Text: H.R.6676 — 112th Congress (2011-2012)All Information (Except Text)

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Introduced in House (12/18/2012)

 
[Congressional Bills 112th Congress]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office]
[H.R. 6676 Introduced in House (IH)]

112th CONGRESS
  2d Session
                                H. R. 6676

   To amend the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 to provide 
guidance and limitations regarding the integration of unmanned aircraft 
      systems into United States airspace, and for other purposes.


_______________________________________________________________________


                    IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

                           December 18, 2012

  Mr. Markey introduced the following bill; which was referred to the 
Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, and in addition to the 
   Committee on Energy and Commerce, for a period to be subsequently 
   determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such 
 provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned

_______________________________________________________________________

                                 A BILL


 
   To amend the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 to provide 
guidance and limitations regarding the integration of unmanned aircraft 
      systems into United States airspace, and for other purposes.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ``Drone Aircraft Privacy and 
Transparency Act of 2012''.

SEC. 2. FINDINGS.

    Congress finds the following:
            (1) On February 14, 2012, President Obama signed the FAA 
        Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (Public Law 112-95; 49 
        U.S.C. 40101 note) into law, and sections 331 through 336 of 
        such Act require the Federal Aviation Administration to fully 
        integrate government, commercial, and recreational unmanned 
        aircraft systems, commonly known as ``drones'', into United 
        States airspace by October 2015.
            (2) Unmanned aircraft systems have traditionally been used 
        almost exclusively overseas by military and security 
        organizations; however, State and local governments, 
        businesses, and private individuals are increasingly using 
        unmanned aircraft systems in the United States, including 
        deployments for law enforcement operations.
            (3) As the technology advances and the cost decreases--
        unmanned aircraft systems are already orders of magnitude less 
        expensive to purchase and operate than piloted aircraft--the 
        market for Federal, State, and local government and commercial 
        unmanned aircraft systems is rapidly growing.
            (4) It has been estimated there could be as many as 30,000 
        unmanned aircraft systems in the sky in the United States by 
        2020.
            (5) There will no doubt be many beneficial applications of 
        this technology, for as Secretary of Transportation Ray LaHood 
        said in a statement on March 7, 2012, ``Unmanned aircraft can 
        help us meet a number of challenges, from spotting wildfires to 
        assessing natural disasters.''.
            (6) However, there also is the potential for unmanned 
        aircraft system technology to enable invasive and pervasive 
        surveillance without adequate privacy protections, and 
        currently, no explicit privacy protections or public 
        transparency measures with respect to such system technology 
        are built into the law.
            (7) Federal standards for informing the public and 
        protecting individual privacy with respect to unmanned aircraft 
        systems are needed.

SEC. 3. GUIDANCE AND LIMITATIONS REGARDING UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS.

    Subtitle B of title III of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 
2012 (Public Law 112-95; 49 U.S.C. 40101 note) is amended by adding at 
the end the following new sections:

``SEC. 337. PRIVACY STUDY AND REPORT.

    ``(a) Study.--The Secretary of Transportation, in consultation with 
the Secretary of Commerce, the Chairman of the Federal Trade 
Commission, and the Chief Privacy Officer of the Department of Homeland 
Security, shall carry out a study that identifies any potential threats 
to privacy protections posed by the integration of unmanned aircraft 
systems into the national airspace system, including any potential 
violations of the privacy principles.
    ``(b) Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment 
of this section, the Secretary of Transportation shall submit a report 
on the study conducted under subsection (a) to--
            ``(1) the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of 
        the House of Representatives;
            ``(2) the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of 
        Representatives;
            ``(3) the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of 
        Representatives;
            ``(4) the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the 
        Senate;
            ``(5) the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
        Transportation of the Senate; and
            ``(6) the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental 
        Affairs of the Senate.
    ``(c) Definitions.--For purposes of this section and the succeeding 
sections of this subtitle--
            ``(1) the term `privacy protections' means protections that 
        relate to the use, collection, and disclosure of information 
        and data about individuals and groups of individuals;
            ``(2) the term `privacy principles' means the principles 
        described in Part Two of the Organisation for Economic Co-
        operation and Development guidelines titled `Annex to the 
        Recommendation of the Council of 23rd September 1980: 
        Guidelines Governing The Protection Of Privacy And Transborder 
        Flows Of Peronal Data', adopted by the Organisation for 
        Economic Co-operation and Development on September 23, 1980; 
        and
            ``(3) the term `law enforcement' means--
                    ``(A) any entity of the United States or of a State 
                or political subdivision thereof, that is empowered by 
                law to conduct investigations of or to make arrests for 
                offenses; and
                    ``(B) any entity or individual authorized by law to 
                prosecute or participate in the prosecution of such 
                offenses.

