Text: H.R.2442 — 106th Congress (1999-2000)All Information (Except Text)
Public Law No: 106-451 (11/07/2000)
[106th Congress Public Law 451]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]
[[Page 114 STAT. 1]]
Public Law 106-451
To provide for the preparation of a Government report detailing
injustices suffered by Italian Americans during World War II, and a
formal acknowledgment of such injustices by the President. <<NOTE: Nov.
7, 2000 - [H.R. 2442]>>
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
United States of America in Congress assembled, <<NOTE: Wartime
Violation of Italian American Civil Liberties Act.>>
SECTION 1. <<NOTE: 50 USC app. 1981 note.>> SHORT TITLE.
This Act may be cited as the ``Wartime Violation of Italian American
Civil Liberties Act''.
SEC. 2. FINDINGS.
The Congress makes the following findings:
(1) The freedom of more than 600,000 Italian-born immigrants
in the United States and their families was restricted during
World War II by Government measures that branded them ``enemy
aliens'' and included carrying identification cards, travel
restrictions, and seizure of personal property.
(2) During World War II more than 10,000 Italian Americans
living on the West Coast were forced to leave their homes and
prohibited from entering coastal zones. More than 50,000 were
subjected to curfews.
(3) During World War II thousands of Italian American
immigrants were arrested, and hundreds were interned in military
(4) Hundreds of thousands of Italian Americans performed
exemplary service and thousands sacrificed their lives in
defense of the United States.
(5) At the time, Italians were the largest foreign-born
group in the United States, and today are the fifth largest
immigrant group in the United States, numbering approximately 15
(6) The impact of the wartime experience was devastating to
Italian American communities in the United States, and its
effects are still being felt.
(7) A deliberate policy kept these measures from the public
during the war. Even 50 years later much information is still
classified, the full story remains unknown to the public, and it
has never been acknowledged in any official capacity by the
United States Government.
SEC. 3. <<NOTE: Deadline. 50 USC app. 1981 note.>> REPORT.
The Attorney General shall conduct a comprehensive review of the
treatment by the United States Government of Italian Americans during
World War II, and not later than 1 year after the
[[Page 114 STAT. 2]]
date of the enactment of this Act shall submit to the Congress a report
that documents the findings of such review. The report shall cover the
period between September 1, 1939, and December 31, 1945, and shall
include the following:
(1) The names of all Italian Americans who were taken into
custody in the initial roundup following the attack on Pearl
Harbor, and prior to the United States declaration of war
(2) The names of all Italian Americans who were taken into
(3) The names of all Italian Americans who were interned and
the location where they were interned.
(4) The names of all Italian Americans who were ordered to
move out of designated areas under the United States Army's
``Individual Exclusion Program''.
(5) The names of all Italian Americans who were arrested for
curfew, contraband, or other violations under the authority of
Executive Order No. 9066.
(6) Documentation of Federal Bureau of Investigation raids
on the homes of Italian Americans.
(7) A list of ports from which Italian American fishermen
(8) The names of Italian American fishermen who were
prevented from fishing in prohibited zones and therefore unable
to pursue their livelihoods.
(9) The names of Italian Americans whose boats were
(10) The names of Italian American railroad workers who were
prevented from working in prohibited zones.
(11) A <<NOTE: Records.>> list of all civil liberties
infringements suffered by Italian Americans during World War II,
as a result of Executive Order No. 9066, including internment,
hearings without benefit of counsel, illegal searches and
seizures, travel restrictions, enemy alien registration
requirements, employment restrictions, confiscation of property,
and forced evacuation from homes.
(12) An explanation of whether Italian Americans were
subjected to civil liberties infringements, as a result of
Executive Order No. 9066, and if so, why other Italian Americans
(13) A review of the wartime restrictions on Italian
Americans to determine how civil liberties can be better
protected during national emergencies.
SEC. 4. SENSE OF THE CONGRESS.
It is the sense of the Congress that--
(1) the story of the treatment of Italian Americans during
World War II needs to be told in order to acknowledge that these
events happened, to remember those whose lives were unjustly
disrupted and whose freedoms were violated, to help repair the
damage to the Italian American community, and to discourage the
occurrence of similar injustices and violations of civil
liberties in the future;
(2) Federal agencies, including the Department of Education
and the National Endowment for the Humanities, should support
projects such as--
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(A) conferences, seminars, and lectures to heighten
awareness of this unfortunate chapter in our Nation's
(B) the refurbishment of and payment of all expenses
associated with the traveling exhibit ``Una Storia
Segreta'', exhibited at major cultural and educational
institutions throughout the United States; and
(C) documentaries to allow this issue to be
presented to the American public to raise its awareness;
(3) an independent, volunteer advisory committee should be
established comprised of representatives of Italian American
organizations, historians, and other interested individuals to
assist in the compilation, research, and dissemination of
information concerning the treatment of Italian Americans;
(4) after completion of the report required by this Act,
financial support should be provided for the education of the
American public through the production of a documentary film
suited for public broadcast; and
(5) the President should, on behalf of the United States
Government, formally acknowledge that these events during World
War II represented a fundamental injustice against Italian
Approved November 7, 2000.
LEGISLATIVE HISTORY--H.R. 2442:
Vol. 145 (1999):
Nov. 10, considered and passed
Vol. 146 (2000):
Oct. 19, considered and passed
Oct. 24, House concurred in Senate