H.R.4541 - African Conflict Resolution Act103rd Congress (1993-1994)
|Sponsor:||Rep. Johnston, Harry [D-FL-19] (Introduced 06/08/1994)|
|Committees:||House - Foreign Affairs | Senate - Foreign Relations|
|Committee Reports:||H.Rept 103-723|
|Latest Action:||Senate - 09/20/1994 Received in the Senate and read twice and referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations. (All Actions)|
This bill has the status Passed House
Here are the steps for Status of Legislation:
- Passed House
Share This Section
Text: H.R.4541 — 103rd Congress (1993-1994)All Information (Except Text)
Text available as:
- PDF (PDF provides a complete and accurate display of this text.) Tip?
Referred in Senate (09/20/1994)
[Congressional Bills 103th Congress] [From the U.S. Government Printing Office] [H.R. 4541 Referred in Senate (RFS)] 103d CONGRESS 2d Session H. R. 4541 _______________________________________________________________________ IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES September 20 (legislative day, September 12), 1994 Received; read twice and referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations _______________________________________________________________________ AN ACT To authorize assistance to promote the peaceful resolution of conflicts in Africa. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE. This Act may be cited as the ``African Conflict Resolution Act''. SEC. 2. FINDINGS AND STATEMENT OF POLICY. (a) Findings.--The Congress makes the following findings: (1) It is in the national interest of the United States to help build African capability in conflict resolution. A relatively small investment of assistance in promoting African conflict resolution-- (A) would reduce the enormous human suffering which is caused by wars in Africa; (B) would help the United States avoid huge future expenditures necessitated by Somalia-like humanitarian disasters; and (C) would reduce the need for United Nations intervention as African institutions develop the ability to resolve African conflicts. (2) Africa, to a greater extent than any other continent, is afflicted by war. Africa has been marred by more than 20 major civil wars since 1960. Rwanda, Somalia, Angola, Sudan, Liberia, and Burundi are among those countries that have recently suffered serious armed conflict. (3) In the last decade alone, between 2,000,000 and 4,000,000 Africans have died because of war. There were 5,200,000 refugees and 13,100,000 displaced people in Africa in 1993. In Angola, relief organizations estimated that 1,000 people were dying each day at the end of 1993. In Rwanda, more than 200,000 people died in less than 5 weeks of fighting during 1994, while 300,000 people fled to other countries to escape war. (4) Millions more Africans are currently at risk of war- related death. Looming or ongoing conflicts in Zaire, Angola, Sudan, Rwanda, and other countries threaten Africa's future. (5) War has caused untold economic and social damage to the countries of Africa. Food production is impossible in conflict areas, and famine often results. Widespread conflict has condemned many of Africa's children to lives of misery and, in certain cases, has threatened the existence of traditional African cultures. (6) Conflict and instability in Africa, particularly in large, potentially rich countries such as Angola, Sudan, and Zaire, deprive the global economy of resources and opportunities for trade and investment. Peace in these countries could make a significant contribution to global economic growth, while creating new opportunities for United States businesses. (7) Many African armies are far too large, threatening political and economic stability while diverting scarce resources from development needs. Military expenditures in Africa average over twice the level in Latin America. Demobilization and other measures to reduce military expenditures are thus a critical need for many African countries. (8) Conflict prevention, mediation, and demobilization are prerequisites to the success of development assistance programs. Nutrition and education programs, for example, cannot succeed in a nation at war. Billions of dollars of development assistance have been virtually wasted in war-ravaged countries such as Liberia, Somalia, and Sudan. (9) Africans have a long tradition of informal mediation. This tradition should be built upon to create effective institutions through which Africans can resolve African conflicts. (10) The Organization of African Unity, under the leadership of Secretary General Salim Salim, has established a conflict resolution mechanism and has been active in mediation and conflict resolution in several African countries. Various subregional organizations have also become active in conflict resolution efforts. These are encouraging developments. (b) United States Policy.--The Congress declares, therefore, that a key goal for United States foreign policy should be to help institutionalize conflict resolution capability in Africa. SEC. 3. IMPROVING THE CONFLICT RESOLUTION CAPABILITIES OF THE ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY. (a) Authorization of Assistance.--The President is authorized to provide assistance to strengthen the conflict resolution capability of the Organization of African Unity, as follows: (1) Funds may be provided to the Organization of African Unity for use in supporting its conflict resolution capability. (2) Funds may be used for expenses of sending individuals with expertise in conflict resolution to work with the Organization of African Unity. (b) Funding.