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Titles Actions Overview All Actions Cosponsors Committees Related Bills Subjects Latest Summary All Summaries

Titles (4)

Popular Titles

SAFE Act (Identified by CRS)

Short Titles

Short Titles - House of Representatives

Short Titles as Reported to House for portions of this bill
  • Security and Freedom Through Encryption (SAFE) Act of 1997

Short Titles as Introduced

Security and Freedom Through Encryption (SAFE) Act

Official Titles

Official Titles - House of Representatives

Official Title as Introduced

To amend title 18, United States Code, to affirm the rights of United States persons to use and sell encryption and to relax export controls on encryption.


Actions Overview (6)

Date
09/29/1997Reported (Amended) by the Committee on Commerce. H. Rept. 105-108, Part V.
09/16/1997Reported (Amended) by the Committee on Intelligence (Permanent). H. Rept. 105-108, Part IV.
09/12/1997Reported (Amended) by the Committee on National Security. H. Rept. 105-108, Part III.
07/25/1997Reported (Amended) by the Committee on International Relations. H. Rept. 105-108, Part II.
05/22/1997Reported (Amended) by the Committee on Judiciary. H. Rept. 105-108, Part I.
02/12/1997Introduced in House

All Actions (45)

Date
03/30/1998Sponsor introductory remarks on measure. (CR H1701-1702)
Action By: House of Representatives
09/29/1997Placed on the Union Calendar, Calendar No. 160.
Action By: House of Representatives
09/29/1997Reported (Amended) by the Committee on Commerce. H. Rept. 105-108, Part V.
Action By: Committee on Commerce
09/25/1997House Committee on Commerce Granted an extension for further consideration ending not later than Sept. 29, 1997.
Action By: House of Representatives
09/24/1997Ordered to be Reported (Amended) by the Yeas and Nays: 44 - 6.
Action By: Committee on Commerce
09/24/1997Committee Consideration and Mark-up Session Held.
Action By: Committee on Commerce
09/16/1997Reported (Amended) by the Committee on Intelligence (Permanent). H. Rept. 105-108, Part IV.
Action By: Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence
09/12/1997Reported (Amended) by the Committee on National Security. H. Rept. 105-108, Part III.
Action By: Committee on National Security
09/11/1997Ordered to be Reported (Amended) by Voice Vote.
09/11/1997Committee Consideration and Mark-up Session Held.
Action By: Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence
09/11/1997House Committee on Commerce Granted an extension for further consideration ending not later than Sept. 26, 1997.
Action By: House of Representatives
09/11/1997House Committee on Intelligence (Permanent) Granted an extension for further consideration ending not later than Sept. 16, 1997.
Action By: House of Representatives
09/09/1997Ordered to be Reported (Amended) by Voice Vote.
Action By: Committee on National Security
09/09/1997Committee Consideration and Mark-up Session Held.
Action By: Committee on National Security
09/09/1997Committee Hearings Held.
Action By: Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence
09/05/1997House Committee on Commerce Granted an extension for further consideration ending not later than Sept. 12, 1997.
Action By: House of Representatives
09/04/1997Subcommittee Hearings Held.
Action By: House Commerce Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Trade, and Consumer Protection
07/31/1997House Committee on National Security Granted an extension for further consideration ending not later than Sept. 12, 1997.
Action By: House of Representatives
07/30/1997House Committee on Intelligence (Permanent) Granted an extension for further consideration ending not later than Sept. 12, 1997.
Action By: House of Representatives
07/30/1997Committee Hearings Held.
Action By: Committee on National Security
07/25/1997Reported (Amended) by the Committee on International Relations. H. Rept. 105-108, Part II.
Action By: Committee on International Relations
