Text: S.2307 — 110th Congress (2007-2008)All Information (Except Text)

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Introduced in Senate (11/05/2007)

 
[Congressional Bills 110th Congress]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]
[S. 2307 Introduced in Senate (IS)]

  1st Session
                                S. 2307

    To amend the Global Change Research Act of 1990, and for other 
                               purposes.


_______________________________________________________________________


                   IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES

                            November 5, 2007

 Mr. Kerry (for himself and Mrs. Snowe) introduced the following bill; 
    which was read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, 
                      Science, and Transportation

_______________________________________________________________________

                                 A BILL


 
    To amend the Global Change Research Act of 1990, and for other 
                               purposes.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ``Global Change Research Improvement 
Act of 2007''.

SEC. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS.

    The table of contents for this Act is as follows:

      TITLE I--AMENDMENT OF THE GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH ACT OF 1990

Sec. 101. Amendment of Global Change Research Act of 1990.
Sec. 102. Changes to findings and purpose.
Sec. 103. Changes in definitions.
Sec. 104. Change in committee name and structure.
Sec. 105. Change in National Global Change Research Plan.
Sec. 106. Integrated Program Office.
Sec. 107. Budget coordination.
Sec. 108. Research grants.
Sec. 109. Evaluation of information.
Sec. 110. Repeal of obsolete provision.
Sec. 111. Ice sheet study and report.
Sec. 112. Hurricane frequency and intensity study and report.
Sec. 113. Scientific communications.
Sec. 114. Aging workforce issues program.
Sec. 115. Authorization of appropriations.
                   TITLE II--NATIONAL CLIMATE SERVICE

Sec. 201. Amendment of National Climate Program Act.
                    TITLE III--TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

Sec. 301. National Science and Technology Assessment Service.
                  TITLE IV--CLIMATE CHANGE TECHNOLOGY

Sec. 401. NIST greenhouse gas functions.
Sec. 402. Development of new measurement technologies.
Sec. 403. Enhanced environmental measurements and standards.
Sec. 404. Technology development and diffusion.
Sec. 405. Authorization of appropriations.
                     TITLE V--ABRUPT CLIMATE CHANGE

Sec. 501. Abrupt climate change research program.
Sec. 502. Purposes of program.
Sec. 503. Abrupt climate change defined.
Sec. 504. Authorization of appropriations.

      TITLE I--AMENDMENT OF THE GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH ACT OF 1990

SEC. 101. AMENDMENT OF GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH ACT OF 1990.

    Except as otherwise expressly provided, whenever in this title an 
amendment or repeal is expressed in terms of an amendment to, or repeal 
of, a section or other provision, the reference shall be considered to 
be made to a section or other provision of the Global Change Research 
Act of 1990 (15 U.S.C. 2921 et seq.).

SEC. 102. CHANGES TO FINDINGS AND PURPOSE.

    Section 101 (15 U.S.C. 2931) is amended to read as follows:

``SEC. 101. FINDINGS AND PURPOSE.

    ``(a) Findings.--The Congress makes the following findings:
            ``(1) According to the 4th Assessment Report of the 
        Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, most of the observed 
        increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th 
        century is very likely due to the observed increase in 
        anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations.
            ``(2) Human-induced changes, in conjunction with natural 
        fluctuations, may lead to significant alterations of world 
        climate patterns. Over this century, these changes could 
        adversely affect world agricultural and marine production, 
        coastal habitability, biological diversity, human health, 
        global social and political stability, and global economic 
        activity.
            ``(3) Developments in interdisciplinary Earth sciences, 
        global observing systems, and satellite and computing 
        technologies make possible significant scientific understanding 
        and prediction of global changes and their effects, and have 
        resulted in the significant expansion of environmental data and 
        information.
            ``(4) Development and strengthening of effective policies 
        to mitigate and adapt to global change will rely on improvement 
        in scientific understanding of global environmental and 
        societal processes and on development of information that is of 
        use to decisionmakers at the local, regional, and national 
        levels.
            ``(5) Although significant Federal global change research 
        efforts are underway, an effective Federal program will require 
        improvements in interagency coordination, coordination with the 
        activities of local, regional, State, private, and 
        international entities, and increased levels of Federal 
        resources.
            ``(6) Although the United States Global Change Research 
        Program has made significant contributions to understanding 
        Earth's climate and the anthropogenic influences on Earth's 
        climate and its ecosystems, the Program also needs to produce 
        information that better meets the expressed needs of 
        decisionmakers.
            ``(7) Better predictions of future climate conditions at 
        the regional level are desirable to inform decisions, including 
        those related to land, water, and resource management.
            ``(8) Improved understanding of global change is needed to 
        identify risks and vulnerabilities under plausible climate 
        futures to assist decisionmakers in the development of policies 
        to help ensure that ecological, social, and economic systems 
        are resilient.
            ``(9) In order to more effectively meet the needs of 
        decisionmakers and the public, the research agenda of the 
        United States Global Change Research Program and its 
        implementation and products should be informed by continuous 
        feedback from users of information generated by the Program.
    ``(b) Purpose.--The purpose of this title is to provide for the 
continuation and coordination of a comprehensive and integrated United 
States observation, research, assessment, and outreach program which 
will assist the Nation and the world to better understand, assess, 
predict, mitigate, and adapt to the effects of human-induced and 
natural processes of global change.''.

