Text: H.R.683 — 109th Congress (2005-2006)All Information (Except Text)

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Public Law No: 109-312 (10/06/2006)

 
[109th Congress Public Law 312]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]


[DOCID: f:publ312.109]

[[Page 1729]]

                 TRADEMARK DILUTION REVISION ACT OF 2006

[[Page 120 STAT. 1730]]

Public Law 109-312
109th Congress

                                 An Act


 
To amend the Trademark Act of 1946 with respect to dilution by blurring 
          or tarnishment. <<NOTE: Oct. 6, 2006 -  [H.R. 683]>> 

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress <<NOTE: Trademark Dilution Revision 
Act of 2006. 15 USC 1051 note.>> assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``Trademark Dilution 
Revision Act of 2006''.
    (b) References.--Any reference in this Act to the Trademark Act of 
1946 shall be a reference to the Act entitled ``An Act to provide for 
the registration and protection of trademarks used in commerce, to carry 
out the provisions of certain international conventions, and for other 
purposes'', approved July 5, 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1051 et seq.).

SEC. 2. DILUTION BY BLURRING; DILUTION BY TARNISHMENT.

    Section 43 of the Trademark Act of 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1125) is 
amended--
            (1) by striking subsection (c) and inserting the following:

    ``(c) Dilution by Blurring; Dilution by Tarnishment.--
            ``(1) Injunctive relief.--Subject to the principles of 
        equity, the owner of a famous mark that is distinctive, 
        inherently or through acquired distinctiveness, shall be 
        entitled to an injunction against another person who, at any 
        time after the owner's mark has become famous, commences use of 
        a mark or trade name in commerce that is likely to cause 
        dilution by blurring or dilution by tarnishment of the famous 
        mark, regardless of the presence or absence of actual or likely 
        confusion, of competition, or of actual economic injury.
            ``(2) Definitions.--(A) For purposes of paragraph (1), a 
        mark is famous if it is widely recognized by the general 
        consuming public of the United States as a designation of source 
        of the goods or services of the mark's owner. In determining 
        whether a mark possesses the requisite degree of recognition, 
        the court may consider all relevant factors, including the 
        following:
                    ``(i) The duration, extent, and geographic reach of 
                advertising and publicity of the mark, whether 
                advertised or publicized by the owner or third parties.
                    ``(ii) The amount, volume, and geographic extent of 
                sales of goods or services offered under the mark.
                    ``(iii) The extent of actual recognition of the 
                mark.

[[Page 120 STAT. 1731]]

                    ``(iv) Whether the mark was registered under the Act 
                of March 3, 1881, or the Act of February 20, 1905, or on 
                the principal register.
            ``(B) For purposes of paragraph (1), `dilution by blurring' 
        is association arising from the similarity between a mark or 
        trade name and a famous mark that impairs the distinctiveness of 
        the famous mark. In determining whether a mark or trade name is 
        likely to cause dilution by blurring, the court may consider all 
        relevant factors, including the following:
                    ``(i) The degree of similarity between the mark or 
                trade name and the famous mark.
                    ``(ii) The degree of inherent or acquired 
                distinctiveness of the famous mark.
                    ``(iii) The extent to which the owner of the famous 
                mark is engaging in substantially exclusive use of the 
                mark.
                    ``(iv) The degree of recognition of the famous mark.
                    ``(v) Whether the user of the mark or trade name 
                intended to create an association with the famous mark.
                    ``(vi) Any actual association between the mark or 
                trade name and the famous mark.
            ``(C) For purposes of paragraph (1), `dilution by 
        tarnishment' is association arising from the similarity between 
        a mark or trade name and a famous mark that harms the reputation 
        of the famous mark.
            ``(3) Exclusions.--The following shall not be actionable as 
        dilution by blurring or dilution by tarnishment under this 
        subsection:
                    ``(A) Any fair use, including a nominative or 
                descriptive fair use, or facilitation of such fair use, 
                of a famous mark by another person other than as a 
                designation of source for the person's own goods or 
                services, including use in connection with--
                          ``(i) advertising or promotion that permits 
                      consumers to compare goods or services; or
                          ``(ii) identifying and parodying, criticizing, 
                      or commenting upon the famous mark owner or the 
                      goods or services of the famous mark owner.
                    ``(B) All forms of news reporting and news 
                commentary.
                    ``(C) Any noncommercial use of a mark.
            ``(4) Burden of proof.--In a civil action for trade dress 
        dilution under this Act for trade dress not registered on the 
        principal register, the person who asserts trade dress 
        protection has the burden of proving that--
                    ``(A) the claimed trade dress, taken as a whole, is 
                not functional and is famous; and
                    ``(B) if the claimed trade dress includes any mark 
                or marks registered on the principal register, the 
                unregistered matter, taken as a whole, is famous 
                separate and apart from any fame of such registered 
                marks.
            ``(5) Additional remedies.--In an action brought under this 
        subsection, the owner of the famous mark shall be entitled to 
        injunctive relief as set forth in section 34. The owner of the 
        famous mark shall also be entitled to the remedies set forth in 
        sections 35(a) and 36, subject to the discretion of the court 
        and the principles of equity if--

