Text: S.601 — 111th Congress (2009-2010)All Information (Except Text)

Text available as:

  • TXT
  • PDF (PDF provides a complete and accurate display of this text.) Tip?

Shown Here:
Reported to Senate (07/22/2009)

 
[Congressional Bills 111th Congress]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]
[S. 601 Reported in Senate (RS)]

                                                       Calendar No. 122
111th CONGRESS
  1st Session
                                 S. 601

                          [Report No. 111-57]

  To establish the Weather Mitigation Research Office, and for other 
                               purposes.


_______________________________________________________________________


                   IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES

                             March 16, 2009

Mrs. Hutchison introduced the following bill; which was read twice and 
   referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation

                             July 22, 2009

             Reported by Mr. Rockefeller, with an amendment
 [Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the part printed in 
                                italic]

_______________________________________________________________________

                                 A BILL


 
  To establish the Weather Mitigation Research Office, and for other 
                               purposes.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,

<DELETED>SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.</DELETED>

<DELETED>    This Act may be cited as the ``Weather Mitigation Research 
and Development Policy Authorization Act of 2009''.</DELETED>

<DELETED>SEC. 2. PURPOSE.</DELETED>

<DELETED>    It is the purpose of this Act to develop and implement a 
comprehensive and coordinated national weather mitigation policy and a 
national cooperative Federal and State program of weather mitigation 
research and development.</DELETED>

<DELETED>SEC. 3. FINDINGS.</DELETED>

<DELETED>    Congress finds the following:</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (1) According to a 2003 report by the National 
        Research Council, ``people in drought- and hail-prone areas 
        willingly spend significant resources on weather mitigation 
        programs, and in 2001 there were at least 66 operational 
        programs being conducted in 10 States across the United States. 
        At the same time, less than a handful of weather mitigation 
        research programs are underway worldwide, and related research 
        in the United States has dropped to less than $500,000 per year 
        from a high of $20,000,000 in the late 1970s.'' The NRC report 
        entitled ``Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research'' 
        also states that ``a coordinated national program of weather 
        modification research is needed''. Such a program is supported 
        by States that need a scientific means of evaluating current 
        programs and increasing their effectiveness through applied 
        research.</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (2) Droughts in the United States result in an 
        average economic loss between $6,000,000,000 and $8,000,000,000 
        annually, while severe hail producing storms result in up to 
        $2,300,000,000 damage to crops and over $2,000,000,000 in 
        property loss annually. Snowpack, rain enhancement, and hail 
        suppression weather mitigation projects help reduce these 
        losses, and additional research in these areas will make 
        existing programs even more effective and permit them to better 
        quantify their impacts. Recent droughts in the Western United 
        States have produced low lake levels at Lake Powell and Lake 
        Mead and have led the Seven Colorado River Basin States to 
        create cooperative agreements. A separate cooperative agreement 
        is in place for wintertime snowfall enhancement programs in the 
        States of Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming to pursue water 
        augmentation to benefit the entire Colorado River 
        System.</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (3) Past and recent evaluations of the potential 
        for snowpack augmentation by cloud seeding in the Colorado 
        River Basin indicate a significant yield in runoff can be 
        attained through properly designed projects. A 2006 evaluation 
        by the Bureau of Reclamation of the Department of the Interior 
        indicates the potential for 800,000 additional acre-feet of 
        water.</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (4) The impacts of possible climate change and the 
        human impact on weather are not well understood. Weather 
        mitigation research could provide data on what, if any, impact 
        pollution may have on the precipitation processes in cloud 
        systems. Research into inadvertent and planned weather 
        mitigation may increase our understanding and knowledge of any 
        potential impacts.</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (5) The recent Weather Damage Modification Program 
        conducted by the Bureau of Reclamation employed a successful 
        model for combining local, State, and Federal resources in 
        providing a means for scientific evaluation of operational 
        cloud-seeding projects (rainfall and snowfall enhancement and 
        hail suppression) in North Dakota, Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado, 
        Utah, Nevada, and California.</DELETED>