--Of the foreign assistance funds that are allocated for sub-Saharan Africa, not less than $1,500,000 for each of the fiscal years 1995 through 1998 should be used to carry out subsection (a). SEC. 4. IMPROVING CONFLICT RESOLUTION CAPABILITIES OF MULTILATERAL SUBREGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN AFRICA. (a) Authorization of Assistance.--The President is authorized to provide assistance to strengthen the conflict resolution capabilities of subregional organizations established by countries in sub-Saharan Africa, as follows: (1) Funds may be provided to such an organization for use in supporting its conflict resolution capability. (2) Funds may be used for the expenses of sending individuals with expertise in conflict resolution to work with such an organization. (b) Funding.--Of the foreign assistance funds that are allocated for sub-Saharan Africa, such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 1995 through 1998 may be used to carry out subsection (a). SEC. 5. AFRICAN DEMOBILIZATION AND RETRAINING PROGRAM. (a) Authorization of Assistance.--In order to facilitate reductions in the size of the armed forces of countries of sub-Saharan Africa, the President is authorized to provide assistance for-- (1) the encampment and related activities for the purpose of demobilization of such forces; and (2) the reintegration of demobilized military personnel into civilian society through activities such as retraining for civilian occupations, creation of income-generating opportunities, the reintegration into agricultural activities, and the transportation to the home areas of such personnel. (b) Funding.--Of the foreign assistance funds that are allocated for sub-Saharan Africa, $25,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1995 and 1996 should be used for the assistance described in subsection (a), if conditions permit. SEC. 6. TRAINING FOR AFRICANS IN CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND PEACEKEEPING. Chapter 5 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2347 et seq.) is amended by adding at the end the following new section: ``SEC. 546. CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND PEACEKEEPING PROGRAM FOR SUB- SAHARAN AFRICA. ``In addition to the other education and training activities carried out under this chapter, the President is authorized to establish a program to provide education and training in conflict resolution and peacekeeping for civilian and military personnel of countries in sub-Saharan Africa.''. SEC. 7. BUILDING MEDIATION CAPABILITY IN AFRICA. (a) Authorization of Assistance.--The President is authorized to provide assistance to nongovernmental organizations that are engaged in mediation and reconciliation efforts in Africa. (b) Funding.--Of the foreign assistance funds that are allocated for sub-Saharan Africa, such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 1995 and 1996 should be used to carry out subsection (a). SEC. 8. PLAN FOR UNITED STATES SUPPORT FOR CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND DEMOBILIZATION IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA. (a) In General.--In furtherance of and building upon the provisions of sections 3 through 7, the President shall develop an integrated long-term plan to provide support for the enhancement of conflict resolution capabilities and demobilization activities in sub-Saharan Africa. (b) Contents of Plan.--Such plan shall identify, among other things, the following: (1) The type, purpose, amount, and duration of assistance that is planned to be provided to conflict resolution units in sub-Saharan Africa. (2) The type and amount of assistance that is planned to be provided for the demobilization of military personnel of countries of sub-Saharan Africa, including-- (A) a list of which countries will receive such assistance and an explanation of why such countries were chosen for such assistance; and (B) a list of other countries and international organizations that are providing assistance for such demobilization. (3) The type and amount of assistance that is planned to be provided to nongovernmental organizations that are engaged in mediation and reconciliation efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. (4) A description of proposed training programs for Africans in conflict resolution and peacekeeping, including a list of prospective participants and plans to expand such programs. (5) The mechanisms to be used to coordinate interagency efforts to administer the plan. (6) Efforts to seek the participation of other countries and international organizations to achieve the objectives of the plan. (c) Report.--Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report containing a description of the plan developed under this section. SEC. 9. REPORTING REQUIREMENT. Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, and annually thereafter, the President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report describing the efforts and progress made in carrying out the provisions of this Act. SEC. 10. CONSULTATION REQUIREMENT. The President shall consult with the appropriate congressional committees prior to providing assistance under section 3 or section 5. SEC. 11. APPROPRIATE CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEES DEFINED. For purposes of this Act, the term ``appropriate congressional committees'' means the Committee on Foreign Affairs, the Committee on Appropriations, and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations, the Committee on Appropriations, and the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate. Passed the House of Representatives September 19, 1994. Attest: DONNALD K. ANDERSON, Clerk.