Text: H.R.4541 — 103rd Congress (1993-1994)All Information (Except Text)

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Referred in Senate (09/20/1994)

 
[Congressional Bills 103th Congress]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]
[H.R. 4541 Referred in Senate (RFS)]

103d CONGRESS
  2d Session
                                H. R. 4541


_______________________________________________________________________


                   IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES

           September 20 (legislative day, September 12), 1994

Received; read twice and referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations

_______________________________________________________________________

                                 AN ACT


 
To authorize assistance to promote the peaceful resolution of conflicts 
                               in Africa.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ``African Conflict Resolution Act''.

SEC. 2. FINDINGS AND STATEMENT OF POLICY.

    (a) Findings.--The Congress makes the following findings:
            (1) It is in the national interest of the United States to 
        help build African capability in conflict resolution. A 
        relatively small investment of assistance in promoting African 
        conflict resolution--
                    (A) would reduce the enormous human suffering which 
                is caused by wars in Africa;
                    (B) would help the United States avoid huge future 
                expenditures necessitated by Somalia-like humanitarian 
                disasters; and
                    (C) would reduce the need for United Nations 
                intervention as African institutions develop the 
                ability to resolve African conflicts.
            (2) Africa, to a greater extent than any other continent, 
        is afflicted by war. Africa has been marred by more than 20 
        major civil wars since 1960. Rwanda, Somalia, Angola, Sudan, 
        Liberia, and Burundi are among those countries that have 
        recently suffered serious armed conflict.
            (3) In the last decade alone, between 2,000,000 and 
        4,000,000 Africans have died because of war. There were 
        5,200,000 refugees and 13,100,000 displaced people in Africa in 
        1993. In Angola, relief organizations estimated that 1,000 
        people were dying each day at the end of 1993. In Rwanda, more 
        than 200,000 people died in less than 5 weeks of fighting 
        during 1994, while 300,000 people fled to other countries to 
        escape war.
            (4) Millions more Africans are currently at risk of war-
        related death. Looming or ongoing conflicts in Zaire, Angola, 
        Sudan, Rwanda, and other countries threaten Africa's future.
            (5) War has caused untold economic and social damage to the 
        countries of Africa. Food production is impossible in conflict 
        areas, and famine often results. Widespread conflict has 
        condemned many of Africa's children to lives of misery and, in 
        certain cases, has threatened the existence of traditional 
        African cultures.
            (6) Conflict and instability in Africa, particularly in 
        large, potentially rich countries such as Angola, Sudan, and 
        Zaire, deprive the global economy of resources and 
        opportunities for trade and investment. Peace in these 
        countries could make a significant contribution to global 
        economic growth, while creating new opportunities for United 
        States businesses.
            (7) Many African armies are far too large, threatening 
        political and economic stability while diverting scarce 
        resources from development needs. Military expenditures in 
        Africa average over twice the level in Latin America. 
        Demobilization and other measures to reduce military 
        expenditures are thus a critical need for many African 
        countries.
            (8) Conflict prevention, mediation, and demobilization are 
        prerequisites to the success of development assistance 
        programs. Nutrition and education programs, for example, cannot 
        succeed in a nation at war. Billions of dollars of development 
        assistance have been virtually wasted in war-ravaged countries 
        such as Liberia, Somalia, and Sudan.
            (9) Africans have a long tradition of informal mediation. 
        This tradition should be built upon to create effective 
        institutions through which Africans can resolve African 
        conflicts.
            (10) The Organization of African Unity, under the 
        leadership of Secretary General Salim Salim, has established a 
        conflict resolution mechanism and has been active in mediation 
        and conflict resolution in several African countries. Various 
        subregional organizations have also become active in conflict 
        resolution efforts. These are encouraging developments.
    (b) United States Policy.--The Congress declares, therefore, that a 
key goal for United States foreign policy should be to help 
institutionalize conflict resolution capability in Africa.

SEC. 3. IMPROVING THE CONFLICT RESOLUTION CAPABILITIES OF THE 
              ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY.

    (a) Authorization of Assistance.--The President is authorized to 
provide assistance to strengthen the conflict resolution capability of 
the Organization of African Unity, as follows:
            (1) Funds may be provided to the Organization of African 
        Unity for use in supporting its conflict resolution capability.
            (2) Funds may be used for expenses of sending individuals 
        with expertise in conflict resolution to work with the 
        Organization of African Unity.
    (b) Funding.--Of the foreign assistance funds that are allocated 
for sub-Saharan Africa, not less than $1,500,000 for each of the fiscal 
years 1995 through 1998 should be used to carry out subsection (a).

SEC. 4. IMPROVING CONFLICT RESOLUTION CAPABILITIES OF MULTILATERAL 
              SUBREGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN AFRICA.

