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Titles Actions Overview All Actions Cosponsors Committees Related Bills Subjects Latest Summary All Summaries

Titles (3)

Popular Titles

Balanced Budget Amendment (Identified by CRS)
Contract with America bill (Identified by CRS)

Official Titles

Official Titles - House of Representatives

Official Title as Introduced

Proposing a balanced budget amendment to the Constitution of the United States.


Actions Overview (6)

Date
06/06/1996Failed of passage/not agreed to in Senate: Failed of passage in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 64-35. Record Vote No: 158.
03/02/1995Failed of passage/not agreed to in Senate: Failed of passage in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 65-35. Record Vote No: 98.
02/10/1995Committee on Budget. Reported to Senate by Senator Domenici without amendment. Without written report.
01/26/1995Passed/agreed to in House: On passage Passed by recorded vote (2/3 required): 300 - 132 (Roll no. 51).
01/18/1995Reported (Amended) by the Committee on Judiciary. H. Rept. 104-3.
01/04/1995Introduced in House

All Actions (289)

Date Chamber
06/06/1996SenateFailed of passage in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 64-35. Record Vote No: 158.
06/06/1996SenateConsidered by Senate. (consideration: CR S5873-5903)
06/05/1996SenateConsidered by Senate. (consideration: CR S5792-5851)
06/04/1996SenateMeasure laid before Senate by unanimous consent.
06/04/1996SenateMotion to reconsider agreed to in Senate by Unanimous Consent.
03/02/1995SenateMotion by Senator Dole to reconsider the vote by which the joint resolution was not passed (Vote No. 98) made in Senate. (consideration: CR S3314)
03/02/1995SenateFailed of passage in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 65-35. Record Vote No: 98.
03/02/1995SenateConsidered by Senate. (consideration: CR S3311-3314)
02/28/1995SenateDole motions to refer and recommit withdrawn by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S3278)
02/28/1995SenateMotion to commit to Senate Committee on Budget with instructions tabled in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 63-37. Record Vote No: 97. (consideration: CR S3278)
02/28/1995SenateMotion to table SP 258 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 75-25. Record Vote No: 96.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.258 Motion to table SP 258 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 75-25. Record Vote No: 96.
02/28/1995SenateMotion to table SP 253 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 63-37. Record Vote No: 95.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.253 Motion to table SP 253 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 63-37. Record Vote No: 95.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.255 Motion to table SP 255 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 62-38. Record Vote No: 94.
02/28/1995SenateMotion to table SP 255 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 62-38. Record Vote No: 94.
02/28/1995SenateMotion to table SP 254 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 68-32. Record Vote No: 93.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.254 Motion to table SP 254 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 68-32. Record Vote No: 93.
02/28/1995SenateMotion to table SP 252 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 69-31. Record Vote No: 92.
02/28/1995SenateMotion to table SP 307 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 63-37. Record Vote No: 91.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.307 Motion to table SP 307 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 63-37. Record Vote No: 91.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.311 Motion to table SP 311 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 100-0. Record Vote No: 90.
02/28/1995SenateMotion to table SP 311 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 100-0. Record Vote No: 90.
02/28/1995SenateMotion to table SP 310 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 57-43. Record Vote No: 89.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.310 Motion to table SP 310 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 57-43. Record Vote No: 89.
02/28/1995SenateMotion to table SP 273 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 62-38. Record Vote No: 88.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.273 Motion to table SP 273 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 62-38. Record Vote No: 88.
02/28/1995SenateAmendment SP 300 as modified agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 92-8. Record Vote No: 87.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.300 Amendment SP 300 as modified agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 92-8. Record Vote No: 87.
02/28/1995SenateMotion to table SP 299 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 61-39. Record Vote No: 86.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.299 Motion to table SP 299 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 61-39. Record Vote No: 86.
02/28/1995SenateMotion to commit to Senate Committee on Budget with instructions tabled in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 63-37. Record Vote No: 85. (consideration: CR S3275)
02/28/1995SenateMotion to table SP 267 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 62-38. Record Vote No: 84.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.267 Motion to table SP 267 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 62-38. Record Vote No: 84.
