H.R.2501 - World Summit for Children Implementation Act of 1993103rd Congress (1993-1994)
|Sponsor:||Rep. Hall, Tony P. [D-OH-3] (Introduced 06/23/1993)|
|Committees:||House - Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs; Education and Labor; Foreign Affairs|
|Latest Action:||House - 07/15/1993 Referred to the Subcommittee on Human Resources. (All Actions)|
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Introduced in House (06/23/1993)
[Congressional Bills 103th Congress] [From the U.S. Government Printing Office] [H.R. 2501 Introduced in House (IH)] 103d CONGRESS 1st Session H. R. 2501 To assist in implementing the Plan of Action adopted by the World Summit for Children. _______________________________________________________________________ IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES June 23, 1993 Mr. Hall of Ohio (for himself, Mr. Walsh, Mrs. Kennelly, Mr. McCollum, Mr. McDermott, Mr. Schiff, Mr. Synar, Mr. Coyne, Mrs. Schroeder, Mr. Jacobs, Mr. Beilenson, Ms. Norton, Mr. Ravenel, Mr. Bacchus of Florida, Mr. Deutsch, Mr. Sanders, Ms. Byrne, Mr. Filner, and Mr. Pastor) introduced the following bill; which was referred jointly to the Committees on Education and Labor, Foreign Affairs, and Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs _______________________________________________________________________ A BILL To assist in implementing the Plan of Action adopted by the World Summit for Children. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE. This Act may be cited as the ``World Summit for Children Implementation Act of 1993''. SEC. 2. FINDINGS AND PURPOSES. (a) Findings.--The Congress finds the following: (1) The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) estimates that 35,000 children die each day from malnutrition and preventable disease. (2) The World Summit for Children held in 1990, the largest gathering of heads of state and heads of government up until that time, united the world in a commitment to protect the lives of children, diminish their suffering, and enhance their futures. (3) This commitment is reflected in specific goals that require international cooperation and the commitment of all nations, goals which were incorporated in Agenda 21 at the 1992 Earth Summit and which were also endorsed in the World Declaration on Nutrition adopted at the 1992 International Conference on Nutrition. The World Summit for Children goals include cutting child deaths by at least \1/3\, halving maternal mortality and child malnutrition, providing all children access to a basic education, and providing all families access to clean water, safe sanitation, and family planning services. (4) The United Nations Children's Fund estimates that these goals could be implemented by the year 2000 with a global commitment of just $25,000,000,000 annually, to be achieved through reallocation of resources to increase the proportion of resources going to meet basic human needs, with \2/3\ of those resources coming from the developing nations themselves and \1/ 3\ from the industrialized nations. (5) The United Nations Children's Fund estimates that currently only 10 percent of developing country budgets and less than 10 percent of all international assistance for development is devoted to meeting basic human needs. (6) If that proportion were doubled to just 20 percent, through reallocation of current resources and without requiring additional resources, this would provide the additional $25,000,000,000 the United Nations Children's Fund estimates is required annually to achieve by the year 2000 the goals of the World Summit for Children. (7) The United States Government participated in the World Summit for Children and signed the Declaration and Plan of Action adopted at that Summit. (8) Participants in the Summit committed themselves and their governments-- (A) to prepare, before the end of 1991, national programs of action to help implement the goals and objectives of the Summit, and (B) to take steps to ensure that child survival, protection, and development programs will have a priority in the allocation of resources. (9) The United States Government should implement a plan of action to fulfill its commitment to children, both at home and abroad. (b) Purposes.--The purposes of this Act are-- (1) to help fulfill the commitment of the United States Government to children; and (2) to provide the necessary authorities to implement the United States plan of action. SEC. 3. SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS, AND CHILDREN (WIC). (a) Findings.--The Congress finds the following: (1) In 1990, the Surgeon General and the United States Public Health Service announced Healthy People 2000 goals for America's children. These goals include reducing the United States infant mortality rate and the incidence of low birthweight by \1/3\ by the year 2000, as well as the initiation of breastfeeding by 75 percent of mothers and the continuation of breastfeeding at 6 months postpartum by 50 percent of mothers. (2) The special supplemental food program for women, infants, and children authorized under section 17 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (in this section referred to as the ``WIC Program'') is intended to benefit low-income women at risk of delivering low birthweight babies, low-income infants and children at risk of malnutrition, and low-income nursing mothers. (3) It has been demonstrated that participation in the WIC Program reduces, in a cost-effective manner, the number of premature births and the percentage of infants born at low birthweight, a major cause of infant mortality and developmental disabilities, and decreases the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in children, and improves children's cognitive development. (4) Increasing the rate of breastfeeding among mothers participating in the WIC Program would result in greater improvements in the health of infants and mothers, further reductions in infant mortality, and decreases in health care costs and infant formula expenditures. (5) Particular attention needs to be given to promoting breastfeeding within the WIC Program through activities which include support of peer counselors working through the WIC Program, utilization of lactation consultants in WIC Program clinics and in hospitals, and training of health professionals in lactation management and development of education materials. (6) The WIC Program currently serves 58 percent of the eligible population and actions need to be taken to move toward service to the entire eligible population. (b) Full Participation in the WIC Program.