``SEC. 338. RULEMAKING.

    ``As part of the rulemaking process required under section 
332(b)(1) and the final rule adopted under such section, the Secretary 
of Transportation shall establish procedures to ensure that the 
integration of unmanned aircraft systems into the national airspace 
system is done in compliance with the privacy principles.

``SEC. 339. DATA COLLECTION STATEMENTS AND DATA MINIMIZATION 
              STATEMENTS.

    ``(a) In General.--Beginning on the date of enactment of this 
section, the Secretary of Transportation may not approve, issue, or 
award any certificate, license, or other grant of authority to operate 
an unmanned aircraft system in the national airspace system unless the 
application for such certificate, license, or other grant of authority 
includes--
            ``(1) a data collection statement in accordance with the 
        requirements of subsection (b) that provides reasonable 
        assurance that the applicant will operate the unmanned aircraft 
        system in accordance with the privacy principles; and
            ``(2) in the case of such an unmanned aircraft system that 
        is to be operated by a law enforcement agency or a law 
        enforcement agency contractor or subcontractor, a data 
        minimization statement in accordance with the requirements of 
        subsection (c) that provides reasonable assurance that the 
        applicant will operate the unmanned aircraft system in 
        accordance with the privacy principles.
    ``(b) Data Collection Statement.--A data collection statement under 
subsection (a), with respect to an unmanned aircraft system, shall 
include information identifying--
            ``(1) the individuals or entities that will have the power 
        to use the unmanned aircraft system;
            ``(2) the specific locations in which the unmanned aircraft 
        system will operate;
            ``(3) the maximum period for which the unmanned aircraft 
        system will operate in each flight;
            ``(4) whether the unmanned aircraft system will collect 
        information or data about individuals or groups of individuals, 
        and if so--
                    ``(A) the circumstances under which such system 
                will be used; and
                    ``(B) the specific kinds of information or data 
                such system will collect about individuals or groups of 
                individuals and how such information or data, as well 
                as conclusions drawn from such information or data, 
                will be used, disclosed, and otherwise handled, 
                including--
                            ``(i) how the collection or retention of 
                        such information or data that is unrelated to 
                        the specified use will be minimized;
                            ``(ii) whether such information or data 
                        might be sold, leased, or otherwise provided to 
                        third parties, and if so, under what 
                        circumstances it might be so sold or leased;
                            ``(iii) the period for which such 
                        information or data will be retained; and
                            ``(iv) when and how such information or 
                        data, including information or data no longer 
                        relevant to the specified use, will be 
                        destroyed;
            ``(5) the possible impact the operation of the unmanned 
        aircraft system may have upon the privacy of individuals;
            ``(6) the specific steps that will be taken to mitigate any 
        possible impact identified under paragraph (5), including steps 
        to protect against unauthorized disclosure of any information 
        or data described in paragraph (4), such as the use of 
        encryption methods and other security features that will be 
        used;
            ``(7) a telephone number or electronic mail address that an 
        individual with complaints about the operation of the unmanned 
        aircraft system may use to report such complaints and to 
        request confirmation that personally identifiable data relating 
        to such individual has been collected;
            ``(8) in the case that personally identifiable data 
        relating to such individual has been collected, a reasonable 
        process for such individual to request to obtain such data in a 
        timely and an intelligible manner;
            ``(9) in the case that a request described in paragraph (8) 
        is denied, a process by which such individual may obtain the 
        reasons for the denial and challenge the denial; and
            ``(10) in the case that personally identifiable data 
        relating to such individual has been collected, a process by 
        which such individual may challenge the accuracy of such data 
        and, if the challenge is successful, have such data erased or 
        amended.
    ``(c) Data Minimization Statement.--A data minimization statement 
described in this subsection, with respect to an unmanned aircraft 
system operated by a law enforcement agency, contractor, or 
subcontractor described in subsection (a)(2), shall detail the 
applicable--
            ``(1) policies adopted by the agency, contractor, or 
        subcontractor, respectively, that--
                    ``(A) minimize the collection by the unmanned 
                aircraft system of information and data unrelated to 
                the investigation of a crime under a warrant;
                    ``(B) require the destruction of such information 
                and data, as well as of information and data collected 
                by the unmanned aircraft system that is no longer 
                relevant to the investigation of a crime under a 
                warrant; and
                    ``(C) establish procedures for the method of such 
                destruction; and
            ``(2) audit and oversight procedures adopted by the agency, 
        contractor, or subcontractor, respectively, that will ensure 
        that such agency, contractor, or subcontractor, respectively, 
        uses the unmanned aircraft system in accordance with the 
        parameters outlined in the data collection statement and the 
        statement required by this subsection.

