Summary: H.R.4848 — 103rd Congress (1993-1994)All Information (Except Text)

There is one summary for H.R.4848. Bill summaries are authored by CRS.

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Introduced in House (07/28/1994)

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

Title I: Public Safety and Policing

Subtitle A: Cops on the Beat

Subtitle B: Safe Schools

Subtitle C: Criminal Street Gangs; Crimes Against

Children; Parental Accountability

Subtitle D: Punishment of Serious Juvenile Offenders

Title II: State Prison Construction Grants

Title III: Elimination of Delays in Carrying Out

Sentences

Subtitle A: Post Conviction Petitions: General Habeas

Corpus Reform

Subtitle B: Special Procedures for Collateral Proceeding

in Capital Cases

Subtitle C: Funding for Litigation of Federal Habeas

Corpus Petitions in Capital Cases

Title IV: Two Strikes, You're Out

Title V: Taking Prisoners Off the Streets

Subtitle A: Expanding Prison Capacity

Subtitle B: Restriction on Court Jurisdiction

Subtitle C: Limitation of Prisoners' Rights

Subtitle D: Prison Governance

Title VI: Victims Rights

Subtitle A: Generally

Subtitle B: Admissibility of Evidence

Subtitle C: Good Faith Exemption to the

Exclusionary Rule

Title VII: Protection of Women

Subtitle A: Spouse Abuse and Stalking

Subtitle B: Victims of Sexual Violence

Subtitle C: Punishment of Sex Offenders

Subtitle D: Rural Domestic Violence and Child Abuse

Enforcement

Title VIII: Criminal Aliens and Alien Smuggling

Subtitle A: Deportation of Criminal Aliens

Subtitle B: Prevention and Punishment of Alien Smuggling

Title IX: Instant Check, Rural Drug Task Forces, and

Enhanced Drug Penalties

Subtitle A: Instant Check System for Handgun Purchases

Subtitle B: Drug Trafficking in Rural Areas

Subtitle C: Miscellaneous

Title X: Miscellaneous

Title XI: Penalties for Harassment or Obstruction of

Lawful Hunting

Title XII: Violent Crime Reduction Trust Fund

People's Protection Crime Control Act of 1994 - Title I: Public Safety and Policing - Subtitle A: Cops on the Beat - Public Safety Partnership and Community Policing Act of 1994 - Amends the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (Omnibus Act) to authorize the Attorney General to make grants to units of State and local government, and to other public and private entities, to increase police presence, expand and improve cooperative efforts between law enforcement agencies (LEAs) and members of the community to address crime and disorder problems, and otherwise enhance public safety.

Permits such grants to be used for programs, projects, and other activities to rehire law enforcement officers who have been laid off as a result of State and local budget reductions and to hire new, additional career law enforcement officers and former members of the armed forces as career law enforcement officers, for deployment in community-oriented policing.

Sets forth provisions regarding: (1) additional authorized grant projects involving police and community interaction; (2) preferential consideration for certain grants; (3) technical assistance; (4) matching funds; (5) fund allocation; (6) the termination of grants for hiring officers; (7) application requirements; (8) review of applications by a designated State office; (9) grant renewal; (10) limits on use of funds; (11) performance evaluation; (12) revocation or suspension of funding; and (13) access by the Attorney General and Comptroller General to documents. Authorizes appropriations.

Subtitle B: Safe Schools - Amends the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) to increase penalties for drug trafficking in or near schools.

(Sec. 112) Authorizes: (1) a school district to elect to qualify as a Federal safe school district by decision of a local educational agency or by referendum of the voters in a school district served by such an agency; and (2) the Attorney General to make grants to local educational agencies or LEAs of Federal safe school districts to pay for enhanced school security measures.

(Sec. 113) Increases penalties for violation of the Gun-Free School Zones Act.