SEC. 103. CHANGES IN DEFINITIONS.

    Section 2 (15 U.S.C. 2921) is amended--
            (1) by redesignating paragraphs (1) through (6) as 
        paragraphs (2) through (7), respectively;
            (2) by inserting before paragraph (2), as redesignated, the 
        following:
            ``(1) `climate change' means any change in climate over 
        time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of 
        human activity;'';
            (3) by striking ``Earth and Environmental Sciences'' in 
        paragraph (2), as redesignated and inserting ``Global Change 
        Research''; and
            (4) by striking paragraph (4), as redesignated, and 
        inserting the following:
            ``(4) `global change' means human-induced or natural 
        changes in the global environment (including climate change and 
        other phenomena affecting land productivity, oceans and coastal 
        areas, freshwater resources, atmospheric chemistry, 
        biodiversity, and ecological systems) that may alter the 
        capacity of Earth to sustain life;''.

SEC. 104. CHANGE IN COMMITTEE NAME AND STRUCTURE.

    Section 102 (15 U.S.C. 2932) is amended--
            (1) by striking ``earth and environmental sciences.'' in 
        the section heading and inserting ``global change research.'';
            (2) by striking ``Earth and Environmental Sciences.'' in 
        subsection (a) and inserting ``Global Change Research.'';
            (3) by redesignating paragraphs (14) and (15) of subsection 
        (b) as paragraphs (15) and (16), respectively, and inserting 
        after paragraph (13) the following:
            ``(14) the National Institute of Standards and Technology 
        of the Department of Commerce;'';
            (4) by striking the last sentence of subsection (b) and 
        inserting ``The representatives shall be the Deputy Secretary 
        or the Deputy Secretary's designee (or, in the case of an 
        agency other than a department, the deputy head of that agency 
        or the deputy's designee).'';
            (5) by striking subsection (d) and inserting the following:
    ``(d) Subcommittees and Working Groups.--The Committee may 
establish such additional subcommittees and working groups to carry out 
its work as it sees fit.''; and
            (6) by striking ``and'' after the semicolon in subsection 
        (e)(6); and
            (7) by redesignating paragraph (7) of subsection (e) as 
        paragraph (8) and inserting after paragraph (6) the following:
            ``(7) work with appropriate Federal, State, regional, and 
        local authorities to ensure that the Program is designed to 
        produce information needed to develop policies to reduce the 
        impacts of global change; and''.

SEC. 105. CHANGE IN NATIONAL GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PLAN.

    Section 104 (15 U.S.C. 2934) is amended--
            (1) by striking the section heading and inserting the 
        following:

