Text: S.1539 — 111th Congress (2009-2010)All Information (Except Text)

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Introduced in Senate (07/29/2009)

 
[Congressional Bills 111th Congress]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]
[S. 1539 Introduced in Senate (IS)]

111th CONGRESS
  1st Session
                                S. 1539

  To authorize the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to 
   establish a comprehensive greenhouse gas observation and analysis 
                    system, and for other purposes.


_______________________________________________________________________


                   IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES

                             July 29, 2009

Mr. Rockefeller (for himself and Mr. Nelson of Florida) introduced the 
 following bill; which was read twice and referred to the Committee on 
                 Commerce, Science, and Transportation

_______________________________________________________________________

                                 A BILL


 
  To authorize the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to 
   establish a comprehensive greenhouse gas observation and analysis 
                    system, and for other purposes.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ``Greenhouse Gas Observation and 
Analysis System Act''.

SEC. 2. PURPOSES.

    The purposes of this Act are--
            (1) to establish a comprehensive national greenhouse gas 
        observation and analysis system to support verification of 
        greenhouse gas emissions;
            (2) to establish a baseline characterizing the influence of 
        current and past greenhouse gas emissions on atmospheric 
        composition; and
            (3) to provide a scientifically robust record of 
        atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

SEC. 3. ESTABLISHMENT OF GREENHOUSE GAS OBSERVATION AND ANALYSIS 
              SYSTEM.

    (a) In General.--The Administrator shall establish a greenhouse gas 
observation and analysis system that will offer the resolution and 
widespread coverage required to verify reduction and mitigation of 
greenhouse gases. In establishing the system, the Administrator shall 
coordinate with the Department of Commerce's National Institute of 
Standards and Technology, the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration, the National Science Foundation, the Department of 
Energy, the Department of Agriculture, and the United States Geological 
Survey.
    (b) System Components.--The system--
            (1) shall be an operational and scientifically robust 
        greenhouse gas observation and analysis system that includes 
        local and regional ground-based observations, space-based 
        observations, carbon-cycle modeling, greenhouse gas 
        inventories, meta-analysis, and extensive data integration and 
        distribution to provide quantitative information about sources, 
        sinks, and fluxes of greenhouse gases at relevant temporal and 
        spatial scales; and
            (2) shall be capable of--
                    (A) differentiating between source and sink 
                exchanges;
                    (B) identifying types of emissions (fossil-fuel and 
                non-fossil fuel sources); and
                    (C) tracking agricultural and other sinks; and
            (3) shall include--
                    (A) sustained ground, sea, and air-based 
                measurements;
                    (B) sustained space-based observations;
                    (C) measurements of tracer, including isotopes and 
                non-carbon dioxide gases;
                    (D) carbon cycle monitoring;
                    (E) carbon cycle modeling;
                    (F) traceability to the International System of 
                Units; and
                    (G) data assimilation and analysis.
    (c) Coordination.--The Administrator shall, to the extent 
appropriate--
            (1) facilitate coordination of--
                    (A) observations and modeling;
                    (B) data and information management systems, 
                including archive and access; and
                    (C) the development and transfer of technologies to 
                facilitate the evaluation of greenhouse gas emission 
                reductions, offsets, and other mitigation strategies;
            (2) coordinate with the National Institute of Standards and 
        Technology to make sure that the greenhouse gas observation and 
        analysis system is based upon quantitative measurements 
        traceable to international standards; and
            (3) coordinate with other Federal agencies and 
        international organizations and agencies involved in 
        international or domestic programs.

SEC. 4. SYSTEM PLAN.

    (a) In General.--Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment 
of this Act, the Administrator shall, in coordination with the agencies 
described in section 3, develop and submit a plan for an integrated and 
comprehensive greenhouse gas observation and analysis system to the 
Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House 
of Representatives Committee on Science and Technology.
    (b) Plan Requirements.--The plan shall--
            (1) identify and describe current national and 
        international greenhouse gas observation networks, modeling, 
        and data analysis efforts;
            (2) contain an inventory of agency data relevant to 
        greenhouse gases;
            (3) assess gaps, conflicts, and opportunities with respect 
        to the matters described in paragraphs (1) and (2);
            (4) establish priorities, define agency roles, and make 
        recommendations on necessary capacity and capabilities for--
                    (A) ground, sea, and air-based measurements;
                    (B) sustained space-based observations;
                    (C) measurements of tracer, including isotopes and 
                non-carbon dioxide gases;
                    (D) carbon cycle monitoring;
                    (E) carbon cycle modeling;
                    (F) measurement traceability and comparability;
                    (G) data assimilation and analysis; and
                    (H) data archive management and data access; and
            (5) establish and define mechanisms for ensuring continuity 
        of domestic and international greenhouse gas measurements, and 
        contribute to international efforts to build and operate a 
        global greenhouse gas information system, in coordination with 
        the World Meteorological Organization and other international 
        organizations and agencies, as appropriate.