Subtitle C: Criminal Street Gangs; Crime Against Children; Parental Accountability - Amends the Federal criminal code to prohibit: (1) committing specified "predicate gang crimes" (including murder, assault, kidnapping, arson, and retaliating against a witness, victim, or informant) with intent to promote or further the activities of a criminal street gang or for the purpose of gaining entrance to, or maintaining or increasing position in, a gang; (2) participating in, or inducing any individual to participate in, a gang; (3) employing or inducing any individual to commit a predicate gang crime with such intent; or (4) using any communication facility in causing or facilitating the commission of such a crime with such intent. Sets penalties for violations. Authorizes the Attorney General and the Secretary of the Treasury to investigate such offenses. Directs the U.S. Sentencing Commission to amend the sentencing guidelines to increase the base offense level for any felony committed for the purpose of gaining entrance into, or maintaining or increasing position in, a gang.

(Sec. 122) Amends: (1) the Federal criminal code to set penalties for drive-by shootings; (2) the Omnibus Act to include among drug control and system improvement grant funding objectives law enforcement and prevention programs relating to gangs or to youth who are involved or at risk of being involved in gangs; and (3) the CSA to increase penalties for drug trafficking in or near public housing.

(Sec. 125) Amends the Federal criminal code to require the parent or legal guardians of a juvenile charged with any violation of Federal law to attend all court proceedings involving the juvenile (attendance provision), with exceptions. Makes the parents or legal guardians of a juvenile who has been convicted of a criminal offense under any Federal law liable to the United States for a civil penalty of not more than $10,000, with exceptions.

Authorizes the court to decline to enforce the attendance provision if it would cause undue hardship or to impose such penalty if the court determines that the parents or legal guardians exercised reasonable care, supervision, and control of the juvenile and counseled the juvenile that criminal activity is unacceptable.

Sets forth provisions regarding the amount of civil penalties. Permits a parent or legal guardian ordered to pay the penalty to petition the court to perform community service or attend and successfully complete parenting classes in lieu of such penalty.

(Sec. 126) Provides for imposition of the death penalty for murder during the sexual exploitation of children.

(Sec. 127) Increases penalties for sex offenses against victims below age 16.

(Sec. 128) Sets penalties for international trafficking in child pornography.

(Sec. 129) Requires: (1) the Attorney General to establish guidelines for State legislation that prohibits the production, distribution, receipt, or possession of materials depicting a person under age 18 engaging in sexually explicit conduct and that provides for a maximum imprisonment of at least one year and for the forfeiture of assets used in, or gained from, such offenses; and (2) each State to enact and maintain legislation complying with such guidelines in order to receive assistance under provisions of the Victims of Crime Act and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act.

(Sec. 130) Provides for national registration of convicted child abusers. Requires the Attorney General to establish guidelines for State registration programs. Authorizes a State to permit qualified entities to obtain from an authorized State agency a nationwide background check on a provider.

(Sec. 131) Increases penalties for: (1) assaults against children; (2) using minors in drug trafficking; (3) drug distribution to minors; and (4) using a minor in the commission of a Federal offense.

(Sec. 132) Amends the CSA to set penalties for physical trainers or advisers who attempt to persuade or induce a person to possess or use anabolic steroids.

(Sec. 133) Directs the Sentencing Commission to: (1) amend the sentencing guidelines to increase by at least four levels the base offense level for sexual abuse offenses; and (2) review the appropriateness and adequacy of existing offense characteristics and adjustments applicable to such offenses.

(Sec. 134) Provides for interstate enforcement of child support orders.

(Sec. 135) Amends the Social Security Act to require that procedures by which information regarding the amount of overdue child support owed by an absent parent residing in the State be made available to any consumer reporting agency (currently, at the request of such agency). Repeals a provision authorizing the State to impose a fee for furnishing the information.

(Sec. 136) Makes certain crimes involving the use of persons below age 18 predicates to an offense under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO).

(Sec. 139) Makes it a Federal offense to remove a child from, or to retain a child outside, the United States to obstruct the lawful exercise of parental rights.

(Sec. 140) Authorizes appropriations to carry out State court programs regarding international parental child abduction.

Subtitle D: Punishment of Serious Juvenile Offenders - Makes serious juvenile drug offenses Armed Career Criminal Act predicates.

(Sec. 152) Provides for the prosecution as adults of violent juvenile offenders.

(Sec. 153) Requires that juveniles found guilty of certain offenses be fingerprinted and photographed, with such fingerprints and photographs sent to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Identification Division. Directs the court to transmit to such division information concerning the adjudication.

