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Engrossed in Senate (04/25/2007)

 
[Congressional Bills 110th Congress]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]
[S. 761 Engrossed in Senate (ES)]

  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
110th CONGRESS
  1st Session
                                 S. 761

_______________________________________________________________________

                                 AN ACT


 
To invest in innovation and education to improve the competitiveness of 
                the United States in the global economy.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ``America COMPETES Act'' or the 
``America Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in 
Technology, Education, and Science Act''.

SEC. 2. ORGANIZATION OF ACT INTO DIVISIONS; TABLE OF CONTENTS.

    (a) Divisions.--This Act is organized into 5 divisions as follows:
            (1) Division a.--Commerce and Science.
            (2) Division b.--Department of Energy.
            (3) Division b.--Education.
            (4) Division d.--National Science Foundation.
            (5) Division e.--General Provisions.
    (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for this Act is as 
follows:

Sec. 1. Short title.
Sec. 2. Organization of Act into divisions; table of contents.
                    DIVISION A--COMMERCE AND SCIENCE

Sec. 1001. Short title.
   TITLE I--OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY; GOVERNMENT-WIDE 
                                SCIENCE

Sec. 1101. National Science and Technology Summit.
Sec. 1102. Study on barriers to innovation.
Sec. 1103. National Innovation Medal.
Sec. 1104. Release of scientific research results.
Sec. 1105. Semiannual Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics 
                            Days.
Sec. 1106. Study of service science.
                     TITLE II--INNOVATION PROMOTION

Sec. 1201. President's Council on Innovation and Competitiveness.
Sec. 1202. Innovation acceleration research.
        TITLE III--NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION

Sec. 1301. NASA's contribution to innovation.
Sec. 1302. Aeronautics Institute for Research.
Sec. 1303. Basic research enhancement.
Sec. 1304. Aging workforce issues program.
Sec. 1305. Conforming amendments.
Sec. 1306. Fiscal year 2008 basic science and research funding.
        TITLE IV--NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY

Sec. 1401. Authorization of appropriations.
Sec. 1402. Amendments to the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act 
                            of 1980.
Sec. 1403. Innovation acceleration.
Sec. 1404. Manufacturing extension.
Sec. 1405. Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Technology.
Sec. 1406. Technical amendments to the National Institute of Standards 
                            and Technology Act and other technical 
                            amendments.
Sec. 1407. Clarification of eligible contributions in connection with 
                            regional Centers responsible for 
                            implementing the objectives of the hollings 
                            manufacturing partnership program.
                TITLE V--OCEAN AND ATMOSPHERIC PROGRAMS

Sec. 1501. Ocean and atmospheric research and development program.
Sec. 1502. NOAA ocean and atmospheric science education programs.
Sec. 1503. NOAA's contribution to innovation.
Sec. 1504. NOAA accountability and transparency.
                    DIVISION B--DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

Sec. 2001. Short title.
Sec. 2002. Definitions.
Sec. 2003. Mathematics, science, and engineering education at the 
                            Department of Energy.
Sec. 2004. Department of Energy early-career research grants.
Sec. 2005. Advanced Research Projects Authority-Energy.
Sec. 2006. Authorization of appropriations for the Department of Energy 
                            for basic research.
Sec. 2007. Discovery science and engineering innovation institutes.
Sec. 2008. Protecting America's Competitive Edge (PACE) graduate 
                            fellowship program.
Sec. 2009. Title IX compliance.
Sec. 2010. High-risk, high-reward research.
Sec. 2011. Distinguished scientist program.
                         DIVISION C--EDUCATION

Sec. 3001. Findings.
Sec. 3002. Definitions.
                      TITLE I--TEACHER ASSISTANCE

            Subtitle A--Teachers for a Competitive Tomorrow

Sec. 3111. Purpose.
Sec. 3112. Definitions.
Sec. 3113. Programs for baccalaureate degrees in mathematics, science, 
                            engineering, or critical foreign languages, 
                            with concurrent teacher certification.
Sec. 3114. Programs for master's degrees in mathematics, science, 
                            technology, or critical foreign languages 
                            education.
Sec. 3115. General provisions.
Sec. 3116. Authorization of appropriations.
Subtitle B--Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Programs

Sec. 3121. Purpose.
Sec. 3122. Definitions.
Sec. 3123. Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate programs.
 Subtitle C--Promising Practices in Mathematics, Science, Technology, 
                        and Engineering Teaching

Sec. 3131. Promising practices.
                         TITLE II--MATHEMATICS

Sec. 3201. Math Now for elementary school and middle school students 
                            program.
Sec. 3202. Summer term education programs.
Sec. 3203. Math skills for secondary school students.
            TITLE III--FOREIGN LANGUAGE PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM

Sec. 3301. Findings and purpose.
Sec. 3302. Definitions.
Sec. 3303. Program authorized.
Sec. 3304. Authorization of appropriations.
               TITLE IV--ALIGNMENT OF EDUCATION PROGRAMS

Sec. 3401. Alignment of secondary school graduation requirements with 
                            the demands of 21st century postsecondary 
                            endeavors and support for P-16 education 
                            data systems.
       TITLE V--MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE PARTNERSHIP BONUS GRANTS

Sec. 3501. Mathematics and science partnership bonus grants.
Sec. 3502. Authorization of appropriations.
                DIVISION D--NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION

Sec. 4001. Authorization of appropriations.
Sec. 4002. Strengthening of education and human resources directorate 
                            through equitable distribution of new 
                            funds.
Sec. 4003. Graduate fellowships and graduate traineeships.
Sec. 4004. Professional science master's degree programs.
Sec. 4005. Increased support for science education through the National 
                            Science Foundation.
Sec. 4006. Meeting critical national science needs.
Sec. 4007. Reaffirmation of the merit-review process of the National 
                            Science Foundation.
Sec. 4008. Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research.
Sec. 4009. Encouraging participation.
Sec. 4010. Cyberinfrastructure.
Sec. 4011. Federal information and communications technology research.
Sec. 4012. Robert Noyce Teacher Program.
Sec. 4013. Sense of the Senate regarding the mathematics and science 
                            partnership programs of the Department of 
                            Education and the National Science 
                            Foundation.
Sec. 4014. National Science Foundation teacher institutes for the 21st 
                            century.
Sec. 4015. Partnerships for access to laboratory science.
                     DIVISION E--GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec. 5001. Collection of data relating to trade in services.
Sec. 5002. Sense of the Senate regarding small business growth and 
                            capital markets.
Sec. 5003. Government Accountability Office Review of Activities, 
                            Grants, and Programs.
Sec. 5004. Prohibition against funding anti-competitiveness.
Sec. 5005. Feasibility study on free online college degree program.
Sec. 5006. Sense of the Senate regarding deemed exports.
Sec. 5007. Sense of the Senate regarding capital markets.

                    DIVISION A--COMMERCE AND SCIENCE

SEC. 1001. SHORT TITLE.

    This division may be cited as the ``American Innovation and 
Competitiveness Act''.

   TITLE I--OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY; GOVERNMENT-WIDE 
                                SCIENCE

SEC. 1101. NATIONAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY SUMMIT.

    (a) In General.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the President shall convene a National Science 
and Technology Summit to examine the health and direction of the United 
States' science, technology, engineering, and mathematics enterprises. 
The Summit shall include representatives of industry, small business, 
labor, academia, State government, Federal research and development 
agencies, non-profit environmental and energy policy groups concerned 
with science and technology issues, and other nongovernmental 
organizations, including representatives of science, technology, and 
engineering organizations and associations that represent individuals 
identified in section 33 or 34 of the Science and Engineering Equal 
Opportunities Act (42 U.S.C. 1885a or 1885b).
    (b) Report.--Not later than 90 days after the date of the 
conclusion of the Summit, the President shall issue a report on the 
results of the Summit. The report shall identify key research and 
technology challenges and recommendations, including recommendations to 
increase the representation of individuals identified in section 33 or 
34 of the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act (42 U.S.C. 
1885a or 1885b) in science, engineering, and technology enterprises, 
for areas of investment for Federal research and technology programs to 
be carried out during the 5-year period beginning on the date the 
report is issued.
    (c) Annual Evaluation.--Beginning in 2008, the Director of the 
Office of Science and Technology Policy shall publish and submit to 
Congress an annual report that contains recommendations for areas of 
investment for Federal research and technology programs, including a 
justification for each area identified in the report. Each report 
submitted during the 5-year period beginning on the date of the 
conclusion of the Summit shall take into account any recommendations 
made by the Summit.

SEC. 1102. STUDY ON BARRIERS TO INNOVATION.

    (a) In General.--Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment 
of this Act, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology 
Policy shall enter into a contract with the National Academy of 
Sciences to conduct and complete a study to identify, and to review 
methods to mitigate, new forms of risk for businesses beyond 
conventional operational and financial risk that affect the ability to 
innovate, including studying and reviewing--
            (1) incentive and compensation structures that could 
        effectively encourage long-term value creation and innovation;
            (2) methods of voluntary and supplemental disclosure by 
        industry of intellectual capital, innovation performance, and 
        indicators of future valuation;
            (3) means by which government could work with industry to 
        enhance the legal and regulatory framework to encourage the 
        disclosures described in paragraph (2);
            (4) practices that may be significant deterrents to United 
        States businesses engaging in innovation risk-taking compared 
        to foreign competitors;
            (5) costs faced by United States businesses engaging in 
        innovation compared to foreign competitors, including the 
        burden placed on businesses by high and rising health care 
        costs;
            (6) means by which industry, trade associations, and 
        universities could collaborate to support research on 
        management practices and methodologies for assessing the value 
        and risks of longer term innovation strategies;
            (7) means to encourage new, open, and collaborative 
        dialogue between industry associations, regulatory authorities, 
        management, shareholders, labor, and other concerned interests 
        to encourage appropriate approaches to innovation risk-taking;
            (8) incentives to encourage participation among 
        institutions of higher education, especially those in rural and 
        underserved areas, to engage in innovation;
            (9) relevant Federal regulations that may discourage or 
        encourage innovation;
            (10) all provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, 
        including tax provisions, compliance costs, and reporting 
        requirements, that discourage innovation;
            (11) the extent to which Federal funding promotes or 
        hinders innovation;
            (12) the extent to which individuals are being equipped 
        with the knowledge and skills necessary for success in the 21st 
        century workforce, as measured by--
                    (A) elementary school and secondary school student 
                academic achievement on the State academic assessments 
                required under section 1111(b)(3) of the Elementary and 
                Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6311 
                (b)(3)), especially in mathematics, science, and 
                reading, identified by ethnicity, race, and gender;
                    (B) the rate of student entrance into institutions 
                of higher education, identified by ethnicity, race, and 
                gender, by type of institution, and barriers to access 
                to institutions of higher education;
                    (C) the rates of--
                            (i) students successfully completing 
                        postsecondary education programs, identified by 
                        ethnicity, race, and gender; and
                            (ii) certificates, associate degrees, and 
                        baccalaureate degrees awarded in the fields of 
                        science, technology, engineering, and 
                        mathematics, identified by ethnicity, race, and 
                        gender; and
                    (D) access to, and availability of, high quality 
                job training programs;
            (13) the projected outcomes of increasing the number of 
        individuals identified in section 33 or 34 of the Science and 
        Engineering Equal Opportunities Act (42 U.S.C. 1885a or 1885b) 
        in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields; 
        and
            (14) the identification of strategies to increase the 
        participation of individuals identified in section 33 or 34 of 
        the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act (42 U.S.C. 
        1885a or 1885b) in science, technology, engineering, and 
        mathematics fields.
    (b) Report Required.--Not later than 1 year after entering into the 
contract required by subsection (a) and 4 years after entering into 
such contract, the National Academy of Sciences shall submit to 
Congress a report on the study conducted under such subsection.
    (c) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to the National Academy of Sciences $1,000,000 for fiscal 
year 2008 for the purpose of carrying out the study required under this 
section.

SEC. 1103. NATIONAL INNOVATION MEDAL.

    Section 16 of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 
1980 (15 U.S.C. 3711) is amended--
            (1) by striking the section heading and inserting ``sec. 
        16. national technology and innovation medal.''; and
            (2) in subsection (a), by striking ``Technology Medal'' and 
        inserting ``Technology and Innovation Medal''.

SEC. 1104. RELEASE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH RESULTS.

    (a) Principles.--Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment 
of this Act, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology 
Policy, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Management 
and Budget and the heads of all Federal civilian agencies that conduct 
scientific research, shall develop and issue an overarching set of 
principles to ensure the communication and open exchange of data and 
results to other agencies, policymakers, and the public of research 
conducted by a scientist employed by a Federal civilian agency and to 
prevent the intentional or unintentional suppression or distortion of 
such research findings. The principles shall encourage the open 
exchange of data and results of research undertaken by a scientist 
employed by such an agency and shall be consistent with existing 
Federal laws, including chapter 18 of title 35, United States Code 
(commonly known as the ``Bayh-Dole Act'').
    (b) Implementation.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Director of the Office of Science and 
Technology Policy shall ensure that all civilian Federal agencies that 
conduct scientific research develop specific policies and procedures 
regarding the public release of data and results of research conducted 
by a scientist employed by such an agency consistent with the 
principles established under subsection (a). Such polices and 
procedures shall--
            (1) specifically address what is and what is not permitted 
        or recommended under such policies and procedures;
            (2) be specifically designed for each such agency;
            (3) be applied uniformly throughout each such agency; and
            (4) be widely communicated and readily accessible to all 
        employees of each such agency and the public.

SEC. 1105. SEMIANNUAL SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS 
              DAYS.

    It is the sense of Congress that the Director of the Office of 
Science and Technology Policy should--
            (1) encourage all elementary and middle schools to observe 
        a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Day twice 
        in every school year for the purpose of bringing in science, 
        technology, engineering, and mathematics mentors to provide 
        hands-on lessons to excite and inspire students to pursue the 
        science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields 
        (including continuing education and career paths);
            (2) initiate a program, in consultation with Federal 
        agencies and departments, to provide support systems, tools 
        (from existing outreach offices), and mechanisms to allow and 
        encourage Federal employees with scientific, technological, 
        engineering, or mathematical responsibilities to reach out to 
        local classrooms on such Science, Technology, Engineering, and 
        Mathematics Days to instruct and inspire school children, 
        focusing on real life science, technology, engineering, and 
        mathematics-related applicable experiences along with hands-on 
        demonstrations in order to demonstrate the advantages and 
        direct applications of studying the science, technology, 
        engineering, and mathematics fields; and
            (3) promote Science, Technology, Engineering, and 
        Mathematics Days involvement by private sector and institutions 
        of higher education employees, including partnerships with 
        scientific, engineering, and mathematical professional 
        organizations representing individuals identified in section 33 
        or 34 of the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act 
        (42 U.S.C. 1885a or 1885b), in a manner similar to the Federal 
        employee involvement described in paragraph (2).

SEC. 1106. STUDY OF SERVICE SCIENCE.

    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that, in order 
to strengthen the competitiveness of United States enterprises and 
institutions and to prepare the people of the United States for high-
wage, high-skill employment, the Federal Government should better 
understand and respond strategically to the emerging management and 
learning discipline known as service science.
    (b) Study.--Not later than 270 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, 
through the National Academy of Sciences, shall conduct a study and 
report to Congress regarding how the Federal Government should support, 
through research, education, and training, the emerging management and 
learning discipline known as service science.
    (c) Outside Resources.--In conducting the study under subsection 
(b), the National Academy of Sciences shall consult with leaders from 
2- and 4-year institutions of higher education, as defined in section 
101(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001(a)), leaders 
from corporations, and other relevant parties.
    (d) Service Science Defined.--In this section, the term ``service 
science'' means curricula, training, and research programs that are 
designed to teach individuals to apply scientific, engineering, and 
management disciplines that integrate elements of computer science, 
operations research, industrial engineering, business strategy, 
management sciences, and social and legal sciences, in order to 
encourage innovation in how organizations create value for customers 
and shareholders that could not be achieved through such disciplines 
working in isolation.

                     TITLE II--INNOVATION PROMOTION

SEC. 1201. PRESIDENT'S COUNCIL ON INNOVATION AND COMPETITIVENESS.

    (a) In General.--The President shall establish a President's 
Council on Innovation and Competitiveness.
    (b) Duties.--The Council's duties shall include--
            (1) monitoring implementation of public laws and 
        initiatives for promoting innovation, including policies 
        related to research funding, taxation, immigration, trade, and 
        education that are proposed in this Act or in any other Act;
            (2) providing advice to the President with respect to 
        global trends in competitiveness and innovation and allocation 
        of Federal resources in education, job training, and technology 
        research and development considering such global trends in 
        competitiveness and innovation;
            (3) in consultation with the Director of the Office of 
        Management and Budget, developing a process for using metrics 
        to assess the impact of existing and proposed policies and 
        rules that affect innovation capabilities in the United States;
            (4) identifying opportunities and making recommendations 
        for the heads of executive agencies to improve innovation, 
        monitoring, and reporting on the implementation of such 
        recommendations;
            (5) developing metrics for measuring the progress of the 
        Federal Government with respect to improving conditions for 
        innovation, including through talent development, investment, 
        and infrastructure improvements; and
            (6) submitting to the President and Congress an annual 
        report on such progress.
    (c) Membership and Coordination.--
            (1) Membership.--The Council shall be composed of the 
        Secretary or head of each of the following:
                    (A) The Department of Commerce.
                    (B) The Department of Defense.
                    (C) The Department of Education.
                    (D) The Department of Energy.
                    (E) The Department of Health and Human Services.
                    (F) The Department of Homeland Security.
                    (G) The Department of Labor.
                    (H) The Department of the Treasury.
                    (I) The National Aeronautics and Space 
                Administration.
                    (J) The Securities and Exchange Commission.
                    (K) The National Science Foundation.
                    (L) The Office of the United States Trade 
                Representative.
                    (M) The Office of Management and Budget.
                    (N) The Office of Science and Technology Policy.
                    (O) The Environmental Protection Agency.
                    (P) The Small Business Administration.
                    (Q) Any other department or agency designated by 
                the President.
            (2) Chairperson.--The Secretary of Commerce shall serve as 
        Chairperson of the Council.
            (3) Coordination.--The Chairperson of the Council shall 
        ensure appropriate coordination between the Council and the 
        National Economic Council, the National Security Council, and 
        the National Science and Technology Council.
            (4) Meetings.--The Council shall meet on a semi-annual 
        basis at the call of the Chairperson and the initial meeting of 
        the Council shall occur not later than 6 months after the date 
        of enactment of this Act.
    (d) Development of Innovation Agenda.--
            (1) In general.--The Council shall develop a comprehensive 
        agenda for strengthening the innovation and competitiveness 
        capabilities of the Federal Government, State governments, 
        academia, and the private sector in the United States.
            (2) Contents.--The comprehensive agenda required by 
        paragraph (1) shall include the following:
                    (A) An assessment of current strengths and 
                weaknesses of the United States investment in research 
                and development.
                    (B) Recommendations for addressing weaknesses and 
                maintaining the United States as a world leader in 
                research and development and technological innovation, 
                including strategies for increasing the participation 
                of individuals identified in section 33 or 34 of the 
                Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act (42 
                U.S.C. 1885a or 1885b) in science, technology, 
                engineering, and mathematics fields.
                    (C) Recommendations for strengthening the 
                innovation and competitiveness capabilities of the 
                Federal government, State governments, academia, and 
                the private sector in the United States.
            (3) Advisors.--
                    (A) Recommendation.--Not later than 30 days after 
                the date of enactment of this Act, the National Academy 
                of Sciences, in consultation with the National Academy 
                of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the 
                National Research Council, shall develop and submit to 
                the President a list of 50 individuals that are 
                recommended to serve as advisors to the Council during 
                the development of the comprehensive agenda required by 
                paragraph (1). The list of advisors shall include 
                appropriate representatives from the following:
                            (i) The private sector of the economy.
                            (ii) Labor.
                            (iii) Various fields including information 
                        technology, energy, engineering, high-
                        technology manufacturing, health care, and 
                        education.
                            (iv) Scientific organizations.
                            (v) Academic organizations and other 
                        nongovernmental organizations working in the 
                        area of science or technology.
                            (vi) Nongovernmental organizations, such as 
                        professional organizations, that represent 
                        individuals identified in section 33 or 34 of 
                        the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities 
                        Act (42 U.S.C. 1885a or 1885b) in the areas of 
                        science, engineering, technology, and 
                        mathematics.
                    (B) Designation.--Not later than 30 days after the 
                date that the National Academy of Sciences submits the 
                list of recommended individuals to serve as advisors, 
                the President shall designate 50 individuals to serve 
                as advisors to the Council.
                    (C) Requirement to consult.--The Council shall 
                develop the comprehensive agenda required by paragraph 
                (1) in consultation with the advisors.
            (4) Initial submission and updates.--
                    (A) Initial submission.--Not later than 1 year 
                after the date of enactment of this Act, the Council 
                shall submit to Congress and the President the 
                comprehensive agenda required by paragraph (1).
                    (B) Updates.--At least once every 2 years, the 
                Council shall update the comprehensive agenda required 
                by paragraph (1) and submit each such update to 
                Congress and the President.
    (e) Technical Amendment.--Section 101(b) of the High-Performance 
Computing Act of 1991 (15 U.S.C. 5511(b)) is amended by striking ``an'' 
in the first sentence and inserting ``a distinct''.
    (f) Optional Assignment.--Notwithstanding subsection (a) and 
paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (c), the President may designate 
an existing council to carry out the requirements of this section.

SEC. 1202. INNOVATION ACCELERATION RESEARCH.

    (a) Program Established.--The President, through the head of each 
Federal research agency, shall establish a program, to be known as the 
Innovation Acceleration Research Program, to support and promote 
innovation in the United States through research projects that can 
yield results with far-ranging or wide-ranging implications but are 
considered too novel or span too diverse a range of disciplines to fare 
well in the traditional peer review process. Priority in the awarding 
of grants under this program shall be given to research projects that--
            (1) meet fundamental technology or scientific challenges;
            (2) involve multidisciplinary work; and
            (3) involve a high degree of novelty.
    (b) Departments and Agencies.--
            (1) Funding goals.--The President shall ensure that it is 
        the goal of each Executive agency (as defined in section 105 of 
        title 5, United States Code) that finances research in science, 
        mathematics, engineering, and technology to allocate 
        approximately 8 percent of the agency's total annual research 
        and development budget to funding research, including grants, 
        under the Innovation Acceleration Research Program.
            (2) Administration.--
                    (A) In general.--Not later than 90 days after the 
                date of enactment of this Act, the head of each 
                Executive agency participating in the Innovation 
                Acceleration Research Program under paragraph (1) shall 
                submit to the Director of the Office of Science and 
                Technology Policy and the Director of the Office of 
                Management and Budget a plan for implementing the 
                research program within such Executive agency. An 
                implementation plan may incorporate existing 
                initiatives of the Executive agencies that promote 
                research in innovation as described in subsection (a).
                    (B) Required metrics.--
                            (i) In general.--The head of each Executive 
                        agency submitting an implementation plan 
                        pursuant to subparagraph (A) shall include 
                        metrics upon which grant funding decisions will 
                        be made and metrics for assessing the success 
                        of the grants awarded.
                            (ii) Metrics for basic research.--The 
                        metrics developed under clause (i) to assess 
                        basic research programs shall assess management 
                        of the programs and shall not assess specific 
                        scientific outcomes of the research conducted 
                        by the programs.
                    (C) Grant duration and renewals.--
                            (i) In general.--Any grants issued by an 
                        Executive agency under this section shall be 
                        for a period not to exceed 3 years.
                            (ii) Evaluation.--Not later than 90 days 
                        prior to the expiration of a grant issued under 
                        this section, the Executive agency that 
                        approved the grant shall complete an evaluation 
                        of the effectiveness of the grant based on the 
                        metrics established pursuant to subparagraph 
                        (B). In its evaluation, the Executive agency 
                        shall consider the extent to which the program 
                        funded by the grant met the goals of quality 
                        improvement and job creation.
                            (iii) Publication of review.--The Executive 
                        agency shall publish and make available to the 
                        public the review of each grant approved 
                        pursuant to this section.
                            (iv) Failure to meet metrics.--Any grant 
                        that the Executive agency awarding the grant 
                        determines has failed to satisfy any of the 
                        metrics developed pursuant to subparagraph (B), 
                        shall not be eligible for a renewal.
                            (v) Renewal.--A grant issued under this 
                        section that satisfies all of the metrics 
                        developed pursuant to subparagraph (B), may be 
                        renewed once for a period of not more than 3 
                        years. Additional renewals may be considered 
                        only if the head of the Executive agency makes 
                        a specific finding that the program being 
                        funded involves a significant technology or 
                        scientific advance that requires a longer time 
                        frame to complete critical research, and the 
                        research satisfies all the metrics developed 
                        pursuant to subparagraph (B).
                            (vi) Waiver.--The head of the Executive 
                        agency may authorize a waiver of the 
                        requirement of clauses (iv) and (v) related to 
                        satisfying metric requirements if he or she 
                        determines that the grant failed to meet a 
                        small number of metrics and the failure was not 
                        significant for the overall performance of the 
                        grant.
    (c) Definitions.--In this section:
            (1) Federal research agency.--The term ``Federal research 
        agency'' means a major organizational component of a department 
        or agency of the Federal Government, or other establishment of 
        the Federal Government operating with appropriated funds, that 
        has as its primary purpose the performance of scientific 
        research.
            (2) Major organizational component.--The term ``major 
        organizational component'', with respect to a department, 
        agency, or other establishment of the Federal Government, means 
        a component of the department, agency, or other establishment 
        that is administered by an individual whose rate of basic pay 
        is not less than the rate of basic pay payable under level V of 
        the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of title 5, United 
        States Code.

        TITLE III--NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION

SEC. 1301. NASA'S CONTRIBUTION TO INNOVATION.

    (a) Participation in Interagency Activities.--The National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration shall be a full participant in any 
interagency effort to promote innovation and economic competitiveness 
through near-term and long-term basic scientific research and 
development and the promotion of science, technology, engineering, and 
mathematics education, consistent with the agency mission, including 
authorized activities.
    (b) Historic Foundation.--In order to carry out the participation 
described in subsection (a), the Administrator of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration shall build on the historic role 
of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in stimulating 
excellence in the advancement of physical science and engineering 
disciplines and in providing opportunities and incentives for the 
pursuit of academic studies in science, technology, engineering, and 
mathematics.
    (c) Balanced Science Program and Robust Authorization Levels.--The 
balanced science program authorized by section 101(d) of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2005 (42 
U.S.C. 16611) shall be an element of the contribution by the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration to such interagency programs. It 
is the sense of Congress that a robust National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration, funded at the levels authorized for fiscal years 2007 
and 2008 under sections 202 and 203 of such Act (42 U.S.C. 16631 and 
16632) and at appropriate levels in subsequent fiscal years would 
enable a fair balance among science, aeronautics, education, 
exploration, and human space flight programs and allow full 
participation in any interagency efforts to promote innovation and 
economic competitiveness.
    (d) Annual Report.--
            (1) Requirement.--The Administrator shall submit to 
        Congress and the President an annual report describing the 
        activities conducted pursuant to this section, including a 
        description of the goals and the objective metrics upon which 
        funding decisions were made.
            (2) Content.--Each report submitted pursuant to paragraph 
        (1) shall include, with regard to science, technology, 
        engineering, and mathematics education programs, at a minimum, 
        the following:
                    (A) A description of each program.
                    (B) The amount spent on each program.
                    (C) The number of students or teachers served by 
                each program.
                    (D) Measurement of how each program improved 
                student achievement, including with regard to 
                challenging State achievement standards.

SEC. 1302. AERONAUTICS INSTITUTE FOR RESEARCH.

    (a) Establishment.--
            (1) In general.--The Administrator of the National 
        Aeronautics and Space Administration shall establish within the 
        Administration an Aeronautics Institute for Research for the 
        purpose of managing the aeronautics research carried out by the 
        Administration.
            (2) Director.--The Institute shall be headed by a Director 
        with appropriate experience in aeronautics research and 
        development.
    (b) Duties.--The Institute shall implement the programs authorized 
under title IV of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Authorization Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 16701 et seq.).
    (c) Cooperation With Other Agencies.--
            (1) In general.--The Institute shall operate in conjunction 
        with relevant programs in the Department of Transportation, the 
        Department of Defense, the Department of Commerce, and the 
        Department of Homeland Security, including the activities of 
        the Joint Planning and Development Office established under the 
        Vision 100--Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act (Public Law 
        108-176; 117 Stat. 2490).
            (2) Resources.--The Director of the Institute may accept 
        assistance, staff, and funding from those Departments and other 
        Federal agencies. Any such funding shall be in addition to 
        funds authorized for aeronautics under the National Aeronautics 
        and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2005 (Public Law 
        109-155).
            (3) Other coordination.--The Director of the Institute may 
        utilize the Next Generation Air Transportation Senior Policy 
        Committee established under section 710 of the Vision 100--
        Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act (Public Law 108-176; 49 
        U.S.C. 40101 note) to coordinate its programs with other 
        Departments and agencies.
    (d) Partnerships.--In developing and carrying out its plans, the 
Institute shall consult with the public and ensure the participation of 
experts from the private sector including representatives of commercial 
aviation, general aviation, aviation labor groups, aviation research 
and development entities, aircraft and air traffic control suppliers, 
and the space industry.

SEC. 1303. BASIC RESEARCH ENHANCEMENT.

    (a) In General.--The Administrator of the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration, the Director of the National Science Foundation, 
the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Defense, and Secretary of 
Commerce shall, to the extent practicable, coordinate basic and 
fundamental research activities related to physical sciences, 
technology, engineering and mathematics.
    (b) Establishment of Basic Research Executive Council.--In order to 
ensure effective application of resources to basic science activity and 
to facilitate cooperative basic and fundamental research activities 
with other governmental organizations, the Administrator of the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall establish within 
the Administration a Basic Research Executive Council to oversee the 
distribution and management of programs and resources engaged in 
support of basic research activity.
    (c) Membership.--The membership of the Basic Research Executive 
Council shall consist of the most senior agency official representing 
each of the following areas of research:
            (1) Space Science.
            (2) Earth Science.
            (3) Life and Microgravity Sciences.
            (4) Aeronautical Research.
    (d) Leadership.--The Basic Research Executive Council shall be 
chaired by an individual appointed for that purpose who shall have, as 
a minimum, a appropriate graduate degree in a recognizable discipline 
in the physical sciences, and appropriate experience in the conduct and 
management of basic research activity. The Chairman of the Council 
shall report directly to the Administrator of the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration.
    (e) Supporting Resources and Personnel.--The Chairman of the Basic 
Research Executive Council shall be provided with adequate 
administrative staff support to conduct the activity and functions of 
the Council.
    (f) Duties.--The Basic Research Executive Council shall have, at 
minimum, the following duties:
            (1) To establish criteria for the identification of 
        research activity as basic in nature.
            (2) To establish, in consultation with the Office of 
        Science and Technology Policy, the National Science Foundation, 
        the National Academy of Sciences, the National Institutes of 
        Health, and other appropriate external organizations, a 
        prioritization of fundamental research activity to be conducted 
        by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, to be 
        reviewed and updated on an annual basis, taking into 
        consideration evolving national research priorities.
            (3) To monitor, review, and evaluate all basic research 
        activity of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
        for compliance with basic research priorities established under 
        paragraph (2).
            (4) To make recommendations to the Administrator of the 
        National Aeronautics and Space Administration regarding 
        adjustments in the basic research activities of the 
        Administration to ensure consistency with the research 
        priorities established under this section.
            (5) To provide an annual report to the Committee on 
        Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the 
        Committee on Science of the House of Representatives outlining 
        the activities of the Council during the preceding year and the 
        status of basic research activity within the Administration. 
        The initial such report, to serve as a baseline document, shall 
        be provided within 90 days after the establishment and initial 
        operations of the Council.

SEC. 1304. AGING WORKFORCE ISSUES PROGRAM.

    It is the sense of Congress that the Administrator of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration should implement a program to 
address aging work force issues in aerospace that--
            (1) documents technical and management experiences before 
        senior people leave the Administration, including--
                    (A) documenting lessons learned;
                    (B) briefing organizations;
                    (C) providing opportunities for archiving lessons 
                in a database; and
                    (D) providing opportunities for near-term retirees 
                to transition out early from their primary assignment 
                in order to document their career lessons learned and 
                brief new employees prior to their separation from the 
                Administration;
            (2) provides incentives for retirees to return and teach 
        new employees about their career lessons and experiences; and
            (3) provides for the development of an award to recognize 
        and reward outstanding senior employees for their contributions 
        to knowledge sharing.