07/25/1997Mr. Dickey asked unanimous consent that the Committee on International Relations have until midnight on July 25 to file a report on H.R. 695. Agreed to without objection.
Action By: Committee on International Relations
07/22/1997Ordered to be Reported (Amended) by Voice Vote.
Action By: Committee on International Relations
07/22/1997Committee Consideration and Mark-up Session Held.
Action By: Committee on International Relations
07/14/1997Referred to the Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Trade, and Consumer Protection, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Chairman.
Action By: Committee on Commerce
06/26/1997Referred jointly and sequentially to the House Committee on Intelligence (Permanent Select) for a period ending not later than Sept. 5, 1997 for consideration of such provisions of the bill and amendment reported by the Committee on the Judiciary as fall within the jurisdiction of that committee pursuant to rule XLVIII.
Action By: House of Representatives
06/26/1997Referred jointly and sequentially to the House Committee on National Security for a period ending not later than Sept. 5, 1997 for consideration of such provisions of the bill and amendment reported by the Committee on the Judiciary as fall within the jurisdiction of that committee pursuant to clause 1(k), rule X.
Action By: House of Representatives
06/26/1997Referred jointly and sequentially to the House Committee on Commerce for a period ending not later than Sept. 5, 1997 for consideration of such provisions of the bill and amendment reported by the Committee on the Judiciary as fall within the jurisdiction of that commitee pursuant to clause 1(e), rule X.
Action By: House of Representatives
06/26/1997House Committee on International Relations Granted an extension for further consideration ending not later than July 25, 1997.
Action By: House of Representatives
06/24/1997Forwarded by Subcommittee to Full Committee (Amended) by Voice Vote.
Action By: House International Relations Subcommittee on International Economic Policy and Trade
06/24/1997Subcommittee Consideration and Mark-up Session Held.
Action By: House International Relations Subcommittee on International Economic Policy and Trade
05/22/1997House Committee on International Relations Granted an extension for further consideration ending not later than July 11, 1997.
Action By: House of Representatives
05/22/1997Reported (Amended) by the Committee on Judiciary. H. Rept. 105-108, Part I.
Action By: Committee on the Judiciary
05/14/1997Ordered to be Reported (Amended) by Voice Vote.
Action By: Committee on the Judiciary
05/14/1997Committee Consideration and Mark-up Session Held.
Action By: Committee on the Judiciary
04/30/1997Forwarded by Subcommittee to Full Committee by Voice Vote.
Action By: House Judiciary Subcommittee on Courts and Intellectual Property
04/30/1997Subcommittee Consideration and Mark-up Session Held.
Action By: House Judiciary Subcommittee on Courts and Intellectual Property
03/20/1997Subcommittee Hearings Held.
Action By: House Judiciary Subcommittee on Courts and Intellectual Property
03/05/1997Referred to the Subcommittee on Courts and Intellectual Property.
Action By: Committee on the Judiciary
03/03/1997Referred to the Subcommittee on International Economic Policy and Trade.
Action By: Committee on International Relations
02/12/1997Referred to House International Relations
Action By: House of Representatives
02/12/1997Referred to House Judiciary
Action By: House of Representatives
02/12/1997Referred to the Committee on the Judiciary, and in addition to the Committee on International Relations, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned.
Action By: House of Representatives
02/12/1997Sponsor introductory remarks on measure. (CR E245-246)
Action By: House of Representatives
02/12/1997Introduced in House
Action By: House of Representatives

Cosponsors (249)