02/28/1995SenateMotion to table SP 298 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 57-43. Record Vote No: 83.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.298 Motion to table SP 298 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 57-43. Record Vote No: 83.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.259 Motion to table SP 259 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 59-40. Record Vote No: 82.
02/28/1995SenateMotion to table SP 259 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 59-40. Record Vote No: 82.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.291 Motion to table SP 291 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 99-0. Record Vote No: 81.
02/28/1995SenateMotion to table SP 291 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 99-0. Record Vote No: 81.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.252 Motion to table agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 69-31. Record Vote No: 92.
02/28/1995SenateMotion to table SP 274 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 60-39. Record Vote No: 80.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.274 Motion to table SP 274 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 60-39. Record Vote No: 80.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.253 Considered by Senate.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.252 Considered by Senate.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.255 Considered by Senate.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.254 Considered by Senate.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.258 Considered by Senate.
02/28/1995SenateConsidered by Senate. (consideration: CR S3231-3281)
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.259 Considered by Senate.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.267 Considered by Senate.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.298 Considered by Senate.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.291 Considered by Senate.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.274 Considered by Senate.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.273 Considered by Senate.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.310 Considered by Senate.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.299 Considered by Senate.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.307 Considered by Senate.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.311 Considered by Senate.
02/28/1995SenateS.Amdt.300 Considered by Senate.
02/27/1995SenateProposed amendment SP 289 withdrawn in Senate.
02/27/1995SenateS.Amdt.289 Proposed amendment SP 289 withdrawn in Senate.
02/27/1995SenateS.Amdt.255 Considered by Senate.
02/27/1995SenateS.Amdt.253 Considered by Senate.
02/27/1995SenateS.Amdt.289 Considered by Senate.
02/27/1995SenateS.Amdt.252 Considered by Senate.
02/27/1995SenateS.Amdt.254 Considered by Senate.
02/27/1995SenateS.Amdt.258 Considered by Senate.
02/27/1995SenateConsidered by Senate. (consideration: CR S3148-3220)
02/27/1995SenateS.Amdt.259 Considered by Senate.
02/27/1995SenateS.Amdt.267 Considered by Senate.
02/27/1995SenateS.Amdt.273 Considered by Senate.
02/27/1995SenateS.Amdt.298 Considered by Senate.
02/27/1995SenateS.Amdt.291 Considered by Senate.
02/27/1995SenateS.Amdt.299 Considered by Senate.
02/27/1995SenateS.Amdt.300 Considered by Senate.
02/27/1995SenateS.Amdt.274 Considered by Senate.
02/27/1995SenateS.Amdt.310 Considered by Senate.
02/27/1995SenateS.Amdt.307 Considered by Senate.
02/27/1995SenateS.Amdt.311 Considered by Senate.
02/24/1995SenateMotion by Senator Dole to commit to Senate Committee on Judiciary with instructions made in Senate. (consideration: CR S3105)
02/24/1995SenateMotion by Senator Dole to commit to Senate Committee on Judiciary with instructions made in Senate. (consideration: CR S3104)
02/24/1995SenateMotion by Senator Dole to recommit to Senate Committee on Budget with instructions made in Senate. (consideration: CR S3104)
02/24/1995SenateMotion by Senator Dole to recommit to Senate Committee on Budget with instructions made in Senate. (consideration: CR S3104)
02/24/1995SenateMotion by Senator Kerry to commit to Senate Committee on Budget with instructions made in Senate. (consideration: CR S3104)
02/24/1995SenateAmendment SP 289 proposed by Senator Byrd.
02/24/1995SenateS.Amdt.289 Proposed by Senator Byrd. To provide that any bill to increase revenues shall not become law unless three-fifths of the whole number of each House shall provide by law for such an increase by a rollcall vote.
02/24/1995SenateAmendment SP 258 proposed by Senator Byrd.
02/24/1995SenateS.Amdt.258 Proposed by Senator Byrd. To strike any reliance on estimates.
02/24/1995SenateAmendment SP 255 proposed by Senator Byrd.
02/24/1995SenateS.Amdt.255 Proposed by Senator Byrd. To permit the President to submit an alternative budget.
02/24/1995SenateS.Amdt.254 Proposed by Senator Byrd. To permit outlays on the debt limit to be increased by a majority vote.
02/24/1995SenateAmendment SP 254 proposed by Senator Byrd.
02/24/1995SenateAmendment SP 253 proposed by Senator Byrd.
02/24/1995SenateS.Amdt.253 Proposed by Senator Byrd. To permit a bill to increase revenue to become law by majority vote.
02/24/1995SenateS.Amdt.252 Proposed by Senator Byrd. To permit outlays to exceed receipts by a majority vote.
02/24/1995SenateAmendment SP 252 proposed by Senator Byrd.
02/24/1995SenateAmendment SP 307 proposed by Senator Pryor.