``SEC. 104. NATIONAL GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH AND ASSESSMENT PLAN.'' ;
            (2) by redesignating subsections (a) through (f) as 
        subsections (b) through (g), respectively, and inserting before 
        subsection (b), as redesignated, the following:
    ``(a) Strategic Plan; Revised Implementation Plan.--The Chairman of 
the Council, through the Committee, shall develop a strategic plan for 
the United States Global Climate Change Research Program for the 10-
year period beginning in 2008 and submit the plan to the Congress 
within 1 year after the date of enactment of the Global Change Research 
Improvement Act of 2007. The strategic plan shall include a detailed 
plan for research, assessment, information management, public 
participation, outreach, and budget.'';
            (3) by inserting ``and Assessment'' after ``Research'' in 
        subsection (b), as redesignated;
            (4) by striking ``research.'' in subsection (b), as 
        redesignated, and inserting ``research and assessment.'';
            (5) by striking ``this title,'' in subsection (b), as 
        redesignated, and inserting ``the Global Change Research 
        Improvement Act of 2007,'';
            (6) by inserting ``short-term and long-term'' before 
        ``goals'' in paragraph (1) of subsection (c), as redesignated;
            (7) by striking ``usable information on which to base 
        policy decisions related to'' in paragraph (1) of subsection 
        (c), as redesignated, and inserting ``information relevant and 
        readily usable by local, State, and Federal decisionmakers, as 
        well as other end-users, for the formulation of effective 
        decisions and strategies for measuring, predicting, mitigating, 
        and adapting to'';
            (8) by inserting ``development of regional scenarios, 
        assessment of model predictability, assessment of climate 
        change impacts,'' after ``predictive modeling,'' in paragraph 
        (2) of subsection (c), as redesignated;
            (9) by striking ``priorities;'' in paragraph (2) of 
        subsection (c), as redesignated, and inserting ``priorities and 
        propose measures to address gaps and growing needs for these 
        activities;''
            (10) by striking paragraphs (6) and (7) of subsection (c), 
        as redesignated, and inserting the following:
            ``(6) make recommendations for the coordination of the 
        global change research and assessment activities of the United 
        States with such activities of other Nations and international 
        organizations, including--
                    ``(A) a description of the extent and nature of 
                international cooperative activities;
                    ``(B) bilateral and multilateral efforts to provide 
                worldwide access to scientific data and information, 
                and proposals to improve such access and build capacity 
                for its use; and
                    ``(C) improving participation by developing Nations 
                in international global change research and 
                environmental data collection;
            ``(7) detail budget requirements for Federal global change 
        research and assessment activities to be conducted under the 
        Plan;
            ``(8) include a process for identifying information needed 
        by appropriate Federal, State, regional, and local 
        decisionmakers to develop policies to plan for and address 
        projected impacts of global change;
            ``(9) identify and sustain the observing systems currently 
        employed in collecting data relevant to global and regional 
        climate change research and prioritize additional observation 
        systems that may be needed to ensure adequate data collection 
        and monitoring of global change;
            ``(10) identify existing capabilities and gaps in national, 
        regional, and local climate prediction and scenario-based 
        modeling capabilities for forecasting and projecting climate 
        impacts at local and regional levels, and propose measures to 
        address such gaps;
            ``(11) describe specific activities designed to facilitate 
        outreach and data and information exchange with regional, 
        State, and local governments and other user communities;
            ``(12) identify and describe ecosystems and geographic 
        regions of the United States that are likely to experience 
        similar impacts of global change or are likely to share similar 
        vulnerabilities to global change; and
            ``(13) include such additional matter as the Committee 
        deems appropriate.'';
            (11) by striking paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (d), 
        as redesignated, and inserting the following:
            ``(1) Global and regional research and measurements to 
        understand the nature of and interaction among physical, 
        chemical, biological, land use, and social processes 
        responsible for changes in the Earth system on all relevant 
        spatial and time scales.
            ``(2) Development of indicators, baseline databases, and 
        ongoing monitoring to document global change, including changes 
        in species distribution and behavior, changes in oceanic and 
        atmospheric chemistry, extent of ice sheets, glaciers, and snow 
        cover, shifts in water distribution and abundance, and changes 
        in sea level.'';
            (12) by adding at the end of subsection (d), as 
        redesignated, the following:
            ``(6) Methods for integrating information to provide 
        predictive and other tools for planning and decisionmaking by 
        governments, communities and the private sector.'';
            (13) by striking ``and'' in paragraph (2) of subsection 
        (e), as redesignated;
            (14) by striking paragraph (3) of subsection (e), as 
        redesignated, and inserting the following:
            ``(3) combine and interpret data from various sources to 
        produce information readily usable by local, State, and Federal 
        policymakers, and other end-users, attempting to formulate 
        effective decisions and strategies for mitigating and adapting 
        to the effects of global change; and'';
            (15) by adding at the end of subsection (e), as 
        redesignated, the following:
            ``(4) establish a common assessment and modeling framework 
        that may be used in both research and operations to project, 
        predict, and assess the vulnerability of natural and managed 
        ecosystems and of human society in the context of other 
        environmental and social changes.''; and
            (16) by striking ``change research.'' in paragraph (2) of 
        subsection (f), as redesignated, and inserting ``and regional 
        climate research and assessment.''.