SEC. 1305. CONFORMING AMENDMENTS.

    Section 101(d) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Authorization Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 16611(d)) is amended--
            (1) by striking ``and'' after the semicolon in paragraph 
        (2)(B);
            (2) by striking ``Act.'' in paragraph (2)(C) and inserting 
        ``Act; and'';
            (3) by adding at the end of paragraph (2) the following:
                    ``(D) the number and content of science activities 
                which are undertaken in support of science missions 
                described in subparagraph (A), and the number and 
                content of science activities which may be considered 
                as fundamental, or basic research, whether incorporated 
                within specific missions or conducted independently of 
                any specific mission.''; and
            (4) by adding at the end of paragraph (3) the following:
                    ``(H) How NASA science activities can best be 
                structured to ensure that basic and fundamental 
                research can be effectively maintained and coordinated 
                in response to national goals in competitiveness and 
                innovation, and in contributing to national scientific, 
                technology, engineering and mathematics leadership.''.

SEC. 1306. FISCAL YEAR 2008 BASIC SCIENCE AND RESEARCH FUNDING.

    Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Administrator of 
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall increase 
funding for basic science and research, including for the Explorer 
Program, for fiscal year 2008 by $160,000,000 by transferring such 
amount for such purpose from accounts of the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration. The transfer shall be contingent upon the 
availability of unobligated balances to the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration.

        TITLE IV--NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY

SEC. 1401. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

    There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of 
Commerce for the use of the National Institute of Standards and 
Technology--
            (1) for fiscal year 2008, $703,611,000, of which 
        $115,000,000 shall be used for the Hollings Manufacturing 
        Extension Partnership Program;
            (2) for fiscal year 2009, $773,972,000, of which 
        $122,005,000 shall be used for the Hollings Manufacturing 
        Extension Partnership Program;
            (3) for fiscal year 2010, $851,369,000, of which 
        $131,766,000 shall be used for the Hollings Manufacturing 
        Extension Partnership Program; and
            (4) for fiscal year 2011, $936,506,000, of which 
        $142,300,000 shall be used for the Hollings Manufacturing 
        Extension Partnership Program.

SEC. 1402. AMENDMENTS TO THE STEVENSON-WYDLER TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION ACT 
              OF 1980.

    (a) In General.--Section 5 of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology 
Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3704) is repealed.
    (b) Conforming Amendments.--
            (1) Title 5, united states code.--Section 5314 of title 5, 
        United States Code, is amended by striking ``Under Secretary of 
        Commerce for Technology.''.
            (2) Definitions.--Section 4 of the Stevenson-Wydler 
        Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3703) is amended--
                    (A) by striking paragraphs (1) and (3); and
                    (B) by redesignating paragraphs (2) through (13) as 
                paragraphs (1) through (11), respectively.
            (3) Repeal of authorization.--Section 21(a) of the 
        Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 
        3713(a)) is amended--
                    (A) in paragraph (1), by striking ``sections 5, 
                11(g), and 16'' and inserting ``sections 11(g) and 
                16''; and
                    (B) in paragraph (2), by striking ``$500,000 is 
                authorized only for the purpose of carrying out the 
                requirements of the Japanese technical literature 
                program established under section 5(d) of this Act;''.
            (4) High-performance computing act of 1991.--Section 208 of 
        the High-Performance Computing Act of 1991 (15 U.S.C. 5528) is 
        amended by striking subsection (c) and redesignating subsection 
        (d) as subsection (c).
            (5) Assistive technology act of 1998.--Section 
        6(b)(4)(B)(v) of the Assistive Technology Act of 1998 (29 
        U.S.C. 3005(b)(4)(B)(v)) is amended by striking ``the 
        Technology Administration of the Department of Commerce,'' and 
        inserting ``the National Institute of Standards and 
        Technology,''.

SEC. 1403. INNOVATION ACCELERATION.

    (a) Program.--In order to implement section 1202 of this Act, the 
Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology shall--
            (1) establish a program linked to the goals and objectives 
        of the measurement laboratories, to be known as the ``Standards 
        and Technology Acceleration Research Program'', to support and 
        promote innovation in the United States through high-risk, 
        high-reward research; and
            (2) set aside, from funds available to the measurement 
        laboratories, an amount equal to not less than 8 percent of the 
        funds available to the Institute each fiscal year for such 
        Program.
    (b) External Funding.--The Director shall ensure that at least 80 
percent of the funds available for such Program shall be used to award 
competitive, merit-reviewed grants, cooperative agreements, or 
contracts to public or private entities, including businesses and 
universities. In selecting entities to receive such assistance, the 
Director shall ensure that the project proposed by an entity has 
scientific and technical merit and that any resulting intellectual 
property shall vest in a United States entity that can commercialize 
the technology in a timely manner. Each external project shall involve 
at least one small or medium-sized business and the Director shall give 
priority to joint ventures between small or medium-sized businesses and 
educational institutions. Any grant shall be for a period not to exceed 
3 years.
    (c) Competitions.--The Director shall solicit proposals annually to 
address areas of national need for high-risk, high-reward research, as 
identified by the Director.
    (d) Annual Report.--Each year the Director shall issue an annual 
report describing the program's activities, including include a 
description of the metrics upon which grant funding decisions were made 
in the previous fiscal year, any proposed changes to those metrics, 
metrics for evaluating the success of ongoing and completed grants, and 
an evaluation of ongoing and completed grants. The first annual report 
shall include best practices for management of programs to stimulate 
high-risk, high-reward research.
    (e) Administrative Expenses.--No more than 5 percent of the finding 
available to the program may be used for administrative expenses.
    (f) High-Risk, High-Reward Research Defined.--In this section, the 
term ``high-risk, high-reward research'' means research that--
            (1) has the potential for yielding results with far-ranging 
        or wide-ranging implications;
            (2) addresses critical national needs related to 
        measurement standards and technology; and
            (3) is too novel or spans too diverse a range of 
        disciplines to fare well in the traditional peer review 
        process.

SEC. 1404. MANUFACTURING EXTENSION.

    (a) Manufacturing Center Evaluation.--Section 25(c)(5) of the 
National Institute of Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 
278k(c)(5)) is amended by inserting ``A Center that has not received a 
positive evaluation by the evaluation panel shall be notified by the 
panel of the deficiencies in its performance and shall be placed on 
probation for one year, after which time the panel shall reevaluate the 
Center. If the Center has not addressed the deficiencies identified by 
the panel, or shown a significant improvement in its performance, the 
Director shall conduct a new competition to select an operator for the 
Center or may close the Center.'' after ``at declining levels.''.
    (b) Federal Share.--Section 25 of the National Institute of 
Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278k) is amended by striking 
subsection (d) and inserting the following:
    ``(d) Acceptance of Funds.--In addition to such sums as may be 
appropriated to the Secretary and Director to operate the Centers 
program, the Secretary and Director also may accept funds from other 
Federal departments and agencies and under section 2(c)(7) from the 
private sector for the purpose of strengthening United States 
manufacturing. Such funds from the private sector, if allocated to a 
Center or Centers, shall not be considered in the calculation of the 
Federal share of capital and annual operating and maintenance costs 
under subsection (c).''.

SEC. 1405. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM TO STIMULATE COMPETITIVE TECHNOLOGY.

    (a) In General.--The Director of the National Institutes of 
Standards and Technology shall re-establish the Experimental Program to 
Stimulate Competitive Technology. The purpose of the program shall be 
to strengthen the technological competitiveness of those States that 
have historically received less Federal research and development funds 
than a majority of the States have received.
    (b) Arrangements.--In carrying out the program, the Director shall 
cooperate with State, regional, or local science and technology-based 
economic development organization and with representatives of small 
business firms and other appropriate technology-based businesses.
    (c) Grants and Cooperative Agreements.--In carrying out the 
program, the Director may make grants or enter into cooperative 
agreements to provide for--
            (1) technology research and development;
            (2) technology transfer from university research;
            (3) technology deployment and diffusion; and
            (4) the strengthening of technological and innovation 
        capabilities through consortia comprised of--
                    (A) technology-based small business firms;
                    (B) industries and emerging companies;
                    (C) institutions of higher education including 
                community colleges; and
                    (D) State and local development agencies and 
                entities.
    (d) Requirements for Making Awards.--
            (1) In general.--In making awards under this section, the 
        Director shall ensure that the awards are awarded on a 
        competitive basis that includes a review of the merits of the 
        activities that are the subject of the award, giving special 
        emphasis to those projects which will increase the 
        participation of women, Native Americans (including Native 
        Hawaiians and Alaska Natives), and underrepresented groups in 
        science and technology.
            (2) Matching requirement.--The non-Federal share of the 
        activities (other than planning activities) carried out under 
        an award under this subsection shall be not less than 50 
        percent of the cost of those activities.
    (e) Criteria for States.--The Director shall establish criteria for 
achievement by each State that participates in the program. Upon the 
achievement of all such criteria, a State shall cease to be eligible to 
participate in the program.
    (f) Coordination.--To the extent practicable, in carrying out this 
subsection, the Director shall coordinate the program with other 
programs of the Department of Commerce.
    (g) Report.--
            (1) In general.--Not later than 90 days after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Director shall prepare and submit to 
        the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the 
        Senate and the Committee on Science of the House of 
        Representatives a report that meets the requirements of this 
        subsection.
            (2) Requirements for report.--The report required by this 
        subsection shall contain--
                    (A) a description of the structure and procedures 
                of the program;
                    (B) a management plan for the program;
                    (C) a description of the merit-based review process 
                to be used in the program;
                    (D) milestones for the evaluation of activities to 
                be assisted under the program in fiscal year 2008;
                    (E) an assessment of the eligibility of each State 
                that participates in the Experimental Program to 
                Stimulate Competitive Research of the National Science 
                Foundation to participate in the program under this 
                subsection; and
                    (F) the evaluation criteria with respect to which 
                the overall management and effectiveness of the program 
                will be evaluated.

SEC. 1406. TECHNICAL AMENDMENTS TO THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS 
              AND TECHNOLOGY ACT AND OTHER TECHNICAL AMENDMENTS.

    (a) Research Fellowships.--Section 18 of the National Institute of 
Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278g-1) is amended by striking 
``up to 1 per centum of the'' in the first sentence.
    (b) Financial Agreements.--
            (1) Clarification.--Section 2(b)(4) of the National 
        Institute of Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 272(b)(4)) 
        is amended by inserting ``and grants and cooperative 
        agreements,'' after ``arrangements,''.
            (2) Memberships.--Section 2(c) of the National Institute of 
        Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 272(c)) is amended--
                    (A) by striking ``and'' after the semicolon in 
                paragraph (21);
                    (B) by redesignating paragraph (22) as paragraph 
                (23); and
                    (C) by inserting after paragraph (21) the 
                following:
            ``(22) notwithstanding subsection (b)(4) of this section, 
        sections 6301 through 6308 of title 31, United States Code 
        (commonly known as the `Grants and Cooperative Agreements 
        Act'), sections 3551 through 3556 of such title (commonly known 
        as the `Competition in Contracting Act'), and the Federal 
        Acquisition Regulations set forth in title 48, Code of Federal 
        Regulations, to expend appropriated funds for National 
        Institute of Standards and Technology memberships in scientific 
        organizations, registration fees for attendance at conferences, 
        and sponsorship of conferences in furtherance of technology 
        transfer; and''.
    (c) Outdated Specifications.--
            (1) Redefinition of metric system.--Section 2 of the Act of 
        July 28, 1866, entitled ``An Act to authorize the Use of the 
        Metric System of Weights and Measures'' (15 U.S.C. 205; 14 
        Stat. 339) is amended to read as follows:

``SEC. 2. METRIC SYSTEM DEFINED.

    ``The metric system of measurement shall be defined as the 
International System of Units as established in 1960, and subsequently 
maintained, by the General Conference of Weights and Measures, and as 
interpreted or modified for the United States by the Secretary of 
Commerce.''.
            (2) Repeal of redundant and obsolete authority.--The Act of 
        July 21, 1950, entitled, ``An Act To redefine the units and 
        establish the standards of electrical and photometric 
        measurements of 1950'' (15 U.S.C. 223) is hereby repealed.
            (3) Idaho time zone.--Section 3 of the Act of March 19, 
        1918, (commonly known as the ``Calder Act'') (15 U.S.C. 264) is 
        amended--
                    (A) in the section heading, by striking ``third 
                zone'' and inserting ``fourth zone''; and
                    (B) by striking ``third zone'' and inserting 
                ``fourth zone''.
            (4) Standard time.--Section 1 of the Act of March 19, 1918, 
        (commonly known as the ``Calder Act'') (15 U.S.C. 261) is 
        amended--
                    (A) by inserting ``(a) In General.--'' before ``For 
                the purpose'';
                    (B) by striking the second sentence and the extra 
                period after it and inserting ``Except as provided in 
                section 3(a) of the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (15 U.S.C. 
                260a), the standard time of the first zone shall be 
                Coordinated Universal Time retarded by 4 hours; that of 
                the second zone retarded by 5 hours; that of the third 
                zone retarded by 6 hours; that of the fourth zone 
                retarded by 7 hours; that of the fifth zone retarded 8 
                hours; that of the sixth zone retarded by 9 hours; that 
                of the seventh zone retarded by 10 hours; that of the 
                eighth zone retarded by 11 hours; and that of the ninth 
                zone shall be Coordinated Universal Time advanced by 10 
                hours.''; and
                    (C) by adding at the end the following:
    ``(b) Coordinated Universal Time Defined.--In this section, the 
term `Coordinated Universal Time' means the time scale maintained 
through the General Conference of Weights and Measures and interpreted 
or modified for the United States by the Secretary of Commerce in 
coordination with the Secretary of the Navy.''.
    (d) Non-Energy Inventions Program.--Section 27 of the National 
Institute of Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278m) is repealed.

SEC. 1407. CLARIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE CONTRIBUTIONS IN CONNECTION WITH 
              REGIONAL CENTERS RESPONSIBLE FOR IMPLEMENTING THE 
              OBJECTIVES OF THE HOLLINGS MANUFACTURING PARTNERSHIP 
              PROGRAM.

    Paragraph (3) of section 25(c) of the National Institute of 
Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278k(c)(3)) is amended to read 
as follows:
            ``(3) Financial support.--
                    ``(A) In general.--Any nonprofit institution, or 
                group thereof, or consortia of nonprofit institutions, 
                including entities existing on August 23, 1988, may 
                submit to the Secretary an application for financial 
                support under this subsection, in accordance with the 
                procedures established by the Secretary and published 
                in the Federal Register under paragraph (2).
                    ``(B) Center contributions.--In order to receive 
                assistance under this section, an applicant for 
                financial assistance under subparagraph (A) shall 
                provide adequate assurances that non-Federal assets 
                obtained from the applicant and the applicant's 
                partnering organizations will be used as a funding 
                source to meet not less than 50 percent of the costs 
                incurred for the first 3 years and an increasing share 
                for each of the last 3 years. For purposes of the 
                preceding sentence, the costs incurred means the costs 
                incurred in connection with the activities undertaken 
                to improve the management, productivity, and 
                technological performance of small- and medium-sized 
                manufacturing companies.
                    ``(C) Agreements with other entities.--In meeting 
                the 50 percent requirement, it is anticipated that a 
                Center will enter into agreements with other entities 
                such as private industry, universities, and State 
                governments to accomplish programmatic objectives and 
                access new and existing resources that will further the 
                impact of the Federal investment made on behalf of 
                small- and medium-sized manufacturing companies. All 
                non-Federal costs, contributed by such entities and 
                determined by a Center as programmatically reasonable 
                and allocable are includable as a portion of the 
                Center's contribution.
                    ``(D) Allocation of legal rights.--Each applicant 
                under subparagraph (A) shall also submit a proposal for 
                the allocation of any legal right associated with any 
                invention that may result from an activity of a Center 
                for which such applicant receives financial assistance 
                under this section.''.

                TITLE V--OCEAN AND ATMOSPHERIC PROGRAMS

SEC. 1501. OCEAN AND ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM.

    The Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration, in consultation with the Director of the National 
Science Foundation and the Administrator of the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration, shall establish a coordinated program of 
ocean, coastal, Great Lakes, and atmospheric research and development, 
in collaboration with academic institutions and other nongovernmental 
entities, that shall focus on the development of advanced technologies 
and analytical methods that will promote United States leadership in 
ocean and atmospheric science and competitiveness in the applied uses 
of such knowledge.

SEC. 1502. NOAA OCEAN AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE EDUCATION PROGRAMS.

    (a) In General.--The Administrator of the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration shall conduct, develop, support, promote, 
and coordinate formal and informal educational activities at all levels 
to enhance public awareness and understanding of ocean, coastal, Great 
Lakes, and atmospheric science and stewardship by the general public 
and other coastal stakeholders, including underrepresented groups in 
ocean and atmospheric science and policy careers. In conducting those 
activities, the Administrator shall build upon the educational programs 
and activities of the agency.
    (b) NOAA Science Education Plan.--The Administrator, appropriate 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration programs, ocean 
atmospheric science and education experts, and interested members of 
the public shall develop a science education plan setting forth 
education goals and strategies for the Administration, as well as 
programmatic actions to carry out such goals and priorities over the 
next 20 years, and evaluate and update such plan every 5 years.
    (c) Construction.--Nothing in this section may be construed to 
affect the application of section 438 of the General Education 
Provisions Act (20 U.S.C. 1232a) or sections 504 and 508 of the 
Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 794 and 794d).

SEC. 1503. NOAA'S CONTRIBUTION TO INNOVATION.

    (a) Participation in Interagency Activities.--The National Oceanic 
and Atmospheric Administration shall be a full participant in any 
interagency effort to promote innovation and economic competitiveness 
through near-term and long-term basic scientific research and 
development and the promotion of science, technology, engineering, and 
mathematics education, consistent with the agency mission, including 
authorized activities.
    (b) Historic Foundation.--In order to carry out the participation 
described in subsection (a), the Administrator of the National Oceanic 
and Atmospheric Administration shall build on the historic role of the 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in stimulating 
excellence in the advancement of ocean and atmospheric science and 
engineering disciplines and in providing opportunities and incentives 
for the pursuit of academic studies in science, technology, 
engineering, and mathematics.

SEC. 1504. NOAA ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY.

    (a) Review of Activities Carried Out With NOAA Funds.--
            (1) Requirement for review.--The Inspector General of the 
        Department of Commerce shall conduct routine, independent 
        reviews of the activities carried out with grants or other 
        financial assistance made available by the Administrator of the 
        National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Such reviews 
        shall include cost-benefit analysis of such activities and 
        reviews to determine if the goals of such activities are being 
        accomplished.
            (2) Availability to the public.--The Administrator shall 
        make each review conducted pursuant to paragraph (1) available 
        to the public through the website of the Administration not 
        later than 60 days after the date such review is completed.
    (b) Prohibition on Use of NOAA Funds for Meetings.--No funds made 
available by the Administrator through a grant or contract may be used 
by the person who received such grant or contract, including any 
subcontractor to such person, for a banquet or conference, other than a 
conference related to training or a routine meeting with officers or 
employees of the Administration to discuss an ongoing project or 
training.
    (c) Prohibition on Conflicts of Interest.--Each person who receives 
funds from the Administrator through a grant or contract shall submit 
to the Administrator a certification stating that none of such funds 
will be made available through a subcontract or in any other manner to 
another person who has a financial interest or other conflict of 
interest with the person who received such funds from the 
Administrator.

                    DIVISION B--DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

SEC. 2001. SHORT TITLE.

    This division may be cited as the ``Protecting America's 
Competitive Edge Through Energy Act'' or the ``PACE-Energy Act''.

SEC. 2002. DEFINITIONS.

    In this division:
            (1) Department.--The term ``Department'' means the 
        Department of Energy.
            (2) Institution of higher education.--The term 
        ``institution of higher education'' has the meaning given in 
        section 101(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 
        1001(a)).
            (3) National laboratory.--The term ``National Laboratory'' 
        has the meaning given the term in section 2 of the Energy 
        Policy Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 15801).
            (4) Secretary.--The term ``Secretary'' means the Secretary 
        of Energy, acting through the Under Secretary for Science 
        appointed under section 202(b) of the Department of Energy 
        Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7132(b)).

SEC. 2003. MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE, AND ENGINEERING EDUCATION AT THE 
              DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY.

    (a) Science Education Programs.--Section 3164 of the Department of 
Energy Science Education Enhancement Act (42 U.S.C. 7381a) is amended--
            (1) by redesignating subsections (b) through (d) as 
        subsections (c) through (e), respectively;
            (2) by inserting after subsection (a) the following:
    ``(b) Organization of Mathematics, Science, and Engineering 
Education Programs.--
            ``(1) Director of mathematics, science and engineering 
        education.--Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the 
        Secretary, acting through the Under Secretary for Science 
        (referred to in this subsection as the `Under Secretary'), 
        shall appoint a Director of Mathematics, Science, and 
        Engineering Education (referred to in this subsection as the 
        `Director') with the principal responsibility for administering 
        mathematics, science, and engineering education programs across 
        all functions of the Department.
            ``(2) Qualifications.--The Director shall be an individual, 
        who by reason of professional background and experience, is 
        specially qualified to advise the Under Secretary on all 
        matters pertaining to mathematics, science, and engineering 
        education at the Department.
            ``(3) Duties.--The Director shall--
                    ``(A) oversee all mathematics, science, and 
                engineering education programs of the Department;
                    ``(B) represent the Department as the principal 
                interagency liaison for all mathematics, science, and 
                engineering education programs, unless otherwise 
                represented by the Secretary or the Under Secretary;
                    ``(C) prepare the annual budget and advise the 
                Under Secretary on all budgetary issues for 
                mathematics, science, and engineering education 
                programs of the Department;
                    ``(D) increase, to the maximum extent practicable, 
                the participation and advancement of women and 
                underrepresented minorities at every level of science, 
                technology, engineering, and mathematics education; and
                    ``(E) perform other such matters related to 
                mathematics, science, and engineering education as are 
                required by the Secretary or the Under Secretary.
            ``(4) Staff and other resources.--The Secretary shall 
        assign to the Director such personnel and other resources as 
        the Secretary considers necessary to permit the Director to 
        carry out the duties of the Director.
            ``(5) Assessment.--
                    ``(A) In general.--The Secretary shall offer to 
                enter into a contract with the National Academy of 
                Sciences under which the National Academy, not later 
                than 5 years after, and not later than 10 years after, 
                the date of enactment of this paragraph, shall assess 
                the performance of the mathematics, science, and 
                engineering education programs of the Department.
                    ``(B) Considerations.--An assessment under this 
                paragraph shall be conducted taking into consideration, 
                where applicable, the effect of mathematics, science, 
                and engineering education programs of the Department on 
                student academic achievement in math and science.
            ``(6) Authorization of appropriations.--There are 
        authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to 
        carry out this subsection.''; and
            (3) by striking subsection (d) (as redesignated by 
        paragraph (1)) and inserting the following:
    ``(d) Mathematics, Science, and Engineering Education Fund.--The 
Secretary shall establish a Mathematics, Science, and Engineering 
Education Fund, using not less than 0.3 percent of the amount made 
available to the Department for research, development, demonstration, 
and commercial application for each fiscal year, to carry out sections 
3165, 3166, and 3167.''.
    (b) Consultation.--The Secretary shall--
            (1) consult with the Secretary of Education regarding 
        activities authorized under subpart B of the Department of 
        Energy Science Education Enhancement Act (as added by 
        subsection (d)(3)) to improve mathematics and science 
        education; and
            (2) otherwise make available to the Secretary of Education 
        reports associated with programs authorized under that section.
    (c) Definition.--Section 3168 of the Department of Energy Science 
Education Enhancement Act (42 U.S.C. 7381d) is amended by adding at the 
end the following:
            ``(5) National laboratory.--The term `National Laboratory' 
        has the meaning given the term in section 2 of the Energy 
        Policy Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 15801).''.
    (d) Mathematics, Science, and Engineering Education Programs.--The 
Department of Energy Science Education Enhancement Act (42 U.S.C. 7381 
et seq.) is amended--
            (1) by inserting after section 3162 the following:

             ``Subpart A--Science Education Enhancement'';

            (2) in section 3169, by striking ``part'' and inserting 
        ``subpart''; and
            (3) by adding at the end the following:

 ``Subpart B--Mathematics, Science, and Engineering Education Programs

``SEC. 3170. DEFINITIONS.

    ``In this subpart:
            ``(1) Director.--The term `Director' means the Director of 
        Mathematics, Science, and Engineering Education.
            ``(2) National laboratory.--The term `National Laboratory' 
        has the meaning given the term in section 2 of the Energy 
        Policy Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 15801).

   ``CHAPTER 1--ASSISTANCE FOR SPECIALTY SCHOOLS FOR MATHEMATICS AND 
                                SCIENCE

``SEC. 3171. SPECIALTY SCHOOLS FOR MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE.

    ``(a) Purpose.--The purpose of this section is to provide 
assistance to States to establish or expand public, statewide specialty 
secondary schools that provide comprehensive mathematics and science 
(including engineering and technology) education to improve the 
academic achievement of students in mathematics and science.
    ``(b) Definition of Specialty School for Mathematics and Science.--
In this chapter, the term `specialty school for mathematics and 
science' means a public secondary school (including a school that 
provides residential services to students) that--
            ``(1) serves students residing in the State in which the 
        school is located; and
            ``(2) offers to those students a high-quality, 
        comprehensive mathematics and science (including engineering 
        and technology) curriculum designed to improve the academic 
        achievement of students in mathematics and science.
    ``(c) Grants Authorized.--
            ``(1) In general.--From the amounts authorized under 
        subsection (i), the Secretary, acting through the Director, 
        shall award grants, on a competitive basis, to States in order 
        to provide assistance to the States for the costs of 
        establishing or expanding public, statewide specialty schools 
        for mathematics and science.
            ``(2) Resources.--The Director shall ensure that 
        appropriate resources of the Department, including the National 
        Laboratories, are available to schools funded under this 
        section in order to--
                    ``(A) increase experiential, hands-on learning 
                opportunities in mathematics, science, engineering, and 
                technology for students attending such schools; and
                    ``(B) provide ongoing professional development 
                opportunities for teachers employed at such schools.
            ``(3) Assistance.--Consistent with sections 3165 and 3166, 
        the Director shall make available necessary funds for a program 
        using scientific and engineering staff of the National 
        Laboratories, during which the staff--
                    ``(A) assists teachers in teaching courses at the 
                schools funded under this section;
                    ``(B) uses National Laboratory scientific equipment 
                in teaching the courses; and
                    ``(C) uses distance education and other 
                technologies to provide assistance described in 
                subparagraphs (A) and (B) to schools funded under this 
                section that are not located near the National 
                Laboratories.
            ``(4) Restriction.--No State shall receive funding for more 
        than 1 specialty school for mathematics and science for a 
        fiscal year.
    ``(d) Federal and Non-Federal Shares.--
            ``(1) Federal share.--The Federal share of the costs 
        described in subsection (c)(1) shall not exceed 50 percent.
            ``(2) Non-federal share.--The non-Federal share of the 
        costs described in subsection (c)(1) shall be--
                    ``(A) not less than 50 percent; and
                    ``(B) provided from non-Federal sources, in cash or 
                in kind, fairly evaluated, including services.
    ``(e) Application.--Each State desiring a grant under this section 
shall submit an application to the Director at such time, in such 
manner, and accompanied by such information as the Director may require 
that describes--
            ``(1) the process by which and selection criteria with 
        which the State will select and designate a school as a 
        specialty school for mathematics and science in accordance with 
        this section;
            ``(2) how the State will ensure that funds made available 
        under this section are used to establish or expand a specialty 
        school for mathematics and science--
                    ``(A) in accordance with the activities described 
                in subsection (g); and
                    ``(B) that has the capacity to improve the academic 
                achievement of all students in all core academic 
                subjects, and particularly in mathematics and science;
            ``(3) how the State will measure the extent to which the 
        school increases student academic achievement on State academic 
        achievement standards in mathematics, science, and, to the 
        extent applicable, technology and engineering;
            ``(4) the curricula and materials to be used in the school;
            ``(5) the availability of funds from non-Federal sources 
        for the non-Federal share of the costs of the activities 
        authorized under this section; and
            ``(6) how the State will use technical assistance and 
        support from the Department, including the National 
        Laboratories, and other entities with experience and expertise 
        in mathematics, science, technology, and engineering education, 
        including institutions of higher education.
    ``(f) Distribution.--In awarding grants under this section, the 
Director shall--
            ``(1) ensure a wide, equitable distribution among States 
        that propose to serve students from urban and rural areas; and
            ``(2) provide equal consideration to States without 
        National Laboratories.
    ``(g) Uses of Funds.--
            ``(1) In general.--A State that receives a grant under this 
        section shall use the funds made available through the grant 
        to--
                    ``(A) employ proven strategies and methods for 
                improving student learning and teaching in mathematics, 
                science, technology, and engineering;
                    ``(B) integrate into the curriculum of the school 
                comprehensive mathematics and science education, 
                including instruction and assessments in mathematics, 
                science, and to the extent applicable, technology and 
                engineering that are aligned with the State's academic 
                content and student academic achievement standards 
                (within the meaning of section 1111 of the Elementary 
                and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6311)), 
                classroom management, professional development, 
                parental involvement, and school management; and
                    ``(C) provide high-quality and continuous teacher 
                and staff professional development.
            ``(2) Special rule.--Grant funds under this section may be 
        used for activities described in paragraph (1) only if the 
        activities are directly related to improving student academic 
        achievement in mathematics, science, and to the extent 
        applicable, technology and engineering.
    ``(h) Evaluation and Report.--
            ``(1) State evaluation and report.--
                    ``(A) Evaluation.--Each State that receives a grant 
                under this section shall develop and carry out an 
                evaluation and accountability plan for the activities 
                funded through the grant that measures the impact of 
                the activities, including measurable objectives for 
                improved student academic achievement on State 
                mathematics, science, and, to the extent applicable, 
                technology and engineering assessments.
                    ``(B) Report.--The State shall submit to the 
                Director a report containing the results of the 
                evaluation and accountability plan.
            ``(2) Report to congress.--Not later than 2 years after the 
        date of enactment of the PACE-Energy Act, the Director shall 
        submit a report to the appropriate committees of Congress 
        detailing the impact of the activities assisted with funds made 
        available under this section.
    ``(i) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to carry out this section--
            ``(1) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;
            ``(2) $30,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;
            ``(3) $40,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; and
            ``(4) $50,000,000 for fiscal year 2011.

         ``CHAPTER 2--EXPERIENTIAL-BASED LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES

``SEC. 3175. EXPERIENTIAL-BASED LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES.