02/24/1995SenateS.Amdt.307 Proposed by Senator Pryor. To give the people of each State, through their State representatives, the right to tell Congress how they would cut spending in their State in order to balance the budget.
02/24/1995SenateAmendment SP 311 proposed by Senator Levin.
02/24/1995SenateS.Amdt.311 Proposed by Senator Levin. To provide that the Vice President of the United States shall not be able to cast the deciding vote in the Senate if the whole number of the Senate be equally divided.
02/24/1995SenateAmendment SP 310 proposed by Senator Levin.
02/24/1995SenateS.Amdt.310 Proposed by Senator Levin. To provide that the Vice President of the United States shall be able to cast the deciding vote in the Senate if the whole number of the Senate be equally divided.
02/24/1995SenateAmendment SP 273 proposed by Senator Levin.
02/24/1995SenateS.Amdt.273 Proposed by Senator Levin. To require Congress to pass legislation specifying the means for implementing and enforcing a balanced budget before the balanced budget amendment is submitted to the States for ratification.
02/24/1995SenateConsidered by Senate. (consideration: CR S3081-3131)
02/24/1995SenateS.Amdt.259 Considered by Senate.
02/24/1995SenateS.Amdt.267 Considered by Senate.
02/24/1995SenateS.Amdt.298 Considered by Senate.
02/24/1995SenateS.Amdt.291 Considered by Senate.
02/24/1995SenateS.Amdt.299 Considered by Senate.
02/24/1995SenateS.Amdt.300 Considered by Senate.
02/24/1995SenateS.Amdt.274 Considered by Senate.
02/23/1995SenateAmendment SP 300 proposed by Senator Nunn.
02/23/1995SenateS.Amdt.300 Proposed by Senator Nunn. To limit judicial review.
02/23/1995SenateAmendment SP 299 proposed by Senator Nunn.
02/23/1995SenateS.Amdt.299 Proposed by Senator Nunn. To permit waiver of the amendment during an economic emergency.
02/23/1995SenateMotion by Senator Bumpers to commit to Senate Committee on Budget with instructions made in Senate. (consideration: CR S3036-3038)
02/23/1995SenateAmendment SP 267 proposed by Senator Kennedy.
02/23/1995SenateS.Amdt.267 Proposed by Senator Kennedy. To provide that the balanced budget constitutional amendment does not authorize the President to impound lawfully appropriated funds or impose taxes, duties, or fees.
02/23/1995SenateAmendment SP 298 proposed by Senator Graham.
02/23/1995SenateS.Amdt.298 Proposed by Senator Graham. To clarify the application of the public debt limit with respect to redemptions from the Social Security Trust Funds.
02/23/1995SenateAmendment SP 259 proposed by Senator Graham.
02/23/1995SenateS.Amdt.259 Proposed by Senator Graham. To strike the limitation on debt held by the public.
02/23/1995SenateAmendment SP 291 proposed by Senator Feingold.
02/23/1995SenateS.Amdt.291 Proposed by Senator Feingold. To provide that receipts and outlays of the Tennessee Valley Authority shall not be counted as receipts or outlays for purposes of this article.
02/23/1995SenateAmendment SP 274 proposed by Senator Feinstein.
02/23/1995SenateS.Amdt.274 Proposed by Senator Feinstein. To propose a substitute.
02/23/1995SenateS.Amdt.301 Motion to table agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 68-27. Record Vote No: 79.
02/23/1995SenateMotion to table SP 301 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 68-27. Record Vote No: 79.
02/23/1995SenateMotion to commit to Senate Committee on Budget with instructions tabled in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 60-35. Record Vote No: 78. (consideration: CR S3021)
02/23/1995SenateMotion to commit to Senate Committee on Budget with instructions tabled in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 60-35. Record Vote No: 77. (consideration: CR S3020)
02/23/1995SenateS.Amdt.301 Proposed by Senator Byrd. To protect Federal outlays for law enforcement and the reduction and prevention of violent crime.
02/23/1995SenateAmendment SP 301 proposed by Senator Byrd.
02/23/1995SenateMotion by Senator Wellstone to commit to Senate Committee on Budget with instructions made in Senate.
02/23/1995SenateMotion by Senator Wellstone to commit to Senate Committee on Budget with instructions made in Senate.
02/23/1995SenateConsidered by Senate. (consideration: CR S2995-3034, S3036-3051)
02/22/1995SenateMotion to commit to Senate Committee on Budget with instructions withdrawn in Senate. (consideration: CR S2949-2952)
02/22/1995SenateMotion by Senator Dorgan to commit to Senate Committee on Budget with instructions made in Senate.
02/22/1995SenateMotion to table SP 306 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 62-33. Record Vote No: 76.
02/22/1995SenateS.Amdt.306 Motion to table SP 306 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 62-33. Record Vote No: 76.
02/22/1995SenateAmendment SP 306 proposed by Senator Rockefeller.
02/22/1995SenateS.Amdt.306 Proposed by Senator Rockefeller. To protect the disability and death benefits of veterans.
02/22/1995SenateS.Amdt.256 Motion to table SP 256 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 55-41. Record Vote No: 75.
02/22/1995SenateMotion to table SP 256 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 55-41. Record Vote No: 75.
02/22/1995SenateAmendment SP 256 proposed by Senator Byrd.
02/22/1995SenateS.Amdt.256 Proposed by Senator Byrd. To permit waiver of the article when the United States is engaged in military conflict by majority vote.
02/22/1995SenateConsidered by Senate. (consideration: CR S2911-2917, S2920-2952)
02/16/1995SenateThe second and third cloture votes were vitiated by Unanimous Consent.