* = Original cosponsor
CosponsorDate Cosponsored
Rep. Lofgren, Zoe [D-CA-16]* 02/12/1997
Rep. DeLay, Tom [R-TX-22]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Boehner, John A. [R-OH-8]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Coble, Howard [R-NC-6]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Sensenbrenner, F. James, Jr. [R-WI-9]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Bono, Sonny [R-CA-44]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Pease, Edward A. [R-IN-7]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Cannon, Chris [R-UT-3]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Conyers, John, Jr. [D-MI-14]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Boucher, Rick [D-VA-9]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Gekas, George W. [R-PA-17]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Smith, Lamar [R-TX-21]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Inglis, Bob [R-SC-4]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Bryant, Ed [R-TN-7]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Chabot, Steve [R-OH-1]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Barr, Bob [R-GA-7]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Jackson-Lee, Sheila [D-TX-18]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Waters, Maxine [D-CA-35]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Ackerman, Gary L. [D-NY-5]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Baker, Richard H. [R-LA-6]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Bartlett, Roscoe G. [R-MD-6]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Campbell, Tom [R-CA-15]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Chambliss, Saxby [R-GA-8]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Cunningham, Randy (Duke) [R-CA-51]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Davis, Tom [R-VA-11]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Dickey, Jay [R-AR-4]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Doolittle, John T. [R-CA-4]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Ehlers, Vernon J. [R-MI-3]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Engel, Eliot L. [D-NY-17]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Eshoo, Anna G. [D-CA-14]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Ewing, Thomas W. [R-IL-15]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Farr, Sam [D-CA-17]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Gejdenson, Sam [D-CT-2]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Gillmor, Paul E. [R-OH-5]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Goode, Virgil H., Jr. [D-VA-5]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Norton, Eleanor Holmes [D-DC-At Large]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Horn, Stephen [R-CA-38]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Johnson, Sam [R-TX-3]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Kolbe, Jim [R-AZ-5]* 02/12/1997
Rep. McIntosh, David M. [R-IN-2]* 02/12/1997