    ``(a) Internships Authorized.--
            ``(1) In general.--From the amounts authorized under 
        subsection (f), the Secretary, acting through the Director, 
        shall establish a summer internship program for middle school 
        and secondary school students that shall--
                    ``(A) provide the students with internships at the 
                National Laboratories;
                    ``(B) promote experiential, hands-on learning in 
                mathematics, science, technology, or engineering; and
                    ``(C) be of at least 2 weeks in duration.
            ``(2) Residential services.--The Director may provide 
        residential services to students participating in the 
        Internship authorized under this chapter.
    ``(b) Selection Criteria.--
            ``(1) In general.--The Director shall establish criteria to 
        determine the sufficient level of academic preparedness 
        necessary for a student to be eligible for an internship under 
        this section.
            ``(2) Participation.--The Director shall ensure the 
        participation of students from a wide distribution of States, 
        including States without National Laboratories.
            ``(3) Student achievement.--The Director may consider the 
        academic achievement of middle and secondary school students in 
        determining eligibility under this section, in accordance with 
        subsection (1) and (2).
    ``(c) Priority.--
            ``(1) In general.--The Director shall give priority for an 
        internship under this section to a student who meets the 
        eligibility criteria described in subsection (b) and who 
        attends a school--
                    ``(A)(i) in which not less than 30 percent of the 
                children enrolled in the school are from low-income 
                families; or
                    ``(ii) that is designated with a school locale code 
                of 6, 7, or 8, as determined by the Secretary of 
                Education; and
                    ``(B) for which there is--
                            ``(i) a high percentage of teachers who are 
                        not teaching in the academic subject areas or 
                        grade levels in which the teachers were trained 
                        to teach;
                            ``(ii) a high teacher turnover rate; or
                            ``(iii) a high percentage of teachers with 
                        emergency, provisional, or temporary 
                        certification or licenses.
            ``(2) Coordination.--The Director shall consult with the 
        Secretary of Education in order to determine whether a student 
        meets the priority requirements of this subsection.
    ``(d) Outreach and Experiential-Based Programs for Minority 
Students.--
            ``(1) In general.--The Secretary, acting through the 
        Director, in cooperation with Hispanic-serving institutions, 
        historically Black colleges and universities, tribally 
        controlled colleges and universities, Alaska Native- and Native 
        Hawaiian-serving institutions, and other minority-serving 
        institutions and nonprofit entities with substantial experience 
        relating to outreach and experiential-based learning projects, 
        shall establish outreach and experiential-based learning 
        programs that will encourage underrepresented minority students 
        in kindergarten through grade 12 to pursue careers in math, 
        science, and engineering.
            ``(2) Community involvement.--The Secretary shall ensure 
        that the programs established under paragraph (1) involve, to 
        the maximum extent practicable--
                    ``(A) participation by parents and educators; and
                    ``(B) the establishment of partnerships with 
                business organizations and appropriate Federal, State, 
                and local agencies.
            ``(3) Distribution.--The Secretary shall ensure that the 
        programs established under paragraph (1) are located in diverse 
        geographic regions of the United States, to the maximum extent 
        practicable.
    ``(e) Evaluation and Accountability Plan.--The Director shall 
develop an evaluation and accountability plan for the activities funded 
under this chapter that objectively measures the impact of the 
activities.
    ``(f) Authorization of Appropriations.--There is authorized to be 
appropriated to carry out this section $15,000,000 for each of fiscal 
years 2008 through 2011.

      ``CHAPTER 3--NATIONAL LABORATORIES CENTERS OF EXCELLENCE IN 
      MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND ENGINEERING EDUCATION

``SEC. 3181. NATIONAL LABORATORIES CENTERS OF EXCELLENCE IN 
              MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND ENGINEERING 
              EDUCATION.

    ``(a) Definition of High-Need Public Secondary School.--In this 
chapter, the term `high-need public secondary school' means a secondary 
school--
            ``(1) with a high concentration of low-income individuals 
        (as defined in section 1707 of the Elementary and Secondary 
        Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6537)); or
            ``(2) designated with a school locale code of 6, 7, or 8, 
        as determined by the Secretary of Education.
    ``(b) Establishment.--The Secretary shall establish at each of the 
National Laboratories a program to support a Center of Excellence in 
Mathematics, Science, Technology, and Engineering at 1 high-need public 
secondary school located in the region of the National Laboratory to 
provide assistance in accordance with subsection (f).
    ``(c) Partnership.--Each high-need public secondary school selected 
as a Center of Excellence shall form a partnership with a department 
that provides training for teachers and principals at an institution of 
higher education for purposes of compliance with subsection (g).
    ``(d) Selection.--
            ``(1) In general.--The Secretary, acting through the 
        Director, shall establish criteria to guide the National 
        Laboratories in selecting the sites of the Centers of 
        Excellence.
            ``(2) Process.--The National Laboratories shall select the 
        sites of the Centers of Excellence through an open, widely 
        publicized, and competitive process.
    ``(e) Goals.--The Secretary shall establish goals and performance 
assessments for each Center of Excellence authorized under subsection 
(b).
    ``(f) Assistance.--Consistent with sections 3165 and 3166, the 
Director shall make available necessary funds for a program using 
scientific and engineering staff of the National Laboratories, during 
which the staff--
            ``(1) assists teachers in teaching courses at the Centers 
        of Excellence in Mathematics, Science, Technology, and 
        Engineering; and
            ``(2) uses National Laboratory scientific equipment in the 
        teaching of the courses.
    ``(g) Special Rule.--Each Center of Excellence shall ensure--
            ``(1) provision of clinical practicum, student teaching, or 
        internship experiences for mathematics, science, and technology 
        teacher candidates as part of its teacher preparation program;
            ``(2) provision of supervision and mentoring for teacher 
        candidates in the teacher preparation program; and
            ``(3) to the maximum extent practicable, provision of 
        professional development for veteran teachers in the public 
        secondary schools in the region.
    ``(h) Evaluation.--The Secretary shall consider the results of 
performance assessments required under subsection (e) in determining 
the contract award fee of a National Laboratory management and 
operations contractor.
    ``(i) Plan.--The Director shall--
            ``(1) develop an evaluation and accountability plan for the 
        activities funded under this chapter that objectively measures 
        the impact of the activities; and
            ``(2) disseminate information obtained from those 
        measurements.
    ``(j) No Effect on Similar Programs.--Nothing in this section 
displaces or otherwise affects any similar program being carried out as 
of the date of enactment of this subpart at any National Laboratory 
under any other provision of law.

                     ``CHAPTER 4--SUMMER INSTITUTES

``SEC. 3185. SUMMER INSTITUTES.

    ``(a) Definitions.--In this section:
            ``(1) Eligible partner.--The term `eligible partner' 
        means--
                    ``(A) the mathematics, science, or engineering 
                department at an institution of higher education, 
                acting in coordination with a department at an 
                institution of higher education that provides training 
                for teachers and principals; or
                    ``(B) a nonprofit entity with expertise in 
                providing professional development for mathematics, 
                science, or technology teachers.
            ``(2) Summer institute.--The term `summer institute' means 
        an institute, conducted during the summer, that--
                    ``(A) is conducted for a period of not less than 2 
                weeks;
                    ``(B) includes, as a component, a program that 
                provides direct interaction between students and 
                faculty, including personnel of 1 or more National 
                Laboratories who have scientific expertise; and
                    ``(C) provides for follow-up training, during the 
                academic year, that is conducted in the classroom.
    ``(b) Summer Institute Programs Authorized.--
            ``(1) Programs at the national laboratories.--The 
        Secretary, acting through the Director, shall establish or 
        expand programs of summer institutes at each of the National 
        Laboratories to provide additional training to strengthen the 
        mathematics, science, technology, and engineering teaching 
        skills of teachers employed at public schools for kindergarten 
        through grade 12, in accordance with the activities authorized 
        under subsections (c) and (d).
            ``(2) Programs with eligible partners.--
                    ``(A) In general.--The Secretary, acting through 
                the Director, shall identify and provide assistance to 
                eligible partners to establish or expand programs of 
                summer institutes that provide additional training to 
                strengthen the mathematics, science, technology, and 
                engineering teaching skills of teachers employed at 
                public schools for kindergarten through grade 12, in 
                accordance with the activities authorized under 
                subsections (c) and (d).
                    ``(B) Assistance.--Consistent with sections 3165 
                and 3166, the Director shall make available necessary 
                funds for a program using scientific and engineering 
                staff of the National Laboratories, during which the 
                staff--
                            ``(i) assists in providing training to 
                        teachers at summer institutes; and
                            ``(ii) uses National Laboratory scientific 
                        equipment in the training.
                    ``(C) Limitation of amount.--To carry out this 
                paragraph, the Director may use not more than 50 
                percent of the amounts authorized under subsection (h) 
                for a fiscal year.
    ``(c) Required Activities.--Each program authorized under 
subsection (b) shall--
            ``(1) create opportunities for enhanced and ongoing 
        professional development for teachers that improves the 
        mathematics, science, technology, and engineering content 
        knowledge of such teachers;
            ``(2) include material pertaining to recent developments in 
        mathematics, science, technology, and engineering pedagogy;
            ``(3) provide training on the use and integration of 
        technology in the classroom;
            ``(4) directly relate to the curriculum and academic areas 
        in which the teachers provide instruction;
            ``(5) enhance the ability of the teachers to understand and 
        use the challenging State academic content standards for 
        mathematics, science, and, to the extent applicable, technology 
        and engineering and to select appropriate curricula;
            ``(6) train teachers to use curricula that are--
                    ``(A) based on scientific research;
                    ``(B) aligned with challenging State academic 
                content standards; and
                    ``(C) object-centered, experiment-oriented, and 
                concept- and content-based;
            ``(7) provide professional development activities, 
        including supplemental and follow-up activities; and
            ``(8) allow for the exchange of best practices among the 
        participants.
    ``(d) Permissible Activities.--A program authorized under 
subsection (b) may include--
            ``(1) a program that provides teachers with opportunities 
        to work under the guidance of experienced teachers and college 
        faculty;
            ``(2) instruction in the use and integration of data and 
        assessments to inform and instruct classroom practice; and
            ``(3) extended master teacher programs.
    ``(e) Priority.--To the maximum extent practicable, the Director 
shall ensure that each summer institute program authorized under 
subsection (b) provides training to--
            ``(1) teachers from a wide range of school districts;
            ``(2) teachers from disadvantaged school districts; and
            ``(3) teachers from groups underrepresented in the fields 
        of mathematics, science, technology, and engineering teaching, 
        including women and members of minority groups.
    ``(f) Coordination and Consultation.--The Director shall consult 
and coordinate with the Secretary of Education and the Director of the 
National Science Foundation regarding the implementation of the 
programs authorized under subsection (b).
    ``(g) Evaluation and Accountability Plan.--
            ``(1) In general.--The Director shall develop an evaluation 
        and accountability plan for the activities funded under this 
        section that measures the impact of the activities.
            ``(2) Contents.--The evaluation and accountability plan 
        shall include--
                    ``(A) measurable objectives to increase the number 
                of mathematics, science, and technology teachers who 
                participate in the summer institutes involved; and
                    ``(B) measurable objectives for improved student 
                academic achievement on State mathematics, science, and 
                to the extent applicable, technology and engineering 
                assessments.
            ``(3) Report to congress.--The Secretary shall submit to 
        Congress with the annual budget submission of the Secretary a 
        report on how the activities assisted under this section 
        improve the mathematics, science, technology, and engineering 
        teaching skills of participating teachers.
    ``(h) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to carry out this section--
            ``(1) $25,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;
            ``(2) $40,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;
            ``(3) $50,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; and
            ``(4) $75,000,000 for fiscal year 2011.

                 ``CHAPTER 5--NUCLEAR SCIENCE EDUCATION

``SEC. 3191. NUCLEAR SCIENCE TALENT EXPANSION PROGRAM FOR INSTITUTIONS 
              OF HIGHER EDUCATION.

    ``(a) Purposes.--The purposes of this section are--
            ``(1) to address the decline in the number of and resources 
        available to nuclear science programs of institutions of higher 
        education; and
            ``(2) to increase the number of graduates with degrees in 
        nuclear science, an area of strategic importance to the 
        economic competitiveness and energy security of the United 
        States.
    ``(b) Definition of Nuclear Science.--In this section, the term 
`nuclear science' includes--
            ``(1) nuclear science;
            ``(2) nuclear engineering;
            ``(3) nuclear chemistry;
            ``(4) radio chemistry; and
            ``(5) health physics.
    ``(c) Establishment.--The Secretary, acting through the Director, 
shall establish in accordance with this section a program to expand and 
enhance institution of higher education nuclear science educational 
capabilities.
    ``(d) Nuclear Science Program Expansion Grants for Institutions of 
Higher Education.--
            ``(1) In general.--The Secretary, acting through the 
        Director, shall award up to 3 competitive grants for each 
        fiscal year to institutions of higher education that establish 
        new academic degree programs in nuclear science.
            ``(2) Eligibility.--To be eligible for a grant under this 
        subsection, an applicant shall partner with a National 
        Laboratory or other eligible nuclear-related entity, as 
        determined by the Secretary.
            ``(3) Criteria.--Criteria for a grant awarded under this 
        subsection shall be based on--
                    ``(A) the potential to attract new students to the 
                program;
                    ``(B) academic rigor; and
                    ``(C) the ability to offer hands-on learning 
                opportunities.
            ``(4) Duration and amount.--
                    ``(A) Duration.--A grant under this subsection 
                shall be 5 years in duration.
                    ``(B) Amount.--An institution of higher education 
                that receives a grant under this subsection shall be 
                eligible for up to $1,000,000 for each year of the 
                grant period.
            ``(5) Use of funds.--An institution of higher education 
        that receives a grant under this subsection may use the grant 
        to--
                    ``(A) recruit and retain new faculty;
                    ``(B) develop core and specialized course content;
                    ``(C) encourage collaboration between faculty and 
                researchers in the nuclear science field; or
                    ``(D) support outreach efforts to recruit students.
    ``(e) Nuclear Science Competitiveness Grants for Institutions of 
Higher Education.--
            ``(1) In general.--The Secretary, acting through the 
        Director shall award up to 10 competitive grants for each 
        fiscal year to institutions of higher education with existing 
        academic degree programs that produce graduates in nuclear 
        science.
            ``(2) Criteria.--Criteria for a grant awarded under this 
        subsection shall be based on the potential for increasing the 
        number and academic quality of graduates in the nuclear 
        sciences who enter into careers in nuclear-related fields.
            ``(3) Duration and amount.--
                    ``(A) Duration.--A grant under this subsection 
                shall be 5 years in duration.
                    ``(B) Amount.--An institution of higher education 
                that receives a grant under this subsection shall be 
                eligible for up to $500,000 for each year of the grant 
                period.
            ``(4) Use of funds.--An institution of higher education 
        that receives a grant under this subsection may use the grant 
        to--
                    ``(A) increase the number of graduates in nuclear 
                science that enter into careers in the nuclear science 
                field;
                    ``(B) enhance the teaching of advanced nuclear 
                technologies;
                    ``(C) aggressively pursue collaboration 
                opportunities with industry and National Laboratories;
                    ``(D) bolster or sustain nuclear infrastructure and 
                research facilities of the institution of higher 
                education, such as research and training reactors or 
                laboratories; and
                    ``(E) provide tuition assistance and stipends to 
                undergraduate and graduate students.
    ``(f) Authorization of Appropriations.--
            ``(1) Nuclear science program expansion grants for 
        institutions of higher education.--There are authorized to be 
        appropriated to carry out subsection (d)--
                    ``(A) $9,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;
                    ``(B) $13,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;
                    ``(C) $18,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; and
                    ``(D) $22,500,000 for fiscal year 2011.
            ``(2) Nuclear science competitiveness grants for 
        institutions of higher education.--There are authorized to be 
        appropriated to carry out subsection (e)--
                    ``(A) $11,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;
                    ``(B) $16,500,000 for fiscal year 2009;
                    ``(C) $22,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; and
                    ``(D) $27,500,000 for fiscal year 2011.

                      ``CHAPTER 6--ADMINISTRATION

``SEC. 3195. MENTORING PROGRAM.

    ``(a) In General.--As part of the programs established under 
chapters 1, 3, and 4, the Director shall establish a program to recruit 
and provide mentors for women and underrepresented minorities who are 
interested in careers in mathematics, science, and engineering. The 
program shall pair mentors with women and minorities who are in 
programs of study at specialty schools for mathematics and science, 
Centers of Excellence, and summer institutes established under chapters 
1, 3, and 4, respectively.
    ``(b) Program Evaluation.--The Secretary shall annually--
            ``(1) use metrics to evaluate the success of the programs 
        established under subsection (a); and
            ``(2) submit to Congress a report that describes the 
        results of each evaluation.''.

           ``CHAPTER 7--NATIONAL ENERGY EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT

``SEC. 3196. NATIONAL ENERGY EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT.

    ``(a) Purpose.--The purpose of this section is to enable all 
students to reach or exceed grade-level academic achievement standards 
and to enhance the knowledge of the students of the science of energy, 
the sources of energy, the uses of energy in society, and the 
environmental consequences and benefits of all energy sources and uses 
by--
            ``(1) improving instruction in science related to energy 
        for students in kindergarten through grade 9 through the 
        implementation of energy education programs and with the 
        support of comprehensive science education initiatives that are 
        based on the best available evidence of effectiveness; and
            ``(2) providing professional development and instructional 
        leadership activities for teachers and, if appropriate, for 
        administrators and other school staff, on the implementation of 
        comprehensive mathematics initiatives designed--
                    ``(A) to improve the understanding of students of 
                the scientific, economic, and environmental impacts of 
                energy;
                    ``(B) to improve the knowledge of teachers, 
                administrators, and other school staff related to the 
                scientific content of energy;
                    ``(C) to increase the use of effective 
                instructional practices; and
                    ``(D) to reflect science content that is consistent 
                with State academic achievement standards in 
                mathematics described in section 1111(b) of the 
                Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 
                U.S.C. 6311(b)).
    ``(b) Program.--The Secretary (acting through the Director) 
(referred to in this section as the `Secretary') shall provide grants 
to States to assist the States in establishing or expanding programs to 
enhance the quality of science education in elementary schools with 
respect to conventional and emerging energy sources and uses.
    ``(c) Coordination.--In carrying out this section, the Secretary 
shall use and coordinate with existing State and national programs that 
have a similar mission.
    ``(d) Grants.--The Secretary shall award grants, on a competitive 
basis, under this section to States to pay the Federal share of the 
costs of establishing or expanding high-quality energy education 
curricula and programs.
    ``(e) Programs.--In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall 
award grants to establish or expand programs that enhance--
            ``(1) the quality of science education in elementary 
        schools with respect to conventional and emerging energy 
        sources and uses; and
            ``(2) the understanding of students of the science, 
        economics, and environmental impacts of energy production and 
        consumption.
    ``(f) Federal and Non-Federal Shares.--
            ``(1) Federal share.--The Federal share of the costs of 
        carrying out a program under this section shall be 50 percent.
            ``(2) Non-federal share.--The non-Federal share of the 
        costs of carrying out a program under this section may be 
        provided in the form of cash or in-kind contributions, fairly 
        evaluated, including services.
    ``(g) Distribution.--In awarding grants under this section, the 
Secretary shall--
            ``(1) ensure a wide, equitable distribution of grants among 
        States that propose to serve students from urban and rural 
        areas; and
            ``(2) provide equal consideration to States without 
        National Laboratories.
    ``(h) Uses of Funds.--
            ``(1) In general.--Subject to paragraph (2), States, or 
        other entities through States, that receive grants under this 
        section shall use the grant funds to--
                    ``(A) employ proven strategies and methods for 
                improving student learning and teaching regarding 
                energy;
                    ``(B) integrate into the curriculum of schools 
                comprehensive, science-based, energy education, 
                including instruction and assessments that are aligned 
                with--
                            ``(i) the academic content and student 
                        academic achievement standards of the State 
                        (within the meaning of section 1111 of the 
                        Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 
                        (20 U.S.C. 6311));
                            ``(ii) classroom management;
                            ``(iii) professional development;
                            ``(iv) parental involvement; and
                            ``(v) school management; and
                    ``(C) provide high-quality and continuous teacher 
                and staff professional development.
            ``(2) Requirements.--Grant funds under this section may be 
        used for activities described in paragraph (1) only if the 
        activities are directly related to improving student academic 
        achievement related to--
                    ``(A) the science of energy;
                    ``(B) the sources of energy;
                    ``(C) the uses of energy in society; and
                    ``(D) the environmental consequences and benefits 
                of all energy sources and uses.
    ``(i) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to carry out this section--
            ``(1) $1,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2008 and 2009; 
        and
            ``(2) $2,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2010 and 2011.''.

SEC. 2004. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EARLY-CAREER RESEARCH GRANTS.

    (a) Purpose.--It is the purpose of this section to authorize 
research grants in the Department for early-career scientists and 
engineers for purposes of pursuing independent research.
    (b) Definition of Eligible Early-Career Researcher.--In this 
section, the term ``eligible early-career researcher'' means an 
individual who--
            (1) completed a doctorate or other terminal degree not more 
        than 10 years before the date of application for a grant 
        authorized under this section, except as provided in subsection 
        (c)(3); and
            (2) has demonstrated promise in the field of science, 
        technology, engineering, mathematics, computer science, or 
        computational science.
    (c) Grant Program Authorized.--
            (1) In general.--The Secretary shall award not less than 65 
        grants per year to outstanding eligible early-career 
        researchers to support the work of such researchers in the 
        Department, particularly at the National Laboratories, or other 
        federally-funded research and development centers.
            (2) Application.--An eligible early-career researcher who 
        desires to receive a grant under this section shall submit to 
        the Secretary an application at such time, in such manner, and 
        accompanied by such information as the Secretary may require.
            (3) Waiver.--The Secretary may find eligible a candidate 
        who has completed a doctorate more than 10 years prior to the 
        date of application if the candidate was unable to conduct 
        research for a period of time because of extenuating 
        circumstances, including military service or family 
        responsibilities.
            (4) Duration and amount.--
                    (A) Duration.--A grant under this section shall be 
                5 years in duration.
                    (B) Amount.--An eligible early career-researcher 
                who receives a grant under this section shall receive 
                up to $100,000 for each year of the grant period.
            (5) Use of funds.--An eligible early career-researcher who 
        receives a grant under this section shall use the grant funds 
        for basic research in natural sciences, engineering, 
        mathematics, or computer sciences at the Department, 
        particularly the National Laboratories, or other federally-
        funded research and development center.
            (6) Authorization of appropriations.--There are authorized 
        to be appropriated to carry out this section--
                    (A) $13,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;
                    (B) $19,500,000 for fiscal year 2009;
                    (C) $26,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; and
                    (D) $32,500,000 for fiscal year 2011.

SEC. 2005. ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AUTHORITY-ENERGY.

    (a) Definitions.--In this section:
            (1) Advisory board.--The term ``Advisory Board'' means the 
        Advisory Board established under subsection (d).
            (2) Authority.--The term ``Authority'' means the Advanced 
        Research Projects Authority--Energy established under 
        subsection (b).
            (3) Director.--The term ``Director'' means the Director of 
        the Authority appointed under subsection (c)(1).
            (4) Energy technology.--The term ``energy technology'' 
        means technology, including carbon-neutral technology, used 
        for--
                    (A) fossil energy;
                    (B) carbon sequestration;
                    (C) nuclear energy;
                    (D) renewable energy;
                    (E) energy distribution; or
                    (F) energy efficiency technology.
    (b) Establishment.--The Secretary shall establish an Advanced 
Research Projects Authority-Energy to overcome the long-term and high-
risk technological barriers in the development of energy technologies.
    (c) Director.--
            (1) Appointment.--The Secretary shall appoint a Director of 
        the Authority.
            (2) Qualifications.--The Director shall be an individual 
        who, by reason of professional background and experience, is 
        especially qualified to advise the Secretary on matters 
        pertaining to long-term, high-risk programs to overcome long-
        term and high-risk technological barriers to the development of 
        energy technologies.
            (3) Duties.--The Director shall--
                    (A) employ such qualified technical staff as are 
                necessary to carry out the duties of the Authority, 
                including providing staff for the Advisory Committee;
                    (B) serve as the selection official for proposals 
                relating to energy technologies that are solicited 
                within the Department;
                    (C) develop metrics to assist in developing funding 
                criteria and for assessing the success of existing 
                programs;
                    (D) terminate programs carried out under this 
                section that are not achieving the goals of the 
                programs; and
                    (E) perform such duties relating to long-term and 
                high-risk technological barriers in the development of 
                energy technologies as are determined to be appropriate 
                by the Secretary.
    (d) Advisory Board.--
            (1) Appointment.--The Secretary shall, consistent with the 
        Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.), establish, and 
        appoint members to, an Advisory Board to make recommendations 
        to the Secretary and the Director on actions necessary to carry 
        out this section.
            (2) Qualifications.--The Advisory Board shall consist of 
        individuals who, by reason of professional background and 
        experience, are especially qualified to advise the Secretary 
        and the Director on matters pertaining to long-term and high-
        risk technological barriers in the development of energy 
        technologies.
            (3) Term.--A member of the Advisory Board shall be 
        appointed for a term of 5 years.
            (4) Information.--Each fiscal year, individuals who carry 
        out energy technology programs of the Department and staff of 
        the Authority shall provide to the Advisory Board written 
        proposals and oral briefings on long-term and high-risk 
        technological barriers that are critical to overcome for the 
        successful development of energy technologies.
            (5) Duties.--Each fiscal year, the Advisory Board shall--
                    (A) recommend to the Secretary and the Director--
                            (i) in order of priority, proposals of 
                        energy programs of the Department that are 
                        critical to overcoming long-term and high-risk 
                        technological barriers to enable the successful 
                        development of energy technologies; and
                            (ii) additional programs not covered in the 
                        proposals that are critical to overcoming the 
                        barriers described in clause (i); and
                    (B) based on the metrics described in subsection 
                (c)(3)(C), make recommendations to the Secretary and 
                the Directory concerning whether programs funded under 
                this section are achieving the goals of the programs.
    (e) Review.--Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Secretary shall enter into an agreement with the National 
Academy of Sciences under which the Academy shall--
            (1) conduct reviews during each of calendar years 2010 and 
        2012 to determine the success of the activities carried out 
        under this section; and
            (2) submit to Congress, the Secretary, and the Director a 
        report describing the results of each review.
    (f) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section for 
each of fiscal years 2008 through 2011.

SEC. 2006. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 
              FOR BASIC RESEARCH.

    Section 971(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 
16311(b)) is amended--
            (1) in paragraph (2), by striking ``and'' at the end;
            (2) in paragraph (3)--
                    (A) by striking ``$5,200,000,000'' and inserting 
                ``$4,800,000,000''; and
                    (B) by striking the period at the end and inserting 
                a semicolon; and
            (3) by adding at the end the following:
            ``(4) $4,945,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; and
            ``(5) $5,265,000,000 for fiscal year 2011.''.

SEC. 2007. DISCOVERY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING INNOVATION INSTITUTES.

    (a) In General.--The Secretary shall establish distributed, 
multidisciplinary institutes (referred to in this section as 
``Institutes'') centered at National Laboratories to apply fundamental 
science and engineering discoveries to technological innovations 
related to the missions of the Department and the global 
competitiveness of the United States.
    (b) Topical Areas.--The Institutes shall support scientific and 
engineering research and education activities on critical emerging 
technologies determined by the Secretary to be essential to global 
competitiveness, including activities related to--
            (1) sustainable energy technologies;
            (2) multi-scale materials and processes;
            (3) micro- and nano-engineering;
            (4) computational and information engineering; and
            (5) genomics and proteomics.
    (c) Partnerships.--In carrying out this section, the Secretary 
shall establish partnerships between the Institutes and--
            (1) institutions of higher education to--
                    (A) train undergraduate and graduate engineering 
                and science students;
                    (B) develop innovative educational curricula; and
                    (C) conduct research within the topical areas 
                described in subsection (b);
            (2) private industry to develop innovative technologies 
        within the topical areas described in subsection (b);
            (3) State and local governments to promote regionally-based 
        commercialization and entrepreneurship; and
            (4) financing entities to guide successful technology 
        commercialization.
    (d) Merit-Based Selection.--The selection of Institutes under this 
section shall be merit-based and made through an open, competitive 
selection process.
    (e) Restriction.--Not more than 3 Institutes shall receive grants 
for a fiscal year.
    (f) Review.--The Secretary shall enter into an agreement with the 
National Academy of Sciences under which the Academy shall, not later 
than 3 and 6 years after the date of enactment of this Act--
            (1) review the performance of the Institutes under this 
        section; and
            (2) submit to Congress and the Secretary a report 
        describing the results of the review.
    (g) Authorization of Appropriations.--There is authorized to be 
appropriated to carry out the activities of each Institute selected 
under this section $10,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2008 through 
2011.

SEC. 2008. PROTECTING AMERICA'S COMPETITIVE EDGE (PACE) GRADUATE 
              FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM.

    (a) Definition of Eligible Student.--In this section, the term 
``eligible student'' means a student who attends an institution of 
higher education that offers a doctoral degree in a field relevant to a 
mission area of the Department.
    (b) Establishment.--The Secretary shall establish a graduate 
fellowship program for eligible students pursuing a doctoral degree in 
a mission area of the Department.
    (c) Selection.--
            (1) In general.--The Secretary shall award fellowships to 
        eligible students under this section through a competitive 
        merit review process (involving written and oral interviews) 
        that will result in a wide distribution of awards throughout 
        the United States.
            (2) Criteria.--The Secretary shall establish selection 
        criteria for awarding fellowships under this section that 
        require an eligible student to--
                    (A) pursue a field of science or engineering of 
                importance to the mission area of the Department;
                    (B) rank in the upper 10 percent of the class of 
                the eligible student;
                    (C) demonstrate to the Secretary--
                            (i) the capacity to understand technical 
                        topics related to the fellowship that can be 
                        derived from the first principles of the 
                        technical topics;
                            (ii) imagination and creativity;
                            (iii) leadership skills in organizations or 
                        intellectual endeavors, demonstrated through 
                        awards and past experience; and
                            (iv) excellent verbal and communication 
                        skills to explain, defend, and demonstrate an 
                        understanding of technical subjects related to 
                        the fellowship; and
                    (D) be a citizen or legal permanent resident of the 
                United States.
    (d) Awards.--
            (1) Amount.--A fellowship awarded under this section 
        shall--
                    (A) provide an annual living stipend; and
                    (B) cover--
                            (i) graduate tuition at an institution of 
                        higher education; and
                            (ii) incidental expenses associated with 
                        curricula and research at the institution of 
                        higher education (including books, computers 
                        and software).
            (2) Duration.--A fellowship awarded under this section 
        shall be for a period of not greater than 5 years.
            (3) Portability.--A fellowship awarded under this section 
        shall be portable with the fellow.
    (e) Administration.--The Secretary (acting through the Director of 
Mathematics, Science, and Engineering Education)--
            (1) shall administer the program established under this 
        section; and,
            (2) may enter into a contract with a nonprofit entity to 
        administer the program, including the selection and award of 
        fellowships.
    (f) Authorization of Appropriations.--
            (1) Fellowships.--There are authorized to be appropriated 
        to award fellowships under this section--
                    (A) $9,300,000 for 200 fellowships for fiscal year 
                2008;
                    (B) $14,500,000 for 300 fellowships for fiscal year 
                2009 (including non-expiring fellowships for prior 
                fiscal years);
                    (C) $25,000,000 for 500 fellowships for fiscal year 
                2010 (including non-expiring fellowships for prior 
                fiscal years); and
                    (D) $35,500,000 for 700 fellowships for fiscal year 
                2011 (including non-expiring fellowships for prior 
                fiscal years).
            (2) Administration.--There are authorized to be 
        appropriated for administrative expenses incurred in carrying 
        out this section--
                    (A) $1,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;
                    (B) $1,500,000 for fiscal year 2009;
                    (C) $2,500,000 for fiscal year 2010; and
                    (D) $3,500,000 for fiscal year 2011.

SEC. 2009. TITLE IX COMPLIANCE.

    (a) In General.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Energy shall submit to the 
Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and 
the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate a report 
that describes actions taken by the Department of Energy to implement 
the recommendations in the report of the Government Accountability 
Office numbered 04-639.
    (b) Compliance.--To comply with title IX of the Education 
Amendments of 1972 (20 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.), the Secretary of Energy 
shall annually conduct compliance reviews of at least 2 recipients of 
Department of Energy grants.

SEC. 2010. HIGH-RISK, HIGH-REWARD RESEARCH.

    (a) Definition of High-Risk, High-Reward Research.--In this 
section, the term ``high-risk, high reward research'' means research 
that--
            (1) has the potential for yielding results with far-ranging 
        implications;
            (2) is too novel or spans too diverse a range of 
        disciplines to fare well in the traditional peer review 
        process; and
            (3) is supportive of the missions of the sponsoring agency.
    (b) Establishment of Grant Programs.--
            (1) Energy grant program.--The Secretary shall establish a 
        grant program to encourage the conduct of high-risk, high-
        reward research at the Department.
            (2) Geological grant program.--The Director of the United 
        States Geological Survey shall establish a grant program to 
        encourage the conduct of high-risk, high-reward research at the 
        United States Geological Survey.

SEC. 2011. DISTINGUISHED SCIENTIST PROGRAM.