<DELETED>SEC. 4. DEFINITIONS.</DELETED>

<DELETED>    In this Act:</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (1) Advisory Board.--The term ``Advisory Board'' 
        means the Advisory Board established by section 5(b).</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (2) Director.--The term ``Director'' means the 
        Director of the Office appointed under section 5(a).</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (3) Office.--The term ``Office'' means the Weather 
        Mitigation Research Office established under section 
        5(a).</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (4) Research and development.--The term ``research 
        and development'' means theoretical analysis, exploration, 
        experimentation, and the extension of investigative findings 
        and theories of a scientific or technical nature into practical 
        application for experimental and demonstration purposes, 
        including the experimental production and testing of models, 
        devices, equipment, materials, and processes.</DELETED>

<DELETED>SEC. 5. WEATHER MITIGATION RESEARCH OFFICE 
              ESTABLISHED.</DELETED>

<DELETED>    (a) Establishment.--There is established in the National 
Science Foundation the Weather Mitigation Research Office to establish 
and coordinate the national research and development program on weather 
mitigation described in section 6. The Office shall be headed by a 
Director, who shall be appointed by the Director of the National 
Science Foundation.</DELETED>
<DELETED>    (b) Advisory Board.--</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (1) In general.--The Office shall have an Advisory 
        Board, the function of which shall be to advise the Office and 
        to make recommendations to the Office concerning legislation, 
        policies, administration, research, and other matters, 
        consisting of 11 members, appointed by the Director of the 
        National Science Foundation, as follows:</DELETED>
                <DELETED>    (A) At least 2 members shall be 
                representatives of States that are currently supporting 
                operational weather mitigation programs.</DELETED>
                <DELETED>    (B) At least 2 members shall be a 
                representative of the National Center for Atmospheric 
                Research of the National Science Foundation.</DELETED>
                <DELETED>    (C) At least 1 member shall be a 
                representative of National Aeronautics and Space 
                Administration.</DELETED>
                <DELETED>    (D) At least 1 member shall be a 
                representative of the American Meteorological 
                Society.</DELETED>
                <DELETED>    (E) At least 1 member shall be a 
                representative of the American Society of Civil 
                Engineers.</DELETED>
                <DELETED>    (F) At least 1 member shall be a 
                representative of the National Academy of 
                Sciences.</DELETED>
                <DELETED>    (G) At least 1 member shall be a 
                representative of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
                Administration of the Department of Commerce.</DELETED>
                <DELETED>    (H) At least 1 member shall be a 
                representative of the Department of 
                Agriculture.</DELETED>
                <DELETED>    (I) At least 1 member shall be a 
                representative of institutions of higher education or 
                research institutes with experience in the 
                field.</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (2) Tenure.--A member of the Advisory Board shall 
        serve at the pleasure of the Director of the National Science 
        Foundation.</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (3) Vacancies.--Any vacancy on the Advisory Board 
        shall be filled in the same manner as the original 
        appointment.</DELETED>
<DELETED>    (c) Chair and Vice Chair.--The Advisory Board shall select 
a Chair and Vice Chair from among its members.</DELETED>
<DELETED>    (d) Initial Meeting.--Not later than 30 days after the 
date on which all members of the Advisory Board have been appointed, 
the Advisory Board shall hold its first meeting.</DELETED>
<DELETED>    (e) Meetings.--The Advisory Board shall meet at the call 
of the Chair.</DELETED>
<DELETED>    (f) Quorum.--A majority of the members of the Advisory 
Board shall constitute a quorum, but a lesser number of members may 
hold hearings.</DELETED>
<DELETED>    (g) Duties of the Office.--</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (1) Studies, investigations, and hearings.--The 
        Office may conduct studies, obtain information, and hold 
        hearings necessary to carry out the purposes of this 
        Act.</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (2) Cooperation with other agencies.--The Office 
        may cooperate with public or private agencies to promote the 
        purposes of this Act.</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (3) Cooperative agreements.--The Office may enter 
        into cooperative agreements with the head of any department or 
        agency of the United States, an appropriate official of any 
        State or political subdivision of a State, or an appropriate 
        official of any private or public agency or organization to 
        conduct research and development pertaining to weather 
        mitigation.</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (4) Conducting and contracting for research and 
        development.--The Director may conduct or contract for research 
        and development activities in accordance with section 
        6.</DELETED>

