and actions need to be taken to move toward 
        service to the entire eligible population.
    (b) Full Participation in the WIC Program.--It is the sense of the 
Congress that--
            (1) the United States Government should make a commitment 
        to achieving full participation in the WIC Program by fiscal 
        year 1996; and
            (2) in order to reach the goal of full participation, not 
        less than $3,287,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 and not less than 
        $3,564,000,000 for the fiscal year 1995 should be appropriated 
        to carry out the WIC Program.

SEC. 4. PROGRAMS UNDER THE HEAD START ACT.

    (a) Findings.--The Congress finds the following:
            (1) In 1990, the President and the Governors of the 50 
        States met at the Education Summit and set United States 
        education goals for the year 2000, including the goal that all 
        children start school ready to learn.
            (2) Since their inception in 1964, programs under the Head 
        Start Act have established an impressive record in providing 
        preschool-age children from low-income families with 
        comprehensive services to address educational, social, 
        nutritional, and health needs.
            (3) Head Start programs serve only about \1/3\ of eligible 
        children between 3 and 5 years of age.
    (b) Full Funding for the Head Start Act.--It is the sense of the 
Congress that--
            (1) the Federal Government should make a commitment to 
        achieving full participation of all eligible 3- and 4-year-old 
        children in Head Start programs by the fiscal year 1999, and
            (2) in order to reach the goal of such full participation, 
        not less than $4,150,000,000 for the fiscal year 1994, and not 
        less than $4,970,000,000 for the fiscal year 1995, should be 
        appropriated to carry out the Head Start Act.

SEC. 5. INTERNATIONAL INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY.

    (a) Findings.--The Congress finds the following:
            (1) During the last decade the international campaign to 
        save the lives of children has resulted in dramatic increases 
        in the adoption of low-cost measures to save children's lives, 
        such as immunizations and oral rehydration therapy.
            (2) In September 1991, the United Nations Children's Fund 
        and the World Health Organization were able to report that the 
        goal of 80 percent childhood immunization had been achieved, 
        saving over 12,000,000 young lives during the last decade and 
        continuing to save over 3,000,000 children's lives each year.
            (3) The Plan of Action adopted by the World Summit for 
        Children calls for the reduction of under-5 mortality rates by 
        at least \1/3\ by the year 2000.
            (4) Such progress is possible by consolidating gains 
        already made, and by pursuing new goals and effective programs 
        in such areas as measles, neonatal tetanus, poliomyelitis, and 
        acute respiratory infections.
            (5) Efforts should focus on the delivery of community-based 
        primary health care and health education services which 
        directly benefit the poorest of the poor, with an emphasis 
        toward small scale projects rather than large scale 
        infrastructure projects. Such assistance should be provided 
        through private and voluntary organizations and international 
        organizations whenever possible.
            (6) Both the United Nations Children's Fund and the United 
        States Agency for International Development have provided 
        strong leadership as well as financial and technical support 
        for these goals.
    (b) Contributions to UNICEF.--To carry out section 301 of the 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2221; relating to voluntary 
contributions to international organizations and programs), there are 
authorized to be appropriated $115,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 and 
$130,000,000 for fiscal year 1995 for contributions to the United 
Nations Children's Fund for activities to promote child health and 
other assistance programs on behalf of children.
    (c) Child Survival Activities.--Section 104(c)(2) of the Foreign 
Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151b(c)(2); relating to the Child 
Survival Fund) is amended--
            (1) in subparagraph (B), by striking out ``$25,000,000 for 
        fiscal year 1986 and $75,000,000 for fiscal year 1987'' and 
        inserting in lieu thereof ``$150,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 
        and $210,000,000 for fiscal year 1995''; and
            (2) by inserting after subparagraph (C) the following:
    ``(D) Of the aggregate of the amounts made available to carry out 
subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, sections 103(a) and section 106 of 
this chapter, chapter 10 of this part, and chapter 4 of part II and for 
the Multilateral Assistance Initiative for the Philippines, not less 
than $405,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 and not less than $490,000,000 
for fiscal year 1995 shall be available only for activities described 
in subparagraph (A), with a particular emphasis on delivery of 
community-based primary health care and health education services which 
benefit the poorest of the poor. Such assistance shall be provided 
through private and voluntary organizations and international 
organizations whenever possible.''.