Rep. McKeon, Howard P. "Buck" [R-CA-25]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Manzullo, Donald A. [R-IL-16]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Matsui, Robert T. [D-CA-5]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Mica, John L. [R-FL-7]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Minge, David [D-MN-2]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Moakley, John Joseph [D-MA-9]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Nethercutt, George R., Jr. [R-WA-5]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Packard, Ron [R-CA-48]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Sessions, Pete [R-TX-5]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Upton, Fred [R-MI-6]* 02/12/1997
Rep. White, Rick [R-WA-1]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Woolsey, Lynn C. [D-CA-6]* 02/12/1997
Rep. Hastings, Doc [R-WA-4] 02/26/1997
Rep. Cook, Merrill [R-UT-2] 02/26/1997
Rep. Fox, Jon D. [R-PA-13] 02/26/1997
Rep. Morella, Constance A. [R-MD-8] 03/13/1997
Rep. Bilbray, Brian P. [R-CA-49] 03/13/1997
Rep. Myrick, Sue Wilkins [R-NC-9] 03/13/1997
Rep. DeFazio, Peter A. [D-OR-4] 03/18/1997
Rep. Watkins, Wes [R-OK-3] 03/21/1997
Rep. Franks, Bob [R-NJ-7] 03/21/1997
Rep. Martinez, Matthew G. [D-CA-31] 04/10/1997
Rep. Shays, Christopher [R-CT-4] 04/10/1997
Rep. Nadler, Jerrold [D-NY-8] 04/10/1997
Rep. Hostettler, John N. [R-IN-8] 04/10/1997
Rep. Faleomavaega, Eni F. H. [D-AS-At Large] 04/10/1997
Rep. Smith, Linda [R-WA-3] 04/16/1997
Rep. Paxon, Bill [R-NY-27] 04/17/1997
Rep. Weldon, Dave [R-FL-15] 04/17/1997
Rep. Gordon, Bart [D-TN-6] 04/24/1997
Rep. Hutchinson, Asa [R-AR-3] 04/24/1997
Rep. Rivers, Lynn N. [D-MI-13] 04/24/1997
Rep. Snowbarger, Vince [R-KS-3] 04/24/1997
Rep. Tauscher, Ellen O. [D-CA-10] 04/24/1997
Rep. Delahunt, William D. [D-MA-10] 05/01/1997
Rep. Rohrabacher, Dana [R-CA-45] 05/06/1997
Rep. Cooksey, John [R-LA-5] 05/06/1997
Rep. Moran, James P. [D-VA-8] 05/07/1997
Rep. Gallegly, Elton [R-CA-23] 05/07/1997
Rep. Camp, Dave [R-MI-4] 05/07/1997
Rep. Wexler, Robert [D-FL-19] 05/08/1997
Rep. Weller, Jerry [R-IL-11] 05/08/1997
Rep. Sherman, Brad [D-CA-24] 05/15/1997
Rep. Dreier, David [R-CA-28] 05/15/1997
Rep. Calvert, Ken [R-CA-43] 05/15/1997
Rep. Capps, Walter [D-CA-22] 05/15/1997
Rep. Linder, John [R-GA-11] 05/15/1997
Rep. McInnis, Scott [R-CO-3] 05/15/1997
Rep. Graham, Lindsey [R-SC-3] 05/15/1997
Rep. Thomas, William M. [R-CA-21] 05/15/1997
Rep. McKinney, Cynthia A. [D-GA-4] 05/15/1997
Rep. McCarthy, Karen [D-MO-5] 05/15/1997
Rep. Frank, Barney [D-MA-4] 05/15/1997
Rep. Sisisky, Norman [D-VA-4] 05/15/1997
Rep. Forbes, Michael P. [R-NY-1] 05/15/1997
Rep. Blunt, Roy [R-MO-7] 05/15/1997
Rep. Istook, Ernest J., Jr. [R-OK-5] 05/15/1997
Rep. Pickering, Charles W. "Chip" [R-MS-3] 05/15/1997
Rep. Dooley, Calvin M. [D-CA-20] 05/16/1997
Rep. Latham, Tom [R-IA-5] 05/16/1997
Rep. Cox, Christopher [R-CA-47] 05/20/1997
Rep. Roemer, Tim [D-IN-3] 05/20/1997
Rep. Fazio, Vic [D-CA-3] 05/20/1997
Rep. Smith, Adam [D-WA-9] 05/20/1997
Rep. Kind, Ron [D-WI-3] 05/20/1997
Rep. Ballenger, Cass [R-NC-10] 05/20/1997
Rep. Ney, Robert W. [R-OH-18] 05/20/1997
Rep. Salmon, Matt [R-AZ-1] 05/20/1997
Rep. Houghton, Amo [R-NY-31] 05/21/1997
Rep. McHugh, John M. [R-NY-24] 05/21/1997
Rep. Furse, Elizabeth [D-OR-1] 05/21/1997