Title II: State Prison Construction Grants - Authorizes the Attorney General to provide grants to States to build, expand, or operate space in correctional facilities in order to increase prison bed capacity.

(Sec. 202) Sets forth formulas for the distribution of Federal funds in FY 1995 through 1999 based on the number of violent crimes reported by the States to the FBI.

Allocates 25 percent of the total amount of funds appropriated under this title in each of FY 1996 through 1999 to States which make specified changes to State laws and regulations, such as inclusion of: (1) truth in sentencing laws which require persons convicted of violent crimes to serve not less than 85 percent of the sentence imposed; (2) mandatory prison sentences for persons convicted of the most serious violent crimes; (3) pretrial detention for those whose release can be shown to pose a danger to any other person or the community; and (4) the requirement that a juvenile who was age 13 or older on the date of the commission of a violent felony be prosecuted as an adult.

(Sec. 203) Authorizes appropriations, subject to specified limitations.

Title III: Elimination of Delays in Carrying Out Sentences - Subtitle A: Post Conviction Petitions: General Habeas Corpus Reform - Amends the Federal judicial code to establish a one-year statute of limitations for habeas corpus actions brought by State prisoners.

(Sec. 302) Vests authority to issue certificates of probable cause for appeal of habeas corpus orders exclusively in the courts of appeals.

(Sec. 304) Permits the denial of a habeas corpus petition on the merits notwithstanding the failure of the applicant to exhaust State court remedies.

(Sec. 305) Imposes a one-year period of limitation for filing for collateral relief by Federal prisoners.

Subtitle B: Special Procedures for Collateral Proceedings in Capital Cases - Amends the Federal judicial code to set forth special habeas corpus procedures in capital cases, including provisions governing: (1) appointment of counsel; (2) stays of execution; (3) filing of a habeas corpus petition; (4) State unitary review procedures applicability; and (5) time limits for determining such a petition or a motion to correct a sentence.

Subtitle C: Funding for Litigation of Federal Habeas Corpus Petitions in Capital Cases - Amends the Omnibus Act to require the Director of the Bureau of Justice Assistance to provide grants to the States to support litigation pertaining to Federal habeas corpus petitions in capital cases.

Title IV: Two Strikes, You're Out - Directs the court, in the case of a conviction for a Federal violent felony, to sentence the defendant to prison for life if the defendant has previously been convicted of one or more other violent felonies (and if a death results, subjects the defendant to the death penalty).

Title V: Taking Prisoners Off the Streets - Subtitle A: Expanding Prison Capacity - Amends the Davis-Bacon Act to make provisions concerning the rate of wages for laborers and mechanics inapplicable to prison construction.

Subtitle B: Restriction on Court Jurisdiction - Amends the Federal judicial code to deny the district court, in any action challenging the constitutionality of conditions of confinement in any correctional institution housing persons accused or convicted of a crime or juveniles adjudicated delinquent, jurisdiction to: (1) impose a ceiling on the population of any correctional institution or to require any adjustment of the release dates of inmates; or (2) prohibit the use of tents or prefabricated structures for housing inmates. Prohibits any consent decree in any such action from providing relief greater than the minimum required to bring the conditions of confinement into substantial compliance with the Constitution. Provides for modification of orders or decrees.

Subtitle C: Limitation of Prisoners' Rights - Amends the Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act to prohibit an adult who is convicted of a crime and confined in any correctional facility from bringing a civil action for deprivation of rights until available plain, speedy, and effective administrative remedies are exhausted. Specifies that such exhaustion of remedies may not be required unless the Attorney General has certified, or the court has determined, that such remedies are in substantial compliance with specified minimum acceptable standards (as under current law) or are otherwise fair and effective. Applies such standard to review and certification procedures under the Act.

Directs the court, on its own motion or on motion of a party, to dismiss specified actions brought by an adult convicted of a crime and confined in any correctional facility if the court is satisfied that the action: (1) fails to state a claim upon which relief can be granted; or (2) is frivolous or malicious.

Repeals a provision of such Act requiring that the minimum standards provide for an advisory role for employees and inmates of a correctional facility in the formulation, implementation, and operation of the system for resolution of inmate grievances.