02/16/1995SenateCloture not invoked in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 57-42. Record Vote No: 74.
02/16/1995SenateConsidered by Senate. (consideration: CR S2777-2815, S2820)
02/15/1995SenateThird cloture motion presented in Senate. (consideration: CR S2754)
02/15/1995SenateSecond cloture motion presented in Senate. (consideration: CR S2754)
02/15/1995SenateMotion to commit to Senate Committee on Judiciary tabled in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 61-33. Record Vote No: 73. (consideration: CR S2754)
02/15/1995SenateMotion by Senator Feingold to commit to Senate Committee on Judiciary made in Senate.
02/15/1995SenateMotion to table SP 278 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 59-38. Record Vote No: 72.
02/15/1995SenateS.Amdt.278 Motion to table SP 278 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 59-38. Record Vote No: 72.
02/15/1995SenateAmendment SP 278 proposed by Senator Biden.
02/15/1995SenateS.Amdt.278 Proposed by Senator Biden. To provide for a capital budget.
02/15/1995SenateMotion to table SP 272 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 52-47. Record Vote No: 71.
02/15/1995SenateS.Amdt.272 Motion to table SP 272 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 52-47. Record Vote No: 71.
02/15/1995SenateAmendment SP 272 proposed by Senator Johnston.
02/15/1995SenateS.Amdt.272 Proposed by Senator Johnston. To provide that no court shall have the power to order relief pursuant to any case or controversy arising under the balanced budget constitutional amendment, except as provided in implementing legislation.
02/15/1995SenateMotion to commit to Senate Committee on Budget tabled in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 59-40. Record Vote No: 70. (consideration: CR S2693)
02/15/1995SenateMotion by Senator Wellstone to commit to Senate Committee on Budget with instructions made in Senate.
02/15/1995SenateMotion to table SP 248 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 59-40. Record Vote No: 69.
02/15/1995SenateS.Amdt.248 Motion to table SP 248 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 59-40. Record Vote No: 69.
02/15/1995SenateS.Amdt.248 Proposed by Senator Bingaman. To prohibit either House from requiring more than a majority of quorum to adopt revenues increases and spending cuts.
02/15/1995SenateAmendment SP 248 proposed by Senator Bingaman.
02/15/1995SenateConsidered by Senate. (consideration: CR S2679-2732, S2736-2754)
02/14/1995SenateS.Amdt.241 Motion to table SP 241 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 52-45. Record Vote No: 68.
02/14/1995SenateMotion to table SP 241 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 52-45. Record Vote No: 68.
02/14/1995SenateMotion to commit to Senate Committee on Budget tabled in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 66-32. Record Vote No: 67. (consideration: CR S2626-2627)
02/14/1995SenateMotion by Senator Feingold to commit to Senate Committee on Budget with instructions made in Senate.
02/14/1995SenateAmendment SP 241 proposed by Senator Hollings.
02/14/1995SenateS.Amdt.241 Proposed by Senator Hollings. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution relative to contributions and expenditures intended to affect elections for Federal, State, and local office.
02/14/1995SenateMotion to table SP 240 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 70-28. Record Vote No: 66.
02/14/1995SenateS.Amdt.240 Motion to table SP 240 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 70-28. Record Vote No: 66.
02/14/1995SenateAmendment SP 240 proposed by Senator Boxer.
02/14/1995SenateS.Amdt.240 Proposed by Senator Boxer. To provide Federal assistance to supplement State and local efforts to alleviate the damage, loss, hardship and suffering caused by disasters or emergencies by exempting spending that is designated emergency requirements by both the President and the Congress.
02/14/1995SenateCloture motion presented in Senate. (consideration: CR S2592)
02/14/1995SenateS.Amdt.236 Motion to table SP 236 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 57-41. Record Vote No: 65.
02/14/1995SenateMotion to table SP 236 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 57-41. Record Vote No: 65.
02/14/1995SenateConsidered by Senate. (consideration: CR S2583-2595, S2597-2639)
02/14/1995SenateS.Amdt.236 Considered by Senate.
02/13/1995SenateConsidered by Senate. (consideration: CR S2538-2564)
02/13/1995SenateS.Amdt.236 Considered by Senate.
02/10/1995SenateCommittee on Budget. Reported to Senate by Senator Domenici without amendment. Without written report.
02/10/1995SenateCommittted to Senate Committee on Budget with instructions by Voice Vote. (consideration: CR S2453)
02/10/1995SenateAmendment SP 237 agreed to in Senate by Voice Vote.
02/10/1995SenateS.Amdt.237 Amendment SP 237 agreed to in Senate by Voice Vote.
02/10/1995SenateS.Amdt.238 Amendment SP 238 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 87-10. Record Vote No: 63.
02/10/1995SenateAmendment SP 238 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 87-10. Record Vote No: 63.
02/10/1995SenateS.Amdt.237 Considered by Senate.
02/10/1995SenateS.Amdt.236 Considered by Senate.
02/10/1995SenateS.Amdt.238 Considered by Senate.
02/10/1995SenateConsidered by Senate. (consideration: CR S2441-2453, S2457-2483)
02/09/1995SenateAmendment SP 238 proposed by Senator Dole to Amendment SP 237.
02/09/1995SenateS.Amdt.238 Proposed by Senator Dole to Amendment SP 237. Of a perfecting nature.
02/09/1995SenateAmendment SP 237 proposed by Senator Dole.