<DELETED>SEC. 6. NATIONAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON WEATHER 
              MITIGATION.</DELETED>

<DELETED>    (a) Implementation Plan.--Not later than 180 days after 
the date of enactment of this Act, the Director, in consultation with 
the Advisory Board, shall develop and submit to Congress a plan for the 
establishment and coordination of the national research and development 
program required by section 5(a). The plan shall--</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (1) for the 10-year period beginning in the year 
        it is submitted, establish the goals and priorities for Federal 
        research that most effectively advance scientific understanding 
        of weather mitigation;</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (2) describe specific activities required to 
        achieve such goals and priorities, including funding of 
        competitive research grants, training and support for 
        scientists, and participation in international research 
        efforts;</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (3) identify and address, as appropriate, relevant 
        programs and activities of the Federal agencies and departments 
        that would contribute to the program;</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (4) consider and use, as appropriate, reports and 
        studies conducted by Federal agencies and departments, weather 
        modification organizations, and other expert scientific bodies, 
        including the National Research Council report entitled 
        ``Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research'';</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (5) make recommendations for the coordination of 
        program activities with weather mitigation activities of other 
        national and international organizations; and</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (6) estimate Federal funding for research 
        activities to be conducted under the program.</DELETED>
<DELETED>    (b) Program Activities.--The national research and 
development program required by section 5(a) may include the following 
activities related to weather mitigation:</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (1) Interdisciplinary research and development and 
        coordination of research and development and activities to 
        improve understanding of processes relating to planned and 
        inadvertent weather mitigation, including the 
        following:</DELETED>
                <DELETED>    (A) Research related to cloud and 
                precipitation physics.</DELETED>
                <DELETED>    (B) Cloud dynamics and cloud 
                modeling.</DELETED>
                <DELETED>    (C) Improving cloud seeding-related 
                technologies.</DELETED>
                <DELETED>    (D) Severe weather and storm 
                research.</DELETED>
                <DELETED>    (E) Research related to potential adverse 
                affects of weather mitigation.</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (2) Coordination with relevant organizations that 
        engage in weather mitigation research.</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (3) Development through partnerships among Federal 
        agencies, State agencies with weather modification experience, 
        and academic institutions of new technologies and approaches 
        for weather mitigation.</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (4) Establishing scholarships and educational 
        opportunities that encourage an interdisciplinary approach to 
        weather mitigation.</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (5) Promotional activities in accordance with 
        subsection (c).</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (6) Administering the grant program described in 
        subsection (d).</DELETED>
<DELETED>    (c) Promotion of Research and Development.--In order to 
assist in expanding the theoretical and practical knowledge of weather 
mitigation, the Office shall promote and fund research and development, 
studies, and investigations with respect to--</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (1) improved forecast and decision-making 
        technologies for weather mitigation operations, including 
        tailored computer workstations and software and new observation 
        systems with remote sensors; and</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (2) assessments and evaluations of the efficacy of 
        weather mitigation.</DELETED>
<DELETED>    (d) Grant Program for Research and Development.--
</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (1) In general.--The Office may establish a grant 
        program for the award of grants to eligible entities for 
        research and development projects that pertain to weather 
        mitigation. To the extent practicable, the grant program shall 
        be modeled after both the Atmospheric Modification Program 
        implemented by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
        Administration in 1980, and the Weather Damage Modification 
        Program implemented by the Bureau of Reclamation of the 
        Department of the Interior in 2002.</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (2) Federal share.--The Office may not award a 
        grant under this subsection for a project if the Federal share 
        of such project would be greater than 65 percent of the project 
        cost, which may include in-kind services furnished by the 
        participating entity.</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (3) Eligible entities.--For purposes of this 
        subsection, an eligible entity is a State agency, institution 
        of higher education, or nonprofit organization that has--
        </DELETED>
                <DELETED>    (A) an established background and 
                expertise in the field of weather mitigation; 
                and</DELETED>
                <DELETED>    (B) experience with working with and 
                coordinating with State agencies.</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (4) Use of funds.--A recipient of a grant under 
        this subsection may only use the grant for a research and 
        development project that--</DELETED>
                <DELETED>    (A) pertains to weather mitigation; 
                and</DELETED>
                <DELETED>    (B) was in operation on the day before the 
                date the grant was awarded.</DELETED>