(Sec. 515) Amends the Federal judicial code to require the court to dismiss a case in a forma pauperis proceeding if the allegation of poverty is untrue or if the action fails to state a claim upon which relief may be granted or is frivolous or malicious, even if partial filing fees have been imposed by the court. Requires a prisoner in a correctional institution to include in a filed affidavit a statement of all assets such prisoner possesses. Directs the court to ask the correctional institution for information relating to the extent of the prisoner's assets and to require full or partial payment of filing fees according to the prisoner's ability to pay.

Subtitle D: Prison Governance - Amends the Federal criminal code to authorize corporal punishment for the discipline of Federal prisoners convicted of crime who commit serious infractions of prison policy or rules regarding inmate behavior.

(Sec. 522) Requires the Director of the Bureau of Prisons to develop and implement a Federal prison housing plan that provides three levels of prisoner housing quality, amenities, and privileges, as incentive awards directly related to the degree of prison-related work in which each inmate voluntarily participates.

Title VI: Victims Rights - Subtitle A: Generally - Amends the Federal criminal code to require the Bureau of Prisons to provide 30 days' notice before the release of a prisoner to: (1) the judge, jury, attorneys, victims, and victims' family members in the case in which the prisoner was convicted; and (2) the local authorities in the place of conviction.

(Sec. 602) Directs (current law authorizes) the court, when sentencing a defendant convicted of an offense under the Federal criminal code or under specified provisions of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958, to order that the defendant make restitution to any victim of the offense. Authorizes the court to further order restitution of any person who was harmed physically, emotionally, or pecuniarily by unlawful conduct of the defendant related to the offense.

Directs the court to order restitution of the full amount of the victim's losses without consideration of: (1) the economic circumstances of the offender; or (2) the victim's compensation with respect to a loss from insurance or any other source.

Sets forth provisions regarding: (1) the manner of and schedule for restitution; (2) circumstances in which there is more than one offender or more than one victim; (3) the effect of compensation from insurance or other sources; (4) setoffs; (5) compliance with a restitution order as a condition of probation, parole, or other form of release; (6) enforcement of a restitution order; and (7) procedures for issuing an order of restitution.

(Sec. 603) Revises Federal Rule of Criminal Procedure: (1) 24(b) to entitle each side to six peremptory challenges (currently, six for the Government and ten for the defendant or defendants jointly); and (2) 32 to provide for a victim's right of allocution in sentencing for a crime of violence or sexual abuse.

(Sec. 605) Sets penalties for retaliatory killings of witnesses, victims, and informants.

Subtitle B: Admissibility of Evidence - Amends the Federal Rules of Evidence (FRE) to allow evidence of similar offenses in criminal or civil sexual assault and child molestation cases.

(Sec. 612) Revises FRE 412 (sex offense cases; relevance of victim's past behavior) to: (1) expand the scope of the rape shield law and to require that an order admitting evidence of a victim's past sexual behavior explain the finding of relevance and the basis of a finding that the probative value of the evidence outweighs the danger of unfair prejudice; and (2) make inadmissible evidence to show invitation or provocation by a victim in sexual abuse cases.

Subtitle C: Good Faith Exemption to the Exclusionary Rule - Specifies that evidence shall not be excluded on the ground that a search or seizure was in violation of the Fourth Amendment to the Constitution if carried out in circumstances justifying an objectively reasonable belief that it was in conformity with the Fourth Amendment. Makes the fact that evidence was obtained pursuant to and within the scope of a warrant prima facie evidence of the existence of such circumstances.

Specifies that evidence shall not be excluded in a proceeding in a court of the United States on the ground that it was obtained in violation of a statute, administrative rule or regulation, or rule of procedure unless exclusion is expressly authorized by statute or by rule prescribed by the Supreme Court pursuant to statutory authority.

Title VII: Protection of Women - Subtitle A: Spouse Abuse and Stalking - Amends the Federal criminal code to: (1) set penalties for interstate travel to commit spouse abuse or to violate a protective order; and (2) provide for full faith and credit of protective orders among the States.