02/09/1995SenateS.Amdt.237 Proposed by Senator Dole. Instructions of motion to refer H.J.Res. 1 to Budget Committee.
02/09/1995SenateMotion by Senator Dole to commit to Senate Committee on Budget with instructions made in Senate. (consideration: CR S2397)
02/09/1995SenateConsidered by Senate. (consideration: CR S2358-2392, S2394-2398)
02/09/1995SenateS.Amdt.236 Considered by Senate.
02/08/1995SenateAmendment SP 236 proposed by Senator Reid.
02/08/1995SenateS.Amdt.236 Proposed by Senator Reid. To protect the Social Security system by excluding the receipts and outlays of Social Security from the budget.
02/08/1995SenateSP 231, SP 232, SP 233 fell when the motion to commit with instructions tabled.
02/08/1995SenateS.Amdt.231 SP 231, SP 232, SP 233 fell when the motion to commit with instructions tabled.
02/08/1995SenateS.Amdt.233 SP 231, SP 232, SP 233 fell when the motion to commit with instructions tabled.
02/08/1995SenateS.Amdt.232 SP 231, SP 232, SP 233 fell when the motion to commit with instructions tabled.
02/08/1995SenateMotion to table the motion to commit with instructions agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 56-44. Record Vote No: 62. (consideration: CR S2307)
02/08/1995SenateS.Amdt.231 Considered by Senate.
02/08/1995SenateS.Amdt.233 Considered by Senate.
02/08/1995SenateS.Amdt.232 Considered by Senate.
02/08/1995SenateConsidered by Senate. (consideration: CR S2279-2307, S2311-2324, S2326-2329)
02/07/1995SenateS.Amdt.231 Considered by Senate.
02/07/1995SenateS.Amdt.233 Considered by Senate.
02/07/1995SenateS.Amdt.232 Considered by Senate.
02/07/1995SenateConsidered by Senate. (consideration: CR S2218-2255)
02/06/1995SenateConsidered by Senate. (consideration: CR S2156-2209)
02/06/1995SenateS.Amdt.231 Considered by Senate.
02/06/1995SenateS.Amdt.233 Considered by Senate.
02/06/1995SenateS.Amdt.232 Considered by Senate.
02/03/1995SenateAmendment SP 233 proposed by Senator Dole to Amendment SP 232.
02/03/1995SenateS.Amdt.233 Proposed by Senator Dole to Amendment SP 232. In the nature of a substitute.
02/03/1995SenateAmendment SP 232 proposed by Senator Dole.
02/03/1995SenateS.Amdt.232 Proposed by Senator Dole. To establish that if Congress has not passed a Balanced Budget Amendment to the Constitution by May 1, 1995, within 60 days thereafter, the President shall transmit to Congress a detailed plan to balance the budget by the year 2002.
02/03/1995SenateAmendment SP 231 proposed by Senator Daschle.
02/03/1995SenateS.Amdt.231 Proposed by Senator Daschle. To require a budget plan before the amendment takes effect.
02/03/1995SenateMotion by Senator Daschle to commit to Senate Committee on Judiciary with instructions made in Senate. (consideration: CR S2089)
02/03/1995SenateConsidered by Senate. (consideration: CR S2084-2119)
02/02/1995SenateConsidered by Senate. (consideration: CR S1980-1995, S2006-2033)
02/01/1995SenateConsidered by Senate. (consideration: CR S1880-1919)
01/31/1995SenateConsidered by Senate. (consideration: CR S1806-1845)
01/30/1995SenateMeasure laid before Senate by unanimous consent. (consideration: CR S1736-1755)
01/27/1995SenateReceived in the Senate. Read twice. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 18.
01/26/1995-8:32pmHouseMotion to reconsider laid on the table Agreed to without objection.
01/26/1995-8:32pmHouseOn passage Passed by recorded vote (2/3 required): 300 - 132 (Roll no. 51).
01/26/1995-8:15pmHouseOn motion to recommit with instructions Failed by recorded vote: 184 - 247 (Roll no. 50). (consideration: CR H770-772)
01/26/1995-7:57pmHouseThe previous question on the motion to recommit with instructions was ordered without objection.
01/26/1995-7:48pmHouseDEBATE - The House proceeded with ten minutes of debate on the Conyers motion to recommit the resolution to the Committee on the Judiciary with instructions that the Committee report the resolution back to the House forthwith with an amendment to exclude all receipts and outlays of the Social Security Fund from the provisions of the balanced budget amendment.
01/26/1995-7:47pmHouseMr. Conyers moved to recommit with instructions to Judiciary.
01/26/1995-7:46pmHouseThe House adopted the amendment in the nature of a substitute as agreed to by the Committee of the Whole House on the state of the Union.
01/26/1995-7:46pmHouseThe previous question was ordered pursuant to the rule.
01/26/1995-7:45pmHouseThe House rose from the Committee of the Whole House on the state of the Union to report H.J. Res. 1.
01/26/1995-7:45pmHouseH.Amdt.22 On agreeing to the Schaefer amendment (A006) Agreed to by recorded vote: 293 - 139 (Roll no. 49).
01/26/1995-6:04pmHouseDEBATE - Pursuant to the provisions of H. Res. 44, the Committee of the Whole proceeded with one hour of debate on the Schaefer amendment in the nature of a substitute.
01/26/1995-6:04pmHouseH.Amdt.22 Amendment (A006) offered by Mr. Schaefer.
01/26/1995-6:03pmHouseH.Amdt.21 On agreeing to the Bonior amendment (A005) Failed by recorded vote: 135 - 296 (Roll no. 48).
01/26/1995-4:57pmHouseOn motion that the Committee rise Failed by recorded vote: 79 - 342, 1 Present (Roll no. 47).
01/26/1995-4:38pmHouseMr. Watt (NC) moved that the Committee rise.
01/26/1995-4:17pmHouseDEBATE - The Committee of the Whole proceeded with one hour of debate on the Bonior amendment.
01/26/1995-4:16pmHouseH.Amdt.21 Amendment (A005) in the nature of a substitute offered by Mr. Bonior.
01/26/1995-4:16pmHouseH.Amdt.20 On agreeing to the Conyers amendment (A004) Failed by recorded vote: 112 - 317 (Roll no. 46).
