Summary: S.648 — 105th Congress (1997-1998)All Information (Except Text)

There is one summary for S.648. Bill summaries are authored by CRS.

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Introduced in Senate (04/24/1997)


Title I: Product Liability Reform

Title II: Biomaterials Access Assurance

Title III: Limitations on Applicability; Effective Date

Product Liability Reform Act of 1997 - Title I: Product Liability Reform - Applies this Act to any product liability action in any State or Federal court on any theory for harm caused by a product, except for: (1) commercial loss actions; (2) civil negligent entrustment actions; and (3) any dramshop or third-party liability actions arising from the sale or provision of alcohol to intoxicated persons or minors.

(Sec. 103) Imposes seller liability if the seller failed to exercise reasonable care, made an express warranty, or engaged in intentional wrongdoing. Declares that a failure to inspect is not a failure of reasonable care if there was no reasonable opportunity to inspect or if the inspection would not have revealed the aspect that caused the harm. Makes a seller liable as a manufacturer if the manufacturer is not subject to service or if the claimant would be unable to enforce a judgment. Makes certain persons engaged in the business of renting or leasing liable as a seller, but prohibits liability for the tortious act of another solely by reason of ownership.

(Sec. 104) Makes it a complete defense if the defendant proves that the claimant was under the influence of alcohol or a drug and was more than 50 percent responsible.

(Sec. 105) Reduces damages by the percentage of harm attributable to misuse or alteration, except for actions involving an employer or co-employee if the employer or co-employee is, under State law, immune from claimant's action.

(Sec. 106) Limits the time within which a product liability action must be started.

(Sec. 107) Allows a claimant or defendant in a product liability action to offer to proceed with voluntary, nonbinding alternative dispute resolution.

(Sec. 108) Allows punitive damages, as permitted by State law, if the claimant shows by clear and convincing evidence that the defendant's conduct, carried out with a conscious, flagrant indifference to the rights or safety of others, was the proximate cause of the harm. Regulates punitive damage amounts.

(Sec. 110) Permits several and prohibits joint liability for noneconomic loss, allocating liability in direct proportion to the percentage of responsibility.

Title II: Biomaterials Access Assurance - Biomaterials Access Assurance Act of 1997 - Excludes from the term "claimant," for this title, anyone who alleges harm caused by a silicone gel breast implant.

(Sec. 204) Applies this title, subject to exception, to any civil action in Federal or State court against a manufacturer, seller, or biomaterials supplier, on any legal theory, for harm allegedly caused by an implant.

(Sec. 205) Declares that a biomaterials supplier shall not be liable for harm caused by an implant unless the supplier: (1) is a manufacturer; (2) is a seller; and (3) furnishes materials or parts that fail to meet contractual requirements or specifications.

Sets forth the circumstances in which a supplier may be considered a manufacturer and the circumstances in which a supplier may be considered a seller.

Allows a supplier, to the extent required and permitted by other law, to be liable if the claimant shows, by a preponderance of the evidence, violation of contractual requirements or specifications.

(Sec. 206) Sets forth procedures relating to motions by a supplier to dismiss actions that are subject to this title.

Title III: Limitations on Applicability; Effective Date - Makes any circuit court of appeals decision interpreting this Act a precedent for any Federal or State court within that court's geographic jurisdiction. Declares that U.S. district courts shall not have jurisdiction under this Act based on provisions of the U.S. Code relating to Federal questions, commerce and antitrust, and amounts in controversy.