Rep. Hastings, Alcee L. [D-FL-23] 05/22/1997
Rep. Diaz-Balart, Lincoln [R-FL-21] 05/22/1997
Rep. King, Peter T. [R-NY-3] 05/22/1997
Rep. Slaughter, Louise McIntosh [D-NY-28] 05/22/1997
Rep. Frost, Martin [D-TX-24] 05/22/1997
Rep. Burton, Dan [R-IN-6] 05/22/1997
Rep. Dunn, Jennifer [R-WA-8] 06/04/1997
Rep. Christian-Green, Donna M. [D-VI-At Large] 06/04/1997
Rep. English, Phil [R-PA-21] 06/10/1997
Rep. Lampson, Nick [D-TX-9] 06/19/1997
Rep. Brady, Kevin [R-TX-8] 06/23/1997
Rep. Smith, Christopher H. [R-NJ-4] 06/23/1997
Rep. Chenoweth-Hage, Helen [R-ID-1] 06/23/1997
Rep. Coburn, Tom [R-OK-2] 06/23/1997
Rep. Cubin, Barbara [R-WY-At Large] 06/23/1997
Rep. Schaffer, Bob [R-CO-4] 06/24/1997
Rep. Barton, Joe [R-TX-6] 06/24/1997
Rep. Largent, Steve [R-OK-1] 06/24/1997
Rep. Clement, Bob [D-TN-5] 06/24/1997
Rep. Hilliard, Earl F. [D-AL-7] 06/24/1997
Rep. Luther, Bill [D-MN-6] 06/24/1997
Rep. Crapo, Mike [R-ID-2] 06/25/1997
Rep. Rogan, James E. [R-CA-27] 06/25/1997
Rep. Andrews, Robert E. [D-NJ-1] 06/25/1997
Rep. Bonilla, Henry [R-TX-23] 06/26/1997
Rep. Ros-Lehtinen, Ileana [R-FL-18] 06/26/1997
Rep. Gutknecht, Gil [R-MN-1] 07/09/1997
Rep. Hayworth, J. D. [R-AZ-6] 07/09/1997
Rep. Sununu, John E. [R-NH-1] 07/09/1997
Rep. Scarborough, Joe [R-FL-1] 07/09/1997
Rep. Neumann, Mark W. [R-WI-1] 07/09/1997
Rep. Sanford, Marshall (Mark) [R-SC-1] 07/09/1997
Rep. Norwood, Charles W. [R-GA-10] 07/09/1997
Rep. Pryce, Deborah [R-OH-15] 07/10/1997
Rep. Lewis, Ron [R-KY-2] 07/10/1997
Rep. Kasich, John R. [R-OH-12] 07/10/1997
Rep. Archer, Bill [R-TX-7] 07/10/1997
Rep. Hansen, James V. [R-UT-1] 07/10/1997
Rep. Herger, Wally [R-CA-2] 07/10/1997
Rep. Riley, Bob [R-AL-3] 07/10/1997
Rep. Hill, Rick [R-MT-At Large] 07/10/1997
Rep. Tauzin, W. J. (Billy) [R-LA-3] 07/10/1997
Rep. Moran, Jerry [R-KS-1] 07/10/1997
Rep. Burr, Richard [R-NC-5] 07/10/1997
Rep. Blumenauer, Earl [D-OR-3] 07/10/1997
Rep. Pomeroy, Earl [D-ND-At Large] 07/10/1997
Rep. Riggs, Frank [R-CA-1] 07/10/1997
Rep. Kingston, Jack [R-GA-1] 07/10/1997
Rep. Miller, George [D-CA-7] 07/11/1997
Rep. Duncan, John J., Jr. [R-TN-2] 07/11/1997
Rep. Whitfield, Ed [R-KY-1] 07/15/1997
Rep. Smith, Robert [R-OR-2] 07/15/1997
Rep. Quinn, Jack [R-NY-30] 07/15/1997
Rep. Kennedy, Joseph P., II [D-MA-8] 07/16/1997
Rep. Kelly, Sue W. [R-NY-19] 07/16/1997
Rep. Metcalf, Jack [R-WA-2] 07/16/1997
Rep. Markey, Edward J. [D-MA-7] 07/16/1997
Rep. Neal, Richard E. [D-MA-2] 07/16/1997
Rep. Emerson, Jo Ann [R-MO-8] 07/16/1997
Rep. Christensen, Jon [R-NE-2] 07/16/1997
Rep. Watts, J. C., Jr. [R-OK-4] 07/16/1997
Rep. Souder, Mark E. [R-IN-4] 07/16/1997
Rep. Pombo, Richard W. [R-CA-11] 07/16/1997
Rep. Stenholm, Charles W. [D-TX-17] 07/16/1997
Rep. Tiahrt, Todd [R-KS-4] 07/16/1997
Rep. McGovern, James P. [D-MA-3] 07/16/1997
Rep. Parker, Mike [R-MS-4] 07/16/1997
Rep. Wicker, Roger F. [R-MS-1] 07/16/1997
Rep. Barrett, Bill [R-NE-3] 07/17/1997
Rep. Gephardt, Richard A. [D-MO-3] 07/17/1997
Rep. Kim, Jay [R-CA-41] 07/17/1997
Rep. Johnson, Nancy L. [R-CT-6] 07/17/1997
Rep. Lucas, Frank D. [R-OK-6] 07/17/1997
Rep. Brown, George E., Jr. [D-CA-42] 07/17/1997
Rep. Knollenberg, Joe [R-MI-11] 07/22/1997