--It is the sense of the Congress that-- (1) the United States Government should make a commitment to achieving full participation in the WIC Program by fiscal year 1996; and (2) in order to reach the goal of full participation, not less than $3,287,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 and not less than $3,564,000,000 for the fiscal year 1995 should be appropriated to carry out the WIC Program. SEC. 4. PROGRAMS UNDER THE HEAD START ACT. (a) Findings.--The Congress finds the following: (1) In 1990, the President and the Governors of the 50 States met at the Education Summit and set United States education goals for the year 2000, including the goal that all children start school ready to learn. (2) Since their inception in 1964, programs under the Head Start Act have established an impressive record in providing preschool-age children from low-income families with comprehensive services to address educational, social, nutritional, and health needs. (3) Head Start programs serve only about \1/3\ of eligible children between 3 and 5 years of age. (b) Full Funding for the Head Start Act.--It is the sense of the Congress that-- (1) the Federal Government should make a commitment to achieving full participation of all eligible 3- and 4-year-old children in Head Start programs by the fiscal year 1999, and (2) in order to reach the goal of such full participation, not less than $4,150,000,000 for the fiscal year 1994, and not less than $4,970,000,000 for the fiscal year 1995, should be appropriated to carry out the Head Start Act. SEC. 5. INTERNATIONAL INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY. (a) Findings.--The Congress finds the following: (1) During the last decade the international campaign to save the lives of children has resulted in dramatic increases in the adoption of low-cost measures to save children's lives, such as immunizations and oral rehydration therapy. (2) In September 1991, the United Nations Children's Fund and the World Health Organization were able to report that the goal of 80 percent childhood immunization had been achieved, saving over 12,000,000 young lives during the last decade and continuing to save over 3,000,000 children's lives each year. (3) The Plan of Action adopted by the World Summit for Children calls for the reduction of under-5 mortality rates by at least \1/3\ by the year 2000. (4) Such progress is possible by consolidating gains already made, and by pursuing new goals and effective programs in such areas as measles, neonatal tetanus, poliomyelitis, and acute respiratory infections. (5) Efforts should focus on the delivery of community-based primary health care and health education services which directly benefit the poorest of the poor, with an emphasis toward small scale projects rather than large scale infrastructure projects. Such assistance should be provided through private and voluntary organizations and international organizations whenever possible. (6) Both the United Nations Children's Fund and the United States Agency for International Development have provided strong leadership as well as financial and technical support for these goals. (b) Contributions to UNICEF.--To carry out section 301 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2221; relating to voluntary contributions to international organizations and programs), there are authorized to be appropriated $115,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 and $130,000,000 for fiscal year 1995 for contributions to the United Nations Children's Fund for activities to promote child health and other assistance programs on behalf of children. (c) Child Survival Activities.--Section 104(c)(2) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151b(c)(2); relating to the Child Survival Fund) is amended-- (1) in subparagraph (B), by striking out ``$25,000,000 for fiscal year 1986 and $75,000,000 for fiscal year 1987'' and inserting in lieu thereof ``$150,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 and $210,000,000 for fiscal year 1995''; and (2) by inserting after subparagraph (C) the following: ``(D) Of the aggregate of the amounts made available to carry out subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, sections 103(a) and section 106 of this chapter, chapter 10 of this part, and chapter 4 of part II and for the Multilateral Assistance Initiative for the Philippines, not less than $405,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 and not less than $490,000,000 for fiscal year 1995 shall be available only for activities described in subparagraph (A), with a particular emphasis on delivery of community-based primary health care and health education services which benefit the poorest of the poor. Such assistance shall be provided through private and voluntary organizations and international organizations whenever possible.''. SEC. 6. GLOBAL MALNUTRITION. (a) Findings.--The Congress finds the following: (1) Malnutrition (including protein-calorie malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies), which is currently the underlying cause of death in the vast majority of childhood diseases, is preventable at low cost. (2) Vitamin A deficiency remains a scourge of children in developing countries. If access to vitamin A is not increased, an estimated 2,000,000 children face blindness in the 1990s and tens of millions more face increased risk of infection and death. Vitamin A intake has been associated with significant reductions in infant mortality rates. (3) One billion people are at risk of iodine deficiency disease, with the very young being most vulnerable. Iodine deficiency is a major cause of mental retardation worldwide. (4) Two billion people suffer from some degree of iron deficiency anemia, particularly women of childbearing age and young children. (5) The Plan of Action adopted at the World Summit for Children calls for halving severe and moderate malnutrition among children under 5 years of age by the year 2000, for the virtual elimination of vitamin A deficiency and iodine deficiency disorders by the year 2000, and for the reduction of iron deficiency anemia among women of childbearing age by \1/3\ of the 1990 levels. (6) The Congress has already undertaken substantial action to address this problem in the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, which established food security for the poorest and the prevention of malnutrition as priorities in food assistance programs administered by the Agency for International Development under the Agriculture Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954. (7) Child survival activities are also key to reducing child malnutrition and must be pursued in conjunction with efforts to ensure food security. (8) Section 411 of the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 (7 U.S.C. 1736e), as amended by the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, authorizes the forgiveness of Public Law 480 debt owed by least developed countries that are pursuing national economic policy reforms that would promote long-term economic development, but the exercise of that authority requires further action by the Congress in an appropriations Act. (b) Public Law 480 Debt Authority.