Text: S.659 — 109th Congress (2005-2006)All Information (Except Text)

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Introduced in Senate (03/17/2005)

[Congressional Bills 109th Congress]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office]
[S. 659 Introduced in Senate (IS)]

  1st Session
                                 S. 659

   To amend title 18, United States Code, to prohibit human chimeras.



                             March 17, 2005

 Mr. Brownback introduced the following bill; which was read twice and 
               referred to the Committee on the Judiciary


                                 A BILL

   To amend title 18, United States Code, to prohibit human chimeras.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,


    This Act may be cited as the ``Human Chimera Prohibition Act of 


    Congress finds that--
            (1) advances in research and technology have made possible 
        the creation of chimeras, which are beings with diverse human 
        and non-human tissue;
            (2) serious ethical objections are raised to some types of 
        chimeras because they blur the lines between human and animal, 
        male and female, parent and child, and one individual and 
        another individual;
            (3) respect for human dignity and the integrity of the 
        human species may be threatened by chimeras;
            (4) the uniqueness of individual human beings is manifested 
        in a particular way through their brain and their reproductive 
        organs/cells; and
            (5) with an increase in emerging zoonotic infection 
        threatening the public health, both domestically and abroad, 
        chimeras present a particularly optimal means of genetic 
        transfers that could increase the efficiency or virulence of 
        diseases threatening both humans and animals.


    (a) In General.--Part I of title 18, United States Code, is amended 
by inserting after chapter 15 the following:

                      ``CHAPTER 16--HUMAN CHIMERAS

``301. Definitions.
``302. Prohibition on human chimeras.
``Sec. 301. Definitions
    ``In this chapter the following definitions apply:
            ``(1) Human chimera.--The term `human chimera' means--
                    ``(A) a human embryo into which a non-human cell, 
                or any component part of a non-human cell, has been 
                    ``(B) a human embryo that consists of cells derived 
                from more than 1 human embryo, fetus, or born 
                    ``(C) a human egg that has been fertilized by a 
                non-human sperm;
                    ``(D) a non-human egg that has been fertilized by a 
                human sperm;
                    ``(E) a human egg into which a non-human nucleus 
                has been introduced;
                    ``(F) a non-human egg into which a human nucleus 
                has been introduced;
                    ``(G) a human egg or a non-human egg that otherwise 
                contains haploid sets of chromosomes from both a human 
                and a non-human life form;
                    ``(H) a non-human life form engineered such that 
                human gametes develop within the body of a non-human 
                life form; or
                    ``(I) a non-human life form engineered such that it 
                contains a human brain or a brain derived wholly or 
                predominantly from human neural tissues.
            ``(2) Human embryo.--The term `human embryo' means an 
        organism of the species Homo sapiens during the earliest stages 
        of development, from 1 cell up to 8 weeks.
``Sec. 302. Prohibition on human chimeras
    ``(a) In General.--It shall be unlawful for any person to 
knowingly, in or otherwise affecting interstate commerce--
            ``(1) create or attempt to create a human chimera;
            ``(2) transfer or attempt to transfer a human embryo into a 
        non-human womb;
            ``(3) transfer or attempt to transfer a non-human embryo 
        into a human womb; or
            ``(4) transport or receive for any purpose a human chimera.
    ``(b) Penalties.--
            ``(1) In general.--Whoever violates subsection (a) shall be 
        fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 10 years, or 
            ``(2) Civil penalty.--Whoever violates subsection (a) and 
        derives pecuniary gain from such violation shall be subject to 
        a civil fine of the greater of $1,000,000 and an amount equal 
        to the amount of the gross gain multiplied by 2.''.


    The table of chapters for part I of title 18, United States Code, 
is amended by inserting after the item relating to chapter 15 the 

``16. Human chimeras........................................     301''.

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