H.R.3 - Taking Back Our Streets Act of 1995104th Congress (1995-1996)
|Sponsor:||Rep. McCollum, Bill [R-FL-8], Rep. Canady, Charles T. [R-FL-12], Rep. Barr, Bob [R-GA-7], Rep. Brewster, Bill K. [D-OK-3] (Introduced 01/04/1995)|
|Committees:||House - Judiciary|
|Latest Action:||02/08/1995 Sponsor introductory remarks on measure.|
|Notes:||This bill had multiple sponsors.|
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Subject — Policy Area:
- Crime and Law Enforcement
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Summary: H.R.3 — 104th Congress (1995-1996)All Bill Information (Except Text)
Introduced in House (01/04/1995)
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
Title I: Effective Death Penalty
Subtitle A: Habeas Corpus Reform
Subtitle B: Federal Death Penalty Procedures Reform
Title II: Deterring Gun Crimes
Title III: Mandatory Victim Restitution
Title IV: Law Enforcement Block Grants
Title V: Truth in Sentencing Grants
Title VI: Exclusionary Rule Reform
Title VII: Stopping Abusive Prisoner Lawsuits
Title VIII: Further Streamlining Deportation of Criminal
Title IX: Amendments to Violent Crime Control and Law
Taking Back Our Streets Act of 1995 - Title I: Effective Death Penalty - Subtitle A: Habeas Corpus Reform - Chapter 1: Post Conviction Petitions: General Habeas Corpus Reform - Amends the Federal judicial code to establish a one-year statute of limitations for habeas corpus actions brought by State prisoners.
(Sec. 102) Vests authority to issue certificates of probable cause for appeal of habeas corpus orders exclusively in the courts of appeals.
Prohibits an appeal from being taken to the court of appeals from the final order in a habeas corpus proceeding where the detention complained of arises out of process issued by a State court, or from the final order involving a prisoner in Federal custody, unless a circuit justice or judge issues a certificate of probable cause. Authorizes the issuance of such certificate only if the petitioner has made a substantial showing of the denial of a Federal right and if the certificate indicates which specific issues satisfy this standard.
(Sec. 104) Permits the denial of a habeas corpus petition on the merits notwithstanding the failure of the applicant to exhaust State court remedies.
(Sec. 105) Imposes a two-year period of limitation for filing for collateral relief by Federal prisoners.
Chapter 2: Special Procedures for Collateral Proceedings in Capital Cases - Sets forth special habeas corpus procedures in capital cases, including provisions regarding the appointment, and claims of ineffectiveness, of counsel.
Specifies that, if a stay of execution has expired, no Federal court thereafter shall have the authority to enter a stay or grant relief in a capital case unless: (1) the basis for the stay and request for relief is a claim not previously presented in the State or Federal courts; (2) the failure to raise the claim is the result of State action in violation of the Constitution or U.S. law or the result of Supreme Court recognition of a new Federal right that is retroactively applicable or is based on a factual predicate that could not have been discovered through the exercise of reasonable diligence in time to present the claim for State or Federal post-conviction review; and (3) the facts underlying the claim would be sufficient to establish by clear and convincing evidence that but for constitutional error no reasonable fact finder would have found the petitioner guilty of the underlying offense or eligible for the death penalty under State law.
Denies any Federal district court or appellate judge the authority to enter a stay, issue injunctive relief, or grant any equitable or other relief in a capital case on any successive habeas petition unless the court first determines that the petition or other action does not constitute an abuse of the writ. Permits such determination to be made only by the district judge or appellate panel that adjudicated the merits of the original habeas petition, with an exception. Allows a stay to issue under this provision in the Federal courts of appeal only when a majority of the original panel or of the active judges determines the petition does not constitute an abuse of the writ.
Sets forth provisions regarding: (1) filing of habeas corpus petitions; (2) State unitary review procedures; and (3) limitation periods for determining petitions.
Specifies that the adjudication of any petition for habeas corpus with respect to State prisoners and of any motion for habeas corpus regarding Federal prisoners by a person under sentence of death shall be given priority by the district court and by the court of appeals over all non-capital matters.
Chapter 3: Funding for Litigation of Federal Habeas Corpus Petitions in Capital Cases - Amends the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 to require the Director of the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) to provide grants to the States to support litigation pertaining to Federal habeas corpus petitions in capital cases.
Subtitle B: Federal Death Penalty Procedures Reform - Amends the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 (VCCLEA) to provide that the jury (or if there is no jury, the court), in determining whether a sentence of death is justified, shall: (1) consider whether the aggravating factor or factors found to exist outweigh any mitigating factors; and (2) recommend a death sentence if it unanimously finds at least one aggravating factor and no mitigating factor or if it finds one or more aggravating factors which outweigh any mitigating factors.