    (a) Purpose.--The purpose of this section is to promote scientific 
and academic excellence through collaborations between institutions of 
higher education and the National Laboratories.
    (b) Establishment.--The Secretary shall establish a program to 
support the joint appointment of distinguished scientists by 
institutions of higher education and National Laboratories.
    (c) Qualifications.--Successful candidates under this section shall 
be persons who, by reason of professional background and experience, 
are able to bring international recognition to the appointing 
institution of higher education and National Laboratory in their field 
of scientific endeavor.
    (d) Selection.--A distinguished scientist appointed under this 
section shall be selected through an open, competitive process.
    (e) Appointment.--
            (1) Institution of higher education.--An appointment by an 
        institution of higher education under this section shall be 
        filled within the tenure allotment of the institution of higher 
        education at a minimum rank of professor.
            (2) National laboratory.--An appointment by a National 
        Laboratory under this section shall be at the rank of the 
        highest grade of distinguished scientist or technical staff of 
        the National Laboratory.
    (f) Duration.--An appointment under this section shall be for 6 
years, consisting of 2 3-year funding allotments.
    (g) Use of Funds.--Funds made available under this section may be 
used for--
            (1) the salary of the distinguished scientist and support 
        staff;
            (2) undergraduate, graduate, and post-doctoral 
        appointments;
            (3) research-related equipment;
            (4) professional travel; and
            (5) such other requirements as the Director determines are 
        necessary to carry out the purpose of the program.
    (h) Review.--
            (1) In general.--The appointment of a distinguished 
        scientist under this section shall be reviewed at the end of 
        the first 3-year allotment for the distinguished scientist 
        through an open peer-review process to determine whether the 
        appointment is meeting the purpose of this section under 
        subsection (a).
            (2) Funding.--Funding of the appointment of the 
        distinguished scientist for the second 3-year allotment shall 
        be determined based on the review conducted under paragraph 
        (1).
    (i) Cost Sharing.--To be eligible for assistance under this 
section, an appointing institution of higher education shall pay at 
least 50 percent of the total costs of the appointment.
    (j) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to carry out this section--
            (1) $30,000,000 for fiscal year 2008 (to support up to 30 
        appointments under this section);
            (2) $60,000,000 for fiscal year 2009 (to support up to 60 
        such appointments); and
            (3) $100,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2010 and 2011 (to 
        support up to 100 such appointments).

                         DIVISION C--EDUCATION

SEC. 3001. FINDINGS.

    Congress makes the following findings:
            (1) A well-educated population is essential to retaining 
        America's competitiveness in the global economy.
            (2) The United States needs to build on and expand the 
        impact of existing programs by taking additional, well-
        coordinated steps to ensure that all students are able to 
        obtain the knowledge the students need to obtain postsecondary 
        education and participate successfully in the workforce or the 
        Armed Forces.
            (3) The next steps must be informed by independent 
        information on the effectiveness of current programs in 
        science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, 
        and by identification of best practices that can be replicated.
            (4) Teacher preparation and elementary school and secondary 
        school programs and activities must be aligned with the 
        requirements of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 
        1965 (20 U.S.C. 6301 et seq.) and the requirements of the 
        Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001 et seq.).
            (5) The ever increasing knowledge and skill demands of the 
        21st century require that secondary school preparation and 
        requirements be better aligned with the knowledge and skills 
        needed to succeed in postsecondary education and the workforce, 
        and States need better data systems to track educational 
        achievement from prekindergarten through baccalaureate degrees.

SEC. 3002. DEFINITIONS.

    (a) ESEA Definitions.--Unless otherwise specified in this division, 
the terms used in this division have the meanings given the terms in 
section 9101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 
U.S.C. 7801).
    (b) Other Definitions.--In this division:
            (1) Critical foreign language.--The term ``critical foreign 
        language'' means a foreign language that the Secretary 
        determines, in consultation with the heads of such Federal 
        departments and agencies as the Secretary determines 
        appropriate, is critical to the national security and economic 
        competitiveness of the United States.
            (2) Secretary.--The term ``Secretary'' means the Secretary 
        of Education.

                      TITLE I--TEACHER ASSISTANCE

            Subtitle A--Teachers for a Competitive Tomorrow

SEC. 3111. PURPOSE.

    The purpose of this subtitle is--
            (1) to develop and implement programs to provide integrated 
        courses of study in mathematics, science, engineering, or 
        critical foreign languages, and teacher education, that lead to 
        a baccalaureate degree with concurrent teacher certification;
            (2) to develop and implement 2- or 3-year part-time 
        master's degree programs in mathematics, science, technology, 
        or critical foreign language education for teachers in order to 
        enhance the teachers' content knowledge and pedagogical skills; 
        and
            (3) to develop programs for professionals in mathematics, 
        science, or critical foreign language education that lead to a 
        master's degree in teaching that results in teacher 
        certification.

SEC. 3112. DEFINITIONS.

    In this subtitle:
            (1) Children from low-income families.--The term ``children 
        from low-income families'' means children described in section 
        1124(c)(1)(A) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 
        1965 (20 U.S.C. 6333(c)(1)(A)).
            (2) Eligible recipient.--The term ``eligible recipient'' 
        means an institution of higher education that receives grant 
        funds under this subtitle on behalf of a department of 
        mathematics, engineering, science, or a critical foreign 
        language, or on behalf of a department or school with a 
        competency-based degree program (in mathematics, engineering, 
        science, or a critical foreign language) that includes teacher 
        certification, for use in carrying out activities assisted 
        under this subtitle.
            (3) High-need local educational agency.--The term ``high-
        need local educational agency'' means a local educational 
        agency or educational service agency--
                    (A)(i) that serves not fewer than 10,000 children 
                from low-income families;
                    (ii) for which not less than 20 percent of the 
                children served by the agency are children from low-
                income families; or
                    (iii) with a total of less than 600 students in 
                average daily attendance at the schools that are served 
                by the agency and all of whose schools are designated 
                with a school locale code of 6, 7, or 8, as determined 
                by the Secretary; and
                    (B)(i) for which there is a high percentage of 
                teachers providing instruction in academic subject 
                areas or grade levels for which the teachers are not 
                highly qualified; or
                    (ii) for which there is a high teacher turnover 
                rate or a high percentage of teachers with emergency, 
                provisional, or temporary certification or licensure.
            (4) Highly qualified.--The term ``highly qualified'' has 
        the meaning given such term in section 9101 of the Elementary 
        and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 7801) and, with 
        respect to special education teachers, in section 602 of the 
        Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1401).
            (5) Partnership.--The term ``partnership'' means a 
        partnership that--
                    (A) shall include--
                            (i) an eligible recipient;
                            (ii)(I)(aa) a department within the 
                        eligible recipient that provides a program of 
                        study in mathematics, engineering, science, or 
                        a critical foreign language; and
                            (bb) a school or department within the 
                        eligible recipient that provides a teacher 
                        preparation program, or a 2-year institution of 
                        higher education that has a teacher preparation 
                        offering or a dual enrollment program with the 
                        eligible recipient; or
                            (II) a department or school within the 
                        eligible recipient with a competency-based 
                        degree program (in mathematics, engineering, 
                        science, or a critical foreign language) that 
                        includes teacher certification; and
                            (iii) not less than 1 high-need local 
                        educational agency and a public school or a 
                        consortium of public schools served by the 
                        agency; and
                    (B) may include a nonprofit organization that has 
                the capacity to provide expertise or support to meet 
                the purposes of this subtitle.
            (6) Teaching skills.--The term ``teaching skills'' means 
        the ability to--
                    (A) increase student achievement;
                    (B) effectively convey and explain academic subject 
                matter;
                    (C) employ strategies that--
                            (i) are based on scientifically based 
                        research;
                            (ii) are specific to academic subject 
                        matter; and
                            (iii) focus on the identification of, and 
                        tailoring of academic instruction to, students' 
                        specific learning needs, particularly children 
                        with disabilities, students who are limited 
                        English proficient, and students who are gifted 
                        and talented;
                    (D) conduct ongoing assessment of student learning;
                    (E) effectively manage a classroom; and
                    (F) communicate and work with parents and 
                guardians, and involve parents and guardians in their 
                children's education.

SEC. 3113. PROGRAMS FOR BACCALAUREATE DEGREES IN MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE, 
              ENGINEERING, OR CRITICAL FOREIGN LANGUAGES, WITH 
              CONCURRENT TEACHER CERTIFICATION.

    (a) Program Authorized.--From the amounts made available to carry 
out this section under section 3116(1) and not reserved under section 
3115(d) for a fiscal year, the Secretary is authorized to award grants, 
on a competitive basis, to eligible recipients to enable partnerships 
served by the eligible recipients to develop and implement programs to 
provide courses of study in mathematics, science, engineering, or 
critical foreign languages that--
            (1) are integrated with teacher education; and
            (2) lead to a baccalaureate degree with concurrent teacher 
        certification.
    (b) Application.--Each eligible recipient desiring a grant under 
this section shall submit an application to the Secretary at such time 
and in such manner as the Secretary may require. Each application 
shall--
            (1) describe the program for which assistance is sought;
            (2) describe how a department of mathematics, science, 
        engineering, or a critical foreign language participating in 
        the partnership will ensure significant collaboration with a 
        teacher preparation program in the development of undergraduate 
        degrees in mathematics, science, engineering, or a critical 
        foreign language, with concurrent teacher certification, 
        including providing student teaching and other clinical 
        classroom experiences or how a department or school 
        participating in the partnership with a competency-based degree 
        program has ensured, in the development of a baccalaureate 
        degree program in mathematics, science, engineering, or a 
        critical foreign language, the provision of concurrent teacher 
        certification, including providing student teaching and other 
        clinical classroom experiences;
            (3) describe the high-quality research, laboratory, or 
        internship experiences, integrated with coursework, that will 
        be provided under the program;
            (4) describe how members of groups that are 
        underrepresented in the teaching of mathematics, science, 
        technology, engineering, or critical foreign languages will be 
        encouraged to participate in the program;
            (5) describe how program participants will be encouraged to 
        teach in schools determined by the partnership to be most in 
        need, and what assistance in finding employment in such schools 
        will be provided;
            (6) describe the ongoing activities and services that will 
        be provided to graduates of the program;
            (7) describe how the activities of the partnership will be 
        coordinated with any activities funded through other Federal 
        grants, and how the partnership will continue the activities 
        assisted under the program when the grant period ends;
            (8) describe how the partnership will assess the content 
        knowledge and teaching skills of the program participants; and
            (9) provide any other information the Secretary may 
        reasonably require.
    (c) Authorized Activities.--
            (1) In general.--Each eligible recipient receiving a grant 
        under this section shall use the grant funds to enable a 
        partnership to develop and implement a program to provide 
        courses of study in mathematics, science, engineering, or a 
        critical foreign language that--
                    (A) are integrated with teacher education programs 
                that promote effective teaching skills; and
                    (B) lead to a baccalaureate degree in mathematics, 
                science, engineering, or a critical foreign language 
                with concurrent teacher certification.
            (2) Program requirements.--The program shall--
                    (A) provide high-quality research, laboratory, or 
                internship experiences for program participants;
                    (B) provide student teaching or other clinical 
                classroom experiences that--
                            (i) are integrated with coursework; and
                            (ii) lead to the participants' ability to 
                        demonstrate effective teaching skills;
                    (C) if implementing a program in which program 
                participants are prepared to teach mathematics, 
                science, technology, or engineering courses, include 
                strategies for improving student literacy;
                    (D) encourage the participation of individuals who 
                are members of groups that are underrepresented in the 
                teaching of mathematics, science, technology, 
                engineering, or critical foreign languages;
                    (E) encourage participants to teach in schools 
                determined by the partnership to be most in need, and 
                actively assist the participants in finding employment 
                in such schools;
                    (F) offer training in the use of and integration of 
                educational technology;
                    (G) collect data regarding and evaluate, using 
                measurable objectives and benchmarks, the extent to 
                which the program succeeded in--
                            (i) increasing the percentage of highly 
                        qualified mathematics, science, or critical 
                        foreign language teachers, including increasing 
                        the percentage of such teachers teaching in 
                        those schools determined by the partnership to 
                        be most in need;
                            (ii) improving student academic achievement 
                        in mathematics, science, and where applicable, 
                        technology and engineering;
                            (iii) increasing the number of students in 
                        secondary schools enrolled in upper level 
                        mathematics, science, and, where available, 
                        technology and engineering courses; and
                            (iv) increasing the numbers of elementary 
                        school, middle school, and secondary school 
                        students enrolled in and continuing in critical 
                        foreign language courses;
                    (H) collect data on the employment placement of all 
                graduates of the program, including information on how 
                many graduates are teaching and in what kinds of 
                schools;
                    (I) provide ongoing activities and services to 
                graduates of the program who teach elementary school, 
                middle school, or secondary school, by--
                            (i) keeping the graduates informed of the 
                        latest developments in their respective 
                        academic fields; and
                            (ii) supporting the graduates of the 
                        program who are employed in schools in the 
                        local educational agency participating in the 
                        partnership during the initial years of 
                        teaching through--
                                    (I) induction programs;
                                    (II) promotion of effective 
                                teaching skills; and
                                    (III) providing opportunities for 
                                regular professional development; and
                    (J) develop recommendations to improve the teacher 
                preparation program participating in the partnership.
    (d) Annual Report.--Each eligible recipient receiving a grant under 
this section shall collect and report to the Secretary annually such 
information as the Secretary may reasonably require, including--
            (1) the number of participants in the program;
            (2) information on the academic majors of participating 
        students;
            (3) the race, gender, income, and disability status of 
        program participants;
            (4) the employment placement of program participants as 
        teachers in schools determined by the partnership to be most in 
        need;
            (5) the extent to which the program succeeded in meeting 
        the objectives and benchmarks described in subsection 
        (c)(2)(G); and
            (6) the data collected under subparagraphs (G) and (H) of 
        subsection (c)(2).
    (e) Technical Assistance.--From the funds made available under 
section 3116(1), the Secretary may provide technical assistance to an 
eligible recipient developing a baccalaureate degree program with 
concurrent teacher certification, including technical assistance 
provided through a grant or contract awarded on a competitive basis to 
an institution of higher education or a technical assistance center.

SEC. 3114. PROGRAMS FOR MASTER'S DEGREES IN MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE, 
              TECHNOLOGY, OR CRITICAL FOREIGN LANGUAGES EDUCATION.

    (a) Program Authorized.--From the amounts made available to carry 
out this section under section 3116(2) and not reserved under section 
3115(d) for a fiscal year, the Secretary is authorized to award grants, 
on a competitive basis, to eligible recipients to enable the 
partnerships served by the eligible recipients to develop and 
implement--
            (1) 2- or 3-year part-time master's degree programs in 
        mathematics, science, technology, or critical foreign language 
        education for teachers in order to enhance the teacher's 
        content knowledge and teaching skills; or
            (2) programs for professionals in mathematics, science, 
        engineering, or critical foreign language that lead to a 1 year 
        master's degree in teaching that results in teacher 
        certification.
    (b) Application.--Each eligible recipient desiring a grant under 
this section shall submit an application to the Secretary at such time 
and in such manner as the Secretary may require. Each application shall 
describe--
            (1) how a department of mathematics, science, engineering, 
        technology, or a critical foreign language will ensure 
        significant collaboration with a teacher preparation program in 
        the development of the master's degree programs authorized 
        under subsection (a), or how a department or school with a 
        competency-based degree program has ensured, in the development 
        of a master's degree program, the provision of rigorous studies 
        in mathematics, science, or a critical foreign language that 
        enhance the teachers' content knowledge and teaching skills;
            (2) the role of the local educational agency in the 
        partnership in developing and administering the program and how 
        feedback from the local educational agency, school, and 
        participants will be used to improve the program;
            (3) how the program will help increase the percentage of 
        highly qualified mathematics, science, or critical foreign 
        language teachers, including increasing the percentage of such 
        teachers teaching in schools determined by the partnership to 
        be most in need;
            (4) how the program will--
                    (A) improve student academic achievement in 
                mathematics, science, and, where applicable, technology 
                and engineering and increase the number of students 
                taking upper-level courses in such subjects; or
                    (B) increase the numbers of elementary school, 
                middle school, and secondary school students enrolled 
                and continuing in critical foreign language courses;
            (5) how the program will prepare participants to become 
        more effective mathematics, science, or critical foreign 
        language teachers;
            (6) how the program will prepare participants to assume 
        leadership roles in their schools;
            (7) how teachers (or mathematics, science, or critical 
        language professionals) who are members of groups that are 
        underrepresented in the teaching of mathematics, science, 
        engineering, technology, or critical foreign languages and 
        teachers from schools determined by the partnership to be most 
        in need will be encouraged to apply for and participate in the 
        program;
            (8) the ongoing activities and services that will be 
        provided to graduates of the program;
            (9) how the partnership will continue the activities 
        assisted under the grant when the grant period ends;
            (10) how the partnership will assess, during the program, 
        the content knowledge and teaching skills of the program 
        participants; and
            (11) methods to ensure applicants to the master's degree 
        program for professionals in mathematics, science, or critical 
        foreign language demonstrate advanced knowledge in the relevant 
        subject.
    (c) Authorized Activities.--Each eligible recipient receiving a 
grant under this section shall use the grant funds to develop and 
implement a 2- or 3-year part-time master's degree program in 
mathematics, science, or critical foreign language education for 
teachers in order to enhance the teachers' content knowledge and 
teaching skills, or programs for professionals in mathematics, science, 
or critical foreign language that lead to a 1-year master's degree in 
teaching that results in teacher certification. The program shall--
            (1) promote effective teaching skills so that program 
        participants become more effective mathematics, science, or 
        critical foreign language teachers;
            (2) prepare teachers to assume leadership roles in their 
        schools by participating in activities such as teacher 
        mentoring, development of curricula that integrate state of the 
        art applications of mathematics, science, technology, and 
        engineering into the classroom, working with school 
        administrators in establishing in-service professional 
        development of teachers, and assisting in evaluating data and 
        assessments to improve student academic achievement;
            (3) use high-quality research, laboratory, or internship 
        experiences for program participants that are integrated with 
        coursework;
            (4) provide student teaching or clinical classroom 
        experience;
            (5) if implementing a program in which participants are 
        prepared to teach mathematics or science courses, provide 
        strategies for improving student literacy;
            (6) align the content knowledge in the master's degree 
        program with challenging student academic achievement standards 
        and challenging academic content standards established by the 
        State in which the program is conducted;
            (7) encourage the participation of--
                    (A) individuals who are members of groups that are 
                underrepresented in the teaching of mathematics, 
                science, engineering, technology, or critical foreign 
                languages;
                    (B) members of the Armed Forces who are 
                transitioning to civilian life; and
                    (C) teachers teaching in schools determined by the 
                partnership to be most in need;
            (8) offer tuition assistance, based on need, as 
        appropriate;
            (9) create opportunities for enhanced and ongoing 
        professional development for teachers that improves the 
        mathematics and science content knowledge and teaching skills 
        of such teachers; and
            (10) evaluate and report on the impact of the program, in 
        accordance with subsection (d).
    (d) Evaluation and Report.--Each eligible recipient receiving a 
grant under this section shall evaluate, using measurable objectives 
and benchmarks, and provide an annual report to the Secretary 
regarding, the extent to which the program assisted under this section 
succeeded in the following:
            (1) Increasing the number and percentage of mathematics, 
        science, engineering, technology, or critical foreign language 
        teachers who have a master's degree and meet 1 or more of the 
        following requirements:
                    (A) Are teaching in schools determined by the 
                partnership to be most in need, and taught in such 
                schools prior to participation in the program.
                    (B) Are teaching in schools determined by the 
                partnership to be most in need, and did not teach in 
                such schools prior to participation in the program.
                    (C) Are members of a group underrepresented in the 
                teaching of mathematics, science, or a critical foreign 
                language.
            (2) Bringing professionals in mathematics, science, 
        engineering, or critical foreign language into the field of 
        teaching.
            (3) Retaining teachers who participate in the program.

SEC. 3115. GENERAL PROVISIONS.

    (a) Duration of Grants.--The Secretary shall award each grant under 
this subtitle for a period of not more than 5 years.
    (b) Matching Requirement.--Each eligible recipient that receives a 
grant under this subtitle shall provide, from non-Federal sources, an 
amount equal to 50 percent of the amount of the grant (which may be 
provided in cash or in kind) to carry out the activities supported by 
the grant.
    (c) Supplement, Not Supplant.--Grant funds provided under this 
subtitle shall be used to supplement, and not supplant, other Federal 
or State funds.
    (d) Evaluation.--From amounts made available for any fiscal year 
under section 3116, the Secretary shall reserve such sums as may be 
necessary--
            (1) to provide for the conduct of an annual independent 
        evaluation, by grant or by contract, of the activities assisted 
        under this subtitle, which shall include an assessment of the 
        impact of the activities on student academic achievement; and
            (2) to prepare and submit an annual report on the results 
        of the evaluation described in paragraph (1) to the Committee 
        on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate, the 
        Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of 
        Representatives, and the Committees on Appropriations of the 
        Senate and House of Representatives.

SEC. 3116. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

    There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section 
$210,000,000 for fiscal year 2008, and such sums as may be necessary 
for each of the 3 succeeding fiscal years, of which--
            (1) 57.1 percent shall be available to carry out section 
        3113 for fiscal year 2008 and each succeeding fiscal year; and
            (2) 42.9 percent shall be available to carry out section 
        3114 for fiscal year 2008 and each succeeding fiscal year.

Subtitle B--Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Programs

SEC. 3121. PURPOSE.

    It is the purpose of this subtitle--
            (1) to raise academic achievement through Advanced 
        Placement and International Baccalaureate programs by 
        increasing, by 70,000, over a 4-year period beginning in 2008, 
        the number of teachers serving high-need schools who are 
        qualified to teach Advanced Placement or International 
        Baccalaureate courses in mathematics, science, and critical 
        foreign languages;
            (2) to increase, to 700,000 per year, the number of 
        students attending high-need schools who--
                    (A) take and score a 3, 4, or 5 on an Advanced 
                Placement examination in mathematics, science, or a 
                critical foreign language administered by the College 
                Board; or
                    (B) achieve a passing score on an examination 
                administered by the International Baccalaureate 
                Organization in such a subject;
            (3) to increase the availability of, and enrollment in, 
        Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate courses in 
        mathematics, science, and critical foreign languages, and pre-
        Advanced Placement or pre-International Baccalaureate courses 
        in such subjects, in high-need schools; and
            (4) to support statewide efforts to increase the 
        availability of, and enrollment in, Advanced Placement or 
        International Baccalaureate courses in mathematics, science, 
        and critical foreign languages, and pre-Advanced Placement or 
        pre-International Baccalaureate courses in such subjects, in 
        high-need schools.

SEC. 3122. DEFINITIONS.

    In this subtitle:
            (1) Advanced placement or international baccalaureate 
        course.--The term ``Advanced Placement or International 
        Baccalaureate course'' means a course of college-level 
        instruction provided to middle or secondary school students, 
        terminating in an examination administered by the College Board 
        or the International Baccalaureate Organization, or another 
        such examination approved by the Secretary, or another highly 
        rigorous, evidence-based, postsecondary preparatory program 
        terminating in an examination administered by a nationally 
        recognized educational association.
            (2) Eligible entity.--The term ``eligible entity'' means--
                    (A) a State educational agency;
                    (B) a local educational agency; or
                    (C) a partnership consisting of--
                            (i) a national, regional, or statewide 
                        nonprofit organization, with expertise and 
                        experience in providing Advanced Placement or 
                        International Baccalaureate services; and
                            (ii) a State educational agency or local 
                        educational agency.
            (3) Low-income student.--The term ``low-income student'' 
        has the meaning given the term ``low-income individual'' in 
        section 1707(3) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act 
        of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6537(3)).
            (4) High concentration of low-income students.--The term 
        ``high concentration of low-income students'' has the meaning 
        given the term in section 1707(2) of the Elementary and 
        Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6537(2)).
            (5) High-need local educational agency.--The term ``high-
        need local educational agency'' means a local educational 
        agency or educational service agency described in 3112(3)(A).
            (6) High-need school.--The term ``high-need school'' means 
        a middle school or secondary school--
                    (A) with a pervasive need for Advanced Placement or 
                International Baccalaureate courses in mathematics, 
                science, or critical foreign languages, or for 
                additional Advanced Placement or International 
                Baccalaureate courses in such a subject; and
                    (B)(i) with a high concentration of low-income 
                students; or
                    (ii) designated with a school locale code of 6, 7 
                or 8, as determined by the Secretary.

SEC. 3123. ADVANCED PLACEMENT AND INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE PROGRAMS.

    (a) Program Authorized.--From the amounts appropriated under 
subsection (l), the Secretary is authorized to award grants, on a 
competitive basis, to eligible entities to enable the eligible entities 
to carry out the authorized activities described in subsection (g).
    (b) Duration of Grants.--The Secretary may award grants under this 
section for a period of not more than 5 years.
    (c) Coordination.--The Secretary shall coordinate the activities 
carried out under this section with the activities carried out under 
section 1705 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 
U.S.C. 6535).
    (d) Priority.--In awarding grants under this section, the Secretary 
shall give priority to eligible entities that--
            (1) are part of a statewide strategy for increasing the 
        availability of Advanced Placement or International 
        Baccalaureate courses in mathematics, science, and critical 
        foreign languages, and pre-Advanced Placement or pre-
        International Baccalaureate courses in such subjects, in high-
        need schools; and
            (2) make Advanced Placement math, science, and critical 
        foreign language courses available to students who are prepared 
        for such work in earlier grades than traditionally made 
        available.
    (e) Equitable Distribution.--The Secretary, to the extent 
practicable, shall--
            (1) ensure an equitable geographic distribution of grants 
        under this section among the States; and
            (2) promote an increase in participation in Advanced 
        Placement or International Baccalaureate mathematics, science, 
        and critical foreign language courses and examinations in all 
        States.
    (f) Application.--
            (1) In general.--Each eligible entity desiring a grant 
        under this section shall submit an application to the Secretary 
        at such time, in such manner, and containing such information 
        as the Secretary may reasonably require.
            (2) Contents.--The application shall, at a minimum, include 
        a description of--
                    (A) the goals and objectives for the project, 
                including--
                            (i) increasing the number of teachers 
                        serving high-need schools who are qualified to 
                        teach Advanced Placement or International 
                        Baccalaureate courses in mathematics, science, 
                        or critical foreign languages;
                            (ii) increasing the number of qualified 
                        teachers serving high-need schools who are 
                        teaching Advanced Placement or International 
                        Baccalaureate courses in mathematics, science, 
                        or critical foreign languages to students in 
                        the high-need schools;
                            (iii) increasing the number of Advanced 
                        Placement or International Baccalaureate 
                        courses in mathematics, science, and critical 
                        foreign languages that are available to 
                        students attending high-need schools; and
                            (iv) increasing the number of students 
                        attending a high-need school, particularly low-
                        income students, who enroll in and pass--
                                    (I) Advanced Placement or 
                                International Baccalaureate courses in 
                                mathematics, science, or critical 
                                foreign languages; and
                                    (II) pre-Advanced Placement or pre-
                                International Baccalaureate courses in 
                                such a subject (where provided in 
                                accordance with subparagraph (B));
                    (B) how the eligible entity will ensure that 
                students have access to courses, including pre-Advanced 
                Placement and pre-International Baccalaureate courses, 
                that will prepare the students to enroll and succeed in 
                Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate 
                courses in mathematics, science, or critical foreign 
                languages;
                    (C) how the eligible entity will provide 
                professional development for teachers assisted under 
                this section;
                    (D) how the eligible entity will ensure that 
                teachers serving high-need schools are qualified to 
                teach Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate 
                courses in mathematics, science, or critical foreign 
                languages;
                    (E) how the eligible entity will provide for the 
                involvement of business and community organizations and 
                other entities, including institutions of higher 
                education, in the activities to be assisted; and
                    (F) how the eligible entity will use funds received 
                under this section, including how the eligible entity 
                will evaluate the success of its project.
    (g) Authorized Activities.--
            (1) In general.--Each eligible entity that receives a grant 
        under this section shall use the grant funds to carry out 
        activities designed to increase--
                    (A) the number of qualified teachers serving high-
                need schools who are teaching Advanced Placement or 
                International Baccalaureate courses in mathematics, 
                science, or critical foreign languages; and
                    (B) the number of students attending high-need 
                schools who enroll in, and pass, the examinations for 
                such Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate 
                courses.
            (2) Permissive activities.--The activities described in 
        paragraph (1) may include--
                    (A) teacher professional development, in order to 
                expand the pool of teachers in the participating State, 
                local educational agency, or high-need school who are 
                qualified to teach Advanced Placement or International 
                Baccalaureate courses in mathematics, science, or 
                critical foreign languages;
                    (B) pre-Advanced Placement or pre-International 
                Baccalaureate course development and professional 
                development;
                    (C) coordination and articulation between grade 
                levels to prepare students to enroll and succeed in 
                Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate 
                courses in mathematics, science, or critical foreign 
                languages;
                    (D) purchase of instructional materials;
                    (E) activities to increase the availability of, and 
                participation in, online Advanced Placement or 
                International Baccalaureate courses in mathematics, 
                science, and critical foreign languages;
                    (F) reimbursing low-income students attending high-
                need schools for part or all of the cost of Advanced 
                Placement or International Baccalaureate examination 
                fees;
                    (G) carrying out subsection (j), relating to 
                collecting and reporting data;
                    (H) in the case of a State educational agency that 
                receives a grant under this section, awarding subgrants 
                to local educational agencies to enable the local 
                educational agencies to carry out authorized activities 
                described in subparagraphs (A) through (G); and
                    (I) providing salary increments or bonuses to 
                teachers serving high-need schools who--
                            (i) become qualified to teach, and teach, 
                        Advanced Placement or International 
                        Baccalaureate courses in mathematics, science, 
                        or a critical foreign language; or
                            (ii) increase the number of low-income 
                        students, who take Advanced Placement or 
                        International Baccalaureate examinations in 
                        mathematics, science, or a critical foreign 
                        language with the goal of successfully passing 
                        such examinations.
    (h) Matching Requirement.--
            (1) In general.--Subject to paragraph (2), each eligible 
        entity that receives a grant under this section shall provide, 
        toward the cost of the activities assisted under the grant, 
        from non-Federal sources, an amount equal to 200 percent of the 
        amount of the grant, except that an eligible entity that is a 
        high-need local educational agency shall provide an amount 
        equal to not more than 100 percent of the amount of the grant.
            (2) Waiver.--The Secretary may waive all or part of the 
        matching requirement described in paragraph (1) for any fiscal 
        year for an eligible entity described in subparagraph (A) or 
        (B) of section 3122(2), if the Secretary determines that 
        applying the matching requirement to such eligible entity would 
        result in serious hardship or an inability to carry out the 
        authorized activities described in subsection (g).
    (i) Supplement Not Supplant.--Grant funds provided under this 
section shall be used to supplement, not supplant, other Federal and 
non-Federal funds available to carry out the activities described in 
subsection (g).
    (j) Collecting and Reporting Requirements.--
            (1) Report.--Each eligible entity receiving a grant under 
        this section shall collect and report to the Secretary annually 
        such data on the results of the grant as the Secretary may 
        reasonably require, including data regarding--
                    (A) the number of students enrolling in Advanced 
                Placement or International Baccalaureate courses in 
                mathematics, science, or a critical foreign language, 
                and pre-Advanced Placement or pre-International 
                Baccalaureate courses in such a subject, by the grade 
                the student is enrolled in, and the distribution of 
                grades those students receive;
                    (B) the number of students taking Advanced 
                Placement or International Baccalaureate examinations 
                in mathematics, science, or a critical foreign 
                language, and the distribution of scores on those 
                examinations by the grade the student is enrolled in at 
                the time of the examination;
                    (C) the number of teachers receiving training in 
                teaching Advanced Placement or International 
                Baccalaureate courses in mathematics, science, or a 
                critical foreign language who will be teaching such 
                courses in the next school year;
                    (D) the number of teachers becoming qualified to 
                teach Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate 
                courses in mathematics, science, or a critical foreign 
                language; and
                    (E) the number of qualified teachers who are 
                teaching Advanced Placement or International 
                Baccalaureate courses in mathematics, science, or 
                critical foreign languages to students in a high-need 
                school.
            (2) Reporting of data.--Each eligible entity receiving a 
        grant under this section shall report data required under 
        paragraph (1)--
                    (A) disaggregated by subject area;
                    (B) in the case of student data, disaggregated in 
                the same manner as information is disaggregated under 
                section 1111(h)(1)(C)(i) of the Elementary and 
                Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 
                6311(h)(1)(C)(i)); and
                    (C) to the extent feasible, in a manner that allows 
                comparison of conditions before, during, and after the 
                project.
    (k) Evaluation and Report.--From the amount made available for any 
fiscal year under subsection (l), the Secretary shall reserve such sums 
as may be necessary--
            (1) to conduct an annual independent evaluation, by grant 
        or by contract, of the program carried out under this section, 
        which shall include an assessment of the impact of the program 
        on student academic achievement; and
            (2) to prepare and submit an annual report on the results 
        of the evaluation described in paragraph (1) to the Committee 
        on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate, the 
        Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of 
        Representatives, and the Committees on Appropriations of the 
        Senate and House of Representatives.
    (l) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to carry out this section $58,000,000 for fiscal year 
2008, and such sums as may be necessary for each of the 3 succeeding 
fiscal years.