<DELETED>SEC. 7. ANNUAL REPORT ON ACTIVITIES.</DELETED>

<DELETED>    (a) In General.--Not later than January 31, and annually 
thereafter, the Director shall prepare and submit an annual report to 
the President, the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation, and the House of Representatives Committee on Science 
and Technology on the activities conducted pursuant to this Act during 
the preceding calendar year, including the following:</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (1) A summary of the achievements of Federal 
        weather mitigation research, including federally supported 
        external research, during the preceding fiscal year.</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (2) An analysis of the progress made toward 
        achieving the goals and objectives of the plan developed under 
        section 6(a), including the identification of trends.</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (3) A copy or summary of the plan required by 
        section 6(a) and any changes made to the plan.</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (4) A summary of agency budgets for weather 
        mitigation activities for the preceding fiscal year.</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (5) Recommendations, if any, regarding additional 
        action or legislation that may be required to assist in 
        achieving the purposes of this Act.</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (6) A description of the relationship between 
        research conducted on weather mitigation and research conducted 
        pursuant to the Global Change Research Act of 1990 (15 U.S.C. 
        2921 et seq.), as well as research on weather forecasting and 
        prediction.</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (7) A description of any potential adverse 
        consequences on life, property, or water resource availability 
        from weather mitigation efforts, and any suggested means of 
        mitigating or reducing such consequences if such efforts are 
        undertaken.</DELETED>
<DELETED>    (b) First Report.--The first report required by subsection 
(a) shall be submitted on January 31 in the second calendar year 
following the date of the enactment of this Act.</DELETED>

<DELETED>SEC. 8. COOPERATION WITH WEATHER MITIGATION RESEARCH 
              OFFICE.</DELETED>

<DELETED>    The head of any department or agency of the United States 
and the head of any other public or private agency or institution that 
receives research funds from the United States shall, to the extent 
practicable, cooperate with the Office for purposes of carrying out 
this Act.</DELETED>

<DELETED>SEC. 9. FUNDING.</DELETED>

<DELETED>    (a) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized 
to be appropriated to the Office for the purposes of carrying out this 
Act $25,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2010 through 2014. Amounts 
appropriated pursuant to this subsection shall remain available until 
expended.</DELETED>
<DELETED>    (b) Allocation.--Of the amounts appropriated to the 
National Science Foundation under subsection (a) for each fiscal year--
</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (1) 66 percent shall be available to, and retained 
        by, the National Science Foundation for use in carrying out its 
        resposibilities under this Act;</DELETED>
        <DELETED>    (2) 34 percent shall be transferred by the 
        National Science Foundation to--</DELETED>
                <DELETED>    (A) the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
                Administration; and</DELETED>
                <DELETED>    (B) the National Aeronautics and Space 
                Administration.</DELETED>
<DELETED>    (c) Competitive Grants.--The Director of the National 
Science Foundation and the Administrators of the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration and the Aeronautics and Space Administration 
shall each allocate at least 50 percent of the amounts retained by or 
transferred to their respective entities under subsection (b) for each 
fiscal year to competitive grants.</DELETED>
<DELETED>    (d) Gifts.--The Office may accept, use, and dispose of 
gifts or donations of services or property.</DELETED>

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ``Weather Mitigation Research and 
Development Policy Authorization Act of 2009''.

SEC. 2. PURPOSE.

    It is the purpose of this Act to develop a national cooperative 
Federal and State program of weather mitigation research and 
development.

SEC. 3. FINDINGS.