Subtitle B: Victims of Sexual Violence - Establishes a civil remedy for victims of sexual violence.

(Sec. 712) Authorizes the restitution of victims of sex offenses.

(Sec. 713) Provides for pretrial detention in sex offense cases.

Subtitle C: Punishment of Sex Offenders - Provides for imposition of the death penalty for persons engaging in sexual abuse resulting in death.

(Sec. 722) Increases penalties for recidivist sex offenses.

(Sec. 723) Directs the Sentencing Commission to amend the sentencing guidelines to increase the base offense level for sex offenses.

(Sec. 724) Provides for testing for human immunodeficiency virus for persons charged in sex offense cases and the disclosure of the test results to the victim. Directs the Sentencing Commission to amend existing guidelines for sentences for sex offenses where the offender knew or had reason to know that he was infected with such virus, except where the offender did not engage or attempt to engage in conduct creating a risk of transmission of the virus to the victim.

Subtitle D: Rural Domestic Violence and Child Abuse Enforcement - Authorizes the Attorney General to make grants to State and local governments and other public or private entities of rural States to: (1) implement, expand, and establish cooperative efforts and projects between law enforcement officers, prosecutors, victim advocacy groups, and other related parties to investigate and prosecute incidents of domestic violence and child abuse; (2) provide treatment and counseling to victims of domestic violence and child abuse; and (3) work in cooperation with the community to develop education and prevention strategies directed toward such issues. Authorizes appropriations.

Title VIII: Criminal Aliens and Alien Smuggling - Subtitle A: Deportation of Criminal Aliens - Amends the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) to permit an alien sentenced to imprisonment to be deported prior to the termination of such imprisonment if the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) petitions the appropriate court or other authority to release the alien into INS custody for execution of a deportation order. Prohibits the deportation until all direct appeals of the conviction have been exhausted.

(Sec. 802) Authorizes the registration of aliens on criminal probation or criminal parole within the United States.

(Sec. 803) Expands the definition of "aggravated felony" to include illicit trafficking in explosive materials and a crime of violence for which the term of imprisonment is at least five years.

(Sec. 804) Amends the INA to authorize the Attorney General to issue a final order of deportation without an administrative hearing or administrative review for any alien who was not lawfully admitted for permanent residence, or who had permanent resident status on a conditional basis, and whom the Attorney General determines is deportable and has been convicted of an aggravated felony. Limits judicial review of such determinations. Provides that an alien convicted of an aggravated felony shall be conclusively presumed to be deportable.

(Sec. 805) Grants a U.S. district court jurisdiction to enter a judicial order of deportation at the time of sentencing against an alien convicted of an aggravated felony, if such order has been requested prior to sentencing by the U.S. Attorney.

(Sec. 806) Restricts defenses to exclusion and deportation for certain aliens convicted of aggravated felonies.

(Sec. 807) Enhances penalties for failing to depart or for reentering after a final order of deportation. Limits collateral attacks on deportation orders.

(Sec. 809) Authorizes appropriations for a criminal alien information system.

Subtitle B: Prevention and Punishment of Alien Smuggling - Authorizes appropriations for Border Patrol agents and investigators.

(Sec. 813) Includes alien smuggling as a predicate to an offense under RICO.

(Sec. 814) Increases penalties for: (1) employers who knowingly employ smuggled aliens; and (2) bringing in and harboring certain aliens.

(Sec. 816) Subjects any property which facilitates or which has been used for smuggling or harboring illegal aliens to forfeiture.

(Sec. 817) Directs the Attorney General to enter into a contract which provides for compensation to a State or political subdivision with respect to the incarceration of an undocumented criminal alien who has been convicted of a felony. Specifies the method for determining compensation.

Title IX: Instant Check, Rural Drug Task Forces, and Enhanced Drug Penalties - Subtitle A: Instant Check System for Handgun Purchases - Requires each State to establish and maintain an instant criminal check system for handgun purchases. Sets forth: (1) prohibitions on uses of such information; and (2) identification procedure requirements for licensed importers, manufacturers, and dealers once a State system becomes operational and specified notice requirements are met. Sets penalties for noncompliance.