--It is the sense of the Congress that authority, in such amounts as may be required, should be granted to the President in an appropriations Act to exercise the debt authority with respect to least developed countries that is provided in section 411 of the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954. (c) Vitamin A Deficiency Program.--Section 103 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151a; relating to development assistance for agriculture, rural development, and nutrition) is amended by adding at the end the following new subsection: ``(h) Vitamin A Deficiency Program.--(1) The Congress finds that-- ``(A) vitamin A deficiency is a major cause of childhood mortality; ``(B) vitamin A intervention programs are inexpensive, practical to administer, and cost-effective in terms of human productivity; and ``(C) the Agency for International Development is already implementing a Vitamin A Deficiency Program. ``(2) Of the amounts made available to carry out this section, not less than $28,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 and not less than $42,000,000 for fiscal year 1995 shall be available only for Vitamin A supplementation and fortification through the Vitamin A Deficiency Program.''. (d) Other Micronutrient Deficiencies.--In addition to amounts otherwise available for such programs, there are authorized to be appropriated $22,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 and $33,000,000 for fiscal year 1995 for iodine and iron fortification programs, and for iron supplementation programs for pregnant women, under part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. SEC. 7. MATERNAL AND CHILD MORTALITY RESULTING FROM AIDS. (a) Findings.--The Congress finds the following: (1) As of 1992, nearly 5,000,000 women of childbearing age and over 1,000,000 children were infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The vast majority of these women and children live in developing countries. (2) The maternal and child mortality rate in many developing countries will increase dramatically, as will the number of orphans infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, until prevention and control efforts are successful. (3) The most effective efforts to respond to the human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome are based at the community level and involve nongovernmental organizations as well as government agencies. (4) The Agency for International Development should expand its assistance to developing countries for community-based prevention, care, and control programs and activities relating to the human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and should participate in coordinated efforts with other donors. (5) Coordination of efforts of bilateral, multilateral, and nongovernmental agencies and organizations is essential. (b) International AIDS Prevention and Control Fund.--Section 104(c) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151b(c); relating to development assistance for health related activities) is amended by adding at the end the following new paragraph: ``(4)(A) In carrying out this subsection, the President shall promote, encourage, and undertake community-based prevention, care, and control programs and activities relating to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in developing countries, including research as to the effectiveness of such programs and activities. ``(B) There are authorized to be appropriated $100,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 and $120,000,000 for fiscal year 1995 for use in carrying out this paragraph, which shall be in addition to amounts made available under subsection (g) or otherwise available for such purpose. Amounts appropriated under this subparagraph are authorized to remain available until expended. ``(C) Appropriations pursuant to subparagraph (B) may be referred to as the `International AIDS Prevention and Control Fund'.''. SEC. 8. INTERNATIONAL BASIC EDUCATION. (a) Findings.--The Congress finds the following: (1) Primary education, early childhood development activities, and programs to achieve literacy, are essential for increasing the productive capacity of people and their ability to earn income. (2) At least 130,000,000 children of primary school age, \2/3\ of them girls, are not enrolled in school. Thirty-four countries have literacy rates of 40 percent or less. (3) The share of government resources devoted to education in more than half of the 40 poorest countries in the world has decreased since 1980. (4) The Plan of Action adopted by the World Summit for Children calls for basic education for all children and for completion of primary education by at least 80 percent of all children. (5) United States assistance for basic education in developing countries has accounted for less than 2 percent of all United States foreign assistance in recent years. (b) International Basic Education.--Section 105 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151c; relating to development assistance for education and human resource development) is amended by adding at the end the following new subsection: ``(c) Basic Education.--Of the aggregate of the amounts made available to carry out this section, chapter 10 of this part, and chapter 4 of part II and for the Multilateral Assistance Initiative for the Philippines, not less than $225,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 and not less than $380,000,000 for fiscal year 1995 shall be available only for programs in support of basic education, including early childhood education, primary education, teacher training, and other necessary activities in support of early childhood and primary education, and literacy training for adults.''