Text: S.1435 — 111th Congress (2009-2010)All Information (Except Text)

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Introduced in Senate (07/09/2009)


111th CONGRESS
1st Session
S. 1435


To amend title 18, United States Code, to prohibit human-animal hybrids.


IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES

July 9, 2009

Mr. Brownback (for himself, Ms. Landrieu, Mr. Bunning, Mr. Burr, Mr. Chambliss, Mr. Coburn, Mr. Corker, Mr. Cornyn, Mr. Ensign, Mr. Graham, Mr. Inhofe, Mr. Johanns, Mr. Kyl, Mr. Martinez, Mr. McCain, Mr. Risch, Mr. Thune, Mr. Vitter, Mr. Voinovich, Mr. Wicker, and Mr. DeMint) introduced the following bill; which was read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary


A BILL

To amend title 18, United States Code, to prohibit human-animal hybrids.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. Short title.

This Act may be cited as the “Human-Animal Hybrid Prohibition Act of 2009”.

SEC. 2. Findings.

Congress finds that—

(1) advances in research and technology have made possible the creation of human-animal hybrids;

(2) human-animal hybrids are grossly unethical because they blur the line between human and animal, male and female, parent and child, and one individual and another individual;

(3) human dignity and the integrity of the human species are compromised by human-animal hybrids;

(4) the uniqueness of individual human beings is manifested in a particular way through their brain and their reproductive organs/cells; and

(5) with an increase in emerging zoonotic infection threatening the global public health, human-animal hybrids present a particularly optimal means of genetic transfers that could increase the efficiency or virulence of diseases threatening both humans and animals.

SEC. 3. Prohibition on human-animal hybrids.

Part I of title 18, United States Code, is amended by inserting after chapter 51 the following:

“CHAPTER 52HUMAN-ANIMAL HYBRIDS

“Sec.

“1131. Definitions.

“1132. Prohibition on human-animal hybrids.

§ 1131. Definitions

“In this chapter the following definitions apply:

“(1) HUMAN-ANIMAL HYBRID.—The term ‘human-animal hybrid’ means—

“(A) a human embryo into which a non-human cell or cells (or the component parts thereof) have been introduced to render the embryo's membership in the species Homo sapiens uncertain;

“(B) a hybrid human/animal embryo produced by fertilizing a human egg with non-human sperm;

“(C) a hybrid human/animal embryo produced by fertilizing a non-human egg with human sperm;

“(D) an embryo produced by introducing a non-human nucleus into a human egg;

“(E) an embryo produced by introducing a human nucleus into a non-human egg;

“(F) an embryo containing at least haploid sets of chromosomes from both a human and a non-human life form;

“(G) a non-human life form engineered such that human gametes develop within the body of a non-human life form; or

“(H) a non-human life form engineered such that it contains a human brain or a brain derived wholly or predominantly from human neural tissues.

“(2) HUMAN EMBRYO.—The term ‘human embryo’ means an organism of the species Homo sapiens during the earliest stages of development, from 1 cell up to 8 weeks.

§ 1132. Prohibition on human-animal hybrids

“(a) In general.—It shall be unlawful for any person to knowingly, in or otherwise affecting interstate commerce—

“(1) create or attempt to create a human-animal hybrid;

“(2) transfer or attempt to transfer a human embryo into a non-human womb;

“(3) transfer or attempt to transfer a non-human embryo into a human womb; or

“(4) transport or receive for any purpose a human-animal hybrid.

“(b) Penalties.—

“(1) IN GENERAL.—Whoever violates subsection (a) shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both.

“(2) CIVIL PENALTY.—Whoever violates subsection (a) and derives pecuniary gain from such violation shall be subject to a civil fine of the greater of $1,000,000 and an amount equal to the amount of the gross gain multiplied by 2.”.

SEC. 4. Technical amendment.

The table of chapters for part I of title 18, United States Code, is amended by inserting after the item relating to chapter 51 the following:

“52. Human-animal hybrids ...........................................................
1131”.