SEC. 106. INTEGRATED PROGRAM OFFICE.

    Section 105 (15 U.S.C. 2935) is amended--
            (1) by redesignating subsections (a), (b), and (c) as 
        subsections (b), (c), and (d), respectively; and
            (2) by inserting before subsection (b), as redesignated, 
        the following:
    ``(a) Integrated Program Office.--
            ``(1) Establishment.--There is established in the Office of 
        Science and Technology Policy an Integrated Program Office for 
        the Program.
            ``(2) Organization.--The Integrated Program Office 
        established under paragraph (1) shall be headed by the 
        associate director with responsibility for climate change 
        science and technology and shall include, to the maximum extent 
        feasible, a representative from each Federal agency 
        participating in the Program.
            ``(3) Function.--The Integrated Program Office shall--
                    ``(A) manage, in conjunction with the Committee, 
                interagency coordination and program integration of 
                global change research activities and budget requests;
                    ``(B) ensure that the activities and programs of 
                each Federal agency or department participating in the 
                Program address the goals and objectives identified in 
                the strategic research plan and interagency 
                implementation plans;
                    ``(C) ensure program and budget recommendations of 
                the Committee are communicated to the President and are 
                integrated into the strategic and implementation plans 
                for the Program;
                    ``(D) review, solicit, identify, and arrange 
                funding for partnership projects that address critical 
                research objectives or operational goals of the 
                Program, including projects that would fill research 
                gaps identified by the Program, and for which project 
                resources are shared among at least 2 agencies 
                participating in the Program; and
                    ``(E) review and provide recommendations, in 
                conjunction with the Committee, on all annual 
                appropriations requests from Federal agencies or 
                departments participating in the Program.'';
            (3) by striking ``Committee.'' in paragraph (2) of 
        subsection (c), as redesignated, and inserting ``Committee and 
        the Integrated Program Office.''; and
            (4) by inserting ``and the Integrated Program Office'' 
        after ``Committee'' in paragraph (1) of subsection (d), as 
        redesignated.

SEC. 107. BUDGET COORDINATION.

    Section 105 (15 U.S.C. 2935), as amended by section 106, is further 
amended by striking subsection (d), as redesignated, and inserting the 
following:
    ``(d) Consideration in President's Budget.--
            ``(1) In general.--Before each annual budget submitted to 
        the Congress under section 1105 of title 31, United States 
        Code, the President shall, in a timely fashion, provide an 
        opportunity to the Committee and the Integrated Program Office 
        to review and comment on the budget estimate of each agency and 
        department involved in global change research in the context of 
        the Plan.
            ``(2) Program items.--The President shall submit, at the 
        time of the annual budget request to Congress, an integrated 
        budget plan that would consolidate and highlight Program 
        priorities and include a description of those items in each 
        agency's annual budget which are elements of the Program.''.

SEC. 108. RESEARCH GRANTS.

    Section 105 (15 U.S.C. 2935), as amended by sections 106 and 107, 
is further amended--
            (1) by redesignating subsections (b), (c), (d), and (e) as 
        subsections (c), (d), (e), and (f), respectively; and
            (2) by inserting after subsection (a) the following:
    ``(b) Research Grants.--
            ``(1) Committee to develop list of priority research 
        areas.--The Committee shall develop a list of priority areas 
        for research and development on climate change that are not 
        being adequately addressed by Federal agencies.
            ``(2) Director of ostp to transmit list to nsf.--The 
        Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall 
        transmit the list to the National Science Foundation.
            ``(3) Funding through nsf.--
                    ``(A) Budget request.--The National Science 
                Foundation shall include, as part of the annual request 
                for appropriations for the Science and Technology 
                Policy Institute, a request for appropriations to fund 
                research in the priority areas on the list developed 
                under paragraph (1).
                    ``(B) Authorization.--For fiscal year 2008 and each 
                fiscal year thereafter, there are authorized to be 
                appropriated to the National Science Foundation not 
                less than $30,000,000, to be made available through the 
                Science and Technology Policy Institute, for research 
                in those priority areas.''.