    Congress finds the following:
            (1) According to a 2003 report by the National Research 
        Council, ``people in drought- and hail-prone areas willingly 
        spend significant resources on weather mitigation programs, and 
        in 2001 there were at least 66 operational programs being 
        conducted in 10 States across the United States. At the same 
        time, less than a handful of weather mitigation research 
        programs are underway worldwide, and related research in the 
        United States has dropped to less than $500,000 per year from a 
        high of $20,000,000 in the late 1970s.'' The NRC report 
        entitled ``Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research'' 
        also states that ``a coordinated national program of weather 
        modification research is needed''. Such a program is supported 
        by States that need a scientific means of evaluating current 
        programs and increasing their effectiveness through applied 
        research.
            (2) Droughts in the United States result in an average 
        economic loss between $6,000,000,000 and $8,000,000,000 
        annually, while severe hail producing storms result in up to 
        $2,300,000,000 damage to crops and over $2,000,000,000 in 
        property loss annually. Snowpack, rain enhancement, and hail 
        suppression weather mitigation projects could help reduce these 
        losses, and additional research in these areas could make 
        existing programs even more effective and permit them to better 
        quantify the impacts of those projects. Recent droughts in the 
        Western United States have produced low lake levels at Lake 
        Powell and Lake Mead and have led the Seven Colorado River 
        Basin States to create cooperative agreements. A separate 
        cooperative agreement is in place for wintertime snowfall 
        enhancement programs in the States of Utah, Colorado, and 
        Wyoming to pursue water augmentation to benefit the entire 
        Colorado River System.
            (3) Past and recent evaluations of the potential for 
        snowpack augmentation by cloud seeding in the Colorado River 
        Basin indicate the potential for a significant yield in runoff 
        through properly designed projects. A 2006 evaluation by the 
        Bureau of Reclamation of the Department of the Interior 
        indicates the potential for 800,000 additional acre-feet of 
        water.
            (4) Weather mitigation research could provide insights on 
        the interaction of pollution with the precipitation processes 
        in cloud systems. Research into inadvertent and planned weather 
        mitigation may increase our understanding and knowledge of any 
        potential impacts.
            (5) The recent Weather Damage Modification Program 
        conducted by the Bureau of Reclamation employed a successful 
        model for combining local, State, and Federal resources in 
        providing a means for scientific evaluation of operational 
        cloud-seeding projects (rainfall and snowfall enhancement and 
        hail suppression) in North Dakota, Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado, 
        Utah, Nevada, and California.

SEC. 4. DEFINITIONS.

    In this Act:
            (1) Director.--The term ``Director'' means the Director of 
        the Program appointed under section 5(a).
            (2) Program.--The term ``Program'' means the Weather 
        Mitigation Research Program established under section 5(a).
            (3) Research and development.--The term ``research and 
        development'' means theoretical analysis, exploration, 
        experimentation, and the extension of investigative findings 
        and theories of a scientific or technical nature into practical 
        application for experimental and demonstration purposes, 
        including the development of experimental models, 
        instrumentation, materials, and processes.
            (4) Weather mitigation.--The term ``weather mitigation'' 
        means the purposeful or inadvertent changing or controlling, or 
        attempting to change or control, by artificial methods the 
        natural development of atmospheric cloud forms or precipitation 
        forms in the troposphere.
            (5) Working Group.--The term ``Working Group'' means the 
        Working Group established by section 5(c).

SEC. 5. WEATHER MITIGATION RESEARCH PROGRAM ESTABLISHED.