SEC. 6. GLOBAL MALNUTRITION.

    (a) Findings.--The Congress finds the following:
            (1) Malnutrition (including protein-calorie malnutrition 
        and micronutrient deficiencies), which is currently the 
        underlying cause of death in the vast majority of childhood 
        diseases, is preventable at low cost.
            (2) Vitamin A deficiency remains a scourge of children in 
        developing countries. If access to vitamin A is not increased, 
        an estimated 2,000,000 children face blindness in the 1990s and 
        tens of millions more face increased risk of infection and 
        death. Vitamin A intake has been associated with significant 
        reductions in infant mortality rates.
            (3) One billion people are at risk of iodine deficiency 
        disease, with the very young being most vulnerable. Iodine 
        deficiency is a major cause of mental retardation worldwide.
            (4) Two billion people suffer from some degree of iron 
        deficiency anemia, particularly women of childbearing age and 
        young children.
            (5) The Plan of Action adopted at the World Summit for 
        Children calls for halving severe and moderate malnutrition 
        among children under 5 years of age by the year 2000, for the 
        virtual elimination of vitamin A deficiency and iodine 
        deficiency disorders by the year 2000, and for the reduction of 
        iron deficiency anemia among women of childbearing age by \1/3\ 
        of the 1990 levels.
            (6) The Congress has already undertaken substantial action 
        to address this problem in the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, 
        and Trade Act of 1990, which established food security for the 
        poorest and the prevention of malnutrition as priorities in 
        food assistance programs administered by the Agency for 
        International Development under the Agriculture Trade 
        Development and Assistance Act of 1954.
            (7) Child survival activities are also key to reducing 
        child malnutrition and must be pursued in conjunction with 
        efforts to ensure food security.
            (8) Section 411 of the Agricultural Trade Development and 
        Assistance Act of 1954 (7 U.S.C. 1736e), as amended by the 
        Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, 
        authorizes the forgiveness of Public Law 480 debt owed by least 
        developed countries that are pursuing national economic policy 
        reforms that would promote long-term economic development, but 
        the exercise of that authority requires further action by the 
        Congress in an appropriations Act.
    (b) Public Law 480 Debt Authority.--It is the sense of the Congress 
that authority, in such amounts as may be required, should be granted 
to the President in an appropriations Act to exercise the debt 
authority with respect to least developed countries that is provided in 
section 411 of the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 
1954.
    (c) Vitamin A Deficiency Program.--Section 103 of the Foreign 
Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151a; relating to development 
assistance for agriculture, rural development, and nutrition) is 
amended by adding at the end the following new subsection:
    ``(h) Vitamin A Deficiency Program.--(1) The Congress finds that--
            ``(A) vitamin A deficiency is a major cause of childhood 
        mortality;
            ``(B) vitamin A intervention programs are inexpensive, 
        practical to administer, and cost-effective in terms of human 
        productivity; and
            ``(C) the Agency for International Development is already 
        implementing a Vitamin A Deficiency Program.
    ``(2) Of the amounts made available to carry out this section, not 
less than $28,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 and not less than 
$42,000,000 for fiscal year 1995 shall be available only for Vitamin A 
supplementation and fortification through the Vitamin A Deficiency 
Program.''.
    (d) Other Micronutrient Deficiencies.--In addition to amounts 
otherwise available for such programs, there are authorized to be 
appropriated $22,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 and $33,000,000 for 
fiscal year 1995 for iodine and iron fortification programs, and for 
iron supplementation programs for pregnant women, under part I of the 
Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.

SEC. 7. MATERNAL AND CHILD MORTALITY RESULTING FROM AIDS.