``SEC. 340. DISCLOSURE OF APPROVED CERTIFICATES, LICENSES, AND OTHER 
              GRANTS OF AUTHORITY.

    ``(a) In General.--The Administrator of the Federal Aviation 
Administration shall make available on the public Internet Web site of 
the Federal Aviation Administration in a searchable format--
            ``(1) the approved certificate, license, or other grant of 
        authority for each unmanned aircraft system awarded a 
        certificate, license, or other grant of authority to operate in 
        the national airspace system, including any such certificate, 
        license, or other grant of authority awarded prior to the date 
        of enactment of this section;
            ``(2) information detailing where, when, and for what 
        period each unmanned aircraft system will be operated;
            ``(3) information detailing any data security breach that 
        occurs with regard to information collected by an unmanned 
        aircraft system; and
            ``(4) in the case of a certificate, license, or other grant 
        of authority awarded on or after the date of enactment of this 
        section to operate an unmanned aircraft system in the national 
        airspace system, the data collection statement described in 
        section 339(b) and, if applicable, the data minimization 
        statement described in section 339(c) required with respect to 
        such unmanned aircraft system.
    ``(b) Deadline.--The Administrator shall complete the requirements 
under subsection (a) with regard to each unmanned aircraft system--
            ``(1) in the case of a certificate, license, or other grant 
        of authority awarded before the date of enactment of this 
        section, not later than 90 days after such date of enactment; 
        and
            ``(2) in the case of a certificate, license, or other grant 
        of authority awarded on or after the date of enactment of this 
        section, as soon as is practicable after the date of approval 
        of such certificate, license, or other grant of authority.

``SEC. 341. WARRANTS REQUIRED FOR GENERALIZED SURVEILLANCE.

    ``(a) In General.--No person or entity may use an unmanned aircraft 
system for protective activities, or for law enforcement or 
intelligence purposes, except pursuant to a warrant issued using the 
procedures described in the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure (or, in 
the case of a State court, issued using State warrant procedures) by a 
court of competent jurisdiction, or as otherwise provided in the 
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.).
    ``(b) Exception.--
            ``(1) In general.--Subsection (a) shall not apply in 
        exigent circumstances (as defined in paragraph 2).
            ``(2) Exigent circumstances defined.--Exigent circumstances 
        exist when a law enforcement entity reasonably believes there 
        is--
                    ``(A) an imminent danger of death or serious 
                physical injury; or
                    ``(B) a high risk of a terrorist attack by a 
                specific individual or organization, when the Secretary 
                of Homeland Security has determined that credible 
                intelligence indicates there is such a risk.
            ``(3) Required documentation.--In the case of a person or 
        entity operating an unmanned aircraft system under the 
        exception for exigent circumstances created by paragraph (1), 
        documentation justifying the exception shall be submitted to 
        the Secretary of Transportation not later than 7 days after the 
        date of the relevant unmanned aircraft system flight.
            ``(4) Information or data unrelated to exigent 
        circumstances.--A person or entity operating an unmanned 
        aircraft system under the exception for exigent circumstances 
        created by paragraph (1) shall minimize the collection by the 
        unmanned aircraft system of information and data unrelated to 
        the exigent circumstances, and if such unmanned aircraft system 
        incidentally collects any such information or data while being 
        operated under such exception, the person or entity operating 
        the unmanned aircraft system shall destroy such information and 
        data.
            ``(5) Prohibition on information sharing.--A person or 
        entity shall not intentionally divulge information collected in 
        accordance with this section with any other person or entity, 
        except as authorized by law.
            ``(6) Prohibition on use as evidence.--Whenever information 
        has been collected by means of use of an unmanned aircraft 
        system, no part of the contents of such information and no 
        evidence derived therefrom may be received in evidence in any 
        trial, hearing, or other proceeding in or before any court, 
        grand jury, department, officer, agency, regulatory body, 
        legislative committee, or other authority of the United States, 
        a State, or a political subdivision thereof unless that 
        information is collected in accordance with this section.''.