01/26/1995-3:23pmHouseOn motion to strike the resolving clause Failed by recorded vote: 96 - 331, 1 Present (Roll no. 45).
01/26/1995-3:17pmHouseDEBATE - The Committee of the Whole proceeded with 10 minutes of debate on the motion to rise and strike the resolving clause.
01/26/1995-3:17pmHouseMr. Watt (NC) moved to strike the resolving clause.
01/26/1995-2:23pmHouseDEBATE - Pursuant to the provisions of H. Res. 44, the Committee of the Whole proceeded with one hour of debate on the Conyers amendment in the nature of a substitute.
01/26/1995-2:23pmHouseH.Amdt.20 Amendment (A004) in the nature of a substitute offered by Mr. Conyers.
01/26/1995-2:21pmHouseH.Amdt.19 On agreeing to the Wise amendment (A003) Failed by recorded vote: 138 - 291, 1 Present (Roll no. 44).
01/26/1995-1:05pmHouseDEBATE - Pursuant to the provisions of H. Res. 44, the Committee of the Whole proceeded with one hour of debate on the Wise amendment in the nature of a substitute.
01/26/1995-1:04pmHouseH.Amdt.19 Amendment (A003) in the nature of a substitute offered by Mr. Wise.
01/26/1995-1:02pmHouseH.Amdt.18 On agreeing to the Owens amendment (A002) Failed by recorded vote: 64 - 363, 1 Present (Roll no. 43).
01/26/1995-11:38amHouseDEBATE - Pursuant to the provisions of H.R. 44, the Committee of the Whole proceeded with 1 hour of debate on the Owens amendment.
01/26/1995-11:38amHouseH.Amdt.18 Amendment (A002) in the nature of a substitute offered by Mr. Owens.
01/26/1995-11:34amHouseH.Amdt.17 On agreeing to the Judiciary amendment Agreed to by recorded vote: 253 - 173 (Roll no. 41).
01/26/1995-9:59amHouseDEBATE - Pursuant to the provisions of H. Res. 44, the Committee of the Whole proceeded with one hour of debate on the Judiciary Committee amendment in the nature of a substitute.
01/26/1995-9:58amHouseH.Amdt.17 Amendment in the nature of a substitute reported by the House Committee on Judiciary.
01/26/1995-9:57amHouseThe House resolved into Committee of the Whole House on the state of the Union for further consideration.
01/26/1995-9:56amHouseConsidered as unfinished business. (consideration: CR H700-781)
01/25/1995-7:52pmHouseCommittee of the Whole House on the state of the Union rises leaving H.J. Res. 1 as unfinished business.
01/25/1995-5:50pmHouseGENERAL DEBATE - The Committee of the Whole resumed general debate.
01/25/1995-5:50pmHouseThe House resolved into Committee of the Whole House on the state of the Union for further consideration.
01/25/1995-5:50pmHouseConsidered as unfinished business.
01/25/1995-5:48pmHouseCommittee of the Whole House on the state of the Union rises leaving H.J. Res. 1 as unfinished business.
01/25/1995-4:16pmHouseGENERAL DEBATE - Pursuant to the provisions of H. Res. 44, the Committee of the Whole proceeded with three hours of general debate.
01/25/1995-4:16pmHouseThe Speaker designated the Honorable Robert S. Walker to act as Chairman of the Committee.
01/25/1995-4:16pmHouseHouse resolved itself into the Committee of the Whole House on the state of the Union pursuant to H. Res. 44 and Rule XXIII.
01/25/1995-4:15pmHouseRule provides for consideration of H. Con. Res. 17 and H.J. Res. 1 with 4 hours of general debate. The rule provides for 1 hour of general debate in the House on H. Con. Res. 17, and 3 hours of general debate on H.J. Res. 1. The previous question shall be considered as ordered on the concurrent resolution to final adoption without intervening motion. Specified amendments are in order. It shall be in order to consider H.J. Res. 1 in the Committee of the Whole, with 3 hours of general debate. The amendment in the nature of a substitute recommended by the Comittee on the Judiciary printed in the joint resolution shall be debatable for one hour. No furter amendment shall be in order except those designated in section 3 of this resolution, if offered in the order and manner specified. If more than one amendment is adopted, the amendment receiving the greatest number of affirmative votes shall be considered as finally adop...
01/25/1995-4:15pmHouseConsidered under the provisions of rule H. Res. 44. (consideration: CR H628-657)
01/25/1995-2:41pmHouseRule H. Res. 44 passed House.
01/25/1995HouseSponsor introductory remarks on measure. (CR H603, H677-678, H682-686)
01/24/1995-5:58pmHouseRules Committee Resolution H. Res. 44 Reported to House. Rule provides for consideration of H. Con. Res. 17 and H.J. Res. 1 with 4 hours of general debate. The rule provides for 1 hour of general debate in the House on H. Con. Res. 17, and 3 hours of general debate on H.J. Res. 1. The previous question shall be considered as ordered on the concurrent resolution to final adoption without intervening motion. Specified amendments are in order. It shall be in order to consider H.J. Res. 1 in the Committee of the Whole, with 3 hours of general debate. The amendment in the nature of a substitute recommended by the Comittee on the Judiciary printed in the joint resolution shall be debatable for one hour. No furter amendment shall be in order except those designated in section 3 of this resolution, if offered in the order and manner specified. If more than one amendment is adopted, the amendment receiving the greatest number of affirmative votes shall be considered as finally adop...
01/18/1995HousePlaced on the House Calendar, Calendar No. 2.
01/18/1995HouseReported (Amended) by the Committee on Judiciary. H. Rept. 104-3.
01/11/1995HouseOrdered to be Reported (Amended) by the Yeas and Nays: 20 - 13.
01/11/1995HouseCommittee Consideration and Mark-up Session Held.
01/04/1995HouseReferred to the House Committee on the Judiciary.
01/04/1995HouseIntroduced in House