SEC. 109. EVALUATION OF INFORMATION.

    Section 106 (15 U.S.C. 2936) is amended--
            (1) by striking ``SCIENTIFIC'' in the section heading;
            (2) by striking ``On a periodic basis (not less frequently 
        than every 4 years), the Council, through the Committee, shall 
        prepare and submit to the President and the Congress an 
        assessment'' and inserting ``On a periodic basis (not less 
        frequently than every 4 years), the President shall submit to 
        Congress a single, integrated, comprehensive assessment'';
            (3) by striking ``and'' after the semicolon in paragraph 
        (2); and
            (4) by striking ``years.'' in paragraph (3) and inserting 
        ``years; and''; and
            (5) by adding at the end the following:
            ``(4) evaluates the information being developed under this 
        title, considering in particular its usefulness to local, 
        State, and national decisionmakers, as well as to other 
        stakeholders such as the private sector, after providing a 
        meaningful opportunity for the consideration of the views of 
        such stakeholders on the effectiveness of the Program and the 
        usefulness of the information.''.

SEC. 110. REPEAL OF OBSOLETE PROVISION.

    Section 108 (15 U.S.C. 2938) is amended by striking subsection (c).

SEC. 111. ICE SHEET STUDY AND REPORT.

    (a) Study.--
            (1) Requirement.--The Director of the National Science 
        Foundation and the Administrator of National Oceanic and 
        Atmospheric Administration shall enter into an arrangement with 
        the National Academy of Sciences to complete a study of the 
        current status of ice sheet melt and movement, as caused by 
        climate change, with implications for global sea level rise.
            (2) Contents.--The study shall take into consideration--
                    (A) the past research completed related to ice 
                sheet melt as reviewed by Working Group I of the 
                Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change;
                    (B) additional research published since the fall of 
                2005 that was not included in the Working Group I 
                report due to time constraints; and
                    (C) the need for an accurate assessment of changes 
                in ice sheet spreading, changes in ice sheet flow, 
                self-lubrication, the corresponding effect on ice 
                sheets, and current modeling capabilities.
            (3) Report.--Not later than 18 months after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the National Academy of Sciences shall 
        transmit to the Committee on Science and Technology of the 
        House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, 
        Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report on the key 
        findings of the study conducted under subsection (a), along 
        with recommendations for additional research related to ice 
        sheet melt and corresponding sea level rise.

SEC. 112. HURRICANE FREQUENCY AND INTENSITY STUDY AND REPORT.

     (a) Study.--
            (1) Requirement.--The Administrator of the National Oceanic 
        and Atmospheric Administration and the Director of the National 
        Science Foundation shall enter into an arrangement with the 
        National Academy of Sciences to complete a study of the current 
        state of the science on the potential impacts of climate change 
        on patterns of tropical cyclone (hurricane and typhoon) 
        development, including storm intensity, track, and frequency, 
        overall destructive power, precipitation amount and intensity, 
        runoff and flooding, and the implications for hurricane-prone 
        and typhoon-prone coastal regions.
            (2) Contents.--The study shall take into consideration--
                    (A) the past research completed related to 
                hurricane and typhoon development, track, and intensity 
                as reviewed by Working Groups I and II of the 
                Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change;
                    (B) additional research completed since the fall of 
                2005 that was not included in the Working Group I and 
                II reports due to time constraints;
                    (C) the need for accurate assessment of potential 
                changes in hurricane and typhoon intensity, track, and 
                frequency and of the current modeling and forecasting 
                capabilities and the need for improvements in 
                forecasting of these parameters; and
                    (D) the need for additional research, real-time 
                observation, and monitoring to improve forecasting of 
                hurricanes and typhoons and to understand the 
                relationship between climate change and hurricane and 
                typhoon development.
            (3) Report.--Not later than 18 months after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the National Academy of Sciences shall 
        transmit to the Committee on Science and Technology of the 
        House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, 
        Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report on the key 
        findings of the study conducted under subsection (a).