    (a) Findings.--The Congress finds the following:
            (1) As of 1992, nearly 5,000,000 women of childbearing age 
        and over 1,000,000 children were infected with the human 
        immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes the 
        acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The vast majority 
        of these women and children live in developing countries.
            (2) The maternal and child mortality rate in many 
        developing countries will increase dramatically, as will the 
        number of orphans infected with the human immunodeficiency 
        virus, until prevention and control efforts are successful.
            (3) The most effective efforts to respond to the human 
        immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome 
        are based at the community level and involve nongovernmental 
        organizations as well as government agencies.
            (4) The Agency for International Development should expand 
        its assistance to developing countries for community-based 
        prevention, care, and control programs and activities relating 
        to the human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune 
        deficiency syndrome, and should participate in coordinated 
        efforts with other donors.
            (5) Coordination of efforts of bilateral, multilateral, and 
        nongovernmental agencies and organizations is essential.
    (b) International AIDS Prevention and Control Fund.--Section 104(c) 
of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151b(c); relating to 
development assistance for health related activities) is amended by 
adding at the end the following new paragraph:
    ``(4)(A) In carrying out this subsection, the President shall 
promote, encourage, and undertake community-based prevention, care, and 
control programs and activities relating to the human immunodeficiency 
virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 
developing countries, including research as to the effectiveness of 
such programs and activities.
    ``(B) There are authorized to be appropriated $100,000,000 for 
fiscal year 1994 and $120,000,000 for fiscal year 1995 for use in 
carrying out this paragraph, which shall be in addition to amounts made 
available under subsection (g) or otherwise available for such purpose. 
Amounts appropriated under this subparagraph are authorized to remain 
available until expended.
    ``(C) Appropriations pursuant to subparagraph (B) may be referred 
to as the `International AIDS Prevention and Control Fund'.''.

SEC. 8. INTERNATIONAL BASIC EDUCATION.

    (a) Findings.--The Congress finds the following:
            (1) Primary education, early childhood development 
        activities, and programs to achieve literacy, are essential for 
        increasing the productive capacity of people and their ability 
        to earn income.
            (2) At least 130,000,000 children of primary school age, 
        \2/3\ of them girls, are not enrolled in school. Thirty-four 
        countries have literacy rates of 40 percent or less.
            (3) The share of government resources devoted to education 
        in more than half of the 40 poorest countries in the world has 
        decreased since 1980.
            (4) The Plan of Action adopted by the World Summit for 
        Children calls for basic education for all children and for 
        completion of primary education by at least 80 percent of all 
        children.
            (5) United States assistance for basic education in 
        developing countries has accounted for less than 2 percent of 
        all United States foreign assistance in recent years.
    (b) International Basic Education.--Section 105 of the Foreign 
Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151c; relating to development 
assistance for education and human resource development) is amended by 
adding at the end the following new subsection:
    ``(c) Basic Education.--Of the aggregate of the amounts made 
available to carry out this section, chapter 10 of this part, and 
chapter 4 of part II and for the Multilateral Assistance Initiative for 
the Philippines, not less than $225,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 and 
not less than $380,000,000 for fiscal year 1995 shall be available only 
for programs in support of basic education, including early childhood 
education, primary education, teacher training, and other necessary 
activities in support of early childhood and primary education, and 
literacy training for adults.''.

SEC. 9. INTERNATIONAL FAMILY PLANNING AND CHILD SPACING.

    (a) Findings.--The Congress finds the following:
            (1) Universal access to voluntary family planning could 
        save the lives of several million children each year and could 
        significantly improve the health of children throughout the 
        developing world by reducing prematurity and low birthweight 
        and allowing longer breastfeeding.
            (2) The risk of maternal death or illness in the developing 
        world is highest for women who bear children when they are 
        under the age of 18 or over the age of 35, for pregnancies 
        spaced less than 2 years apart, and for women who already have 
        4 or more children. Universal access to voluntary family 
        planning could prevent up to \1/3\ of the 500,000 maternal 
        deaths annually.
            (3) The inability of couples to plan births decreases the 
        quality of women's lives and undermines their opportunities for 
        education, for earning income, for improving the care of 
        children, and for community activities and personal 
        development.
            (4) Rapid world population growth, combined with 
        unsustainable patterns of natural resource consumption, has 
        become an urgent economic, social, and environmental problem.
            (5) Demographic and health surveys indicate that if all 
        women in the developing world who do not wish to become 
        pregnant were empowered to plan the size of their families, 
        then the rate of population growth would fall by approximately 
        30 percent.
            (6) The Plan of Action adopted at the World Summit for 
        Children calls for voluntary family planning services and 
        education to be made available to all couples to empower them 
        to prevent unwanted pregnancies and births which are ``too many 
        and too close'' and to women who are ``too young or too old''.
    (b) Authorizations of Appropriations.--In addition to any other 
amounts made available for such purposes, there are authorized to be 
appropriated to the President for United States population assistance 
programs and activities under part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 
1961 $725,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 and $800,000,000 for fiscal year 
1995.