 Subtitle C--Promising Practices in Mathematics, Science, Technology, 
                        and Engineering Teaching

SEC. 3131. PROMISING PRACTICES.

    (a) Purpose.--The purpose of this section is to strengthen the 
skills of mathematics, science, technology, and engineering teachers by 
identifying promising practices in the teaching of mathematics, 
science, technology, and engineering in elementary and secondary 
education.
    (b) National Panel on Promising Practices in Teaching Mathematics, 
Science, Technology, and Engineering.--The Secretary is authorized to 
contract with the National Academy of Sciences to convene, not later 
than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, a national panel 
to identify existing promising practices in the teaching of 
mathematics, science, technology, and engineering in kindergarten 
through grade 12.
    (c) Composition of National Panel.--
            (1) Consultation.--The Secretary shall enter into a 
        contract with the National Academy of Sciences to establish a 
        panel to identify existing promising practices in the teaching 
        of mathematics, science, technology, and engineering in 
        elementary and secondary education with demonstrated evidence 
        of increasing student academic achievement.
            (2) Selection.--The National Academy of Sciences shall 
        ensure that the panel established under paragraph (1) broadly 
        represents scientists, practitioners, teachers, principals, and 
        representatives from entities with expertise in education, 
        mathematics, and science. The National Academy of Sciences 
        shall ensure that the panel includes the following:
                    (A) A majority representation of teachers and 
                principals directly involved in teaching mathematics, 
                science, technology, or engineering in kindergarten 
                through grade 12.
                    (B) Representation of teachers and principals from 
                all demographic areas, including urban, suburban, and 
                rural schools.
                    (C) Representation of teachers from public and 
                private schools.
            (3) Qualifications of members.--The members of the panel 
        established under paragraph (1) shall be individuals who have 
        substantial knowledge or experience relating to--
                    (A) mathematics, science, technology, or 
                engineering education programs; or
                    (B) mathematics, science, technology, or 
                engineering curricula content development.
    (d) Authorized Activities of National Panel.--The panel shall--
            (1) identify promising practices in the teaching of 
        mathematics, science, technology, and engineering in elementary 
        and secondary education;
            (2) identify techniques proven to help teachers increase 
        their skills and expertise in improving student achievement in 
        mathematics, science, technology, and engineering; and
            (3) identify areas of need for promising practices in 
        mathematics, science, technology, and engineering.
    (e) Dissemination.--The Secretary shall disseminate information 
collected pursuant to this section to the public, State educational 
agencies, and local educational agencies, and shall publish appropriate 
and relevant information on the promising practices on the website of 
the Department in an easy to understand format.
    (f) Mathematics, Science, Technology, and Engineering ``Promising 
Practices''.--
            (1) Reliability and measurement.--The promising practices 
        in the teaching of mathematics, science, technology, and 
        engineering in elementary and secondary education collected 
        under this section shall be--
                    (A) reliable, valid, and grounded in scientific 
                theory and research;
                    (B) reviewed regularly to assess effectiveness; and
                    (C) reviewed in the context of State academic 
                assessments and student academic achievement standards.
            (2) Students with diverse learning needs.--In identifying 
        promising practices under this section, the panel established 
        under subsection (c) shall take into account the needs of 
        students with diverse learning needs, particularly for students 
        with disabilities and students who are limited English 
        proficient.
    (g) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to carry out this section such sums as may be necessary 
for fiscal year 2008.

                         TITLE II--MATHEMATICS

SEC. 3201. MATH NOW FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AND MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS 
              PROGRAM.

    (a) Purpose.--The purpose of this section is to enable all students 
to reach or exceed grade-level academic achievement standards and to 
prepare the students to enroll in and pass algebra courses by--
            (1) improving instruction in mathematics for students in 
        kindergarten through grade 9 through the implementation of 
        mathematics programs and the support of comprehensive 
        mathematics initiatives that are research-based and reflect a 
        demonstrated record of effectiveness; and
            (2) providing targeted help to low-income students who are 
        struggling with mathematics and whose achievement is 
        significantly below grade level.
    (b) Definition of Eligible Local Educational Agency.--In this 
section, the term ``eligible local educational agency'' means a high-
need local educational agency (as defined in section 3112(3)) serving 1 
or more schools--
            (1) with significant numbers or percentages of students 
        whose mathematics skills are below grade level;
            (2) that are not making adequate yearly progress in 
        mathematics under section 1111(b)(2) of the Elementary and 
        Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6311(b)(2)); or
            (3) in which students are receiving instruction in 
        mathematics from teachers who do not have mathematical content 
        knowledge or expertise in the teaching of mathematics.
    (c) Program Authorized.--
            (1) In general.--From the amounts appropriated under 
        subsection (k) for any fiscal year, the Secretary is authorized 
        to award grants, on a competitive basis, for not more than 5 
        years, to State educational agencies to enable the State 
        educational agencies to award grants to eligible local 
        educational agencies to carry out the activities described in 
        subsection (e).
            (2) Priority.--In awarding grants under this section, the 
        Secretary shall give priority to applications for projects that 
        will implement statewide strategies for improving mathematics 
        instruction and raising the mathematics achievement of 
        students, particularly students in grades 4 through 8.
    (d) State Uses of Funds.--
            (1) In general.--Each State educational agency that 
        receives a grant under this section for a fiscal year--
                    (A) shall expend not more than a total of 10 
                percent of the grant funds to carry out the activities 
                described in paragraphs (2) or (3) for the fiscal year; 
                and
                    (B) shall use not less than 90 percent of the grant 
                funds to award grants, on a competitive basis, to 
                eligible local educational agencies to enable the 
                eligible local educational agencies to carry out the 
                activities described in subsection (e) for the fiscal 
                year.
            (2) Mandatory uses of funds.--A State educational agency 
        shall use the grant funds made available under paragraph (1)(A) 
        to carry out each of the following activities:
                    (A) Planning and administration.--Planning and 
                administration, including--
                            (i) evaluating applications from eligible 
                        local educational agencies using peer review 
                        teams described in subsection (f)(1)(D);
                            (ii) administering the distribution of 
                        grants to eligible local educational agencies; 
                        and
                            (iii) assessing and evaluating, on a 
                        regular basis, eligible local educational 
                        agency activities assisted under this section, 
                        with respect to whether the activities have 
                        been effective in increasing the number of 
                        children--
                                    (I) making progress toward meeting 
                                grade-level mathematics achievement; 
                                and
                                    (II) meeting or exceeding grade-
                                level mathematics achievement.
                    (B) Reporting.--Annually providing the Secretary 
                with a report on the implementation of this section as 
                described in subsection (i).
            (3) Permissive use of funds; technical assistance.--
                    (A) In general.--A State educational agency may use 
                the grant funds made available under paragraph (1)(A) 
                for 1 or more of the following technical assistance 
                activities that assist an eligible local educational 
                agency, upon request by the eligible local educational 
                agency, in accomplishing the tasks required to design 
                and implement a project under this section, including 
                assistance in--
                            (i) implementing mathematics programs or 
                        comprehensive mathematics initiatives that are 
                        research-based and reflect a demonstrated 
                        record of effectiveness;
                            (ii) evaluating and selecting diagnostic 
                        and classroom based instructional mathematics 
                        assessments; and
                            (iii) identifying eligible professional 
                        development providers to conduct the 
                        professional development activities described 
                        in subsection (e)(1)(B).
                    (B) Guidance.--The technical assistance described 
                in subparagraph (A) shall be guided by researchers with 
                expertise in the pedagogy of mathematics, 
                mathematicians, and mathematics educators from high-
                risk, high-achievement schools and eligible local 
                educational agencies.
    (e) Local Uses of Funds.--
            (1) Mandatory uses of funds.--Each eligible local 
        educational agency receiving a grant under this section shall 
        use the grant funds to carry out each of the following 
        activities:
                    (A) To implement mathematics programs or 
                comprehensive mathematics initiatives--
                            (i) for students in the grades of a 
                        participating school as identified in the 
                        application submitted under subsection 
                        (f)(2)(A); and
                            (ii) that are research-based and reflect a 
                        demonstrated record of effectiveness.
                    (B) To provide professional development and 
                instructional leadership activities for teachers and, 
                if appropriate, for administrators and other school 
                staff, on the implementation of comprehensive 
                mathematics initiatives designed--
                            (i) to improve the achievement of students 
                        performing significantly below grade level;
                            (ii) to improve the mathematical content 
                        knowledge of the teachers, administrators, and 
                        other school staff;
                            (iii) to increase the use of effective 
                        instructional practices; and
                            (iv) to monitor student progress.
                    (C) To conduct continuous progress monitoring, 
                which may include the adoption and use of assessments 
                that--
                            (i) measure student progress and identify 
                        areas in which students need help in learning 
                        mathematics; and
                            (ii) reflect mathematics content that is 
                        consistent with State academic achievement 
                        standards in mathematics described in section 
                        1111(b) of the Elementary and Secondary 
                        Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6311(b)).
            (2) Permissive uses of funds.--An eligible local 
        educational agency may use grant funds under this section to--
                    (A) adopt and use mathematics instructional 
                materials and assessments;
                    (B) implement classroom-based assessments, 
                including diagnostic or formative assessments;
                    (C) provide remedial coursework and interventions 
                for students, which may be provided before or after 
                school;
                    (D) provide small groups with individualized 
                instruction in mathematics;
                    (E) conduct activities designed to improve the 
                content knowledge and expertise of teachers, such as 
                the use of a mathematics coach, enrichment activities, 
                and interdisciplinary methods of mathematics 
                instruction; and
                    (F) collect and report performance data.
    (f) Applications.--
            (1) State educational agency.--Each State educational 
        agency desiring a grant under this section shall submit an 
        application to the Secretary at such time and in such manner as 
        the Secretary may require. Each application shall include--
                    (A) an assurance that the core mathematics 
                instructional program, supplemental instructional 
                materials, and intervention programs used by the 
                eligible local educational agencies for the project, 
                are research-based and reflect a demonstrated record of 
                effectiveness and are aligned with State academic 
                achievement standards;
                    (B) an assurance that eligible local educational 
                agencies will meet the requirements described in 
                paragraph (2);
                    (C) an assurance that local applications will be 
                evaluated using a peer review process;
                    (D) a description of the qualifications of the peer 
                review teams, which shall consist of--
                            (i) researchers with expertise in the 
                        pedagogy of mathematics;
                            (ii) mathematicians; and
                            (iii) mathematics educators serving high-
                        risk, high-achievement schools and eligible 
                        local educational agencies; and
                    (E) an assurance that the State will establish a 
                process to safeguard against conflicts of interest, 
                consistent with subsection (g)(2), for individuals 
                providing technical assistance on behalf of the State 
                educational agency or participating in the State peer 
                review process under this title.
            (2) Eligible local educational agency.--Each eligible local 
        educational agency desiring a grant under this section shall 
        submit an application to the State educational agency at such 
        time and in such manner as the State educational agency may 
        require. Each application shall include--
                    (A) an assurance that the eligible local 
                educational agency will provide assistance to 1 or more 
                schools that are--
                            (i) served by the eligible local 
                        educational agency; and
                            (ii) described in section 3201(b);
                    (B) a description of the grades kindergarten 
                through grade 9, and of the schools, that will be 
                served;
                    (C) information, on an aggregate basis, on each 
                school to be served by the project, including such 
                demographic, socioeconomic, and mathematics achievement 
                data as the State educational agency may request;
                    (D) a description of the core mathematics 
                instructional program, supplemental instructional 
                materials, and intervention programs or strategies that 
                will be used for the project, including an assurance 
                that the programs or strategies are research-based and 
                reflect a demonstrated record of effectiveness and are 
                aligned with State academic achievement standards;
                    (E) a description of the activities that will be 
                carried out under the grant, including a description of 
                the professional development that will be provided to 
                teachers, and, if appropriate, administrators and other 
                school staff, and a description of how the activities 
                will support achievement of the purpose of this 
                section;
                    (F) an assurance that the eligible local 
                educational agency will report to the State educational 
                agency all data on student academic achievement that is 
                necessary for the State educational agency's report 
                under subsection (i);
                    (G) a description of the eligible entity's plans 
                for evaluating the impact of professional development 
                and leadership activities in mathematics on the content 
                knowledge and expertise of teachers, administrators, or 
                other school staff; and
                    (H) any other information the State educational 
                agency may reasonably require.
    (g) Prohibitions.--
            (1) In general.--In implementing this section, the 
        Secretary shall not--
                    (A) endorse, approve, or sanction any mathematics 
                curriculum designed for use in any school; or
                    (B) engage in oversight, technical assistance, or 
                activities that will require the adoption of a specific 
                mathematics program or instructional materials by a 
                State, local educational agency, or school.
            (2) Conflict of interest.--Any Federal employee, 
        contractor, or subcontractor involved in the administration, 
        implementation, or provision of oversight or technical 
        assistance duties or activities under this section shall--
                    (A) disclose to the Secretary any financial ties to 
                publishers, entities, private individuals, or 
                organizations that will benefit from funds provided 
                under this section; and
                    (B) be prohibited from maintaining significant 
                financial interests in areas directly related to duties 
                or activities under this section, unless granted a 
                waiver by the Secretary.
            (3) Reporting.--The Secretary shall report annually to the 
        Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the 
        Senate and to the Committee on Education and Labor of the House 
        of Representatives on any of the special allowances or waivers 
        granted under paragraph (2)(B).
            (4) Rule of construction.--Nothing in this title shall be 
        construed to authorize or permit the Department of Education, 
        or a Department of Education contractor, to mandate, direct, 
        control, or suggest the selection of a mathematics curriculum, 
        supplemental instructional materials, or program of instruction 
        by a State, local educational agency, or school.
    (h) Matching Requirements.--
            (1) State educational agency.--A State educational agency 
        that receives a grant under this section shall provide, from 
        non-Federal sources, an amount equal to 50 percent of the 
        amount of the grant, in cash or in kind, to carry out the 
        activities supported by the grant, of which not more than 20 
        percent of such 50 percent may be provided by local educational 
        agencies within the State.
            (2) Waiver.--The Secretary may waive all of or a portion of 
        the matching requirement described in paragraph (1) for any 
        fiscal year, if the Secretary determines that--
                    (A) the application of the matching requirement 
                will result in serious hardship for the State 
                educational agency; or
                    (B) providing a waiver best serves the purpose of 
                the program assisted under this section.
    (i) Program Performance and Accountability.--
            (1) Information.--Each State educational agency receiving a 
        grant under this section shall collect and report to the 
        Secretary annually such information on the results of the grant 
        as the Secretary may reasonably require, including information 
        on--
                    (A) mathematics achievement data that show the 
                progress of students participating in projects under 
                this section (including, to the extent practicable, 
                comparable data from students not participating in such 
                projects), based primarily on the results of State, 
                school district wide, or classroom-based, assessments, 
                including--
                            (i) specific identification of those 
                        schools and eligible local educational agencies 
                        that report the largest gains in mathematics 
                        achievement; and
                            (ii) evidence on whether the State 
                        educational agency and eligible local 
                        educational agencies within the State have--
                                    (I) significantly increased the 
                                number of students achieving at grade 
                                level or above in mathematics;
                                    (II) significantly increased the 
                                percentages of students described in 
                                section 1111(b)(2)(C)(v)(II) of the 
                                Elementary and Secondary Education Act 
                                of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 
                                6311(b)(2)(C)(v)(II)) who are achieving 
                                at grade level or above in mathematics;
                                    (III) significantly increased the 
                                number of students making significant 
                                progress toward meeting grade-level 
                                mathematics achievement standards; and
                                    (IV) successfully implemented this 
                                section;
                    (B) the percentage of students in the schools 
                served by the eligible local educational agency who 
                enroll in algebra courses and the percentage of such 
                students who pass algebra courses; and
                    (C) the progress made in increasing the quality and 
                accessibility of professional development and 
                leadership activities in mathematics, especially 
                activities resulting in greater content knowledge and 
                expertise of teachers, administrators, and other school 
                staff, except that the Secretary shall not require such 
                information until after the third year of a grant 
                awarded under this section.
            (2) Reporting and disaggregation.--The information required 
        under paragraph (1) shall be--
                    (A) reported in a manner that allows for a 
                comparison of aggregated score differentials of student 
                academic achievement before (to the extent feasible) 
                and after implementation of the project assisted under 
                this section; and
                    (B) disaggregated in the same manner as information 
                is disaggregated under section 1111(h)(1)(C)(i) of the 
                Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 
                U.S.C. 6311(h)(1)(C)(i)).
            (3) Privacy protection.--The data in the report shall be 
        reported in a manner that--
                    (A) protects the privacy of individuals; and
                    (B) complies with the requirements of the Family 
                Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (20 U.S.C. 
                1232g).
    (j) Evaluation and Technical Assistance.--
            (1) Evaluation.--
                    (A) In general.--The Secretary shall conduct an 
                annual independent evaluation, by grant or by contract, 
                of the program assisted under this section, which shall 
                include an assessment of the impact of the program on 
                student academic achievement and teacher performance, 
                and may use funds available to carry out this section 
                to conduct the evaluation.
                    (B) Report.--The Secretary shall annually submit, 
                to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and 
                Pensions of the Senate, the Committee on Education and 
                the Workforce of the House of Representatives, and the 
                Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and House of 
                Representatives, a report on the results of the 
                evaluation.
            (2) Technical assistance.--The Secretary may use funds made 
        available under paragraph (3) to provide technical assistance 
        to prospective applicants and to eligible local educational 
        agencies receiving a grant under this section.
            (3) Reservation of funds.--The Secretary may reserve not 
        more than 2.5 percent of funds appropriated under subsection 
        (k) for a fiscal year to carry out this subsection.
    (k) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to carry out this section $146,700,000 for fiscal year 
2008, and such sums as may be necessary for each of the 3 succeeding 
fiscal years.

SEC. 3202. SUMMER TERM EDUCATION PROGRAMS.

    (a) Purpose.--The purpose of this section is to create 
opportunities for summer learning by providing students with access to 
summer learning in mathematics, technology, and problem-solving to 
ensure that students do not experience learning losses over the summer 
and to remedy, reinforce, and accelerate the learning of mathematics 
and problem-solving.
    (b) Definitions.--In this section:
            (1) Educational service agency.--The term ``educational 
        service agency'' has the meaning given the term in section 9101 
        of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 
        U.S.C. 7801).
            (2) Eligible entity.--The term ``eligible entity'' means an 
        entity that--
                    (A) desires to participate in a summer learning 
                grant program under this section by providing summer 
                learning opportunities described in subsection 
                (d)(4)(A)(ii) to eligible students; and
                    (B) is--
                            (i) a high-need local educational agency; 
                        or
                            (ii) a consortium consisting of a high-need 
                        local educational agency and 1 or more of the 
                        following entities:
                                    (I) Another local educational 
                                agency;
                                    (II) A community-based youth 
                                development organization with a 
                                demonstrated record of effectiveness in 
                                helping students learn;
                                    (III) An institution of higher 
                                education;
                                    (IV) An educational service agency; 
                                or
                                    (V) A for-profit educational 
                                provider, nonprofit organization, 
                                science center, museum, or summer 
                                enrichment camp, that has been approved 
                                by the State educational agency to 
                                provide the summer learning opportunity 
                                described in subsection (d)(4)(A)(ii).
            (3) Eligible student.--The term ``eligible student'' means 
        a student who--
                    (A) is eligible for a free lunch under the Richard 
                B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et 
                seq.); and
                    (B) is served by a local educational agency 
                identified by the State educational agency in the 
                application described in subsection (c)(2).
            (4) Institution of higher education.--The term 
        ``institution of higher education'' has the meaning given the 
        term in section 101(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 
        U.S.C. 1001(a)).
            (5) Local educational agency.--The term ``local educational 
        agency'' has the meaning given the term in section 9101 of the 
        Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 
        7801).
            (6) High-Need Local Educational Agency.--The term high-need 
        local educational agency means a local educational agency (as 
        defined in section 9101 of the Elementary and Secondary 
        Education Act of 1965)--
                    (A) that serves not less than 10,000 children from 
                low-income families;
                    (B) for which not less than 20 percent of the 
                children served by the agency are children from low-
                income families; or
                    (C) with a total of not less than 600 students in 
                average daily attendance at the schools that are served 
                by the agency, and all of whose schools are designated 
                with a school locale code of 6, 7, or 8 as determined 
                by the Secretary of Education.
            (7) Secretary.--The term ``Secretary'' means the Secretary 
        of Education.
            (8) State.--The term ``State'' means each of the several 
        States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the 
        Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the United 
        States Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana 
        Islands, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated 
        States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau.
            (9) State educational agency.--The term ``State educational 
        agency'' has the meaning given the term in section 9101 of the 
        Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 
        7801).
    (c) Demonstration Grant Program.--
            (1) Program authorized.--
                    (A) In general.--From the funds appropriated under 
                subsection (f) for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall 
                carry out a demonstration grant program in which the 
                Secretary awards grants, on a competitive basis, to 
                State educational agencies to enable the State 
                educational agencies to pay the Federal share of summer 
                learning grants for eligible students.
                    (B) Number of grants.--For each fiscal year, the 
                Secretary shall award not more than 5 grants under this 
                section.
            (2) Application.--A State educational agency that desires 
        to receive a grant under this section shall submit an 
        application to the Secretary at such time, in such manner, and 
        accompanied by such information as the Secretary may require. 
        Such application shall identify the areas in the State where 
        the summer learning grant program will be offered and the local 
        educational agencies that serve such areas.
            (3) Award basis.--
                    (A) Special consideration.--In awarding grants 
                under this section, the Secretary shall give special 
                consideration to a State educational agency that 
                agrees, to the extent possible, to enter into 
                agreements with eligible entities that are consortia 
                described in subsection (b)(2)(B)(iii) and that 
                proposes to target services to children in grades K-8.
                    (B) Geographic distribution.--In awarding grants 
                under this section, the Secretary shall take into 
                consideration an equitable geographic distribution of 
                the grants.
    (d) Summer Learning Grants.--
            (1) Use of grants for summer learning grants.--
                    (A) In general.--Each State educational agency that 
                receives a grant under subsection (c) for a fiscal year 
                shall use the grant funds to provide summer learning 
                grants for the fiscal year to eligible students in the 
                State who desire to attend a summer learning 
                opportunity offered by an eligible entity that enters 
                into an agreement with the State educational agency 
                under paragraph (4)(A).
                    (B) Amount; federal and non-federal shares.--
                            (i) Amount.--The amount of a summer 
                        learning grant provided under this section 
                        shall be--
                                    (I) for each of the fiscal years 
                                2008 through 2011, $1,600; and
                                    (II) for fiscal year 2012, $1,800.
                            (ii) Federal share.--The Federal share of 
                        each summer learning grant shall be not more 
                        than 50 percent of the amount of the summer 
                        learning grant determined under clause (i).
                            (iii) Non-federal share.--The non-Federal 
                        share of each summer learning grant shall be 
                        not less than 50 percent of the amount of the 
                        summer learning grant determined under clause 
                        (i), and shall be provided from non-Federal 
                        sources.
            (2) Designation of summer scholars.--Eligible students who 
        receive summer learning grants under this section shall be 
        known as ``summer scholars''.
            (3) Selection of summer learning opportunity.--
                    (A) Dissemination of information.--A State 
                educational agency that receives a grant under 
                subsection (c) shall disseminate information about 
                summer learning opportunities and summer learning 
                grants to the families of eligible students in the 
                State.
                    (B) Application.--The parents of an eligible 
                student who are interested in having their child 
                participate in a summer learning opportunity and 
                receive a summer learning grant shall submit an 
                application to the State educational agency that 
                includes a ranked list of preferred summer learning 
                opportunities.
                    (C) Process.--A State educational agency that 
                receives an application under subparagraph (B) shall--
                            (i) process such application;
                            (ii) determine whether the eligible student 
                        shall receive a summer learning grant;
                            (iii) coordinate the assignment of eligible 
                        students receiving summer learning grants with 
                        summer learning opportunities; and
                            (iv) if demand for a summer learning 
                        opportunity exceeds capacity, the State 
                        educational agency shall prioritize 
                        applications to low-achieving eligible 
                        students.
                    (D) Flexibility.--A State educational agency may 
                assign a summer scholar to a summer learning 
                opportunity program that is offered in an area served 
                by a local educational agency that is not the local 
                educational agency serving the area where such scholar 
                resides.
                    (E) Requirement of acceptance.--An eligible entity 
                shall accept, enroll, and provide the summer learning 
                opportunity of such entity to, any summer scholar 
                assigned to such summer learning opportunity by a State 
                educational agency pursuant to this subsection.
            (4) Agreement with eligible entity.--
                    (A) In general.--A State educational agency shall 
                enter into an agreement with one or more eligible 
                entities offering a summer learning opportunity, under 
                which--
                            (i) the State educational agency shall 
                        agree to make payments to the eligible entity, 
                        in accordance with subparagraph (B), for a 
                        summer scholar; and
                            (ii) the eligible entity shall agree to 
                        provide the summer scholar with a summer 
                        learning opportunity that--
                                    (I) provides a total of not less 
                                than the equivalent of 30 full days of 
                                instruction (or not less than the 
                                equivalent of 25 full days of 
                                instruction, if the equivalent of an 
                                additional 5 days is devoted to field 
                                trips or other enrichment 
                                opportunities) to the summer scholar;
                                    (II) employs small-group, research-
                                based educational programs, materials, 
                                curricula, and practices;
                                    (III) provides a curriculum that--
                                            (aa) emphasizes 
                                        mathematics, technology, 
                                        engineering, and problem-
                                        solving through experiential 
                                        learning opportunities;
                                            (bb) is primarily designed 
                                        to increase the numeracy and 
                                        problem-solving skills of the 
                                        summer scholar; and
                                            (cc) is aligned with State 
                                        academic content standards and 
                                        goals of the local educational 
                                        agency serving the summer 
                                        scholar;
                                    (IV) measures student progress to 
                                determine the gains made by summer 
                                scholars in the summer learning 
                                opportunity, and disaggregates the 
                                results of such progress for summer 
                                scholars by race and ethnicity, 
                                economic status, limited English 
                                proficiency status, and disability 
                                status, in order to determine the 
                                opportunity's impact on each subgroup 
                                of summer scholars;
                                    (V) collects daily attendance data 
                                on each summer scholar;
                                    (VI) provides professional 
                                development opportunities for teachers 
                                to improve their practice in teaching 
                                numeracy, and in integrating problem-
                                solving techniques into the curriculum; 
                                and
                                    (VII) meets all applicable Federal, 
                                State, and local civil rights laws.
                    (B) Amount of payment.--
                            (i) In general.--Except as provided in 
                        clause (ii), a State educational agency shall 
                        make a payment to an eligible entity for a 
                        summer scholar in the amount determined under 
                        paragraph (1)(B)(i).
                            (ii) Adjustment.--In the case in which a 
                        summer scholar does not attend the full summer 
                        learning opportunity, the State educational 
                        agency shall reduce the amount provided to the 
                        eligible entity pursuant to clause (i) by a 
                        percentage that is equal to the percentage of 
                        the summer learning opportunity not attended by 
                        such scholar.
            (5) Administrative costs.--A State educational agency or 
        eligible entity receiving funding under this section may use 
        not more than 5 percent of such funding for administrative 
        costs associated with carrying out this section.
    (e) Evaluations; Report; Website.--
            (1) Evaluation and assessment.--For each year that an 
        eligible entity enters into an agreement under subsection 
        (d)(4), the eligible entity shall prepare and submit to the 
        Secretary a report on the activities and outcomes of each 
        summer learning opportunity that enrolled a summer scholar, 
        including--
                    (A) information on the design of the summer 
                learning opportunity;
                    (B) the alignment of the summer learning 
                opportunity with State standards; and
                    (C) data from assessments of student mathematics 
                and problem-solving skills for the summer scholars and 
                on the attendance of the scholars, disaggregated by the 
                subgroups described in subsection (d)(4)(A)(ii)(IV).
            (2) Report.--For each year funds are appropriated under 
        subsection (f) for this section, the Secretary shall prepare 
        and submit a report to the HELP Committee of the Senate and the 
        Education and Labor Committee of the House on the summer 
        learning grant programs, including the effectiveness of the 
        summer learning opportunities in improving student achievement 
        and learning.
            (3) Summer learning grants website.--The Secretary shall 
        make accessible, on the Department of Education website, 
        information for parents and school personnel on successful 
        programs and curricula, and best practices, for summer learning 
        opportunities.
    (f) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to carry out this section such sums as may be necessary 
for fiscal year 2008 through fiscal year 2012.

SEC. 3203. MATH SKILLS FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS.