Cosponsors (177)

* = Original cosponsor
CosponsorDate Cosponsored
Rep. Allard, Wayne [R-CO-4]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Armey, Richard K. [R-TX-26]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Mica, John L. [R-FL-7]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Bachus, Spencer [R-AL-6]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Baker, Bill [R-CA-10]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Ballenger, Cass [R-NC-10]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Barr, Bob [R-GA-7]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Barrett, Bill [R-NE-3]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Bartlett, Roscoe G. [R-MD-6]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Bilirakis, Michael [R-FL-9]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Blute, Peter I. [R-MA-3]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Bonilla, Henry [R-TX-23]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Bono, Sonny [R-CA-44]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Brownback, Sam [R-KS-2]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Bunning, Jim [R-KY-4]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Burr, Richard [R-NC-5]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Burton, Dan [R-IN-6]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Calvert, Ken [R-CA-43]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Camp, Dave [R-MI-4]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Canady, Charles T. [R-FL-12]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Castle, Michael N. [R-DE-At Large]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Chambliss, Saxby [R-GA-8]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Christensen, Jon [R-NE-2]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Chrysler, Dick [R-MI-8]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Coburn, Tom [R-OK-2]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Collins, Mac [R-GA-3]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Combest, Larry [R-TX-19]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Cooley, Wes [R-OR-2]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Cox, Christopher [R-CA-47]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Crane, Philip M. [R-IL-8]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Cremeans, Frank A. [R-OH-6]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Cubin, Barbara [R-WY-At Large]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Cunningham, Randy (Duke) [R-CA-51]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Danner, Pat [D-MO-6]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Dornan, Robert K. [R-CA-46]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Duncan, John J., Jr. [R-TN-2]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Dunn, Jennifer [R-WA-8]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Emerson, Bill [R-MO-8]* 01/04/1995
Rep. English, Phil [R-PA-21]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Ensign, John [R-NV-1]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Everett, Terry [R-AL-2]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Ewing, Thomas W. [R-IL-15]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Fawell, Harris W. [R-IL-13]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Flanagan, Michael Patrick [R-IL-5]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Foley, Mark [R-FL-16]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Forbes, Michael P. [R-NY-1]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Fowler, Tillie [R-FL-4]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Fox, Jon D. [R-PA-13]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Frelinghuysen, Rodney P. [R-NJ-11]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Frisa, Dan [R-NY-4]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Ganske, Greg [R-IA-4]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Gekas, George W. [R-PA-17]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Gilchrest, Wayne T. [R-MD-1]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Gillmor, Paul E. [R-OH-5]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Goodlatte, Bob [R-VA-6]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Goodling, William F. [R-PA-19]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Goss, Porter J. [R-FL-14]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Greenwood, James C. [R-PA-8]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Gutknecht, Gil [R-MN-1]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Hancock, Mel [R-MO-7]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Hastert, J. Dennis [R-IL-14]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Hastings, Doc [R-WA-4]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Hayworth, J. D. [R-AZ-6]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Heineman, Frederick K. (Fred) [R-NC-4]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Herger, Wally [R-CA-2]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Hilleary, Van [R-TN-4]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Hobson, David L. [R-OH-7]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Horn, Stephen [R-CA-38]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Hunter, Duncan [R-CA-52]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Hutchinson, Tim [R-AR-3]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Inglis, Bob [R-SC-4]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Istook, Ernest J., Jr. [R-OK-5]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Johnson, Sam [R-TX-3]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Jones, Walter B., Jr. [R-NC-3]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Kim, Jay [R-CA-41]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Kingston, Jack [R-GA-1]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Knollenberg, Joe [R-MI-11]* 01/04/1995
Rep. LaHood, Ray [R-IL-18]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Largent, Steve [R-OK-1]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Latham, Tom [R-IA-5]* 01/04/1995
Rep. LaTourette, Steven C. [R-OH-19]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Leach, James A. [R-IA-1]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Lewis, Ron [R-KY-2]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Lightfoot, Jim [R-IA-3]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Linder, John [R-GA-4]* 01/04/1995
Rep. LoBiondo, Frank A. [R-NJ-2]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Lucas, Frank D. [R-OK-6]* 01/04/1995
Rep. McIntosh, David M. [R-IN-2]* 01/04/1995
Rep. McCollum, Bill [R-FL-8]* 01/04/1995
Rep. McCrery, Jim [R-LA-5]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Molinari, Susan [R-NY-13]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Meyers, Jan [R-KS-3]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Miller, Dan [R-FL-13]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Moorhead, Carlos J. [R-CA-27]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Myrick, Sue Wilkins [R-NC-9]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Neumann, Mark W. [R-WI-1]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Nussle, Jim [R-IA-2]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Oxley, Michael G. [R-OH-4]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Packard, Ron [R-CA-48]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Pombo, Richard W. [R-CA-11]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Portman, Rob [R-OH-2]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Pryce, Deborah [R-OH-15]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Radanovich, George [R-CA-19]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Quillen, James H. (Jimmy) [R-TN-1]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Quinn, Jack [R-NY-30]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Riggs, Frank [R-CA-1]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Roth, Toby [R-WI-8]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Royce, Edward R. [R-CA-39]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Sanford, Marshall (Mark) [R-SC-1]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Saxton, Jim [R-NJ-3]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Schaefer, Dan [R-CO-6]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Sensenbrenner, F. James, Jr. [R-WI-9]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Shadegg, John B. [R-AZ-4]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Shaw, E. Clay, Jr. [R-FL-22]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Shays, Christopher [R-CT-4]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Smith, Christopher H. [R-NJ-4]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Smith, Lamar [R-TX-21]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Smith, Nick [R-MI-7]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Solomon, Gerald B. H. [R-NY-22]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Spence, Floyd [R-SC-2]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Stearns, Cliff [R-FL-6]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Stockman, Steve [R-TX-9]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Stump, Bob [R-AZ-3]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Talent, Jim [R-MO-2]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Tauzin, W. J. (Billy) [R-LA-3]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Taylor, Charles H. [R-NC-11]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Thornberry, Mac [R-TX-13]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Tiahrt, Todd [R-KS-4]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Waldholtz, Enid Greene [R-UT-2]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Wamp, Zach [R-TN-3]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Weldon, Curt [R-PA-7]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Weller, Jerry [R-IL-11]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Whitfield, Ed [R-KY-1]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Wicker, Roger F. [R-MS-1]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Zimmer, Dick [R-NJ-12]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Crapo, Mike [R-ID-2]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Kolbe, Jim [R-AZ-5]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Paxon, Bill [R-NY-27]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Young, C. W. Bill [R-FL-10]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Coble, Howard [R-NC-6]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Ehrlich, Robert L., Jr. [R-MD-2]* 01/04/1995
Rep. Andrews, Robert E. [D-NJ-1] 01/17/1995
Rep. Baker, Richard H. [R-LA-6] 01/17/1995
Rep. Bliley, Tom [R-VA-7] 01/17/1995
Rep. Bunn, Jim [R-OR-5] 01/17/1995
Rep. Callahan, Sonny [R-AL-1] 01/17/1995
Rep. Chabot, Steve [R-OH-1] 01/17/1995
Rep. Doolittle, John T. [R-CA-4] 01/17/1995
Rep. Fields, Jack [R-TX-8] 01/17/1995
Rep. Funderburk, David [R-NC-2] 01/17/1995
Rep. Graham, Lindsey [R-SC-3] 01/17/1995
Rep. Hansen, James V. [R-UT-1] 01/17/1995
Rep. Hayes, James A. [D-LA-7] 01/17/1995
Rep. Hefley, Joel [R-CO-5] 01/17/1995
Rep. Hoekstra, Peter [R-MI-2] 01/17/1995
Rep. Livingston, Bob [R-LA-1] 01/17/1995
Rep. Laughlin, Greg [D-TX-14] 01/17/1995
Rep. Lewis, Jerry [R-CA-40] 01/17/1995
Rep. Longley, James B., Jr. [R-ME-1] 01/17/1995
Rep. Manzullo, Donald A. [R-IL-16] 01/17/1995
Rep. McKeon, Howard P. "Buck" [R-CA-25] 01/17/1995
Rep. Metcalf, Jack [R-WA-2] 01/17/1995
Rep. Ney, Robert W. [R-OH-18] 01/17/1995
Rep. Norwood, Charles W. [R-GA-10] 01/17/1995
Rep. Pallone, Frank, Jr. [D-NJ-6] 01/17/1995
Rep. Poshard, Glenn [D-IL-19] 01/17/1995
Rep. Ramstad, Jim [R-MN-3] 01/17/1995
Rep. Roberts, Pat [R-KS-1] 01/17/1995
Rep. Rohrabacher, Dana [R-CA-45] 01/17/1995
Rep. Salmon, Matt [R-AZ-1] 01/17/1995
Rep. Scarborough, Joe [R-FL-1] 01/17/1995
Rep. Seastrand, Andrea H. [R-CA-22] 01/17/1995
Rep. Smith, Linda [R-WA-3] 01/17/1995
Rep. Souder, Mark E. [R-IN-4] 01/17/1995
Rep. Vucanovich, Barbara F. [R-NV-2] 01/17/1995
Rep. Walker, Robert S. [R-PA-16] 01/17/1995
Rep. Weldon, Dave [R-FL-15] 01/17/1995
Cosponsors Who Withdrew Date Cosponsored Date Withdrawn CR Explanation
Rep. Houghton, Amo [R-NY-31]* 01/04/1995 01/11/1995 --