    (a) Authorization of Assistance.--The President is authorized to 
provide assistance to strengthen the conflict resolution capabilities 
of subregional organizations established by countries in sub-Saharan 
Africa, as follows:
            (1) Funds may be provided to such an organization for use 
        in supporting its conflict resolution capability.
            (2) Funds may be used for the expenses of sending 
        individuals with expertise in conflict resolution to work with 
        such an organization.
    (b) Funding.--Of the foreign assistance funds that are allocated 
for sub-Saharan Africa, such sums as may be necessary for each of the 
fiscal years 1995 through 1998 may be used to carry out subsection (a).

SEC. 5. AFRICAN DEMOBILIZATION AND RETRAINING PROGRAM.

    (a) Authorization of Assistance.--In order to facilitate reductions 
in the size of the armed forces of countries of sub-Saharan Africa, the 
President is authorized to provide assistance for--
            (1) the encampment and related activities for the purpose 
        of demobilization of such forces; and
            (2) the reintegration of demobilized military personnel 
        into civilian society through activities such as retraining for 
        civilian occupations, creation of income-generating 
        opportunities, the reintegration into agricultural activities, 
        and the transportation to the home areas of such personnel.
    (b) Funding.--Of the foreign assistance funds that are allocated 
for sub-Saharan Africa, $25,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1995 
and 1996 should be used for the assistance described in subsection (a), 
if conditions permit.

SEC. 6. TRAINING FOR AFRICANS IN CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND PEACEKEEPING.

    Chapter 5 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 
U.S.C. 2347 et seq.) is amended by adding at the end the following new 
section:

``SEC. 546. CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND PEACEKEEPING PROGRAM FOR SUB-
              SAHARAN AFRICA.

    ``In addition to the other education and training activities 
carried out under this chapter, the President is authorized to 
establish a program to provide education and training in conflict 
resolution and peacekeeping for civilian and military personnel of 
countries in sub-Saharan Africa.''.

SEC. 7. BUILDING MEDIATION CAPABILITY IN AFRICA.

    (a) Authorization of Assistance.--The President is authorized to 
provide assistance to nongovernmental organizations that are engaged in 
mediation and reconciliation efforts in Africa.
    (b) Funding.--Of the foreign assistance funds that are allocated 
for sub-Saharan Africa, such sums as may be necessary for each of the 
fiscal years 1995 and 1996 should be used to carry out subsection (a).

SEC. 8. PLAN FOR UNITED STATES SUPPORT FOR CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND 
              DEMOBILIZATION IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA.

    (a) In General.--In furtherance of and building upon the provisions 
of sections 3 through 7, the President shall develop an integrated 
long-term plan to provide support for the enhancement of conflict 
resolution capabilities and demobilization activities in sub-Saharan 
Africa.
    (b) Contents of Plan.--Such plan shall identify, among other 
things, the following:
            (1) The type, purpose, amount, and duration of assistance 
        that is planned to be provided to conflict resolution units in 
        sub-Saharan Africa.
            (2) The type and amount of assistance that is planned to be 
        provided for the demobilization of military personnel of 
        countries of sub-Saharan Africa, including--
                    (A) a list of which countries will receive such 
                assistance and an explanation of why such countries 
                were chosen for such assistance; and
                    (B) a list of other countries and international 
                organizations that are providing assistance for such 
                demobilization.
            (3) The type and amount of assistance that is planned to be 
        provided to nongovernmental organizations that are engaged in 
        mediation and reconciliation efforts in sub-Saharan Africa.
            (4) A description of proposed training programs for 
        Africans in conflict resolution and peacekeeping, including a 
        list of prospective participants and plans to expand such 
        programs.
            (5) The mechanisms to be used to coordinate interagency 
        efforts to administer the plan.
            (6) Efforts to seek the participation of other countries 
        and international organizations to achieve the objectives of 
        the plan.
    (c) Report.--Not later than 120 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the President shall submit to the appropriate 
congressional committees a report containing a description of the plan 
developed under this section.

SEC. 9. REPORTING REQUIREMENT.

    Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this 
Act, and annually thereafter, the President shall submit to the 
appropriate congressional committees a report describing the efforts 
and progress made in carrying out the provisions of this Act.

SEC. 10. CONSULTATION REQUIREMENT.

    The President shall consult with the appropriate congressional 
committees prior to providing assistance under section 3 or section 5.

SEC. 11. APPROPRIATE CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEES DEFINED.

    For purposes of this Act, the term ``appropriate congressional 
committees'' means the Committee on Foreign Affairs, the Committee on 
Appropriations, and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations, the Committee 
on Appropriations, and the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate.

            Passed the House of Representatives September 19, 1994.

            Attest:

                                           DONNALD K. ANDERSON,

                                                                 Clerk.

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