    (a) The purposes of this section are--
            (1) to provide assistance to State educational agencies and 
        local educational agencies in implementing effective research-
        based mathematics programs for students in secondary schools, 
        including students with disabilities and students with limited 
        English proficiency;
            (2) to improve instruction in mathematics for students in 
        secondary school through the implementation of mathematics 
        programs and the support of comprehensive mathematics 
        initiatives that are based on the best available evidence of 
        effectiveness;
            (3) to provide targeted help to low-income students who are 
        struggling with mathematics and whose achievement is 
        significantly below grade level; and
            (4) to provide in-service training for mathematics coaches 
        who can assist secondary school teachers to utilize research-
        based mathematics instruction to develop and improve students' 
        mathematical abilities and knowledge, and assist teachers in 
        assessing and improving student academic achievement.
    (b) Definitions.--In this section:
            (1) Eligible local educational agency.--The term ``eligible 
        local educational agency'' means a local educational agency 
        that is eligible to receive funds, and that is receiving funds, 
        under part A of title I of the Elementary and Secondary 
        Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6311 et seq.).
            (2) Mathematics coach.--The term ``mathematics coach'' 
        means a certified or licensed teacher, with a demonstrated 
        effectiveness in teaching mathematics to students with 
        specialized needs in mathematics and improving student academic 
        achievement in mathematics, a command of mathematical content 
        knowledge, and the ability to work with classroom teachers to 
        improve the teachers' instructional techniques to support 
        mathematics improvement, who works on site at a school--
                    (A) to train teachers to better assess student 
                learning in mathematics;
                    (B) to train teachers to assess students' 
                mathematics skills and identify students who need 
                remediation; and
                    (C) to provide or assess remedial mathematics 
                instruction, including for--
                            (i) students in after-school and summer 
                        school programs;
                            (ii) students requiring additional 
                        instruction;
                            (iii) students with disabilities; and
                            (iv) students with limited English 
                        proficiency.
            (3) Secondary school.--The term ``secondary school'' means 
        a school that provides secondary education, as determined under 
        State law.
            (4) Secretary.--The term ``Secretary'' means the Secretary 
        of Education.
    (c) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to carry out this section such sums as be necessary for 
fiscal year 2008 and each of the 3 succeeding fiscal years.
    (d) Grants Authorized.--
            (1) In general.--From funds appropriated under subsection 
        (c) for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall establish a program, 
        in accordance with the requirements of this section, that will 
        provide grants on a competitive basis to State educational 
        agencies to award grants and subgrants to eligible local 
        educational agencies for the purpose of establishing 
        mathematics programs to improve the overall mathematics 
        performance of secondary school students in the State.
            (2) Length of grant.--A grant to a State educational agency 
        under this section shall be awarded for a period of 4 years.
    (e) Reservation of Funds by the Secretary.--From amounts 
appropriated under subsection (c) for a fiscal year, the Secretary may 
reserve--
            (1) not more than 3 percent of such amounts to fund 
        national activities in support of the programs assisted under 
        this section, such as research and dissemination of best 
        practices, except that the Secretary may not use the reserved 
        funds to award grants directly to local educational agencies; 
        and
            (2) not more than \1/2\ of 1 percent of such amounts for 
        the Bureau of Indian Education of the Department of the 
        Interior to carry out the services and activities described in 
        subsection (l)(3) for Indian children.
    (f) Grant Formulas.--
            (1) Competitive grants to state educational agencies.--From 
        amounts appropriated under subsection (c) and not reserved 
        under subsection (e), the Secretary shall award grants, on a 
        competitive basis, to State educational agencies to enable the 
        State educational agencies to provide subgrants to eligible 
        local educational agencies to establish mathematics programs 
        for the purpose of improving overall mathematics performance 
        among students in secondary school in the State.
            (2) Minimum grant.--The Secretary shall ensure that the 
        minimum grant made to any state educational agency under this 
        section shall be not less than $500,000.
    (g) Applications.--
            (1) In general.--In order to receive a grant under this 
        section, a State educational agency shall submit an application 
        to the Secretary at such time, in such manner, and accompanied 
        by such information as the Secretary may require. Each such 
        application shall meet the following conditions:
                    (A) A State educational agency shall not include 
                the application for assistance under this section in a 
                consolidated application submitted under section 9302 
                of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 
                (20 U.S.C. 7842).
                    (B) The State educational agency's application 
                shall include assurances that such application and any 
                technical assistance provided by the State will be 
                guided by a peer review team, which shall consist of--
                            (i) researchers with expertise in the 
                        pedagogy of mathematics;
                            (ii) mathematicians; and
                            (iii) mathematics educators serving high-
                        risk, high-achievement schools and eligible 
                        local educational agencies.
                    (C) The State educational agency will participate, 
                if requested, in any evaluation of the State 
                educational agency's program under this section.
                    (D) The State educational agency's application 
                shall include a program plan that contains a 
                description of the following:
                            (i) How the State educational agency will 
                        assist eligible local educational agencies in 
                        implementing subgrants, including providing 
                        ongoing professional development for 
                        mathematics coaches, teachers, 
                        paraprofessionals, and administrators.
                            (ii) How the State educational agency will 
                        help eligible local educational agencies 
                        identify high-quality screening, diagnostic, 
                        and classroom-based instructional mathematics 
                        assessments.
                            (iii) How the State educational agency will 
                        help eligible local educational agencies 
                        identify high-quality research-based 
                        mathematics materials and programs.
                            (iv) How the State educational agency will 
                        help eligible local educational agencies 
                        identify appropriate and effective materials, 
                        programs, and assessments for students with 
                        disabilities and students with limited English 
                        proficiency.
                            (v) How the State educational agency will 
                        ensure that professional development funded 
                        under this section--
                                    (I) is based on mathematics 
                                research;
                                    (II) will effectively improve 
                                instructional practices for mathematics 
                                for secondary school students;
                                    (III) will improve student academic 
                                achievement in mathematics; and
                                    (IV) is coordinated with 
                                professional development activities 
                                funded through other programs, 
                                including section 2113 of the 
                                Elementary and Secondary Education Act 
                                of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6613).
                            (vi) How funded activities will help 
                        teachers and other instructional staff to 
                        implement research-based components of 
                        mathematics instruction and improve student 
                        academic achievement.
                            (vii) The subgrant process the State 
                        educational agency will use to ensure that 
                        eligible local educational agencies receiving 
                        subgrants implement programs and practices 
                        based on mathematics research.
                            (viii) How the State educational agency 
                        will build on and promote coordination among 
                        mathematics programs in the State to increase 
                        overall effectiveness in improving mathematics 
                        instruction and student academic achievement, 
                        including for students with disabilities and 
                        students with limited English proficiency.
                            (ix) How the State educational agency will 
                        regularly assess and evaluate the effectiveness 
                        of the eligible local educational agency 
                        activities funded under this section.
    (h) State Use of Funds.--Each State educational agency receiving a 
grant under this section shall--
            (1) establish a peer review team comprised of researchers 
        with expertise in the pedagogy of mathematics, mathematicians, 
        and mathematics educators from high-risk, high-achievement 
        schools, to provide guidance to eligible local educational 
        agencies in selecting or developing and implementing 
        appropriate, research-based mathematics programs for secondary 
        school students;
            (2) use 80 percent of the grant funds received under this 
        section for a fiscal year to fund high-quality applications for 
        subgrants to eligible local educational agencies having 
        applications approved under subsection (l); and
            (3) use 20 percent of the grant funds received under this 
        section--
                    (A) to carry out State-level activities described 
                in the application submitted under subsection (g);
                    (B) to provide--
                            (i) technical assistance to eligible local 
                        educational agencies; and
                            (ii) high-quality professional development 
                        to teachers and mathematics coaches in the 
                        State;
                    (C) to oversee and evaluate subgrant services and 
                activities undertaken by the eligible local educational 
                agencies as described in subsection (l)(3); and
                    (D) for administrative costs, of which not more 
                than 5 percent of the grant funds may be used for 
                planning, administration, and reporting.
    (i) Notice to Eligible Local Educational Agencies.--Each State 
educational agency receiving a grant under this section shall provide 
notice to all eligible local educational agencies in the State about 
the availability of subgrants under this section.
    (j) Prohibitions.--
            (1) In general.--In implementing this section, the 
        Secretary shall not--
                    (A) endorse, approve, or sanction any mathematics 
                curriculum designed for use in any school; or
                    (B) engage in oversight, technical assistance, or 
                activities that will require the adoption of a specific 
                mathematics program or instructional materials by a 
                State, local educational agency, or school.
            (2) Conflict of interest.--Any federal employee, 
        contractor, or subcontractor involved in the administration, 
        implementation, or provision of oversight or technical 
        assistance duties or activities under this section shall--
                    (A) disclose to the Secretary any financial ties to 
                publishers, entities, private individuals, or 
                organizations that will benefit from funds provided 
                under this section; and
                    (B) be prohibited from maintaining significant 
                financial interests in areas directly related to duties 
                or activities under this section, unless granted a 
                waiver by the Secretary.
            (3) Reporting.--The Secretary shall report annually to the 
        Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the 
        Senate, and the Committee on Education and Labor of the House 
        of Representatives, on each of the waivers granted under 
        paragraph (2)(B).
            (4) Rule of construction.--Nothing in this section shall be 
        construed to authorize or permit the Secretary, Department of 
        Education, or a Department of Education contractor, to mandate, 
        direct, control, or suggest the selection of a mathematics 
        curriculum, supplemental instructional materials, or program of 
        instruction by a State, local educational agency, or school.
    (k) Supplement Not Supplant.--Each State educational agency 
receiving a grant under this section shall use the grant funds to 
supplement, not supplant, State funding for activities authorized under 
this section or for other educational activities.
    (l) Subgrants to Eligible Local Educational Agencies.--
            (1) Application.--
                    (A) In general.--Each eligible local educational 
                agency desiring a subgrant under this subsection shall 
                submit an application to the State educational agency 
                in the form and according to the schedule established 
                by the State educational agency.
                    (B) Contents.--In addition to any information 
                required by the State educational agency, each 
                application under paragraph (1) shall demonstrate how 
                the eligible local educational agency will carry out 
                the following required activities:
                            (i) Development or selection and 
                        implementation of research-based mathematics 
                        assessments.
                            (ii) Development or selection and 
                        implementation of research-based mathematics 
                        programs, including programs for students with 
                        disabilities and students with limited English 
                        proficiency.
                            (iii) Selection of instructional materials 
                        based on mathematics research.
                            (iv) High-quality professional development 
                        for mathematics coaches and teachers based on 
                        mathematics research.
                            (v) Evaluation and assessment strategies.
                            (vi) Reporting.
                            (vii) Providing access to research-based 
                        mathematics materials.
                    (C) Consortia.--Consistent with State law, an 
                eligible local educational agency may apply to the 
                State educational agency for a subgrant as a member of 
                a consortium of local educational agencies if each 
                member of the consortium is an eligible local 
                educational agency.
            (2) Award basis.--
                    (A) Priority.--A State educational agency awarding 
                subgrants under this subsection shall give priority to 
                eligible local educational agencies that--
                            (i) are among the local educational 
                        agencies in the State with the lowest 
                        graduation rates, as described in section 
                        1111(b)(2)(C)(vi) of the Elementary and 
                        Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 
                        6311(b)(2)(C)(vi)); and
                            (ii) have the highest number or percentage 
                        of students who are counted under section 
                        1124(c) of the Elementary and Secondary 
                        Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6333(c)).
                    (B) Amount of grants.--Subgrants under this 
                subsection shall be of sufficient size and scope to 
                enable eligible local educational agencies to fully 
                implement activities assisted under this subsection.
            (3) Local use of funds.--Each eligible local educational 
        agency receiving a subgrant under this subsection shall use the 
        subgrant funds to carry out, at the secondary school level, the 
        following services and activities:
                    (A) Hiring mathematics coaches and providing 
                professional development for mathematics coaches--
                            (i) at a level to provide effective 
                        coaching to classroom teachers;
                            (ii) to work with classroom teachers to 
                        better assess student academic achievement in 
                        mathematics;
                            (iii) to work with classroom teachers to 
                        identify students with mathematics problems 
                        and, where appropriate, refer students to 
                        available programs for remediation and 
                        additional services;
                            (iv) to work with classroom teachers to 
                        diagnose and remediate mathematics difficulties 
                        of the lowest-performing students, so that 
                        those teachers can provide intensive, research-
                        based instruction, including during after-
                        school and summer sessions, geared toward 
                        ensuring that those students can access and be 
                        successful in rigorous academic coursework; and
                            (v) to assess and organize student data on 
                        mathematics and communicate that data to school 
                        administrators to inform school reform efforts.
                    (B) Reviewing, analyzing, developing, and, where 
                possible, adapting curricula to make sure mathematics 
                skills are taught within other core academic subjects.
                    (C) Providing mathematics professional development 
                for all relevant teachers in secondary school, as 
                necessary, that addresses both remedial and higher 
                level mathematics skills for students in the applicable 
                curriculum.
                    (D) Providing professional development for 
                teachers, administrators, and paraprofessionals serving 
                secondary schools to help the teachers, administrators, 
                and paraprofessionals improve student academic 
                achievement in mathematics.
                    (E) Procuring and implementing programs and 
                instructional materials based on mathematics research, 
                including software and other education technology 
                related to mathematics instruction with demonstrated 
                effectiveness in improving mathematics instruction and 
                student academic achievement.
                    (F) Building on and promoting coordination among 
                mathematics programs in the eligible local educational 
                agency to increase overall effectiveness in--
                            (i) improving mathematics instruction; and
                            (ii) increasing student academic 
                        achievement, including for students with 
                        disabilities and students with limited English 
                        proficiency.
                    (G) Evaluating the effectiveness of the 
                instructional strategies, teacher professional 
                development programs, and other interventions that are 
                implemented under the subgrant; and
                    (H) Measuring improvement in student academic 
                achievement, including through progress monitoring or 
                other assessments.
            (4) Supplement not supplant.--Each eligible local 
        educational agency receiving a subgrant under this subsection 
        shall use the subgrant funds to supplement, not supplant, the 
        eligible local educational agency's funding for activities 
        authorized under this section or for other educational 
        activities.
            (5) New services and activities.--Subgrant funds provided 
        under this subsection may be used only to provide services and 
        activities authorized under this section that were not provided 
        on the day before the date of enactment of this Act.
            (6) Evaluations.--Each eligible local educational agency 
        receiving a grant under this subsection shall participate, as 
        requested by the State educational agency or the Secretary, in 
        reviews and evaluations of the programs of the eligible local 
        educational agency and the effectiveness of such programs, and 
        shall provide such reports as are requested by the State 
        educational agency and the Secretary.
    (m) Matching Requirements.--
            (1) State educational agency requirements.--A State 
        educational agency that receives a grant under this section 
        shall provide, from non-Federal sources, an amount equal to 50 
        percent of the amount of the grant, in cash or in-kind, to 
        carry out the activities supported by the grant, of which not 
        more than 20 percent of such 50 percent may be provided by 
        local educational agencies within the State.
            (2) Waiver.--The Secretary may waive all or a portion of 
        the matching requirements described in paragraph (1) for any 
        fiscal year, if the Secretary determines that--
                    (A) the application of the matching requirement 
                will result in serious hardship for the State 
                educational agency; or
                    (B) providing a waiver best serves the purpose of 
                the program assisted under this section.
    (n) Program Performance and Accountability.--
            (1) Information.--Each State educational agency receiving a 
        grant under this section shall collect and report to the 
        Secretary annually such information on the results of the grant 
        as the Secretary may reasonably require, including information 
        on--
                    (A) mathematics achievement data that show the 
                progress of students participating in projects under 
                this section (including, to the extent practicable, 
                comparable data from students not participating in such 
                projects), based primarily on the results of State, 
                school districtwide, or classroom-based monitoring 
                reports or assessments, including--
                            (i) specific identification of those 
                        schools and eligible local educational agencies 
                        that report the largest gains in mathematics 
                        achievement; and
                            (ii) evidence on whether the State 
                        educational agency and eligible local 
                        educational agencies within the State have--
                                    (I) significantly increased the 
                                number of students achieving at the 
                                proficient or advanced level on the 
                                State student academic achievement 
                                standards in mathematics under section 
                                1111(b)(1)(D)(ii) of the Elementary and 
                                Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 
                                U.S.C. 6311(b)(1)(D)(ii));
                                    (II) significantly increased the 
                                percentages of students described in 
                                section 1111(b)(2)(C)(v)(II) of the 
                                Elementary and Secondary Education Act 
                                of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 
                                6311(b)(2)(C)(v)(II)) who are achieving 
                                proficiency or advanced levels on such 
                                State academic content standards in 
                                mathematics;
                                    (III) significantly increased the 
                                number of students making significant 
                                progress toward meeting such State 
                                academic content and achievement 
                                standards in mathematics; and
                                    (IV) successfully implemented this 
                                section;
                    (B) the percentage of students in the schools 
                served by the eligible local educational agency who 
                enroll in advanced mathematics courses in grades 9 
                through 12, including the percentage of such students 
                who pass such courses; and
                    (C) the progress made in increasing the quality and 
                accessibility of professional development and 
                leadership activities in mathematics, especially 
                activities resulting in greater content knowledge and 
                expertise of teachers, administrators, and other school 
                staff, except that the Secretary shall not require such 
                information until after the third year of a grant 
                awarded under this section.
            (2) Reporting and disaggregation.--The information required 
        under paragraph (1) shall be--
                    (A) reported in a manner that allows for a 
                comparison of aggregated score differentials of student 
                academic achievement before (to the extent feasible) 
                and after implementation of the project assisted under 
                this section; and
                    (B) disaggregated in the same manner as information 
                is disaggregated under section 1111(h)(1)(C)(i) of the 
                Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 
                U.S.C. 6311(h)(1)(C)(i)).

            TITLE III--FOREIGN LANGUAGE PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM

SEC. 3301. FINDINGS AND PURPOSE.

    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
            (1) The United States faces a shortage of skilled 
        professionals with higher levels of proficiency in foreign 
        languages and area knowledge critical to the Nation's security.
            (2) Given the Nation's economic competitiveness interests, 
        it is crucial that our Nation expand the number of Americans 
        who are able to function effectively in the environments in 
        which critical foreign languages are spoken.
            (3) Students' ability to become proficient in foreign 
        languages can be addressed by starting language learning at a 
        younger age and expanding opportunities for continuous foreign 
        language education from elementary school through postsecondary 
        education.
    (b) Purpose.--The purpose of this title is to significantly 
increase--
            (1) the opportunities to study critical foreign languages 
        and the context in which the critical foreign languages are 
        spoken; and
            (2) the number of American students who achieve the highest 
        level of proficiency in critical foreign languages.

SEC. 3302. DEFINITIONS.

    In this title:
            (1) Eligible recipient.--The term ``eligible recipient'' 
        means an institution of higher education that receives grant 
        funds under this title on behalf of a partnership for use in 
        carrying out the activities assisted under this title.
            (2) Partnership.--The term ``partnership'' means a 
        partnership that--
                    (A) shall include--
                            (i) an institution of higher education; and
                            (ii) 1 or more local educational agencies; 
                        and
                    (B) may include 1 or more entities that support the 
                purposes of this title.
            (3) Superior level of proficiency.--The term ``superior 
        level of proficiency'' means level 3, the professional working 
        level, as measured by the Federal Interagency Language 
        Roundtable (ILR) or by other generally recognized measures of 
        superior standards.

SEC. 3303. PROGRAM AUTHORIZED.

    (a) Program Authorized.--
            (1) In general.--The Secretary is authorized to award 
        grants to eligible recipients to enable partnerships served by 
        the eligible recipients to establish articulated programs of 
        study in critical foreign languages that will enable students 
        to advance successfully from elementary school through 
        postsecondary education and achieve higher levels of 
        proficiency in a critical foreign language.
            (2) Duration.--A grant awarded under paragraph (1) shall be 
        for a period of not more than 5 years. A grant may be renewed 
        for not more than 2 additional 5-year periods, if the Secretary 
        determines that the partnership's program is effective and the 
        renewal will best serve the purposes of this title.
    (b) Applications.--
            (1) In general.--Each eligible recipient desiring a grant 
        under this section shall submit an application to the Secretary 
        at such time, in such manner, and containing such information 
        as the Secretary may require.
            (2) Contents.--Each application shall--
                    (A) identify each local educational agency partner, 
                including contact information and letters of 
                commitment, and describe the responsibilities of each 
                member of the partnership, including--
                            (i) how each of the partners will be 
                        involved in planning, developing, and 
                        implementing--
                                    (I) program curriculum and 
                                materials; and
                                    (II) teacher professional 
                                development;
                            (ii) what resources each of the partners 
                        will provide; and
                            (iii) how the partners will contribute to 
                        ensuring the continuity of student progress 
                        from elementary school through the 
                        postsecondary level;
                    (B) describe how an articulated curriculum for 
                students will be developed and implemented, which may 
                include the use and integration of technology into such 
                curriculum;
                    (C) identify target proficiency levels for students 
                at critical benchmarks (such as grades 4, 8, and 12), 
                and describe how progress toward those proficiency 
                levels will be assessed at the benchmarks, and how the 
                program will use the results of the assessments to 
                ensure continuous progress toward achieving a superior 
                level of proficiency at the postsecondary level;
                    (D) describe how the partnership will--
                            (i) ensure that students from a program 
                        assisted under this title who are beginning 
                        postsecondary education will be assessed and 
                        enabled to progress to a superior level of 
                        proficiency;
                            (ii) address the needs of students already 
                        at, or near, the superior level of proficiency, 
                        which may include diagnostic assessments for 
                        placement purposes, customized and 
                        individualized language learning opportunities, 
                        and experimental and interdisciplinary language 
                        learning; and
                            (iii) identify and describe how the 
                        partnership will work with institutions of 
                        higher education outside the partnership to 
                        provide participating students with multiple 
                        options for postsecondary education consistent 
                        with the purposes of this title;
                    (E) describe how the partnership will support and 
                continue the program after the grant has expired, 
                including how the partnership will seek support from 
                other sources, such as State and local governments, 
                foundations, and the private sector; and
                    (F) describe what assessments will be used or, if 
                assessments not available, how assessments will be 
                developed.
    (c) Uses of Funds.--Grant funds awarded under this title--
            (1) shall be used to develop and implement programs at the 
        elementary school level through postsecondary education, 
        consistent with the purpose of this title, including--
                    (A) the development of curriculum and instructional 
                materials; and
                    (B) recruitment of students; and
            (2) may be used for--
                    (A) teacher recruitment (including recruitment from 
                other professions and recruitment of native-language 
                speakers in the community) and professional development 
                directly related to the purposes of this title at the 
                elementary school through secondary school levels;
                    (B) development of appropriate assessments;
                    (C) opportunities for maximum language exposure for 
                students in the program, such as the creation of 
                immersion environments (such as language houses, 
                language tables, immersion classrooms, and weekend and 
                summer experiences) and special tutoring and academic 
                support;
                    (D) dual language immersion programs;
                    (E) scholarships and study-abroad opportunities, 
                related to the program, for postsecondary students and 
                newly recruited teachers who have advanced levels of 
                proficiency in a critical foreign language, except that 
                not more than 20 percent of the grant funds provided to 
                an eligible recipient under this section for a fiscal 
                year may be used to carry out this subparagraph;
                    (F) activities to encourage community involvement 
                to assist in meeting the purposes of this title;
                    (G) summer institutes for students and teachers;
                    (H) bridge programs that allow dual enrollment for 
                secondary school students in institutions of higher 
                education;
                    (I) programs that expand the understanding and 
                knowledge of historic, geographic, and contextual 
                factors within countries with populations who speak 
                critical foreign languages, if such programs are 
                carried out in conjunction with language instruction;
                    (J) research on, and evaluation of, the teaching of 
                critical foreign languages;
                    (K) data collection and analysis regarding the 
                results of--
                            (i) various student recruitment strategies;
                            (ii) program design; and
                            (iii) curricular approaches;
                    (L) the impact of the strategies, program design, 
                and curricular approaches described in subparagraph (K) 
                on increasing--
                            (i) the number of students studying 
                        critical foreign languages; and
                            (ii) the proficiency of the students in the 
                        critical foreign languages; and
                    (M) distance learning projects for critical foreign 
                language learning.
    (d) Matching Requirement.--
            (1) In general.--An eligible recipient that receives a 
        grant under this title shall provide, toward the cost of 
        carrying out the activities supported by the grant, from non-
        Federal sources, an amount equal to--
                    (A) 20 percent of the amount of the grant payment 
                for the first fiscal year for which a grant payment is 
                made;
                    (B) 30 percent of the amount of the grant payment 
                for the second such fiscal year;
                    (C) 40 percent of the amount of the grant payment 
                for the third such fiscal year; and
                    (D) 50 percent of the amount of the grant payment 
                for each of the fourth and fifth such fiscal years.
            (2) Non-federal share.--The non-Federal share required 
        under paragraph (1) may be provided in cash or in-kind.
            (3) Waiver.--The Secretary may waive all or part of the 
        matching requirement of paragraph (1), for any fiscal year, if 
        the Secretary determines that--
                    (A) the application of the matching requirement 
                will result in serious hardship for the partnership; or
                    (B) the waiver will best serve the purposes of this 
                title.
    (e) Supplement Not Supplant.--Grant funds provided under this title 
shall be used to supplement, not supplant, other Federal and non-
Federal funds available to carry out the activities described in 
subsection (c).
    (f) Technical Assistance.--The Secretary shall enter into a 
contract to establish a technical assistance center to provide 
technical assistance to partnerships developing critical foreign 
language programs assisted under this section. The center shall--
            (1) assist the partnerships in the development of critical 
        foreign language instructional materials and assessments; and
            (2) disseminate promising foreign language instructional 
        practices.
    (g) Program Evaluation.--
            (1) In general.--The Secretary may reserve not more than 5 
        percent of the total amount appropriated for this title for any 
        fiscal year to annually evaluate the programs under this title.
            (2) Report.--The Secretary shall prepare and annually 
        submit, to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and 
        Pensions of the Senate, the Committee on Education and the 
        Workforce of the House of Representatives, and the Committees 
        on Appropriations of the Senate and House of Representatives, a 
        report on the results of any program evaluation conducted under 
        this subsection.

SEC. 3304. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

    For the purpose of carrying out this title, there are authorized to 
be appropriated $22,000,000 for fiscal year 2008, and such sums as may 
be necessary for each of the 3 succeeding fiscal years.

               TITLE IV--ALIGNMENT OF EDUCATION PROGRAMS

SEC. 3401. ALIGNMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS WITH 
              THE DEMANDS OF 21ST CENTURY POSTSECONDARY ENDEAVORS AND 
              SUPPORT FOR P-16 EDUCATION DATA SYSTEMS.

    (a) Purpose.--It is the purpose of this section--
            (1) to promote more accountability with respect to 
        preparation for higher education, the 21st century workforce, 
        and the Armed Forces, by aligning--
                    (A) student knowledge, student skills, State 
                academic content standards and assessments, and 
                curricula, in elementary and secondary education, 
                especially with respect to mathematics, science, 
                reading, and, where applicable, engineering and 
                technology; with
                    (B) the demands of higher education, the 21st 
                century workforce, and the Armed Forces;
            (2) to support the establishment or improvement of 
        statewide P-16 education data systems that--
                    (A) assist States in improving the rigor and 
                quality of State academic content standards and 
                assessments;
                    (B) ensure students are prepared to succeed in--
                            (i) academic credit-bearing coursework in 
                        higher education without the need for 
                        remediation;
                            (ii) the 21st century workforce; or
                            (iii) the Armed Forces; and
            (3) enable States to have valid and reliable information to 
        inform education policy and practice.
    (b) Definitions.--In this section:
            (1) Institution of higher education.--The term 
        ``institution of higher education'' has the meaning given the 
        term in section 101(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 
        U.S.C. 1001(a)).
            (2) P-16 education.--The term ``P-16 education'' means the 
        educational system from preschool through the conferring of a 
        baccalaureate degree.
            (3) Statewide partnership.--The term ``statewide 
        partnership'' means a partnership that--
                    (A) shall include--
                            (i) the Governor of the State or the 
                        designee of the Governor;
                            (ii) the heads of the State systems for 
                        public higher education, or, if such a position 
                        does not exist, not less than 1 representative 
                        of a public degree-granting institution of 
                        higher education;
                            (iii) a representative of the agencies in 
                        the State that administer Federal or State-
                        funded early childhood education programs;
                            (iv) not less than 1 representative of a 
                        public community college;
                            (v) not less than 1 representative of a 
                        technical school;
                            (vi) not less than 1 representative of a 
                        public secondary school;
                            (vii) the chief State school officer;
                            (viii) the chief executive officer of the 
                        State higher education coordinating board;
                            (ix) not less than 1 public elementary 
                        school teacher employed in the State;
                            (x) not less than 1 early childhood 
                        educator in the State;
                            (xi) not less than 1 public secondary 
                        school teacher employed in the State;
                            (xii) not less than 1 representative of the 
                        business community in the State; and
                            (xiii) not less than 1 member of the Armed 
                        Forces; and
                    (B) may include other individuals or 
                representatives of other organizations, such as a 
                school administrator, a faculty member at an 
                institution of higher education, a member of a civic or 
                community organization, a representative from a private 
                institution of higher education, a dean or similar 
                representative of a school of education at an 
                institution of higher education or a similar teacher 
                certification or licensure program, or the State 
                official responsible for economic development.
    (c) Grants Authorized.--The Secretary is authorized to award 
grants, on a competitive basis, to States to enable each such State to 
work with a statewide partnership--
            (1) to promote better alignment of content knowledge 
        requirements for secondary school graduation with the knowledge 
        and skills needed to succeed in postsecondary education, the 
        21st century workforce, or the Armed Forces; or
            (2) to establish or improve a statewide P-16 education data 
        system.
    (d) Period of Grants; Non-Renewability.--
            (1) Grant period.--The Secretary shall award a grant under 
        this section for a period of not more than 3 years.
            (2) Non-renewability.--The Secretary shall not award a 
        State more than 1 grant under this section.
    (e) Authorized Activities.--
            (1) Grants for p-16 alignment.--Each State receiving a 
        grant under subsection (c)(1)--
                    (A) shall use the grant funds for--
                            (i) identifying and describing the content 
                        knowledge and skills students who enter 
                        institutions of higher education, the 
                        workforce, and the Armed Forces need to have in 
                        order to succeed without any remediation based 
                        on detailed requirements obtained from 
                        institutions of higher education, employers, 
                        and the Armed Forces;
                            (ii) identifying and making changes that 
                        need to be made to a State's secondary school 
                        graduation requirements, academic content 
                        standards, academic achievement standards, and 
                        assessments preceding graduation from secondary 
                        school in order to align the requirements, 
                        standards, and assessments with the knowledge 
                        and skills necessary for success in academic 
                        credit-bearing coursework in postsecondary 
                        education, in the 21st century workforce, and 
                        in the Armed Forces without the need for 
                        remediation;
                            (iii) convening stakeholders within the 
                        State and creating a forum for identifying and 
                        deliberating on education issues that--
                                    (I) involve preschool through grade 
                                12 education, postsecondary education, 
                                the 21st century workforce, and the 
                                Armed Forces; and
                                    (II) transcend any single system of 
                                education's ability to address; and
                            (iv) implementing activities designed to 
                        ensure the enrollment of all elementary school 
                        and secondary school students in rigorous 
                        coursework, which may include--
                                    (I) specifying the courses and 
                                performance levels necessary for 
                                acceptance into institutions of higher 
                                education; and
                                    (II) developing or providing 
                                guidance to local educational agencies 
                                within the State on the adoption of 
                                curricula and assessments aligned with 
                                State academic content standards, which 
                                assessments may be used as measures of 
                                student academic achievement in 
                                secondary school as well as for 
                                entrance or placement at institutions 
                                of higher education, including through 
                                collaboration with institutions of 
                                higher education in, or State 
                                educational agencies serving, other 
                                States; and
                    (B) may use the grant funds for--
                            (i) developing and making available 
                        specific opportunities for extensive 
                        professional development for teachers, 
                        paraprofessionals, principals, and school 
                        administrators, including collection and 
                        dissemination of effective teaching practices 
                        to improve instruction and instructional 
                        support mechanisms;
                            (ii) identifying changes in State academic 
                        content standards, academic achievement 
                        standards, and assessments for students in 
                        grades preceding secondary school in order to 
                        ensure such standards and assessments are 
                        appropriately aligned and adequately reflect 
                        the content needed to prepare students to enter 
                        secondary school;
                            (iii) developing a plan to provide 
                        remediation and additional learning 
                        opportunities for students who are performing 
                        below grade level to ensure that all students 
                        will have the opportunity to meet secondary 
                        school graduation requirements;
                            (iv) identifying and addressing teacher 
                        certification needs; or
                            (v) incorporating 21st century learning 
                        skills into the State plan, which skills shall 
                        include critical thinking, problem solving, 
                        communication, collaboration, global awareness, 
                        and business and financial literacy.
            (2) Grants for statewide p-16 education data systems.--
                    (A) Establishment of system.--Each State that 
                receives a grant under subsection (c)(2) shall 
                establish a statewide P-16 education longitudinal data 
                system that--
                            (i) provides each student, upon enrollment 
                        in a public elementary school or secondary 
                        school in the State, with a unique identifier, 
                        such as a bar code, that--
                                    (I) does not permit a student to be 
                                individually identified by users of the 
                                system; and
                                    (II) is retained throughout the 
                                student's enrollment in P-16 education 
                                in the State; and
                            (ii) meets the requirements of 
                        subparagraphs (B) through (E).
                    (B) Improvement of existing system.--Each State 
                that receives a grant under subsection (c)(2) for the 
                improvement of a statewide P-16 education data system 
                may employ, coordinate, or revise an existing statewide 
                data system to establish a statewide longitudinal P-16 
                education data system that meets the requirements of 
                subparagraph (A), if the statewide longitudinal P-16 
                education data system produces valid and reliable data.
                    (C) Privacy and access to data.--
                            (i) In general.--Each State that receives a 
                        grant under subsection (c)(2) shall implement 
                        measures to--
                                    (I) limit the State's use of 
                                information in the statewide P-16 
                                education data system to the purposes 
                                and functions for use of such 
                                information set forth in Federal or 
                                State law regarding education and allow 
                                access to the information in the 
                                statewide data system only to those 
                                State employees, and only on such 
                                terms, as may be necessary to fulfill 
                                those purposes and functions;
                                    (II) prohibit the disclosure of 
                                information in the statewide P-16 
                                education data system to any other 
                                person, agency, institution, or entity, 
                                except to the extent necessary to 
                                assist the State in fulfilling the 
                                purposes and functions for use of such 
                                information set forth in Federal or 
                                State law regarding education, and only 
                                if such party has signed a data use 
                                agreement that--
                                            (aa) prohibits the party 
                                        from further disclosing the 
                                        information;
                                            (bb) prohibits the party 
                                        from using the information for 
                                        any purpose other than the 
                                        purpose specified in the 
                                        agreement, which purpose must 
                                        relate to assisting the State 
                                        in carrying out the purposes 
                                        and functions for use of such 
                                        information set forth in 
                                        Federal or State law regarding 
                                        education; and
                                            (cc) requires the party to 
                                        destroy the information when 
                                        the purpose for which the 
                                        disclosure was made is 
                                        accomplished;
                                    (III) keep an accurate accounting 
                                of the date, nature, and purpose of 
                                each disclosure of information in the 
                                statewide P-16 education data system, 
                                and the name and address of the person, 
                                agency, institution, or entity to whom 
                                the disclosure is made, which 
                                accounting shall be made available on 
                                request to parents of any student whose 
                                information has been disclosed;
                                    (IV) maintain adequate security 
                                measures to ensure the confidentiality 
                                and integrity of the data system;
                                    (V) ensure that the statewide P-16 
                                education data system meets any further 
                                requirements of the Family Educational 
                                Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (20 
                                U.S.C. 1232g);
                                    (VI) where rights are provided to 
                                parents under this clause, provide 
                                those rights to the student instead of 
                                the parent if the student has reached 
                                the age of 18 or is enrolled in a 
                                postsecondary educational institution; 
                                and
                                    (VII) ensure adequate enforcement 
                                of the requirements of this clause.
                            (ii) Use of unique identifiers.--
                                    (I) Governmental use of unique 
                                identifiers.--It shall be unlawful for 
                                any Federal, State, or local 
                                governmental agency to use the unique 
                                identifiers employed in the statewide 
                                P-16 education data systems for any 
                                purpose other than as authorized by 
                                Federal or State law regarding 
                                education, or to deny any individual 
                                any right, benefit, or privilege 
                                provided by law because of such 
                                individual's refusal to disclose the 
                                individual's unique identifier.
                                    (II) Regulations.--Not later than 
                                180 days after the date of enactment of 
                                this Act, the Secretary of Education 
                                shall promulgate regulations governing 
                                the use by governmental and non-
                                governmental entities of the unique 
                                identifiers employed in statewide P-16 
                                education data systems, including, 
                                where necessary, regulations requiring 
                                States desiring grants for statewide P-
                                16 education data systems under this 
                                section to implement specified 
                                measures, with the goal of safeguarding 
                                individual privacy to the maximum 
                                extent practicable consistent with the 
                                uses of the information authorized in 
                                this Act or other Federal or State law 
                                regarding education.
                    (D) Required elements of a statewide p-16 education 
                data system.--The State shall ensure that the statewide 
                P-16 education data system includes the following 
                elements:
                            (i) Preschool through grade 12 education 
                        and postsecondary education.--With respect to 
                        preschool through grade 12 education and 
                        postsecondary education--
                                    (I) a unique statewide student 
                                identifier that does not permit a 
                                student to be individually identified 
                                by users of the system;
                                    (II) student-level enrollment, 
                                demographic, and program participation 
                                information;
                                    (III) student-level information 
                                about the points at which students 
                                exit, transfer in, transfer out, drop 
                                out, or complete P-16 education 
                                programs;
                                    (IV) the capacity to communicate 
                                with higher education data systems; and
                                    (V) a State data audit system 
                                assessing data quality, validity, and 
                                reliability.
                            (ii) Preschool through grade 12 
                        education.--With respect to preschool through 
                        grade 12 education--
                                    (I) yearly test records of 
                                individual students with respect to 
                                assessments under section 1111(b) of 
                                the Elementary and Secondary Education 
                                Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6311(b));
                                    (II) information on students not 
                                tested by grade and subject;
                                    (III) a teacher identifier system 
                                with the ability to match teachers to 
                                students;
                                    (IV) student-level transcript 
                                information, including information on 
                                courses completed and grades earned; 
                                and
                                    (V) student-level college readiness 
                                test scores.
                            (iii) Postsecondary education.--With 
                        respect to postsecondary education, data that 
                        provide--
                                    (I) information regarding the 
                                extent to which students transition 
                                successfully from secondary school to 
                                postsecondary education, including 
                                whether students enroll in remedial 
                                coursework; and
                                    (II) other information determined 
                                necessary to address alignment and 
                                adequate preparation for success in 
                                postsecondary education.
                    (E) Functions of the statewide p-16 education data 
                system.--In implementing the statewide P-16 education 
                data system, the State shall--
                            (i) identify factors that correlate to 
                        students' ability to successfully engage in and 
                        complete postsecondary-level general education 
                        coursework without the need for prior 
                        developmental coursework;
                            (ii) identify factors to increase the 
                        percentage of low-income and minority students 
                        who are academically prepared to enter and 
                        successfully complete postsecondary-level 
                        general education coursework; and
                            (iii) use the data in the system to 
                        otherwise inform education policy and practice 
                        in order to better align State academic content 
                        standards, and curricula, with the demands of 
                        postsecondary education, the 21st century 
                        workforce, and the Armed Forces.
    (f) Application.--
            (1) In general.--Each State desiring a grant under this 
        section shall submit an application to the Secretary at such 
        time, in such manner, and containing such information as the 
        Secretary may reasonably require.
            (2) Application contents.--Each application submitted under 
        this section shall specify whether the State application is for 
        the conduct P-16 education alignment activities, or the 
        establishment or improvement of a statewide P-16 education data 
        system. The application shall include, at a minimum, the 
        following:
                    (A) A description of the activities and programs to 
                be carried out with the grant funds and a comprehensive 
                plan for carrying out the activities.
                    (B) A description of how the concerns and interests 
                of the larger education community, including parents, 
                students, teachers, teacher educators, principals, and 
                preschool administrators will be represented in 
                carrying out the authorized activities described in 
                subsection (e).
                    (C) In the case of a State applying for funding for 
                P-16 education alignment, a description of how the 
                State will provide assistance to local educational 
                agencies in implementing rigorous State academic 
                content standards, substantive curricula, remediation, 
                and acceleration opportunities for students, as well as 
                other changes determined necessary by the State.
                    (D) In the case of a State applying for funding to 
                establish or improve a statewide P-16 education data 
                system--
                            (i) a description of the privacy protection 
                        and enforcement measures that the State has 
                        implemented or will implement pursuant to 
                        subparagraph (C), and assurances that these 
                        measures will be in place prior to the 
                        establishment or improvement of the statewide 
                        P-16 education data system; and
                            (ii) an assurance that the State will 
                        continue to fund the statewide P-16 education 
                        data system after the end of the grant period.
    (g) Supplement Not Supplant.--Grant funds provided under this 
section shall be used to supplement, not supplant, other Federal, 
State, and local funds available to carry out the authorized activities 
described in subsection (e).
    (h) Matching Requirement.--Each State that receives a grant under 
this section shall provide, from non-Federal sources, an amount equal 
to 100 percent of the amount of the grant, in cash or in kind, to carry 
out the activities supported by the grant.
    (i) Rule of Construction.--Nothing in this section shall be 
construed to require States to provide raw data to the Secretary.
    (j) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to carry out this section $100,000,000 for fiscal year 
2008 and such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 2009.