SEC. 113. SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATIONS.

    The President shall establish guidelines and implement a plan that 
requires the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Environmental 
Protection Agency, the National Science Foundation, and other Federal 
agencies with scientific research programs to adopt policies that 
ensure the integrity of scientific communications. Such policies shall 
include provisions that ensure that final text and communications are 
approved by the scientist or scientists who authored the report or 
communication, and that enable scientists to disseminate research 
results and freely communicate with the Congress, the media, and 
colleagues in a timely fashion.

SEC. 114. AGING WORKFORCE ISSUES PROGRAM.

    The Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration shall implement a program to address aging work force 
issues in climate science, global change, and other focuses of NOAA 
research that--
            (1) documents technical and management experiences before 
        senior employees leave the Administration, including--
                    (A) documenting lessons learned;
                    (B) briefing organizations;
                    (C) providing opportunities for archiving lessons 
                in a database; and
                    (D) providing opportunities for near-term retirees 
                to transition out early from their primary assignment 
                in order to document their career lessons learned and 
                brief new employees prior to their separation from the 
                Administration;
            (2) provides incentives for retirees to return and teach 
        new employees about their career lessons and experiences; and
            (3) provides for the development of an award to recognize 
        and reward outstanding senior employees for their contributions 
        to knowledge sharing.

SEC. 115. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

    There are authorized to be appropriated for the purposes of 
carrying out this Act such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 
2008 through 2012. Of the amounts appropriated for that fiscal year 
period--
            (1) $4,000,000 shall be made available to the Office of 
        Science and Technology Policy for each of such fiscal years; 
        and
            (2) such sums as may be necessary shall be made available 
        to--
                    (A) the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
                Administration for each of such fiscal years;
                    (B) the National Science Foundation for each of 
                such fiscal years;
                    (C) the National Aeronautics and Space 
                Administration for each of such fiscal years; and
                    (D) other Federal agencies participating in the 
                Program, to the extent funds remain available after the 
                application of paragraph (1) and subparagraphs (A), 
                (B), and (C) of this paragraph, for each of such fiscal 
                years.

                   TITLE II--NATIONAL CLIMATE SERVICE

SEC. 201. AMENDMENT OF NATIONAL CLIMATE PROGRAM ACT.

    The National Climate Program Act (15 U.S.C. 2901 et seq.) is 
amended to read as follows:

``SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.

    ``(a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``National Climate 
Service Act of 2007''.
    ``(b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for this Act is as 
follows:

``Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.
``Sec. 2. Findings.
``Sec. 3. Purpose.
``Sec. 4. National Climate Service.
``Sec. 5. Contract and grant authority.
``Sec. 6. Annual report.
``Sec. 7. Definitions.
``Sec. 8. Authorization of appropriations.

``SEC. 2. FINDINGS.

    ``The Congress finds the following:
            ``(1) Weather, climate change, and climate variability 
        affect public safety, environmental services and security, 
        human health, agriculture, energy use, water resources, and 
        other factors vital to national security and human welfare.
            ``(2) The present rate of advance of national efforts in 
        research and development and the application of such advances 
        is inadequate to meet the challenges posed by observed and 
        projected rates of climate change and climate variability and 
        the increasing demand for information to guide planning and 
        response across all sectors.
            ``(3) The United States lacks adequate research, 
        infrastructure, and coordinated outreach and communication 
        mechanisms to meet national climate monitoring, prediction, and 
        decision support needs for adapting to and mitigating the 
        impacts of climate change and climate variability.
            ``(4) Information regarding climate change and climate 
        variability is not being fully disseminated or used, and 
        Federal efforts have given insufficient attention to assessing 
        and applying this information.
            ``(5) Climate change and climate variability occur on a 
        global basis making international cooperation essential for the 
        purpose of sharing the benefits and costs of a global effort to 
        understand and communicate these changes.

``SEC. 3. PURPOSE.

    ``It is the purpose of this Act to establish a National Climate 
Service that will advance the national interest and associated 
international concerns in understanding, forecasting, responding, 
adapting to, and mitigating the impacts of natural and human-induced 
climate change and climate variability.

``SEC. 4. NATIONAL CLIMATE SERVICE.