SEC. 4. ENFORCEMENT.

    (a) Prohibited Conduct.--
            (1) In general.--It shall be unlawful for a person or 
        entity to operate an unmanned aircraft system in a manner that 
        is not in accordance with the terms of a data collection 
        statement submitted under section 339(a)(1) of the FAA 
        Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, as added by section 3 of 
        this Act, or in a manner that violates any portion of the final 
        rule required under section 332(b)(1) of such Act insofar as 
        such portion relates to the procedures described in section 338 
        of such Act.
            (2) Regulations.--The Commission may promulgate regulations 
        in accordance with section 553 of title 5, United States Code, 
        to carry out paragraph (1) with respect to persons and entities 
        described in subsection (b)(3).
    (b) Enforcement by Federal Trade Commission.--
            (1) Unfair or deceptive acts or practices.--A violation of 
        subsection (a) or the regulations promulgated under such 
        subsection shall be treated as a violation of a regulation 
        under section 18(a)(1)(B) of the Federal Trade Commission Act 
        (15 U.S.C. 57a(a)(1)(B)) regarding unfair or deceptive acts or 
        practices.
            (2) Powers of commission.--The Commission shall enforce 
        subsection (a) and the regulations promulgated under such 
        subsection in the same manner, by the same means, and with the 
        same powers and duties as though all applicable terms and 
        provisions of the Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C. 41 et 
        seq.) were incorporated into and made a part of this Act, and 
        any violator shall be subject to the penalties and entitled to 
        the privileges and immunities provided in the Federal Trade 
        Commission Act.
            (3) Applicability.--Paragraphs (1) and (2) shall apply--
                    (A) with respect to persons, partnerships, and 
                corporations over which the Commission has jurisdiction 
                under section 5(a)(2) of the Federal Trade Commission 
                Act (15 U.S.C. 45(a)(2)) (except to the extent such 
                person, partnership, or corporation is a law 
                enforcement contractor or subcontractor); and
                    (B) notwithstanding such section, with respect to 
                air carriers and foreign air carriers.
    (c) Actions by States.--
            (1) Civil actions.--In any case in which the attorney 
        general of a State, or an official or agency of a State, has 
        reason to believe that an interest of the residents of that 
        State has been or is threatened or adversely affected by an act 
        or practice in violation of subsection (a) or a regulation 
        promulgated under such subsection, or by the operation of an 
        unmanned aircraft system in violation of the terms of a data 
        minimization statement submitted under section 339(a)(2) of the 
        FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (49 U.S.C. 40101 
        note), the State may bring a civil action on behalf of the 
        residents of the State in an appropriate State court or an 
        appropriate district court of the United States to--
                    (A) enjoin the violation;
                    (B) enforce compliance with such subsection, 
                regulation, or statement;
                    (C) obtain damages, restitution, or other 
                compensation on behalf of residents of the State; or
                    (D) obtain such other legal and equitable relief as 
                the court may consider to be appropriate.
            (2) Notice.--Before filing an action under this subsection 
        against a person, partnership, or corporation over which the 
        Commission has jurisdiction under section 5(a)(2) of the 
        Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C. 45(a)(2)) (except to 
        the extent such person, partnership, or corporation is a law 
        enforcement contractor or subcontractor) or an air carrier or 
        foreign air carrier, the attorney general, official, or agency 
        of the State involved shall provide to the Commission a written 
        notice of that action and a copy of the complaint for that 
        action. If the attorney general, official, or agency determines 
        that it is not feasible to provide the notice described in this 
        paragraph before the filing of the action, the attorney 
        general, official, or agency shall provide written notice of 
        the action and a copy of the complaint to the Commission 
        immediately upon the filing of the action.
            (3) Authority of the commission.--
                    (A) In general.--On receiving notice under 
                paragraph (2) of an action under this subsection, the 
                Commission shall have the right--
                            (i) to intervene in the action;
                            (ii) upon so intervening, to be heard on 
                        all matters arising therein; and
                            (iii) to file petitions for appeal.
                    (B) Limitation on state action while federal action 