       TITLE V--MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE PARTNERSHIP BONUS GRANTS.

SEC. 3501. MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE PARTNERSHIP BONUS GRANTS.

    (a) In General.--From amounts appropriated under subsection (d), 
the Secretary of Education shall award a grant--
            (1) for each of the school years 2007-2008 through 2010-
        2011, to each of the 3 elementary schools and each of the 3 
        secondary schools each of which has a high concentration of low 
        income students as defined in section 1707(2) of the Elementary 
        and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6537(3)), in 
        each State whose students demonstrate the most improvement in 
        mathematics, as measured by the improvement in the students' 
        average score on the State's assessments in mathematics for the 
        school year for which the grant is awarded, as compared to the 
        school year preceding the school year for which the grant is 
        awarded; and
            (2) for each of the school years 2008-2009 through 2010-
        2011, to each of the 3 elementary schools and each of the 3 
        secondary schools each of which has a high concentration of low 
        income students as defined in section 1707(2) of the Elementary 
        and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6537(3)), in 
        each State whose students demonstrate the most improvement in 
        science, as measured by the improvement in the students' 
        average score on the State's assessments in science for the 
        school year for which the grant is awarded, as compared to the 
        school year preceding the school year for which the grant is 
        awarded.
    (b) Grant Amount.--The amount of each grant awarded under this 
section shall be $50,000.

SEC. 3502. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

    There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section 
such sums for fiscal years 2008 through 2011.

                DIVISION D--NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION

SEC. 4001. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

    (a) In General.--There are authorized to be appropriated to the 
National Science Foundation--
            (1) $6,729,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;
            (2) $7,738,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;
            (3) $8,899,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; and
            (4) $10,234,000,000 for fiscal year 2011.
    (b) Plan for Increased Research.--
            (1) In general.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
        the enactment of this Act, the Director of the National Science 
        Foundation, in consultation with the National Science Board, 
        shall submit a comprehensive, multiyear plan that describes how 
        the funds authorized in subsection (a) would be used, if 
        appropriated, to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
        Transportation of the Senate, the Committee on Health, 
        Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate, and the Committee 
        on Science of the House of Representatives.
            (2) Plan requirements.--The Director shall--
                    (A) develop the plan with a focus on strengthening 
                the Nation's lead in physical science and technology, 
                increasing overall workforce skills in physical 
                science, technology, engineering, and mathematics at 
                all levels, and strengthening innovation by expanding 
                the focus of competitiveness and innovation policy at 
                the regional and local level; and
                    (B) emphasize spending increased research funds 
                appropriated pursuant to subsection (a) in areas of 
                investment for Federal research and technology programs 
                identified under section 1101(c) of this Act.

SEC. 4002. STRENGTHENING OF EDUCATION AND HUMAN RESOURCES DIRECTORATE 
              THROUGH EQUITABLE DISTRIBUTION OF NEW FUNDS.

    (a) Purpose.--The purpose of this section is to ensure the 
continued involvement of experts at the National Science Foundation in 
improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education 
at the elementary, secondary, and postsecondary school levels by 
providing annual funding increases for the education and human 
resources programs of the National Science Foundation that are 
proportional to the funding increases provided to the Foundation 
overall.
    (b) Equitable Distribution of New Funds.--Within the amounts 
authorized to be appropriated by section 4001, there are authorized to 
be appropriated for the education and human resources programs of the 
National Science Foundation, for fiscal year 2008, $1,050,000,000, and, 
for each of the fiscal years 2009 through 2011, an amount equal to 
$1,050,000,000 increased for each such fiscal year by an amount equal 
to the percentage increase in the appropriation for the National 
Science Foundation for such fiscal year above the amount appropriated 
to the National Science Foundation for fiscal year 2008.

SEC. 4003. GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS AND GRADUATE TRAINEESHIPS.

    (a) Graduate Research Fellowship Program.--
            (1) In general.--During the 4-year period beginning on the 
        date of the enactment of this Act, the Director of the National 
        Science Foundation shall expand the Graduate Research 
        Fellowship Program of the National Science Foundation so that 
        an additional 1,250 fellowships are awarded to citizens or 
        nationals of the United States or eligible lawful permanent 
        residents under the Program during that period.
            (2) Extension of fellowship period.--The Director is 
        authorized to award fellowships under the Graduate Research 
        Fellowship Program for a period of up to 5 years.
            (3) Authorization of appropriations.--Within the amounts 
        authorized to be appropriated by section 4001, there are 
        authorized to be appropriated, to provide additional 
        fellowships under the Graduate Research Fellowship Program 
        during each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2011, the 
        following:
                    (A) $24,000,000 for fiscal year 2008.
                    (B) $36,000,000 for fiscal year 2009.
                    (C) $48,000,000 for fiscal year 2010.
                    (D) $60,000,000 for fiscal year 2011.
    (b) Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship 
Program.--
            (1) In general.--During the 4-year period beginning on the 
        date of the enactment of this Act, the Director shall expand 
        the Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship 
        program of the National Science Foundation so that an 
        additional 1,250 individuals who are citizens or nationals of 
        the United States or eligible lawful permanent residents are 
        awarded grants under the program during that period.
            (2) Authorization of appropriations.--Within the amounts 
        authorized to be appropriated by section 4001, there are 
        authorized to be appropriated, to provide grants to additional 
        individuals under the Integrative Graduate Education and 
        Research Traineeship program during each of the fiscal years 
        2008 through 2011, the following:
                    (A) $22,000,000 for fiscal year 2008.
                    (B) $33,000,000 for fiscal year 2009.
                    (C) $44,000,000 for fiscal year 2010.
                    (D) $55,000,000 for fiscal year 2011.
    (c) Definition of Eligible Lawful Permanent Resident.--In this 
section, the term ``eligible lawful permanent resident'' means a lawful 
permanent resident of the United States who declares an intent--
            (1) to apply for United States citizenship; or
            (2) to reside in the United States for not less than 5 
        years after the completion of a graduate fellowship or 
        traineeship awarded under this section.

SEC. 4004. PROFESSIONAL SCIENCE MASTER'S DEGREE PROGRAMS.

    (a) Clearinghouse.--
            (1) Development.--The Director of the National Science 
        Foundation shall establish a clearinghouse, in collaboration 
        with 4-year institutions of higher education (including 
        applicable graduate schools and academic departments), and 
        industries and Federal agencies that employ science-trained 
        personnel, to share program elements used in successful 
        professional science master's degree programs and other 
        advanced degree programs related to science, mathematics, 
        technology, and engineering.
            (2) Availability.--The Director shall make the 
        clearinghouse of program elements developed under paragraph (1) 
        available to institutions of higher education that are 
        developing professional science master's degree programs.
    (b) Programs.--
            (1) Programs authorized.--The Director shall award grants 
        to 4-year institutions of higher education to facilitate the 
        institutions' creation or improvement of professional science 
        master's degree programs.
            (2) Application.--A 4-year institution of higher education 
        desiring a grant under this section shall submit an application 
        at such time, in such manner, and accompanied by such 
        information as the Director may require. The application shall 
        include--
                    (A) a description of the professional science 
                master's degree program that the institution of higher 
                education will implement;
                    (B) the amount of funding from non-Federal sources, 
                including from private industries, that the institution 
                of higher education shall use to support the 
                professional science master's degree program; and
                    (C) an assurance that the institution of higher 
                education shall encourage students in the professional 
                science master's degree program to apply for all forms 
                of Federal assistance available to such students, 
                including applicable graduate fellowships and student 
                financial assistance under titles IV and VII of the 
                Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1070 et seq., 
                1133 et seq.).
            (3) Preferences.--The Director shall give preference in 
        making awards to 4-year institutions of higher education 
        seeking Federal funding to create or improve professional 
        science master's degree programs, to those applicants--
                    (A) located in States with low percentages of 
                citizens with graduate or professional degrees, as 
                determined by the Bureau of the Census, that 
                demonstrate success in meeting the unique needs of the 
                corporate, non-profit, and government communities in 
                the State, as evidenced by providing internships for 
                professional science master's degree students or 
                similar partnership arrangements; or
                    (B) that secure more than \2/3\ of the funding for 
                such professional science master's degree programs from 
                sources other than the Federal Government.
            (4) Number of grants; time period of grants.--
                    (A) Number of grants.--Subject to the availability 
                of appropriated funds, the Director shall award grants 
                under paragraph (1) to a maximum of 200 4-year 
                institutions of higher education.
                    (B) Time period of grants.--Grants awarded under 
                this section shall be for one 3-year term. Grants may 
                be renewed only once for a maximum of 2 additional 
                years.
            (5) Evaluation and reports.--
                    (A) Development of performance benchmarks.--Prior 
                to the start of the grant program, the Director of the 
                National Science Foundation, in collaboration with 4-
                year institutions of higher education (including 
                applicable graduate schools and academic departments), 
                and industries and Federal agencies that employ 
                science-trained personnel, shall develop performance 
                benchmarks to evaluate the pilot programs assisted by 
                grants under this section.
                    (B) Evaluation.--For each year of the grant period, 
                the Director, in consultation with 4-year institutions 
                of higher education (including applicable graduate 
                schools and academic departments), and industries and 
                Federal agencies that employ science-trained personnel, 
                shall complete an evaluation of each program assisted 
                by grants under this section. Any program that fails to 
                satisfy the performance benchmarks developed under 
                subparagraph (A) shall not be eligible for further 
                funding.
                    (C) Report.--Not later than 180 days after the 
                completion of an evaluation described in subparagraph 
                (B), the Director shall submit a report to Congress 
                that includes--
                            (i) the results of the evaluation described 
                        in subparagraph (B); and
                            (ii) recommendations for administrative and 
                        legislative action that could optimize the 
                        effectiveness of the pilot programs, as the 
                        Director determines to be appropriate.
    (c) Institution of Higher Education Defined.--In this section, the 
term ``institution of higher education'' has the meaning given that 
term in section 101(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 
1001(a)).
    (d) Authorization of Appropriations.--Within the amounts authorized 
to be appropriated by section 4001, there are authorized to be 
appropriated to carry out this section--
            (1) $15,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;
            (2) $18,000,000 for fiscal year 2009; and
            (3) $20,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2010 and 2011.

SEC. 4005. INCREASED SUPPORT FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION THROUGH THE NATIONAL 
              SCIENCE FOUNDATION.

    (a) In General.--Within the amounts authorized to be appropriated 
by section 4001, there are authorized to be appropriated to carry out 
the science, mathematics, engineering, and technology talent expansion 
program under section 8(7) of the National Science Foundation 
Authorization Act of 2002 (Public Law 107-368, 116 Stat. 3042)--
            (1) $40,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;
            (2) $45,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;
            (3) $50,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; and
            (4) $55,000,000 for fiscal year 2011.
    (b) Promoting Outreach and High Quality.--Section 8(7)(C) of the 
National Science Foundation Authorization Act of 2002 (Public Law 107-
368, 116 Stat. 3042) is amended--
            (1) by redesignating clauses (i) through (vi) as subclauses 
        (I) through (VI), respectively, and indenting appropriately;
            (2) by striking ``include those that promote high quality--
        '' and inserting ``include programs that--
                    ``(i) promote high-quality--'';
            (3) in clause (i) (as inserted by paragraph (2))--
                    (A) in subclause (III) (as redesignated by 
                paragraph (1)), by striking ``for students;'' and 
                inserting ``for students, especially underrepresented 
                minority and female mathematics, science, engineering, 
                and technology students;'';
                    (B) in subclause (V) (as redesignated by paragraph 
                (1)), by striking ``and'' after the semicolon;
                    (C) in subclause (VI) (as redesignated by paragraph 
                (1)), by striking ``students.'' and inserting 
                ``students; and''; and
                    (D) by adding at the end the following:
                            ``(VII) outreach programs that provide 
                        middle and secondary school students and their 
                        science, technology, and math teachers 
                        opportunities to increase the students' and 
                        teachers' exposure to engineering and 
                        technology;''; and
            (4) by adding at the end the following:
                    ``(ii) finance summer internships for mathematics, 
                science, engineering, and technology undergraduate 
                students;
                    ``(iii) facilitate the hiring of additional 
                mathematics, science, engineering, and technology 
                faculty; and
                    ``(iv) serve as bridges to enable underrepresented 
                minority and female secondary school students to obtain 
                extra mathematics, science, engineering, and technology 
                training prior to entering an institution of higher 
                education.''.

SEC. 4006. MEETING CRITICAL NATIONAL SCIENCE NEEDS.

    (a) In General.--In addition to any other criteria, the Director of 
the National Science Foundation shall include consideration of the 
degree to which awards and research activities that otherwise qualify 
for support by the National Science Foundation may assist in meeting 
critical national needs in innovation, competitiveness, the physical 
and natural sciences, technology, engineering, and mathematics.
    (b) Priority Treatment.--The Director shall give priority in the 
selection of awards and the allocation of National Science Foundation 
resources to proposed research activities, and grants funded under the 
National Science Foundation's Research and Related Activities Account, 
that can be expected to make contributions in physical or natural 
science, technology, engineering, or mathematics, or that enhance 
competitiveness or innovation in the United States.
    (c) Limitation.--Nothing in this section shall be construed to 
inhibit the grant selection process for funding other areas of research 
deemed by the National Science Foundation to be consistent with its 
mandate nor to change the core mission of the National Science 
Foundation.

SEC. 4007. REAFFIRMATION OF THE MERIT-REVIEW PROCESS OF THE NATIONAL 
              SCIENCE FOUNDATION.

    Nothing in this division or division A, or the amendments made by 
this division or division A, shall be interpreted to require or 
recommend that the National Science Foundation--
            (1) alter or modify its merit-review system or peer-review 
        process; or
            (2) exclude the awarding of any proposal by means of the 
        merit-review or peer-review process.

SEC. 4008. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM TO STIMULATE COMPETITIVE RESEARCH.

    Within the amounts authorized to be appropriated by section 4001, 
there are authorized to be appropriated to the National Science 
Foundation for the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive 
Research authorized under section 113 of the National Science 
Foundation Authorization Act of 1988 (42 U.S.C. 1862g), for fiscal year 
2008, $125,000,000, and, for each of fiscal years 2009 through 2011, an 
amount equal to $125,000,000 increased for each such year by an amount 
equal to the percentage increase in the appropriation for the National 
Science Foundation for such fiscal year above the total amount 
appropriated to the National Science Foundation for fiscal year 2008.

SEC. 4009. ENCOURAGING PARTICIPATION.

    (a) Mentoring Program.--The Director of the National Science 
Foundation shall establish a program to recruit and provide mentors for 
women who are interested in careers in science, technology, 
engineering, and mathematics by pairing such women who are in science, 
technology, engineering, or mathematics programs of study in secondary 
school, community college, undergraduate or graduate school with 
mentors who are working in industry.
    (b) Additional Learning Program.--The Director shall also establish 
a program to provide grants to community colleges to provide additional 
learning and other appropriate training to allow women to enter higher-
paying technical jobs in fields related to science, technology, 
engineering, or mathematics.
    (c) Applications.--An institution of higher education, including a 
community college, desiring a grant under this section shall submit an 
application at such time, in such manner, and accompanied by such 
information as the Director may require.
    (d) Program Evaluation.--The Director shall establish metrics to 
evaluate the success of the programs established under subsections (a) 
and (b) annually and report the findings and conclusions of the 
evaluations annually to Congress.

SEC. 4010. CYBERINFRASTRUCTURE.

    In order to continue and expand efforts to ensure that research 
institutions throughout the Nation can fully participate in research 
programs of the National Science Foundation and collaborate with 
colleagues throughout the nation, the Director of the National Science 
Foundation, within 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, 
shall develop and publish a plan that describes the current status of 
broadband access for scientific research purposes in States located in 
EPSCoR-eligible jurisdictions and outlines actions which can be taken 
to ensure that such connections are available to enable participation 
in those National Science Foundation programs which rely heavily on 
high-speed networking and collaborations across institutions and 
regions.

SEC. 4011. FEDERAL INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH.

    (a) Advanced Information and Communications Technology Research.--
            (1) National science foundation information and 
        communications technology research.--The Director of the 
        National Science Foundation shall establish a program of basic 
        research in advanced information and communications 
        technologies focused on enhancing or facilitating the 
        availability and affordability of advanced communications 
        services to all people of the United States. In developing and 
        carrying out the program, the Director shall consult with the 
        Board established under paragraph (2).
            (2) Federal advanced information and communications 
        technology research board.--There is established within the 
        National Science Foundation a Federal Advanced Information and 
        Communications Technology Research Board (referred to in this 
        subsection as ``the Board'') which shall advise the Director of 
        the National Science Foundation in carrying out the program 
        authorized under paragraph (1). The Board shall be composed of 
        individuals with expertise in information and communications 
        technologies, including representatives from the National 
        Telecommunications and Information Administration, the Federal 
        Communications Commission, the National Institute of Standards 
        and Technology, and the Department of Defense, and 
        representatives from industry and educational institutions.
            (3) Grant program.--The Director of the National Science 
        Foundation, in consultation with the Board, shall award grants 
        for basic research into advanced information and communications 
        technologies that will contribute to enhancing or facilitating 
        the availability and affordability of advanced communications 
        services to all people of the United States. Areas of research 
        to be supported through the grants include--
                    (A) affordable broadband access, including wireless 
                technologies;
                    (B) network security and reliability;
                    (C) communications interoperability;
                    (D) networking protocols and architectures, 
                including resilience to outages or attacks;
                    (E) trusted software;
                    (F) privacy;
                    (G) nanoelectronics for communications 
                applications;
                    (H) low-power communications electronics;
                    (I) implementation of equitable access to national 
                advanced fiber optic research and educational networks 
                in noncontiguous States; and
                    (J) such other related areas as the Director, in 
                consultation with the Board, finds appropriate.
            (4) Centers.--The Director shall award multiyear grants, 
        subject to the availability of appropriations, to institutions 
        of higher education (as defined in section 101(a) of the Higher 
        Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001(a)), nonprofit research 
        institutions affiliated with institutions of higher education, 
        or consortia thereof to establish multidisciplinary Centers for 
        Communications Research. The purpose of the Centers shall be to 
        generate innovative approaches to problems in communications 
        and information technology research, including the research 
        areas described in paragraph (3). Institutions of higher 
        education, nonprofit research institutions affiliated with 
        institutions of higher education, or consortia receiving such 
        grants may partner with 1 or more government laboratories or 
        for-profit entities, or other institutions of higher education 
        or nonprofit research institutions.
            (5) Applications.--The Director of the National Science 
        Foundation, in consultation with the Board, shall establish 
        criteria for the award of grants under paragraphs (3) and (4). 
        Such grants shall be awarded under the programs on a merit-
        reviewed competitive basis. The Director shall give priority to 
        grants that offer the potential for revolutionary rather than 
        evolutionary breakthroughs.
            (6) Authorization of appropriations.--Within the amounts 
        authorized to be appropriated by section 4001, there are 
        authorized to be appropriated to the National Science 
        Foundation to carry out this subsection--
                    (A) $45,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;
                    (B) $50,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;
                    (C) $55,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; and
                    (D) $60,000,000 for fiscal year 2011.
    (b) National Institute of Standards and Technology 
Responsibilities.--The Director of the National Institute of Standards 
and Technology shall continue to support research and support standards 
development in advanced information and communications technologies 
focused on enhancing or facilitating the availability and affordability 
of advanced communications services to all people of the United States, 
in order to implement the Institute's responsibilities under section 
2(c)(12) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Act (15 
U.S.C. 272(c)(12)). The Director shall support intramural research and 
cooperative research with institutions of higher education (as defined 
in section 101(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 
1001(a)) and industry.

SEC. 4012. ROBERT NOYCE TEACHER PROGRAM.