    (a) Establishment.--There is established in the National Science 
Foundation's Geosciences Directorate the Weather Mitigation Research 
Program to establish and coordinate the national research and 
development program on weather mitigation described in section 6. The 
Program shall be headed by a Director, who shall be appointed by the 
Director of the Geosciences Directorate. The Director of the National 
Science Foundation shall coordinate the Program's work with the Office 
of Science and Technology Policy.
    (b) Duties of the Program Director.--
            (1) Studies, investigations, and workshops.--The Director 
        may fund studies, obtain information, and hold workshops 
        necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act.
            (2) Cooperation with other agencies.--The Director may 
        cooperate with public or private agencies to promote the 
        purposes of this Act.
            (3) Cooperative agreements.--The Director may enter into 
        cooperative agreements with the head of any department or 
        agency of the United States, an appropriate official of any 
        State or political subdivision of a State, or an appropriate 
        official of any private or public agency or organization to 
        conduct research and development pertaining to weather 
        mitigation.
    (c) Working Group.--
            (1) In general.--The Program shall have a Working Group, 
        the function of which shall be to advise the Program and to 
        make recommendations to the Program concerning administration, 
        research, and other matters, consisting of the Program Director 
        and 11 members, appointed by the Director of the National 
        Science Foundation, as follows:
                    (A) At least 2 members shall be representatives of 
                States that are currently supporting weather mitigation 
                programs.
                    (B) At least 1 member shall be a representative of 
                institutions of higher education or research institutes 
                with experience in the field.
                    (C) Other members shall have expertise in one or 
                more of the following areas:
                            (i) Cloud dynamics.
                            (ii) Precipitation physics.
                            (iii) Nucleation theory.
                            (iv) Hydrology.
                            (v) Water management engineering.
                            (vi) Numerical modeling of cloud systems.
                            (vii) Hail and fog.
                            (viii) Social sciences.
                            (ix) Lightning.
                            (x) Any other area of expertise deemed 
                        necessary by the Director.
            (2) Tenure.--A member of the Working Group shall serve at 
        the pleasure of the Director of the National Science 
        Foundation.
            (3) Vacancies.--Any vacancy on the Working Group shall be 
        filled in the same manner as the original appointment.
    (d) Chair and Vice Chair.--The Working Group shall select a Chair 
and Vice Chair from among its members.
    (e) Initial Meeting.--Not later than 30 days after the date on 
which all members of the Working Group have been appointed, the Working 
Group shall hold its first meeting.
    (f) Meetings.--The Working Group shall meet at the call of the 
Chair.
    (g) Quorum.--A majority of the members of the Working Group shall 
constitute a quorum, but a lesser number of members may hold hearings.

SEC. 6. NATIONAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON WEATHER 
              MITIGATION.

    (a) Implementation Plan.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Director, in consultation with the Working 
Group, shall develop and submit to Congress a plan for the 
establishment and coordination of the national research and development 
program required by section 5(a). The plan shall--
            (1) for the 10-year period beginning in the year it is 
        submitted, establish the goals and priorities for Federal 
        research that most effectively advance scientific understanding 
        of weather mitigation;
            (2) describe specific activities required to achieve such 
        goals and priorities, including funding of competitive research 
        grants, training and support for scientists, and participation 
        in international research efforts; and
            (3) estimate Federal funding for research activities to be 
        conducted under the program.
    (b) Program Activities.--The national research and development 
program required by section 5(a) may include the following activities 
related to weather mitigation:
            (1) Interdisciplinary research and development and 
        coordination of research and development and activities to 
        improve understanding of processes relating to planned and 
        inadvertent weather mitigation, including the following:
                    (A) Research related to cloud and precipitation 
                physics.
                    (B) Cloud dynamics and cloud modeling.
                    (C) Research on advance technologies related to 
                cloud seeding.
                    (D) Severe weather and storm research.
                    (E) Research related to potential adverse affects 
                of weather mitigation.
            (2) Coordination with relevant organizations that engage in 
        weather mitigation research.
            (3) Development through partnerships among Federal 
        agencies, State agencies with weather modification experience, 
        and academic institutions of new technologies and approaches 
        for weather mitigation.
            (4) Establishing scholarships and educational opportunities 
        that encourage an interdisciplinary approach to weather 
        mitigation.
            (5) Dissemination activities in accordance with subsection 
        (c).
            (6) Administering the grant program described in subsection 
        (d).
    (c) Promotion of Research and Development.--In order to assist in 
expanding the theoretical and practical knowledge of weather 
mitigation, the Program shall promote and fund research and 
development, studies, and investigations with respect to--
            (1) improved forecast and decisionmaking technologies for 
        weather mitigation operations, including innovations in human-
        centered observations systems and remote sensor systems; and
            (2) adaptation and scaling experiments in the efficacy of 
        weather mitigation.
    (d) Grant Program for Research and Development.--
            (1) In general.--The Director of the National Science 
        Foundation may establish a grant program for the award of 
        grants to eligible entities for research and development 
        projects that pertain to weather mitigation. For purposes of 
        this subsection, an eligible entity is a State agency, 
        institution of higher education, or nonprofit organization that 
        has--
                    (A) an established background and expertise in the 
                field of weather mitigation; and
                    (B) experience with working with and coordinating 
                with State agencies.
            (2) Use of funds.--A recipient of a grant under this 
        subsection may only use the grant for a research and 
        development project that pertains to weather mitigation.