                is pending.--If the Commission or the Attorney General 
                of the United States has instituted a civil action for 
                violation of subsection (a) or a regulation promulgated 
                under such subsection (referred to in this subparagraph 
                as the ``Federal action''), no State attorney general, 
                official, or agency may bring an action under this 
                subsection during the pendency of the Federal action 
                against any defendant named in the complaint in the 
                Federal action for any violation as alleged in that 
                complaint.
            (4) Rule of construction.--For purposes of bringing a civil 
        action under this subsection, nothing in this Act or any 
        amendment made by this Act shall be construed to prevent an 
        attorney general, official, or agency of a State from 
        exercising the powers conferred on the attorney general, 
        official, or agency by the laws of that State to conduct 
        investigations, administer oaths and affirmations, or compel 
        the attendance of witnesses or the production of documentary 
        and other evidence.
    (d) Private Right of Action.--
            (1) In general.--A person injured by an act in violation of 
        subsection (a) or the regulations promulgated under such 
        subsection, or by the operation of an unmanned aircraft system 
        in violation of the terms of a data minimization statement 
        submitted under section 339(a)(2) of the FAA Modernization and 
        Reform Act of 2012 (49 U.S.C. 40101 note), may bring in an 
        appropriate State court or an appropriate district court of the 
        United States--
                    (A) an action to enjoin such violation;
                    (B) an action to recover damages for actual 
                monetary loss from such violation, or to receive up to 
                $1,000 in damages for each such violation, whichever is 
                greater; or
                    (C) both such actions.
            (2) Intentional violations.--If the defendant committed a 
        violation described in paragraph (1), and intended to do so, 
        the court may increase the amount of the award to an amount 
        equal to not more than 3 times the amount available under 
        paragraph (1)(B).
            (3) Costs.--The court shall award to a prevailing plaintiff 
        in an action under this subsection the costs of such action and 
        reasonable attorney's fees, as determined by the court.
            (4) Limitation.--An action may be commenced under this 
        subsection not later than 2 years after the date on which the 
        person first discovered or had a reasonable opportunity to 
        discover the violation.
            (5) Nonexclusive remedy.--The remedy provided by this 
        subsection shall be in addition to any other remedies available 
        to the person.
    (e) Suits Against Governmental Entities.--Notwithstanding the 
Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C. 41 et seq.), a suit under 
subsection (c) or subsection (d) may be maintained against a 
governmental entity.
    (f) License Revocation.--The Federal Aviation Administration shall 
revoke the certificate, license, or other grant of authority to operate 
an unmanned aircraft system if such system is operated in a manner 
that--
            (1) is not in accordance with the terms of--
                    (A) a data collection statement submitted under 
                section 339(a)(1) of the FAA Modernization and Reform 
                Act of 2012 (49 U.S.C. 40101 note), as added by this 
                Act; or
                    (B) a data minimization statement submitted under 
                section 339(a)(2) of such Act; or
            (2) violates any portion of the final rule required under 
        section 332(b)(1) of such Act insofar as such portion relates 
        to the procedures described in section 338 of such Act, as 
        added by this Act.
    (g) Violations.--Each day on which each unmanned aircraft system is 
operated in violation of subsection (a), or the regulations promulgated 
under such subsection, or the terms of a data minimization statement 
submitted under section 339(a)(2) of the FAA Modernization and Reform 
Act of 2012 (49 U.S.C. 40101 note), as added by section 3 of this Act, 
shall be treated as a separate violation.
    (h) Definitions.--In this section:
            (1) Commission.--The term ``Commission'' means the Federal 
        Trade Commission.
            (2) Law enforcement.--The term ``law enforcement'' has the 
        meaning given such term in section 337(c)(3) of the FAA 
        Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, as added by section 3 of 
        this Act.
            (3) State.--The term ``State'' means each of the several 
        States, the District of Columbia, each commonwealth, territory, 
        or possession of the United States, and each federally 
        recognized Indian tribe.
            (4) Unmanned aircraft system.--The term ``unmanned aircraft 
        system'' has the meaning given such term in section 331 of the 
        FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (49 U.S.C. 40101 
        note).
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