Committees (2)

Committees, subcommittees and links to reports associated with this bill are listed here, as well as the nature and date of committee activity and Congressional report number.

Committee / Subcommittee Date Activity Reports
House Judiciary01/04/1995 Referred to
01/11/1995 Markup by
01/18/1995 Reported by H. Rept. 104-3
Senate Budget02/10/1995 Referred to
02/10/1995 Reported by

A related bill may be a companion measure, an identical bill, a procedurally-related measure, or one with text similarities. Bill relationships are identified by the House, the Senate, or CRS, and refer only to same-congress measures.


Latest Summary (3)

There are 3 summaries for H.J.Res.1. View summaries

Shown Here:
Passed House amended (01/26/1995)

Constitutional Amendment - Prohibits total outlays from exceeding total receipts for a fiscal year, unless three-fifths of the members of each House of Congress provide by law for a specific excess of outlays over receipts by a roll call vote.

Sets a permanent limit on the amount of the public debt. Prohibits an increase in such amount unless approved by a three-fifths majority in each House by roll call vote.

Directs the President to submit a balanced budget.

Prohibits a bill to increase revenue from becoming law unless approved by a majority in each House by roll call vote.

Waives the provisions of this amendment for any fiscal year in which a declaration of war is in effect, or if the United States faces an imminent and serious military threat to national security as declared by a joint resolution which becomes law.