Rep. Talent, Jim [R-MO-2] 07/22/1997
Rep. Tierney, John F. [D-MA-6] 07/24/1997
Rep. Klug, Scott L. [R-WI-2] 07/24/1997
Rep. Jenkins, William L. [R-TN-1] 07/24/1997
Rep. Condit, Gary A. [D-CA-18] 07/24/1997
Rep. Hall, Ralph M. [D-TX-4] 07/24/1997
Rep. Bachus, Spencer [R-AL-6] 07/24/1997
Rep. Crane, Philip M. [R-IL-8] 07/24/1997
Rep. Wamp, Zach [R-TN-3] 07/24/1997
Rep. Castle, Michael N. [R-DE-At Large] 07/24/1997
Rep. LaHood, Ray [R-IL-18] 07/24/1997
Rep. Goodling, William F. [R-PA-19] 07/24/1997
Rep. Shimkus, John [R-IL-20] 07/24/1997
Rep. Serrano, Jose E. [D-NY-16] 07/24/1997
Rep. Holden, Tim [D-PA-6] 07/24/1997
Rep. Hobson, David L. [R-OH-7] 07/24/1997
Rep. Rahall, Nick J., II [D-WV-3] 07/24/1997
Rep. Thompson, Bennie G. [D-MS-2] 07/24/1997
Rep. Thune, John [R-SD-At Large] 07/24/1997
Rep. Clyburn, James E. [D-SC-6] 07/24/1997
Rep. Hilleary, Van [R-TN-4] 07/24/1997
Rep. Deal, Nathan [R-GA-9] 07/24/1997
Rep. Collins, Mac [R-GA-3] 07/24/1997
Rep. Schaefer, Dan [R-CO-6] 07/24/1997
Rep. Hall, Tony P. [D-OH-3] 07/29/1997
Rep. Livingston, Bob [R-LA-1] 07/29/1997
Rep. Hoekstra, Peter [R-MI-2] 07/29/1997
Rep. Wise, Robert E., Jr. [D-WV-2] 07/29/1997
Rep. Filner, Bob [D-CA-50] 07/29/1997
Rep. McDermott, Jim [D-WA-7] 07/29/1997
Rep. Sanchez, Loretta [D-CA-46] 07/29/1997
Rep. Thurman, Karen L. [D-FL-5] 07/29/1997
Rep. Tanner, John S. [D-TN-8] 07/29/1997
Rep. Pastor, Ed [D-AZ-2] 07/29/1997
Rep. Kaptur, Marcy [D-OH-9] 07/29/1997
Rep. Lewis, John [D-GA-5] 07/29/1997
Rep. Jackson, Jesse L., Jr. [D-IL-2] 07/29/1997
Rep. Millender-McDonald, Juanita [D-CA-37] 07/29/1997
Rep. Cummings, Elijah E. [D-MD-7] 07/29/1997
Rep. Jefferson, William J. [D-LA-2] 07/29/1997
Rep. Ford, Harold E., Jr. [D-TN-9] 07/29/1997
Rep. Barrett, Thomas M. [D-WI-5] 07/29/1997
Rep. Fattah, Chaka [D-PA-2] 07/29/1997
Rep. Barcia, James A. [D-MI-5] 07/29/1997
Rep. Hooley, Darlene [D-OR-5] 07/29/1997
Rep. Northup, Anne M. [R-KY-3] 07/29/1997
Rep. Vento, Bruce F. [D-MN-4] 07/29/1997
Rep. Bonior, David E. [D-MI-10] 07/29/1997
Rep. Clayton, Eva M. [D-NC-1] 07/29/1997
Rep. Kennelly, Barbara B. [D-CT-1] 07/29/1997
Rep. Pallone, Frank, Jr. [D-NJ-6] 07/29/1997
Rep. Olver, John W. [D-MA-1] 07/29/1997
Rep. Kilpatrick, Carolyn C. [D-MI-15] 07/29/1997
Rep. DeLauro, Rosa L. [D-CT-3] 07/29/1997
Rep. Meek, Carrie P. [D-FL-17] 07/29/1997
Rep. Stabenow, Debbie [D-MI-8] 07/29/1997
Rep. Stearns, Cliff [R-FL-6] 07/29/1997
Rep. Radanovich, George [R-CA-19] 07/29/1997
Rep. Taylor, Charles H. [R-NC-11] 07/30/1997
Rep. Walsh, James T. [R-NY-25] 07/30/1997
Rep. Nussle, Jim [R-IA-2] 07/30/1997
Rep. Davis, Danny K. [D-IL-7] 09/03/1997
Rep. Rush, Bobby L. [D-IL-1] 09/03/1997
Cosponsors Who Withdrew Date Cosponsored Date Withdrawn CR Explanation
Rep. Everett, Terry [R-AL-2]* 02/12/1997 07/30/1997 --
Rep. Johnson, Eddie Bernice [D-TX-30]* 02/12/1997 05/13/1997 --
Rep. Solomon, Gerald B. H. [R-NY-22] 03/13/1997 04/29/1997 --
Rep. Rothman, Steven R. [D-NJ-9] 04/10/1997 07/24/1997 --
Rep. Jones, Walter B., Jr. [R-NC-3] 06/23/1997 09/08/1997 --
Rep. Bunning, Jim [R-KY-4] 07/09/1997 07/30/1997 --
Rep. Thornberry, Mac [R-TX-13] 07/24/1997 09/04/1997 --
Rep. Hefley, Joel [R-CO-5] 07/29/1997 07/30/1997 --