SEC. 7. BIENNIAL REPORT ON ACTIVITIES.

    (a) In General.--Not later than January 31, and every 2 years 
thereafter, the Director shall prepare and submit a report to the 
President, the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation, and the House of Representatives Committee on Science 
and Technology on the activities conducted pursuant to this Act during 
the preceding 2 calendar years, including the following:
            (1) A summary of the achievements of Federal weather 
        mitigation research, including federally supported external 
        research, during the preceding 2 fiscal years.
            (2) An analysis of the progress made toward achieving the 
        goals and objectives of the plan developed under section 6(a), 
        including the identification of trends.
            (3) A copy or summary of the plan required by section 6(a) 
        and any changes made to the plan.
            (4) Recommendations, if any, regarding additional action 
        that may be required to assist in achieving the purposes of 
        this Act.
            (5) A description of any potential adverse consequences on 
        life, property, or water resource availability from weather 
        mitigation efforts, and any suggested means of mitigating or 
        reducing such consequences if such efforts are undertaken.
    (b) First Report.--The first report required by subsection (a) 
shall be submitted on January 31 in the second calendar year following 
the date of the enactment of this Act.

SEC. 8. COOPERATION WITH WEATHER MITIGATION RESEARCH PROGRAM.

    The head of any department or agency of the United States and the 
head of any other public or private agency or institution that receives 
research funds from the United States shall, to the extent practicable, 
cooperate with the Director for purposes of carrying out this Act.

SEC. 9. COORDINATION.

    (a) Implementaton Plan.--In support of the implementation plan 
required by section 6(a), the Office of Science and Technology Policy 
shall--
            (1) identify and address, as appropriate, relevant programs 
        and activities of the Federal agencies and departments that 
        would contribute to the program;
            (2) consider and use, as appropriate, reports and studies 
        conducted by Federal agencies and departments, weather 
        modification organizations, and other expert scientific bodies, 
        including the National Research Council report entitled 
        ``Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research''; and
            (3) make recommendations for the coordination of program 
        activities with weather mitigation activities of other national 
        and international organizations, in consideration of relevant 
        international agreements.
    (b) Annual Report.--In support of the annual report required by 
section 7(a), the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall 
provide--
            (1) a summary of agency budgets for weather mitigation 
        research for the preceding fiscal year; and
            (2) a description of the relationship between research 
        conducted on weather mitigation and research conducted pursuant 
        to the Global Change Research Act of 1990 (15 U.S.C. 2921 et 
        seq.), as well as research on weather forecasting and 
        prediction.

SEC. 10. FUNDING.

    (a) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to the Director of the National Science Foundation for the 
purposes of carrying out this Act $25,000,000 for each of the fiscal 
years 2010 through 2014. Amounts appropriated pursuant to this 
subsection shall remain available until expended.
    (b) Gifts.--The Program may accept, use, and dispose of gifts or 
donations of services or property.
                                                       Calendar No. 122

111th CONGRESS

  1st Session

                                 S. 601

                          [Report No. 111-57]

_______________________________________________________________________

                                 A BILL

  To establish the Weather Mitigation Research Office, and for other 
                                purposes

_______________________________________________________________________

                             July 22, 2009

                       Reported with an amendment