(Sec. 904) Requires each State to establish a system accessible by telephone that any licensee, law enforcement officer, or court may contact for criminal history information.

(Sec. 905) Provides for the correction of erroneous system information as well as a private course of action after all administrative remedies are exhausted and records are not corrected.

(Sec. 906) Directs the Attorney General to expedite: (1) the incorporation of the remaining State criminal history records into the Federal criminal records systems maintained by the FBI; and (2) the development of hardware and software systems to link State criminal history check systems into the National Crime Information Center.

(Sec. 907) Sets forth provisions regarding: (1) access to State criminal records; and (2) funding for improvements in State records systems.

(Sec. 910) Authorizes appropriations.

Subtitle B: Drug Trafficking in Rural Areas - Amends the Omnibus Act to authorize appropriations and increase the base allocation for rural drug enforcement assistance.

(Sec. 912) Directs the Attorney General to establish a Rural Crime and Drug Enforcement Task Force in each of the Federal judicial districts which encompass significant rural lands. Specifies that assets seized as a result of investigations initiated by such a task force shall be used primarily to enhance the operations of the task force and its participating State and local LEAs.

(Sec. 913) Authorizes the Attorney General to cross-designate up to 100 law enforcement officers with jurisdiction to enforce CSA provisions on non-Federal lands and the Federal criminal code to the extent necessary to effect the purposes of this Act. Directs the Attorney General to ensure that each of the task forces are adequately staffed with investigators.

(Sec. 914) Requires the Director of the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center to develop a specialized course for training law enforcement officers from rural agencies in the investigation of drug trafficking and related crimes. Authorizes appropriations and the hiring of additional Drug Enforcement Administration agents.

Subtitle C: Miscellaneous - Enhances penalties for drug trafficking in prisons.

(Sec. 922) Amends the CSA and the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act to reduce the amount of cocaine involved in an offense which is necessary to trigger specified penalties. Subjects a person convicted for the possession of a mixture or substance which contains cocaine (currently, cocaine base) to specified penalties. Directs the Sentencing Commission to promulgate necessary amendments to conform the sentencing guidelines to the amendments made by this section.

Title X: Miscellaneous - Amends the Higher Education Act of 1965 to prohibit the award of Pell grants to any individual incarcerated in a Federal or State penal institution.

(Sec. 1002) Makes a person who is incarcerated in a Federal or State penal institution ineligible for any professional or commercial license provided by any agency or authority of the United States.

(Sec. 1003) Amends the Social Security Act to make certain limitations on, and requirements regarding, the payment of Old Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance Benefits to prisoners applicable to individuals convicted of any criminal offense (currently, a felony).

(Sec. 1004) Sets limitations on the use of veterans' educational assistance by prisoners. Makes such limits inapplicable with respect to any period during which a person is participating in a work-release program or is residing in a halfway house.

Title XI: Penalties for Harassment or Obstruction of Lawful Hunting - Recreational Hunting Safety and Preservation Act of 1994 - Makes it unlawful to intentionally obstruct a lawful hunt on Federal lands.

(Sec. 1105) Establishes: (1) civil penalties for such violations; (2) procedures for individual and Government agent complaints; and (3) permitted uses of collected penalty money.

(Sec. 1106) Authorizes injunctive relief. Permits an affected individual or sportsman's organization to bring a civil action to recover actual and punitive damages and attorney's fees.

(Sec. 1107) Specifies that: (1) this title is not intended to preempt a State law or local ordinance that provides for civil or criminal penalties for a person who obstructs or otherwise interferes with a lawful hunt; and (2) the bringing of an action pursuant to this title shall not prevent an independent action against a person under a State law or local ordinance.

Title XII: Violent Crime Reduction Trust Fund - Directs the President, through the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), to ensure that the number of full-time equivalent positions in all Federal agencies does not exceed specified limits during FY 1994 through 1998.

(Sec. 1203) Establishes within the Treasury a Violent Crime Reduction Trust Fund. Requires specified amounts saved from the reduction in Federal positions to be deposited in the Fund.

(Sec. 1204) Requires the Director of OMB to reduce certain discretionary spending limits set forth in the Congressional Budget Act for FY 1994 through 1998 as specified.