Directs that the jury be instructed that: (1) it must avoid any influence of sympathy, sentiment, passion, prejudice, or other arbitrary factors in its decision and should make such a recommendation as the information warrants; and (2) its recommendation is to be based on the aggravating factors and any mitigating factors which have been found, but that the final decision concerning the balance of aggravating and mitigating factors is a matter for the jury's judgment.
Title II: Deterring Gun Crimes - Amends the Federal criminal code to set mandatory prison terms for carrying, using, or discharging a firearm or destructive device during a State crime that is a serious violent felony or a serious drug offense, except for the conduct of a person in defense of person or property during the course of a crime committed by another unless the person engaged or participated in criminal conduct that gave rise to the criminal conduct of such other individual.
Sets forth mandatory penalties for carrying, using, or discharging: (1) a firearm, a short-barreled rifle or shotgun, a semiautomatic assault weapon, or a machine gun or destructive device or firearm equipped with a silencer in relation to a crime of violence or drug trafficking crime for which the person may be prosecuted in Federal court; and (2) a firearm during and in relation to a crime of violence or drug trafficking crime for which the person may be prosecuted in Federal court or a serious violent felony or serious drug offense for which the person may be prosecuted in State court, with respect to a person who has been previously convicted of certain firearms offenses.
Prohibits the court from imposing a probationary sentence on any person convicted of a violation of this title or from making a term of imprisonment imposed under this title run concurrently with any other term of imprisonment including that imposed for the crime of violence or drug trafficking crime in which the firearm was used.
Title III: Mandatory Victim Restitution - Amends the Federal criminal code to require (current law authorizes) the court to order restitution of the victim when sentencing a defendant convicted of specified offenses, including offenses under the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. Permits the court to order restitution of any person harmed physically, emotionally, or pecuniarily by unlawful conduct of the defendant during the criminal episode during which the offense occurred, or in the course of a scheme, conspiracy, or pattern of unlawful activity related to the offense.
Directs the court to: (1) order restitution to a victim in the full amount of the victim's losses without consideration of the economic circumstances of the offender or the fact that a victim has received or is entitled to receive compensation with respect to a loss from insurance or any other source; and (2) specify in the restitution order, upon determination of the amount owed to each victim, the manner in which and the schedule according to which the restitution is to be paid.
Specifies that a restitution order: (1) shall constitute a lien against all property of the offender and may be recorded in any Federal or State office for the recording of liens against real or personal property; and (2) may be enforced by the United States and by a victim named in the order in the same manner as a judgment in a civil action.
Title IV: Law Enforcement Block Grants - Repeals the Public Safety Partnership and Community Policing Act of 1994 (title I of the VCCLEA), replacing it with a law enforcement block grant program. Requires the Director of BJA to pay to each unit of local government which qualifies for a payment an amount equal to the sum of any amounts allocated to such unit under such title for each payment period.
Directs that sums paid to such units be used by such units for reducing crime and improving public safety, including: (1) hiring, training, and employing on a continuing basis new, additional law enforcement officers and necessary support personnel, paying overtime to presently employed officers and personnel, and procuring equipment, technology, and other material directly related to basic law enforcement functions; (2) enhancing school security measures; and (3) establishing crime prevention programs that are organized or supervised by, or involve substantial participation of, law enforcement officials and that are intended to discourage, disrupt, or interfere with the commission of criminal activity.
Sets forth provisions regarding: (1) the timing of payments; (2) payment adjustments; (3) repayment of unexpended amounts; (4) qualification for payment; (5) review by governors; (6) sanctions for noncompliance; (7) allocation and distribution of funds; (8) utilization of the private sector; and (9) public participation. Authorizes appropriations.
Title V: Truth in Sentencing Grants - Repeals provisions of the VCCLEA regarding violent offender incarceration and truth-in-sentencing incentive grants. Sets forth provisions governing a truth-in-sentencing grant program.
Authorizes the Attorney General to provide grants to eligible States and to eligible States organized as regional compacts (States) to build, expand, and operate: (1) space in correctional facilities in order to increase the prison bed capacity for persons convicted of a serious violent felony; and (2) temporary or permanent correctional facilities, including facilities on military bases, for the confinement of convicted nonviolent offenders and criminal aliens for the purpose of freeing suitable existing prison space for persons convicted of a serious violent felony.
Directs that 50 percent of the total amount of funds made available under this title for each of FY 1995 through 2000 be available for general eligibility grants and 50 percent for truth-in-sentencing incentive grants for each State that meets the following requirements: (1) for general grants, such State, since 1993, has increased the percentage of convicted violent offenders sentenced to prison and the average prison time and percentage of sentence actually to be served in prison by such offenders; and (2) for sentencing incentive grants, a State submits an application to the Attorney General providing assurances that it has enacted laws and regulations which include truth-in-sentencing laws that require persons convicted of a serious violent felony to serve not less than 85 percent of the sentence imposed or of the court-ordered maximum sentence for States that practice indeterminate sentencing, truth-in-sentencing laws which have been enacted but not yet implemented that require such State, within three years, to provide that persons convicted of such a felony serve not less than 85 percent of the sentence imposed (or of the court-ordered maximum sentence), and laws requiring that the sentencing or releasing authorities notify and allow the defendant's victims or the family of victims the opportunity to be heard regarding the issue of sentencing and any post-conviction release.