Committees (5)

Committees, subcommittees and links to reports associated with this bill are listed here, as well as the nature and date of committee activity and Congressional report number.

Committee / Subcommittee Date Activity Reports
House Judiciary02/12/1997 Referred to
05/14/1997 Markup by
05/22/1997 Reported by H. Rept. 105-108,Part 1
House Judiciary Subcommittee on Courts and Intellectual Property03/05/1997 Referred to
03/20/1997 Hearings by
04/30/1997 Markup by
04/30/1997 Reported by
House International Relations02/12/1997 Referred to
07/22/1997 Markup by
07/25/1997 Reported by H. Rept. 105-108,Part 2
House International Relations Subcommittee on International Economic Policy and Trade03/03/1997 Referred to
06/24/1997 Markup by
06/24/1997 Reported by
House Commerce06/26/1997 Referred to
09/24/1997 Markup by
09/29/1997 Reported by H. Rept. 105-108,Part 5
House Commerce Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Trade, and Consumer Protection07/14/1997 Referred to
09/04/1997 Hearings by
House National Security06/26/1997 Referred to
07/30/1997 Hearings by
09/09/1997 Markup by
09/12/1997 Reported by H. Rept. 105-108,Part 3
House Intelligence (Permanent Select)06/26/1997 Referred to
09/09/1997 Hearings by
09/11/1997 Markup by
09/16/1997 Reported by H. Rept. 105-108,Part 4