    ``(a) Establishment.--The Secretary shall establish within the 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration a National Climate 
Service not later than a year after the date of the enactment of the 
Global Change Research Improvement Act of 2007. The Service shall 
include a national center and a network of regional and local 
facilities for operational climate monitoring and prediction.
            ``(1) In general.--The Service shall produce and deliver 
        authoritative, timely and usable information about climate 
        change, climate variability, trends, and impacts on local, 
        State, regional, national, and global scales.
            ``(2) Specific services.--The Service, at a minimum, 
        shall--
            ``(A) provide comprehensive and authoritative information 
        about the state of the climate and its effects, through 
        observations, monitoring, data, information, and products that 
        accurately reflect climate trends and conditions;
            ``(B) provide predictions and projections on the future 
        state of the climate in support of adaptation, preparedness, 
        attribution, and mitigation;
            ``(C) utilize appropriate research from the United States 
        Global Change Research Program activities and conduct focused 
        research, as needed, to enhance understanding, information and 
        predictions of the current and future state of the climate and 
        its impacts that is relevant to policy, planning, and decision 
        making;
            ``(D) utilize assessments from the Global Change Research 
        Program activities and conduct focused assessments as needed to 
        enhance understanding of the impacts of climate change and 
        climate variability;
            ``(E) assess and strengthen delivery mechanisms for 
        providing climate information to end users;
            ``(F) communicate climate data, conditions, predictions, 
        projections, indicators, and risks on an ongoing basis to 
        decision- and policy- makers, the private sector, and to the 
        public;
            ``(G) coordinate and collaborate on climate change, climate 
        variability, and impacts activities with municipal, state, 
        regional, national and international agencies and 
        organizations, as appropriate; and
            ``(H) support the Department of State and international 
        agencies and organizations, as well as domestic agencies and 
        organizations, involved in assessing and responding to climate 
        change and climate variability.
    ``(b) Action Plan.--Within 1 year after the date of enactment of 
the Global Change Research Improvement Act of 2007, the Secretary shall 
submit to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation 
and the House Committee on Science and Technology a plan of action for 
the National Climate Service. The plan, at a minimum, shall--
            ``(1) provide for the interpretation and communication of 
        climate data, conditions, predictions, projections, and risks 
        on an on-going basis to decision and policy makers at the 
        local, regional, and national levels;
            ``(2) design, deploy, and operate an adequate national 
        climate observing system that closes gaps in existing coverage;
            ``(3) support infrastructure and ability to archive and 
        quality ensure climate data, and make federally-funded model 
        simulations and other relevant climate information available 
        from the Global Change Research Program activities and other 
        sources (and related data from paleoclimate studies).
            ``(4) include a program for long-term stewardship, quality 
        control, development of relevant climate products, and 
        efficient access to all relevant climate data, products, and 
        model simulations;
            ``(5) establish a national coordinated modeling strategy, 
        including a national climate modeling center to provide a 
        dedicated capability for modeling and forecasting, scenarios 
        and planning resources, and a regular schedule of projections 
        on long- and short-term time horizons over a range of scales, 
        including regional scales;
            ``(6) improve integrated modeling, assessment, and 
        predictive capabilities needed to document and predict climate 
        changes and impacts, and to guide national, regional, and local 
        planning and decision making;
            ``(7) provide a system of regular consultation and 
        coordination with Federal agencies, States, Tribes, non-
        governmental organizations, the private sector and the academic 
        community to ensure--
                    ``(A) that the information requirements of these 
                groups are well incorporated; and
                    ``(B) timely and full sharing, dissemination and 
                use of climate information and services in risk 
                preparedness, planning, decision making, and early 
                warning and natural resources management, both 
                domestically and internationally;
            ``(8) develop standards, evaluation criteria and 
        performance objectives to ensure that the Service meets the 
        evolving information needs of the public, policy makers and 
        decision makers in the face of a changing climate;
            ``(9) develop funding estimates to implement the plan; and
            ``(10) support competitive research programs that will 
        improve elements of the Service described in this Act through 
        the Climate Program Office within the Service headquarter 
        function.
    ``(c) Coordination With the USGCRP.--The Service shall utilize 
appropriate research from Global Change Research Program activities to 
enhance understanding, in

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