SEC. 10. REFUGEES.

    (a) Findings.--The Congress finds the following:
            (1) The number of refugees worldwide has grown from 
        10,000,000 in 1985 to 17,400,000 in 1993. In addition, there 
        are estimated to be more than 24,000,000 internally displaced 
        persons. More than half of these refugees and internally 
        displaced persons are children.
            (2) The dramatic growth in the number of refugees and 
        displaced persons has resulted in serious reductions in legal 
        assistance and protection, health, nutrition, and basic 
        education services available to them.
            (3) Refugee children are particularly vulnerable in first 
        asylum camps from Africa to Southeast Asia where they languish 
        without the comfort of a parent or adult guardian.
    (b) Funding for Refugee Assistance Programs.--It is the sense of 
the Congress that--
            (1) not less than $760,000,000 for each of fiscal years 
        1994 and 1995 should be appropriated for the ``Migration and 
        Refugee Assistance'' account, of which not less than 
        $420,000,000 for each fiscal year should be available only for 
        programs of refugee assistance overseas (in addition to the 
        amounts available for programs for refugees from the former 
        Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and elsewhere who resettle in 
        Israel); and
            (2) not less than $100,000,000 for each of fiscal years 
        1994 and 1995 should be appropriated for the ``United States 
        Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund'' account.

SEC. 11. THE WORLD BANK.

    (a) Instructions to U.S. Executive Directors.--The Secretary of the 
Treasury shall instruct the United States Executive Director of the 
World Bank to promote vigorously that the World Bank take action--
            (1) to ensure that poverty reduction and support of basic 
        human needs become a higher priority within the Bank, 
        specifically through increasing the proportion of International 
        Development Association investments that fall within the 
        program of targeted interventions against poverty to 40 percent 
        of all International Development Association investments by 
        fiscal year 1994 and to at least 50 percent of all 
        International Development Association investments by fiscal 
        year 1995;
            (2) within the field of water and sanitation, to ensure 
        that the majority of water and sanitation projects fall within 
        the program of targeted interventions against poverty and to 
        increase significantly the proportion of World Bank lending for 
        projects utilizing basic low-cost technologies to provide water 
        and sanitation to underserved poor populations in deprived 
        rural and periurban areas; and
            (3) to increase the proportion of total World Bank lending 
        which supports primary health care and basic education, with a 
        minimum of 5 percent of total lending devoted to each area.
    (b) Definition.--As used in this section the term ``World Bank'' 
means the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the 
International Development Association.

SEC. 12. EFFORTS BY OTHER COUNTRIES.

    The President shall call upon the governments of other countries to 
provide their share of the resources required to achieve the World 
Summit for Children goals by the year 2000, specifically through giving 
highest priority to increasing the proportion of public expenditures 
and foreign assistance devoted to priority human needs areas outlined 
in the Declaration and Plan of Action of the World Summit for Children.

SEC. 13. ANNUAL REPORT.

    (a) Requirement for Report.--In order that the Congress and the 
American people may be fully informed of efforts undertaken by the 
United States Government to fulfill agreements signed by the United 
States at the World Summit for Children, the President shall report 
annually to the Congress on United States contributions to the 
achievement of the goals of the World Summit for Children. Each such 
report should include--
            (1) a discussion of efforts by the United States to achieve 
        those goals both within the United States and in other 
        countries; and
            (2) a comparative analysis of current and past funding 
        levels and planned funding levels for the next 2 fiscal years.
    (b) Submission Date.--The reports required by this section shall be 
submitted to the Congress no later than February 1 of each year.

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HR 2501 IH----2