No related bill information was received for H.R.695.


Latest Summary (6)

There are 6 summaries for H.R.695. View summaries

Shown Here:
Reported to House amended, Part V (09/29/1997)

Security and Freedom Through Encryption (SAFE) Act - Establishes in the Department of Justice (DOJ) a National Electronic Technologies (NET) Center to: (1) serve as a center for Federal, State, and local law enforcement authorities for information and assistance regarding decryption and other access requirements and for industry and Government entities to exchange information and methodology regarding information security techniques and technologies; (2) examine encryption techniques and methods to facilitate the ability of law enforcement to gain efficient access to plaintext of communications and electronic information; (3) develop efficient methods and improve the efficiency of existing methods of accessing such plaintext; (4) investigate techniques and technologies to facilitate access to communications and electronic information; and (5) obtain information regarding the most current hardware, software, telecommunications, and other capabilities to understand how to access information transmitted across networks.

Requires State and local law enforcement authorities to have access to services provided by the Center to the same extent as their Federal counterparts. Sets forth provisions regarding other Federal agency and private industry assistance.

Establishes the Advisory Board of the Strategic NET Center for Excellence in Information Security.

Requires the Attorney General to develop and publish in the Federal Register a plan for establishing the Center.

Permits (with exceptions) any person within any State: (1) and any U.S. person in a foreign country, to use any encryption, regardless of encryption algorithm, key length, or implementation technique or medium; and (2) to sell any such encryption in interstate commerce.

Prohibits any Federal or State law or regulation from: (1) conditioning the issuance of certificates of authentication or certificates of authority for any encryption product upon any escrowing or other sharing of private encryption keys, whether with private agents or Government entities; or (2) establishing a licensing, labeling, or other regulatory scheme for any encryption product that requires key escrow as a condition of licensing or regulatory approval.

Prohibits any person in lawful possession of a key to encrypted communications or information from being required by Federal or State law to relinquish to another person control of that key, with an exception for access for law enforcement purposes.

Sets penalties for encrypting incriminating communications or information relating to a Federal felony with intent to avoid detection by law enforcement agencies or prosecution.

Specifies that no person shall be subject to civil or criminal liability for providing access to the plaintext of encrypted communications or electronic information to any law enforcement official or authorized Government entity, pursuant to judicial process.

Directs the National Telecommunications and Information Administration to study and report to the Congress and the President on: (1) the effect that establishment of a mandatory system for recovery of encryption keys for communications and information would have on electronic commerce, data security, privacy in interstate commerce, and law enforcement authorities and activities; and (2) other possible methods for providing access to encrypted communications and information to further law enforcement activities.

(Sec. 3) Amends the Export Administration Act of 1979 to grant the Secretary of Commerce exclusive authority to control exports of all hardware, software, and technology for information security (including encryption), except that which is specifically designed or modified for military use.

Prohibits requiring any validated license (with limited exceptions) for the export or reexport of any: (1) software, including encryption software, that is generally available and designed for installation by the purchaser, or that is in the public domain for which copyright or other protection is not available, or that is generally accessible to the public in any form; or (2) computing device solely because it incorporates or employs such software.

Directs the Secretary to authorize the export or reexport of: (1) software with encryption capabilities for nonmilitary end-uses in any country to which exports of software of similar capability are permitted for use by financial institutions not controlled by U.S. persons, unless there is substantial evidence that such software will be diverted to or modified for military or terrorist end use or reexported without required authorization; and (2) computer hardware with encryption capabilities if a product offering comparable security is commercially available outside the United States from a foreign supplier without effective restrictions.

(Sec. 4) Directs the Secretary to: (1) identify any domestic and foreign impediments to trade in encryption products and services and import restrictions imposed by foreign nations that constitute unfair trade barriers to providers of encryption products or services; (2) report to the Congress; (3) prescribe regulations to reduce the impediments; and (4) report to the President regarding any such impediments the reduction of which could require international negotiations.

Requires the President to negotiate with other countries for international agreements on the promotion of encryption products and services, and achieving mutual recognition of countries' export controls, to preserve national security, safeguard privacy, and prevent commercial espionage. Authorizes the President to consider a country's refusal to negotiate when considering U.S. participation in any cooperation or assistance program with that country. Directs the President to report to the Congress regarding the status of international cryptography efforts by December 31, 2000.

(Sec. 5) Directs the Attorney General to compile and maintain classified data on the instances in which encryption has interfered with, impeded, or obstructed the ability of DOJ to enforce criminal laws.