SEC. 5. REPORTS.

    The Administrator shall, not less than every 4 years after the date 
of enactment of this Act and in coordination with the agencies 
described in section 3, submit a report to the Senate Committee on 
Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House of Representatives 
Committee on Science and Technology that includes--
            (1) an analysis of the progress made toward achieving the 
        goals and objectives of the plan outlined in section 4;
            (2) an evaluation of the effectiveness of the system;
            (3) recommendations concerning modifications to the system;
            (4) an analysis of the consistency of reported greenhouse 
        gas emission reductions with independent observations of 
        atmospheric and Earth-system trends; and
            (5) an update on changes or trends in Earth-system sources 
        and sinks of greenhouse gases.

SEC. 6. AGREEMENTS.

    (a) In General.--The Administrator may enter into and perform such 
contracts, leases, grants, cooperative agreements, or other agreements 
as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act.
    (b) Specific Authority.--Notwithstanding any other provision of 
law, the Administrator may--
            (1) enter into long-term leases of up to 20 years for the 
        use of unimproved land to site small shelter facilities, 
        antennae, and equipment including weather, tide, tidal 
        currents, river, and air sampling or measuring equipment;
            (2) enter into long-term licenses of up to 20 years at no 
        cost to site facilities and equipment including weather, tide, 
        tidal currents, river, and air sampling or measuring equipment;
            (3) acquire (by purchase, lease, or otherwise), lease, 
        sell, and dispose of or convey services, money, securities, or 
        property (whether real, personal, intellectual, or of any other 
        kind) or an interest therein;
            (4) construct, improve, repair, operate, maintain, 
        outgrant, and dispose of real or personal property, including 
        buildings, facilities, and land; and
            (5) waive capital lease scoring requirements for any lease 
        of space on commercial antennas to support weather radio 
        equipment, air sampling, or measuring equipment.
    (c) Certain Leased Equipment.--Notwithstanding any other provision 
of law, rule, or regulation, leases of antenna or equipment on towers 
or other structures shall be considered operating leases for the 
purpose of capital lease scoring.

SEC. 7. EFFECT ON OTHER LAWS.

    Nothing in this Act shall be construed to supersede or alter the 
existing authorities of any Federal agency with respect to Earth 
science research or greenhouse gas mitigation.

SEC. 8. DEFINITIONS.

    In this Act:
            (1) Administrator.--The term ``Administrator'' means the 
        Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
        Administration.
            (2) Earth-system.--The term ``Earth-system'' means the 
        Earth's biosphere, including the ocean, atmosphere, and soils 
        that influence the amounts of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere.
            (3) Greenhouse gas.--The term ``greenhouse gas'' means a 
        gas in the atmosphere that increases the radiative forcing of 
        the Earth-atmosphere system.
            (4) International system of units.--The term 
        ``International System of Units'' means the modern metric 
        system of units established in 1960 by the 11th General 
        Conference on Weight and Measures.
            (5) Radiative forcing.--The term ``radiative forcing'' 
        means the measure of the influence that a substance or process 
        has in altering the balance of incoming and outgoing energy in 
        the Earth-system.
            (6) Sink.--The term ``sink'' means the removal of a 
        greenhouse gas from the atmosphere.
            (7) Source.--The term ``source'' means the emission of a 
        greenhouse gas into the atmosphere.
            (8) System.--The term ``system'' means the national 
        greenhouse gas observation and analysis system established 
        under section 3.
            (9) Tracer.--The term ``tracer'' means an atmospheric 
        substance that can be used to assess or determine the origin of 
        a greenhouse gas.

SEC. 9. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

    There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of 
Commerce such sums as appropriate to carry out this Act.
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