. SEC. 9. INTERNATIONAL FAMILY PLANNING AND CHILD SPACING. (a) Findings.--The Congress finds the following: (1) Universal access to voluntary family planning could save the lives of several million children each year and could significantly improve the health of children throughout the developing world by reducing prematurity and low birthweight and allowing longer breastfeeding. (2) The risk of maternal death or illness in the developing world is highest for women who bear children when they are under the age of 18 or over the age of 35, for pregnancies spaced less than 2 years apart, and for women who already have 4 or more children. Universal access to voluntary family planning could prevent up to \1/3\ of the 500,000 maternal deaths annually. (3) The inability of couples to plan births decreases the quality of women's lives and undermines their opportunities for education, for earning income, for improving the care of children, and for community activities and personal development. (4) Rapid world population growth, combined with unsustainable patterns of natural resource consumption, has become an urgent economic, social, and environmental problem. (5) Demographic and health surveys indicate that if all women in the developing world who do not wish to become pregnant were empowered to plan the size of their families, then the rate of population growth would fall by approximately 30 percent. (6) The Plan of Action adopted at the World Summit for Children calls for voluntary family planning services and education to be made available to all couples to empower them to prevent unwanted pregnancies and births which are ``too many and too close'' and to women who are ``too young or too old''. (b) Authorizations of Appropriations.--In addition to any other amounts made available for such purposes, there are authorized to be appropriated to the President for United States population assistance programs and activities under part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 $725,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 and $800,000,000 for fiscal year 1995. SEC. 10. REFUGEES. (a) Findings.--The Congress finds the following: (1) The number of refugees worldwide has grown from 10,000,000 in 1985 to 17,400,000 in 1993. In addition, there are estimated to be more than 24,000,000 internally displaced persons. More than half of these refugees and internally displaced persons are children. (2) The dramatic growth in the number of refugees and displaced persons has resulted in serious reductions in legal assistance and protection, health, nutrition, and basic education services available to them. (3) Refugee children are particularly vulnerable in first asylum camps from Africa to Southeast Asia where they languish without the comfort of a parent or adult guardian. (b) Funding for Refugee Assistance Programs.--It is the sense of the Congress that-- (1) not less than $760,000,000 for each of fiscal years 1994 and 1995 should be appropriated for the ``Migration and Refugee Assistance'' account, of which not less than $420,000,000 for each fiscal year should be available only for programs of refugee assistance overseas (in addition to the amounts available for programs for refugees from the former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and elsewhere who resettle in Israel); and (2) not less than $100,000,000 for each of fiscal years 1994 and 1995 should be appropriated for the ``United States Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund'' account. SEC. 11. THE WORLD BANK. (a) Instructions to U.S. Executive Directors.--The Secretary of the Treasury shall instruct the United States Executive Director of the World Bank to promote vigorously that the World Bank take action-- (1) to ensure that poverty reduction and support of basic human needs become a higher priority within the Bank, specifically through increasing the proportion of International Development Association investments that fall within the program of targeted interventions against poverty to 40 percent of all International Development Association investments by fiscal year 1994 and to at least 50 percent of all International Development Association investments by fiscal year 1995; (2) within the field of water and sanitation, to ensure that the majority of water and sanitation projects fall within the program of targeted interventions against poverty and to increase significantly the proportion of World Bank lending for projects utilizing basic low-cost technologies to provide water and sanitation to underserved poor populations in deprived rural and periurban areas; and (3) to increase the proportion of total World Bank lending which supports primary health care and basic education, with a minimum of 5 percent of total lending devoted to each area. (b) Definition.--As used in this section the term ``World Bank'' means the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Development Association. SEC. 12. EFFORTS BY OTHER COUNTRIES. The President shall call upon the governments of other countries to provide their share of the resources required to achieve the World Summit for Children goals by the year 2000, specifically through giving highest priority to increasing the proportion of public expenditures and foreign assistance devoted to priority human needs areas outlined in the Declaration and Plan of Action of the World Summit for Children. SEC. 13. ANNUAL REPORT. (a) Requirement for Report.--In order that the Congress and the American people may be fully informed of efforts undertaken by the United States Government to fulfill agreements signed by the United States at the World Summit for Children, the President shall report annually to the Congress on United States contributions to the achievement of the goals of the World Summit for Children. Each such report should include-- (1) a discussion of efforts by the United States to achieve those goals both within the United States and in other countries; and (2) a comparative analysis of current and past funding levels and planned funding levels for the next 2 fiscal years. (b) Submission Date.--The reports required by this section shall be submitted to the Congress no later than February 1 of each year. <all> HR 2501 IH----2