[[Page 120 STAT. 1732]]

                    ``(A) the mark or trade name that is likely to cause 
                dilution by blurring or dilution by tarnishment was 
                first used in commerce by the person against whom the 
                injunction is sought after the date of enactment of the 
                Trademark Dilution Revision Act of 2006; and
                    ``(B) in a claim arising under this subsection--
                          ``(i) by reason of dilution by blurring, the 
                      person against whom the injunction is sought 
                      willfully intended to trade on the recognition of 
                      the famous mark; or
                          ``(ii) by reason of dilution by tarnishment, 
                      the person against whom the injunction is sought 
                      willfully intended to harm the reputation of the 
                      famous mark.
            ``(6) Ownership of valid registration a complete bar to 
        action.--The ownership by a person of a valid registration under 
        the Act of March 3, 1881, or the Act of February 20, 1905, or on 
        the principal register under this Act shall be a complete bar to 
        an action against that person, with respect to that mark, that--
                    ``(A)(i) is brought by another person under the 
                common law or a statute of a State; and
                    ``(ii) seeks to prevent dilution by blurring or 
                dilution by tarnishment; or
                    ``(B) asserts any claim of actual or likely damage 
                or harm to the distinctiveness or reputation of a mark, 
                label, or form of advertisement.
            ``(7) Savings clause.--Nothing in this subsection shall be 
        construed to impair, modify, or supersede the applicability of 
        the patent laws of the United States.''; and
            (2) in subsection (d)(1)(B)(i)(IX), by striking ``(c)(1) of 
        section 43'' and inserting ``(c)''.

SEC. 3. CONFORMING AMENDMENTS.

    (a) Marks Registrable on the Principal Register.--Section 2(f) of 
the Trademark Act of 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1052(f)) is amended--
            (1) by striking the last two sentences; and
            (2) by adding at the end the following: ``A mark which would 
        be likely to cause dilution by blurring or dilution by 
        tarnishment under section 43(c), may be refused registration 
        only pursuant to a proceeding brought under section 13. A 
        registration for a mark which would be likely to cause dilution 
        by blurring or dilution by tarnishment under section 43(c), may 
        be canceled pursuant to a proceeding brought under either 
        section 14 or section 24.''.

    (b) Opposition.--Section 13(a) of the Trademark Act of 1946 (15 
U.S.C. 1063(a)) is amended in the first sentence by striking ``as a 
result of dilution'' and inserting ``the registration of any mark which 
would be likely to cause dilution by blurring or dilution by 
tarnishment''.
    (c) Cancellation.--Section 14 of the Trademark Act of 1946 (15 
U.S.C. 1064) is amended, in the matter preceding paragraph (1) by 
striking ``, including as a result of dilution under section 43(c),'' 
and inserting ``, including as a result of a likelihood of dilution by 
blurring or dilution by tarnishment under section 43(c),''.
    (d) Marks for the Supplemental Register.--The second sentence of 
section 24 of the Trademark Act of 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1092) is amended to 
read as follows:

[[Page 120 STAT. 1733]]

``Whenever any person believes that such person is or will be damaged by 
the registration of a mark on the supplemental reg- ister--
            ``(1) for which the effective filing date is after the date 
        on which such person's mark became famous and which would be 
        likely to cause dilution by blurring or dilution by tarnishment 
        under section 43(c); or
            ``(2) on grounds other than dilution by blurring or dilution 
        by tarnishment, such person may at any time, upon payment of the 
        prescribed fee and the filing of a petition stating the ground 
        therefor, apply to the Director to cancel such registration.''.

    (e) Definitions.--Section 45 of the Trademark Act of 1946 (15 U.S.C. 
1127) is amended by striking the definition relating to the term 
``dilution''.

    Approved October 6, 2006.

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY--H.R. 683:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

HOUSE REPORTS: No. 109-23 (Comm. on the Judiciary).
CONGRESSIONAL RECORD:
                                                        Vol. 151 (2005):
                                    Apr. 19, considered and passed 
                                        House.
                                                        Vol. 152 (2006):
                                    Mar. 8, considered and passed 
                                        Senate, amended.
                                    Sept. 25, House concurred in Senate 
                                        amendment.

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