Sets forth provisions regarding: (1) special rules; (2) the formula for grants; and (3) accountability. Authorizes appropriations. Prohibits the use of funds for other purposes authorized by the VCCLEA in FY 1995 through 1999 unless the truth-in-sentencing programs are fully funded in such years.
Title VI: Exclusionary Rule Reform - Amends the Federal criminal code to prohibit, in a proceeding in a court of the United States, the exclusion of evidence on the ground that: (1) the search or seizure was in violation of the Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution if it was carried out in circumstances justifying an objectively reasonable belief that it was in conformity with the Fourth Amendment (makes the fact that evidence was obtained pursuant to and within the scope of a warrant prima facie evidence of the existence of such circumstances); and (2) it was obtained in violation of a statute, administrative rule or regulation, or rule of procedure unless exclusion is expressly authorized by statute or by rule prescribed by the Supreme Court pursuant to statutory authority.
Title VII: Stopping Abusive Prisoner Lawsuits - Amends the Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act to prohibit an adult convicted of a crime who is confined in any correctional facility from bringing a civil action for deprivation of rights until such plain, speedy, and effective administrative remedies as are available are exhausted.
(Sec. 702) Directs the court, on its own motion or on motion of a party, to dismiss specified actions brought by an adult convicted of a crime and confined in any correctional facility if the court is satisfied that the action fails to state a claim upon which relief can be granted or is frivolous or malicious.
(Sec. 703) Repeals a provision of such Act requiring that the minimum standards provide for an advisory role for employees and inmates of a correctional facility in the formulation, implementation, and operation of the system for resolution of inmate grievances.
(Sec. 704) Amends the Federal judicial code to require: (1) the court to dismiss a case in a forma pauperis proceeding if the allegation of poverty is untrue or if the action fails to state a claim upon which relief may be granted or is frivolous or malicious, even if partial filing fees have been imposed by the court; (2) a prisoner in a correctional institution who files an affidavit to include a statement of all assets such prisoner possesses; and (3) the court to ask the correctional institution for information relating to the prisoner's assets and to require full or partial payment of filing fees according to the prisoner's ability to pay.
Title VIII: Further Streamlining Deportation of Criminal Aliens - Amends the Immigration and Nationality Act to expand the definition of "aggravated felony" to include various offenses such as an offense relating to: (1) commercial bribery, counterfeiting, forgery, or trafficking in vehicles the identification numbers of which have been altered for which a sentence of five years' imprisonment or more may be imposed; (2) perjury or subornation of perjury for which a sentence of five years' imprisonment or more may be imposed; and (3) a failure to appear before a court pursuant to a court order to answer or dispose of a charge of a felony for which a sentence of two years' imprisonment or more may be imposed.
(Sec. 802) Authorizes the Attorney General to issue an order of deportation without an administrative hearing or administrative review for any alien who was not lawfully admitted for permanent residence or who had permanent resident status on a conditional basis and whom the Attorney General determines is deportable and has been convicted of an aggravated felony. Prohibits the Attorney General from executing such an order until 14 calendar days from the date the order was issued, unless waived by the alien, to give the alien the opportunity to apply for judicial review. Limits judicial review of such determinations. Provides that an alien convicted of an aggravated felony shall be conclusively presumed to be deportable.
(Sec. 803) Restricts defenses to exclusion and deportation for certain aliens convicted of aggravated felonies.
(Sec. 804) Limits collateral attacks on deportation orders.
(Sec. 805) Directs the Commissioner to operate a criminal alien tracking center.
(Sec. 806) Permits the Attorney General to authorize deportation hearings by electronic or telephonic media with the alien's consent or, where waived or agreed to by the parties, in the alien's absence.
Title IX: Amendments to Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act - Repeals provisions of the VCCLEA regarding drug courts and crime prevention provisions concerning: (1) the Ounce of Prevention Council; (2) the local crime prevention block grant program; (3) model intensive grant programs; (4) the family and community endeavor schools grant program; (5) assistance for delinquent and at-risk youth; (6) police recruitment; (7) the Local Partnership Act; (8) the National Community Economic Partnership Act; (9) urban recreation and at-risk youth; (10) community-based justice grants for prosecutors; and (11) the Family Unity Demonstration Project Act.
Repeals the Violent Offender Incarceration and Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants program under the VCCLEA.