    (a) In General.--Section 10 of the National Science Foundation 
Authorization Act of 2002 (42 U.S.C. 1862n-1) is amended--
            (1) in the section heading, by striking ``scholarship'' and 
        inserting ``teacher'';
            (2) in subsection (a)--
                    (A) in paragraph (1)--
                            (i) by striking ``(or consortia of such 
                        institutions)'' and inserting ``, consortia of 
                        such institutions, or partnerships'';
                            (ii) by striking ``to provide scholarships, 
                        stipends, and programming designed'';
                            (iii) by inserting ``and to provide 
                        scholarships, stipends, or fellowships to 
                        individuals participating in the program'' 
                        after ``science teachers''; and
                            (iv) by striking ``Scholarship'' and 
                        inserting ``Teacher'';
                    (B) in paragraph (3)--
                            (i) in the matter preceding subparagraph 
                        (A), by striking ``or consortia'' and inserting 
                        ``consortia, or partnerships'';
                            (ii) in subparagraph (A)--
                                    (I) in the matter preceding clause 
                                (i)--
                                            (aa) by striking 
                                        ``encourage top college juniors 
                                        and seniors majoring in'' and 
                                        inserting ``recruit and prepare 
                                        undergraduate students to 
                                        pursue degrees in''; and
                                            (bb) by striking ``to 
                                        become'' and inserting ``and 
                                        become qualified as'';
                                    (II) in clause (ii)--
                                            (aa) by striking ``programs 
                                        to help scholarship 
                                        recipients'' and inserting 
                                        ``academic courses and clinical 
                                        teaching experiences designed 
                                        to prepare students 
                                        participating in the program'';
                                            (bb) by striking ``programs 
                                        that will result in'' and 
                                        inserting ``such preparation as 
                                        is necessary to meet 
                                        requirements for''; and
                                            (cc) by striking 
                                        ``licensing; and'' and 
                                        inserting ``licensing;'';
                                    (III) in clause (iii)--
                                            (aa) by striking 
                                        ``scholarship recipients'' and 
                                        inserting ``students 
                                        participating in the program'';
                                            (bb) by striking ``enable 
                                        the recipients'' and inserting 
                                        ``enable the students''; and
                                            (cc) by striking ``; or'' 
                                        and inserting ``; and''; and
                                    (IV) by adding at the end the 
                                following:
                            ``(iv) providing summer internships for 
                        freshman and sophomore students participating 
                        in the program;'';
                            (iii) in subparagraph (B)--
                                    (I) in the matter preceding clause 
                                (i)--
                                            (aa) by striking 
                                        ``encourage'' and inserting 
                                        ``recruit and prepare''; and
                                            (bb) by inserting 
                                        ``qualified as'' after ``to 
                                        become'';
                                    (II) by striking clause (ii) and 
                                inserting the following:
                            ``(ii) offering academic courses and 
                        clinical teaching experiences designed to 
                        prepare stipend recipients to teach in 
                        elementary schools and secondary schools, 
                        including such preparation as is necessary to 
                        meet requirements for teacher certification or 
                        licensing; and''; and
                                    (III) in clause (iii), by striking 
                                the period at the end and inserting ``; 
                                or''; and
                            (iv) by adding at the end the following:
                    ``(C) to develop and implement a program to recruit 
                and prepare mathematics, science, or engineering 
                professionals to become NSF Teaching Fellows, and to 
                recruit existing teachers to become NSF Master Teaching 
                Fellows, through--
                            ``(i) administering fellowships in 
                        accordance with subsection (e);
                            ``(ii) offering academic courses and 
                        clinical teaching experiences that are designed 
                        to prepare students participating in the 
                        program to teach in secondary schools and that, 
                        in the case of NSF Teaching Fellows, result in 
                        a master's degree in teaching and teacher 
                        certification or licensing; and
                            ``(iii) offering programs to participants 
                        to assist in the fulfillment of the 
                        participants' responsibilities under this 
                        section, including mentoring, training, 
                        mentoring training, and induction and 
                        professional development programs.''; and
                    (C) by adding at the end the following:
            ``(4) Eligibility requirement.--To be eligible for an award 
        under this section, an institution of higher education, a 
        consortium of such institutions, or a partnership shall ensure 
        that specific faculty members and staff from the mathematics, 
        science, or engineering department of the institution (or a 
        participating institution of the consortium or partnership) and 
        specific education faculty members of the institution (or such 
        participating institution) are designated to carry out the 
        development and implementation of the program. An institution 
        of higher education and consortium may also include teachers to 
        participate in developing the pedagogical content of the 
        program and to supervise students participating in the program 
        in the students' field teaching experiences. No institution of 
        higher education, consortium, or partnership shall be eligible 
        for an award unless faculty from the mathematics, science, or 
        engineering department of the institution (or such 
        participating institution) are active participants in the 
        program.
            ``(5) Matching requirement.--An institution of higher 
        education, consortium of institutions of higher education, or 
        partnership receiving a grant under this section shall provide, 
        from non-Federal sources, an amount equal to 50 percent of the 
        amount of the grant (which may be provided in cash or in-kind) 
        to carry out the activities supported by the grant.
            ``(6) Supplement, not supplant.--Grant funds provided under 
        this section shall be used to supplement, and not supplant, 
        other Federal or State funds available for the type of 
        activities supported by the grant.'';
            (3) in subsection (b)--
                    (A) in paragraph (1)--
                            (i) in the matter preceding subparagraph 
                        (A), by striking ``or consortium'' and 
                        inserting ``consortium, or partnership'';
                            (ii) by striking subparagraph (A) and 
                        inserting the following:
                    ``(A) a description of the program that the 
                applicant intends to operate, including--
                            ``(i) the number of scholarships and summer 
                        internships or the size and number of stipends 
                        or fellowships the applicant intends to award;
                            ``(ii) the type of activities proposed for 
                        the recruitment of students to the program; and
                            ``(iii) the selection process that will be 
                        used in awarding the scholarships, stipends, or 
                        fellowships;'';
                            (iii) in subparagraph (B)--
                                    (I) by striking ``scholarship or 
                                stipend''; and
                                    (II) by striking ``; and'' and 
                                inserting ``, which may include a 
                                description of any existing programs at 
                                the applicant's institution that are 
                                targeted to the education of 
                                mathematics and science teachers and 
                                the number of teachers graduated 
                                annually from such programs;''; and
                            (iv) by striking subparagraph (C) and 
                        inserting the following:
                    ``(C) a description of the academic courses and 
                clinical teaching experiences required under 
                subparagraph (A)(ii), (B)(ii), or (C)(ii) of subsection 
                (a)(3), as applicable, including--
                            ``(i)(I) a description of the undergraduate 
                        program under subsection (a)(3)(A)(ii) that 
                        will enable a student to graduate in 4 years 
                        with a major in mathematics, science, or 
                        engineering and to obtain teacher certification 
                        or licensing; or
                            ``(II) a description of the master's degree 
                        programs offered under subsection 
                        (a)(3)(C)(ii);
                            ``(ii) a description of clinical teaching 
                        experiences proposed; and
                            ``(iii) evidence of agreements between the 
                        applicant and the schools or school districts 
                        that are identified as the locations at which 
                        clinical teaching experiences will occur;
                    ``(D) a description of the programs required under 
                subparagraph (A)(iii), (B)(iii), or (C)(iii) of 
                subsection (a)(3), as applicable, including activities 
                to assist new teachers in fulfilling their service 
                requirements under this section; and
                    ``(E) an identification of the applicant's 
                mathematics, science, or engineering faculty and its 
                education faculty who will carry out the development 
                and implementation of the program as required under 
                subsection (a)(4).''; and
                    (B) in paragraph (2)--
                            (i) by redesignating subparagraphs (B) 
                        through (E) as subparagraphs (C) through (F), 
                        respectively;
                            (ii) by inserting after subparagraph (A) 
                        the following:
                    ``(B) the extent to which the applicant's 
                mathematics, science, or engineering faculty and its 
                education faculty have worked or will work 
                collaboratively to design new or revised curricula that 
                recognize the specialized pedagogy required to teach 
                mathematics and science effectively in elementary 
                schools and secondary schools;''; and
                            (iii) in subparagraph (D) (as redesignated 
                        by clause (i)), by striking ``or stipend'' and 
                        inserting ``, stipend, or fellowship'';
            (4) in subsection (c)--
                    (A) in paragraph (3)--
                            (i) by striking ``$7,500'' and inserting 
                        ``$10,000''; and
                            (ii) by striking ``of scholarship support'' 
                        and inserting ``of scholarship support, unless 
                        the Director establishes a policy by which 
                        part-time students may receive additional years 
                        of support''; and
                    (B) in paragraph (4), by inserting ``with a maximum 
                service requirement of 4 years'' after ``scholarship 
                was received'';
            (5) in subsection (d)--
                    (A) by striking paragraph (1) and inserting the 
                following:
            ``(1) In general.--Stipends under this section shall be 
        available only to--
                    ``(A) teachers enrolled in a master's degree 
                program in science, technology, engineering, or 
                mathematics; and
                    ``(B) mathematics, science, or engineering 
                professionals who, while receiving the stipend, are 
                enrolled in a program to receive certification or 
                licensing to teach.'';
                    (B) in paragraph (3), by inserting ``, except that 
                if an individual is enrolled in a part-time program, 
                such stipend shall be prorated according to the length 
                of the program'' after ``stipend support''; and
                    (C) in paragraph (4), by striking ``for each year a 
                stipend was received'';
            (6) by redesignating subsections (e) through (h) and 
        subsection (i) as subsections (f) through (i) and subsection 
        (l), respectively;
            (7) by inserting after subsection (d) the following:
    ``(e) National Science Foundation Teaching Fellowships.--
            ``(1) Purpose.--The purpose of the fellowships under this 
        subsection is to promote and recognize high-level achievement 
        in advanced mathematics and science teaching.
            ``(2) Partnership requirements.--In order to receive a 
        grant under this section to carry out this subsection, the 
        recipient of such grant shall be a partnership and the only 
        local educational agencies that shall be members of the 
        partnership shall be local educational agencies that agree not 
        to reduce the base salary normally paid to an individual solely 
        because such individual receives a salary supplement under this 
        subsection.
            ``(3) General criteria.--A partnership receiving a grant to 
        carry out a fellowship program under this subsection shall 
        award such fellowships only to--
                    ``(A) mathematics, science, or engineering 
                professionals who enroll in 1-year master's degree 
                programs in teaching that result in teacher 
                certification or licensing and who shall be referred to 
                as `NSF Teaching Fellows'; and
                    ``(B) mathematics and science teachers who possess 
                a master's degree in their field and who shall be 
                referred to as `NSF Master Teaching Fellows'.
            ``(4) Selection.--Individuals shall be selected to receive 
        fellowships under this section primarily on the basis of--
                    ``(A) professional achievement;
                    ``(B) academic merit;
                    ``(C) demonstrated advanced content knowledge; and
                    ``(D) in the case of NSF Master Teaching Fellows, 
                demonstrated success in improving student academic 
                achievement in mathematics, science, technology, or 
                engineering.
            ``(5) Use of funds.--Each partnership receiving a grant 
        under this section to award fellowships under this subsection 
        shall--
                    ``(A) provide a stipend to each NSF Teaching Fellow 
                for the duration of the Fellow's enrollment in the 
                master's degree program, to be used to offset the cost 
                of tuition, fees, and living expenses; and
                    ``(B) provide salary supplements to each NSF 
                Teaching Fellow and NSF Master Teaching Fellow during 
                the period of the Fellow's service obligation under 
                paragraph (4).
            ``(6) Service obligation.--If an individual is awarded a 
        fellowship under this subsection, that individual shall be 
        required to serve in a high-need local educational agency for--
                    ``(A) in the case of a NSF Teaching Fellow, 4 
                years; and
                    ``(B) in the case of a NSF Master Teaching Fellow, 
                5 years.
            ``(7) Duties.--A recipient of a fellowship under this 
        section, during the service obligation required under paragraph 
        (6) and in addition to regular classroom activities, shall take 
        on a leadership role within the school or local educational 
        agency in which the recipient is employed, as defined by the 
        partnership according to the recipient's expertise, including 
        serving as a mentor or master teacher, developing curricula, 
        and assisting in the development and implementation of 
        professional development activities.'';
            (8) in subsection (f) (as redesignated by paragraph (6))--
                    (A) by striking paragraph (1) and inserting the 
                following:
            ``(1) accepting--
                    ``(A) the terms of the scholarship pursuant to 
                subsection (c), the stipend pursuant to subsection (d), 
                or the fellowship pursuant to subsection (e); and
                    ``(B) the terms regarding the failure to complete a 
                service obligation required for the scholarship, 
                stipend, or fellowship pursuant to subsection (h);''; 
                and
                    (B) in paragraph (3)--
                            (i) by striking ``scholarship'' and 
                        inserting ``scholarship, stipend, or 
                        fellowship''; and
                            (ii) by striking ``subsection (g)'' and 
                        inserting ``subsection (h)'';
            (9) in subsection (g)(1) (as redesignated by paragraph 
        (6))--
                    (A) by striking ``(or consortium thereof)'' and 
                inserting ``, consortium, or partnership''; and
                    (B) by striking ``scholarship and stipend'' and 
                inserting ``scholarship, stipend, and fellowship'';
            (10) in subsection (h) (as redesignated by paragraph (6))--
                    (A) in paragraph (1)--
                            (i) in the matter preceding subparagraph 
                        (A), by inserting ``, stipend, or fellowship'' 
                        after ``scholarship''; and
                            (ii) in subparagraph (C), by striking 
                        ``baccalaureate degree''; and
                    (B) by striking paragraph (2) and inserting the 
                following:
            ``(2) Repayment for failure to complete service.--
                    ``(A) Less than 1 year of service.--If a 
                circumstance described in paragraph (1) occurs before 
                the completion of 1 year of a service obligation under 
                this section, the sum of the total amount of awards 
                received by the individual under this section shall be 
                treated as a loan payable to the Federal Government, 
                consistent with the provisions of part B or D of title 
                IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, and shall be 
                subject to repayment in accordance with terms and 
                conditions specified by the Secretary of Education in 
                regulations promulgated to carry out this paragraph.
                    ``(B) 1 year or more of service.--If a circumstance 
                described in subparagraph (D) or (E) of paragraph (1) 
                occurs after the completion of 1 year of a service 
                obligation under this section, an amount equal to \1/2\ 
                of the sum of the total amount of awards received by 
                the individual under this section shall be treated as a 
                loan payable to the Federal Government, consistent with 
                the provisions of part B or D of title IV of the Higher 
                Education Act of 1965, and shall be subject to 
                repayment in accordance with terms and conditions 
                specified by the Secretary of Education in regulations 
                promulgated to carry out this paragraph.'';
            (11) in subsection (i) (as redesignated by paragraph (6))--
                    (A) by striking ``or consortia'' and inserting ``, 
                consortia, or partnerships'';
                    (B) by striking ``scholarship recipients and 
                stipend recipients'' and inserting ``scholarship, 
                stipend, and fellowship recipients''; and
                    (C) by striking ``subsection (e)'' and inserting 
                ``subsection (f)'';
            (12) by inserting after subsection (i) (as redesignated by 
        paragraph (6)) the following:
    ``(j) Science and Mathematics Scholarship Gift Fund.--In accordance 
with section 11(f) of the National Science Foundation Act of 1950, the 
Director is authorized to accept donations from the private sector to 
supplement, but not supplant, scholarships, stipends, internships, or 
fellowships associated with the programs under this section.
    ``(k) Assessment of Teacher Retention.--Not later than 4 years 
after the date of enactment of the America COMPETES Act, the Director 
shall transmit to Congress a report on the effectiveness of the program 
carried out under this section regarding the retention of participants 
in the teaching profession beyond the service obligation required under 
this section.'';
            (13) in subsection (l) (as redesignated by paragraph (6))--
                    (A) by redesignating paragraphs (1), (2), (3), (4), 
                and (5) as paragraphs (2), (5), (7), (9), and (10), 
                respectively;
                    (B) by inserting before paragraph (2) (as 
                redesignated by subparagraph (A)) the following:
            ``(1) the term `advanced content knowledge' means 
        demonstrated mathematics or science content knowledge as 
        measured by a rigorous, valid assessment tool that has been 
        approved by the Director;'';
                    (C) by inserting after paragraph (2) (as 
                redesignated by subparagraph (A)) the following:
            ``(3) the term `fellowship' means an award under subsection 
        (e);
            ``(4) the term `high-need local educational agency' means a 
        local educational agency or educational service agency (as 
        defined in section 9101 of the Elementary and Secondary 
        Education Act of 1965)--
                    ``(A)(i) that serves not less than 10,000 children 
                from low-income families;
                    ``(ii) for which not less than 20 percent of the 
                children served by the agency are children from low-
                income families; or
                    ``(iii) with a total of less than 600 students in 
                average daily attendance at the schools that are served 
                by the agency, and all of whose schools are designated 
                with a school locale code of 6, 7, or 8, as determined 
                by the Secretary of Education; and
                    ``(B)(i) for which there is a higher percentage of 
                teachers providing instruction in academic subject 
                areas or grade levels for which the teachers are not 
                highly qualified; or
                    ``(ii) for which there is a high teacher turnover 
                rate or a high percentage of teachers with emergency, 
                provisional, or temporary certification or 
                licensure;'';
                    (D) in paragraph (5) (as redesignated by 
                subparagraph (A)), by inserting ``engineering,'' after 
                ``mathematics, science,'';
                    (E) by inserting after paragraph (5) (as 
                redesignated by subparagraph (A)) the following:
            ``(6) the term `mathematics and science teaching' means 
        mathematics, science, engineering, or technology teaching at 
        the elementary or secondary school level;'';
                    (F) in paragraph (7) (as redesignated by 
                subparagraph (A)) by inserting ``or had a career'' 
                after ``is working''; and
                    (G) by inserting after paragraph (7) (as 
                redesignated by subparagraph (A)) the following:
            ``(8) the term `partnership' means a partnership that shall 
        include--
                    ``(A) an institution of higher education or a 
                consortium of such institutions;
                    ``(B) a department within an institution of higher 
                education participating in the partnership that 
                provides an advanced program of study in mathematics 
                and science;
                    ``(C)(i) a school or department within an 
                institution of higher education participating in the 
                partnership that provides a master teacher's 
                preparation program; or
                    ``(ii) a 2-year institution of higher education 
                that has a teacher preparation offering or a dual 
                enrollment program with an institution of higher 
                education participating in the partnership;
                    ``(D) not less than 1 high-need local educational 
                agency and a public school or a consortium of public 
                schools served by the agency; and
                    ``(E) 1 or more nonprofit organizations that have 
                the capacity to provide expertise or support to meet 
                the purposes of this section;''; and
            (14) by adding at the end the following:
    ``(m) Authorization of Appropriations.--
            ``(1) In general.--Within the amounts authorized to be 
        appropriated by section 4001 of the America COMPETES Act and 
        except as provided in paragraph (2), there are authorized to be 
        appropriated to the Director for the Robert Noyce Teacher 
        Program under this section--
                    ``(A) $117,000,000 for fiscal year 2008, of which 
                at least $18,000,000 shall be used for capacity 
                building activities described in clauses (ii) and (iii) 
                of subsection (a)(3)(A), clauses (ii) and (iii) of 
                subsection (a)(3)(B), and clauses (ii) and (iii) of 
                subsection (a)(3)(C);
                    ``(B) $130,000,000 for fiscal year 2009, of which 
                at least $21,000,000 shall be used for such capacity 
                building activities;
                    ``(C) $148,000,000 for fiscal year 2010, of which 
                at least $24,000,000 shall be used for such capacity 
                building activities; and
                    ``(D) $200,000,000 for fiscal year 2011, of which 
                at least $27,000,000 shall be used for such capacity 
                building activities.
            ``(2) Exception.--For any fiscal year for which the funding 
        allocated for activities under this section is less than 
        $105,000,000, the amount of funding available for capacity 
        building activities described in subparagraphs (A) through (D) 
        of paragraph (1) shall not exceed 15 percent of the allocated 
        funds.''.
    (b) Conforming Amendments.--
            (1) Section 4.--Section 4 of the National Science 
        Foundation Authorization Act of 2002 (42 U.S.C. 1862n note) is 
        amended in the matter preceding paragraph (1) by striking ``In 
        this Act:'' and inserting ``Except as otherwise provided, in 
        this Act:''.
            (2) Section 8.--Section 8(6) of the National Science 
        Foundation Authorization Act of 2002 (Public Law 107-368) is 
        amended--
                    (A) in the paragraph heading, by striking 
                ``Scholarship'' and inserting ``Teacher''; and
                    (B) by striking ``Scholarship'' and inserting 
                ``Teacher''.

SEC. 4013. SENSE OF THE SENATE REGARDING THE MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE 
              PARTNERSHIP PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND 
              THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION.

    It is the sense of the Senate that--
            (1) although the mathematics and science education 
        partnership program at the National Science Foundation and the 
        mathematics and science partnership program at the Department 
        of Education practically share the same name, the 2 programs 
        are intended to be complementary, not duplicative;
            (2) the National Science Foundation partnership programs 
        are innovative, model reform initiatives that move promising 
        ideas in education from research into practice to improve 
        teacher quality, develop challenging curricula, and increase 
        student achievement in mathematics and science, and Congress 
        intends that the National Science Foundation peer-reviewed 
        partnership programs found to be effective should be put into 
        wider practice by dissemination through the Department of 
        Education partnership programs; and
            (3) the Director of the National Science Foundation and the 
        Secretary of Education should have ongoing collaboration to 
        ensure that the 2 components of this priority effort for 
        mathematics and science education continue to work in concert 
        for the benefit of States and local practitioners nationwide.

SEC. 4014. NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION TEACHER INSTITUTES FOR THE 21ST 
              CENTURY.

    (a) Authorization of Appropriations.--Within the amounts authorized 
to be appropriated by section 4001, there are authorized to be 
appropriated to carry out the teacher institutes for the 21st century 
under paragraphs (3) and (7) of section 9(a) of the National Science 
Foundation Authorization Act of 2002 (as amended by subsection (b)) (42 
U.S.C. 1862n(a))--
            (1) $84,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;
            (2) $94,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;
            (3) $106,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; and
            (4) $140,000,000 for fiscal year 2011.
    (b) Teacher Institutes for the 21st Century.--Section 9(a) of the 
National Science Foundation Authorization Act of 2002 (42 U.S.C. 
1862n(a)) is amended--
            (1) in paragraph (3)(B), by striking ``summer or'' and 
        inserting ``teacher institutes for the 21st century, as 
        described in paragraph (7),'';
            (2) by redesignating paragraph (7) as paragraph (8); and
            (3) by inserting after paragraph (6) the following:
            ``(7) Teacher institutes for the 21st century.--
                    ``(A) In general.--Teacher institutes for the 21st 
                century carried out in accordance with paragraph (3)(B) 
                shall--
                            ``(i) be carried out in conjunction with a 
                        school served by the local educational agency 
                        in the partnership;
                            ``(ii) be science, technology, engineering, 
                        and mathematics focused institutes that provide 
                        professional development to elementary school 
                        and secondary school teachers;
                            ``(iii) serve teachers who are considered 
                        highly qualified (as defined in section 9101 of 
                        the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 
                        1965), teach high-need subjects, and teach in 
                        high-need schools (as described in section 
                        1114(a)(1) of the Elementary and Secondary 
                        Education Act of 1965);
                            ``(iv) focus on the theme and structure 
                        developed by the Director under subparagraph 
                        (C);
                            ``(v) be content-based and build on school 
                        year curricula that are experiment-oriented, 
                        content-based, and grounded in current 
                        research;
                            ``(vi) ensure that the pedagogy component 
                        is designed around specific strategies that are 
                        relevant to teaching the subject and content on 
                        which teachers are being trained, which may 
                        include training teachers in the essential 
                        components of reading instruction for 
                        adolescents in order to improve student reading 
                        skills within the subject areas of science, 
                        technology, engineering, and mathematics;
                            ``(vii) be a multiyear program that is 
                        conducted for a period of not less than 2 weeks 
                        per year;
                            ``(viii) provide for direct interaction 
                        between participants in and faculty of the 
                        teacher institute;
                            ``(ix) have a component that includes the 
                        use of the Internet;
                            ``(x) provide for followup training in the 
                        classroom during the academic year for a period 
                        of not less than 3 days, which may or may not 
                        be consecutive, for participants in the teacher 
                        institute, except that for teachers in rural 
                        local educational agencies, the followup 
                        training may be provided through the Internet;
                            ``(xi) provide teachers participating in 
                        the teacher institute with travel expense 
                        reimbursement and classroom materials related 
                        to the teacher institute, and may include 
                        providing stipends as necessary; and
                            ``(xii) establish a mechanism to provide 
                        supplemental support during the academic year 
                        for teacher institute participants to apply the 
                        knowledge and skills gained at the teacher 
                        institute.
                    ``(B) Optional members of the partnership.--In 
                addition to the partnership requirement under paragraph 
                (2), an institution of higher education or eligible 
                nonprofit organization (or consortium) desiring a grant 
                for a teacher institute for the 21st century may also 
                partner with a teacher organization, museum, or 
                educational partnership organization.
                    ``(C) Theme and structure.--Each year, not later 
                than 180 days before the application deadline for a 
                grant under this section, the Director shall, in 
                consultation with a broad group of relevant education 
                organizations, develop a theme and structure for the 
                teacher institutes of the 21st century supported under 
                paragraph (3)(B).''.

SEC. 4015. PARTNERSHIPS FOR ACCESS TO LABORATORY SCIENCE.

    (a) Grant Program.--Section 8(8) of the National Science Foundation 
Authorization Act of 2002 (Public Law 107-368) is amended--
            (1) by redesignating subparagraphs (A) through (F) as 
        clauses (i) through (vi), respectively, and indenting 
        appropriately;
            (2) by moving the flush language at the end 2 ems to the 
        right;
            (3) in the flush language at the end, by striking 
        ``paragraph'' and inserting ``subparagraph'';
            (4) by striking ``Initiative.--A program of'' and inserting 
        ``initiative.--
                    ``(A) In general.--A program of''; and
            (5) by inserting at the end the following:
                    ``(B) Pilot program.--
                            ``(i) In general.--In accordance with 
                        subparagraph (A)(v), the Director shall 
                        establish a pilot program designated as 
                        `Partnerships for Access to Laboratory Science' 
                        to award grants to partnerships to pay the 
                        Federal share of the costs of improving 
                        laboratories and providing instrumentation as 
                        part of a comprehensive program to enhance the 
                        quality of mathematics, science, engineering, 
                        and technology instruction at the secondary 
                        school level. Grants under this subparagraph 
                        may be used for--
                                    ``(I) purchase, rental, or leasing 
                                of equipment, instrumentation, and 
                                other scientific educational materials;
                                    ``(II) acquire appropriate 
                                nanotechnology equipment and software 
                                designed for teaching students about 
                                nanotechnology in the classroom;
                                    ``(III) professional development 
                                and training for teachers aligned with 
                                activities supported under section 2123 
                                of the ESEA of 1965;
                                    ``(IV) development of instructional 
                                programs designed to integrate the 
                                laboratory experience with classroom 
                                instruction and to be consistent with 
                                State mathematics and science, and to 
                                the extent applicable, technology and 
                                engineering, academic achievement 
                                standards;
                                    ``(V) training in laboratory safety 
                                for relevant school personnel;
                                    ``(VI) design and implementation of 
                                hands-on laboratory experiences to 
                                encourage the interest of individuals 
                                identified in section 33 or 34 of the 
                                Science and Engineering Equal 
                                Opportunities Act (42 U.S.C. 1885a or 
                                1885b) in mathematics, science, 
                                engineering, and technology and help 
                                prepare such individuals to pursue 
                                postsecondary studies in these fields; 
                                and
                                    ``(VII) assessment of the 
                                activities funded under this 
                                subparagraph.
                            ``(ii) Partnership.--Grants awarded under 
                        clause (i) shall be to a partnership that--
                                    ``(I) includes an institution of 
                                higher education or a community 
                                college;
                                    ``(II) includes a high-need local 
                                educational agency;
                                    ``(III) includes a business or 
                                eligible nonprofit organization; and
                                    ``(IV) may include a State 
                                educational agency, other public 
                                agency, National Laboratory, or 
                                community-based organization.
                            ``(iii) Federal share.--The Federal share 
                        of the cost of activities carried out using 
                        amounts from a grant under clause (i) shall not 
                        exceed 30 percent.''.
    (b) Report.--The Director of the National Science Foundation shall 
evaluate the effectiveness of activities carried out under the pilot 
projects funded by the grant program established pursuant to the 
amendment made by subsection (b) in improving student performance in 
mathematics, science, engineering, and technology and recommend whether 
such activities should continue. A report documenting the results of 
that evaluation shall be submitted to the Committee on Commerce, 
Science, and Transportation and the Committee on Health, Education, 
Labor, and Pensions of the Senate and the Committee on Science and 
Technology of the House of Representatives not later than 3 years after 
the date of enactment of this Act. The report shall identify best 
practices and materials for the classroom developed and demonstrated by 
grant awardees.
    (c) Sunset.--The provisions of this section shall cease to have 
force or effect at the beginning of fiscal year 2012.
    (d) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to the National Science Foundation to carry out this 
section and the amendments made by this section such sums for fiscal 
year 2008 and each of the 3 succeeding fiscal years.

                     DIVISION E--GENERAL PROVISIONS

SEC. 5001. COLLECTION OF DATA RELATING TO TRADE IN SERVICES.

    (a) In General.--Not later than 90 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Commerce shall establish a 
program within the Bureau of Economic Analysis to collect and study 
data relating to export and import of services. As part of the program, 
the Secretary shall annually--
            (1) provide data collection and analysis relating to export 
        and import of services;
            (2) collect and analyze data for service imports and 
        exports in not less than 40 service industry categories, on a 
        state-by-state basis;
            (3) include data collection and analysis of the employment 
        effects of exports and imports on the service industry; and
            (4) integrate ongoing and planned data collection and 
        analysis initiatives in research and development and 
        innovation.
    (b) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to the Department of Commerce such sums for each of the 
fiscal years 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, to carry out the provisions 
of this section.

SEC. 5002. SENSE OF THE SENATE REGARDING SMALL BUSINESS GROWTH AND 
              CAPITAL MARKETS.

    (a) Findings.--The Congress finds that--
            (1) the United States has the most fair, most transparent, 
        and most efficient capital markets in the world, in part due to 
        its strong securities statutory and regulatory scheme;
            (2) it is of paramount importance for the continued growth 
        of our Nation's economy, that our capital markets retain their 
        leading position in the world;
            (3) small businesses are vital participants in United 
        States capital markets, and play a critical role in future 
        economic growth and high-wage job creation;
            (4) section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, has 
        greatly enhanced the quality of corporate governance and 
        financial reporting for public companies and increased investor 
        confidence;
            (5) the Securities and Exchange Commission (in this section 
        referred to as the ``Commission'') and the Public Company 
        Accounting Oversight Board (in this section referred to as the 
        ``PCAOB'') have both determined that the current auditing 
        standard implementing section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 
        2002 has imposed unnecessary and unintended cost burdens on 
        small and mid-sized public companies;
            (6) the Commission and PCAOB are now near completion of a 
        2-year process intended to revise the standard in order to 
        provide more efficient and effective regulation; and
            (7) the chairman of the Commission recently has said, with 
        respect to section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, that, 
        ``We don't need to change the law, we need to change the way 
        the law is implemented. It is the implementation of the law 
        that has caused the excessive burden, not the law itself. 
        That's an important distinction. I don't believe these 
        important investor protections, which are even now only a few 
        years old, should be opened up for amendment, or that they need 
        to be.''.
    (b) Sense of the Senate.--It is the sense of the Senate that the 
Commission and the PCAOB should complete promulgation of the final 
rules implementing section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (15 
U.S.C. 7262).

SEC. 5003. GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE REVIEW OF ACTIVITIES, 
              GRANTS, AND PROGRAMS.

    Not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of this Act, the 
Comptroller General of the United States shall submit a report to 
Congress that--
            (1) examines each annual and interim report required to be 
        submitted to Congress under this Act (including any amendment 
        made by this Act);
            (2) assesses or evaluates assessments of the effectiveness 
        of the new or expended activities, grants, and programs carried 
        out under this Act (including any amendment made by this Act); 
        and
            (3) includes any recommendations as the Comptroller General 
        determines are appropriate to improve the effectiveness of such 
        activities, grants, and programs.

SEC. 5004. PROHIBITION AGAINST FUNDING ANTI-COMPETITIVENESS.

    Notwithstanding any other provision of the Law; no federal funds 
shall be provided to any organization or entity that advocates against 
tax competition or United States tax competitiveness.
    Provided, however, that advocating for effective tax information 
exchange, advocating for effective transfer pricing, and advocating for 
income tax treaties is not considered to be advocating against tax 
competition of United States tax competitiveness.

SEC. 5005. FEASIBILITY STUDY ON FREE ONLINE COLLEGE DEGREE PROGRAM.

    (a) In General.--Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment 
of this Act, the Secretary of Commerce shall enter into a contract with 
the National Academy of Sciences to conduct and complete a feasibility 
study on creating a national, free online college degree program that 
would be available to all individuals described under section 484(a)(5) 
of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1091(a)(5)) who wish to 
pursue a degree in a field of strategic importance to the United States 
and where expertise is in demand, such as mathematics, sciences, and 
foreign languages. The study shall look at the need for a free college 
degree program as well as the feasibility of--
            (1) developing online course content;
            (2) developing sufficiently rigorous tests to determine 
        mastery of a field of study; and
            (3) sustaining the program through private funding.
    (b) Study.--The study described in subsection (a) shall also 
include a review of existing online education programs to determine the 
extent to which these programs offer a rigorous curriculum in areas 
like mathematics and science and the National Academy of Sciences shall 
make recommendations for how online degree programs can be assessed and 
accredited.
    (c) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to carry out this section $500,000 for fiscal year 2008.

SEC. 5006. SENSE OF THE SENATE REGARDING DEEMED EXPORTS.

    It is the sense of Senate that--
            (1) United States government policies related to deemed 
        exports should safeguard United States national security and 
        protect fundamental research.
            (2) The Department of Commerce has established the Deemed 
        Export Advisory Committee to develop recommendations for 
        improving current controls on deemed exports.
            (3) The Administration and Congress should consider the 
        recommendations of the Deemed Export Advisory Committee in its 
        development and implementation of export control policies.

SEC. 5007. SENSE OF THE SENATE REGARDING CAPITAL MARKETS.

    (a) Findings.--The Senate finds that--
            (1) United States capital markets are losing their 
        competitive edge in the face of intensifying global 
        competition, posing a risk to economic growth, a problem that 
        is well-documented in initial public offerings (IPO), over-the-
        counter (OTC) derivatives, securitization, and traditional 
        lending;
            (2) according to the Senator Charles E. Schumer and Mayor 
        Michael R. Bloomberg report, entitled ``Sustaining New York's 
        and the US's Global Financial Services Leadership'', ``In 
        looking at several of the critical contested investment banking 
        and sales and trading markets--initial public offerings (IPOs), 
        over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives, and debt--it is clear that 
        the declining position of the US goes beyond this natural 
        market evolution to more controllable, intrinsic issues of US 
        competitiveness. As market effectiveness, liquidity and safety 
        become more prevalent in the world's financial markets, the 
        competitive arena for financial services is shifting toward a 
        new set of factors--like availability of skilled people and a 
        balanced and effective legal and regulatory environment--where 
        the US is moving in the wrong direction.'';
            (3) further, the report referred to in paragraph (2) stated 
        that--
                    (A) ``The IPO market also offers the most dramatic 
                illustration of the change in capital-raising needs 
                around the world, and US exchanges are rapidly losing 
                ground to foreign rivals. When looking at all IPOs that 
                took place globally in 2006, the share of IPO volume 
                attracted by US exchanges is barely one-third of that 
                captured in 2001. By contrast, the global share of IPO 
                volume captured by European exchanges has expanded by 
                more than 30 percent over the same period, while non-
                Japan Asian markets have doubled their equivalent 
                market share since 2001. When one considers mega-IPOs - 
                those over $1 billion - US exchanges attracted 57 
                percent of such transactions in 2001, compared with 
                just 16 percent during the first ten months of 2006.''; 
                and
                    (B) ``London already enjoys clear leadership in the 
                fast-growing and innovative over-the-counter (OTC) 
                derivatives market. This is significant because of the 
                trading flow that surrounds derivatives markets and 
                because of the innovation these markets drive, both of 
                which are key competitive factors for financial 
                centers. Dealers and investors increasingly see 
                derivatives and cash markets as interchangeable and are 
                therefore combining trading operations for both 
                products. Indeed, the derivatives markets can be more 
                liquid than the underlying cash markets. Therefore, as 
                London takes the global lead in derivatives, America's 
                competitiveness in both cash and derivatives flow 
                trading is at risk, as is its position as a center for 
                financial innovation.'';
            (4) on March 13, 2007, the Department of the Treasury 
        convened a conference on United States capital markets 
        competitiveness, where--
                    (A) key policymakers, consumer advocates, members 
                of the international community, business 
                representatives, and academic experts, each with 
                different perspectives, discussed ways to keep United 
                States capital markets the strongest and most 
                innovative in the world; and
                    (B) conference delegates examined the impact of the 
                United States regulatory structure and philosophy, the 
                legal and corporate governance environment, and the 
                auditing profession and financial reporting on United 
                States capital markets competitiveness;
            (5) the foundation of any competitive capital market is 
        investor confidence, and since1930, the United States has 
        required some of the most extensive financial disclosures, 
        supported by one of the most robust enforcement regimes in the 
        world;
            (6) a balanced regulatory system is essential to protecting 
        investors and the efficient functioning of capital markets; and
            (7) too much regulation stifles entrepreneurship, 
        competition, and innovation, and too little regulation creates 
        excessive risk to industry, investors, and the overall system.
    (b) Sense of the Senate.--It is the sense of the Senate that--
            (1) Congress, the President, regulators, industry leaders, 
        and other stakeholders should take the necessary steps to 
        reclaim the preeminent position of the United States in the 
        global financial services marketplace;
            (2) the Federal and State financial regulatory agencies 
        should, to the maximum extent possible, coordinate activities 
        on significant policy matters, so as not to impose regulations 
        that may have adverse unintended consequences on innovativeness 
        with respect to financial products, instruments, and services, 
        or that impose regulatory costs that are disproportionate to 
        their benefits, and, at the same time, ensure that the 
        regulatory framework overseeing the United States capital 
        markets continues to promote and protect the interests of 
        investors in those markets; and
            (3) given the complexity of the financial services 
        marketplace today, Congress should exercise vigorous oversight 
        over Federal regulatory and statutory requirements affecting 
        the financial services industry and consumers, with the goal of 
        eliminating excessive regulation and problematic implementation 
        of existing laws and regulations, while ensuring that necessary 
        investor protections are not compromised.

            Passed the Senate April 25, 2007.

            Attest:

                                                             Secretary.
110th CONGRESS

  1st Session

                                 S. 761

_______________________________________________________________________

                                 AN ACT

To invest in innovation and education to improve the competitiveness of 
                the United States in the global economy.