Text: S.Res.402 — 113th Congress (2013-2014)All Bill Information (Except Text)

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[Congressional Bills 113th Congress]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]
[S. Res. 402 Agreed to Senate (ATS)]

113th CONGRESS
  2d Session
S. RES. 402

Expressing the regret of the Senate for the passage of section 3 of the 
Expatriation Act of 1907 (34 Stat. 1228) that revoked the United States 
          citizenship of women who married foreign nationals.


_______________________________________________________________________


                   IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES

                             March 27, 2014

Mr. Franken (for himself, Mr. Johnson of Wisconsin, Ms. Klobuchar, and 
Ms. Baldwin) submitted the following resolution; which was referred to 
                     the Committee on the Judiciary

                              May 14, 2014

             Committee discharged; considered and agreed to

_______________________________________________________________________

                               RESOLUTION


 
Expressing the regret of the Senate for the passage of section 3 of the 
Expatriation Act of 1907 (34 Stat. 1228) that revoked the United States 
          citizenship of women who married foreign nationals.

Whereas throughout the history of the United States, women have made and 
        continue to make invaluable contributions to society that strengthen the 
        political, social, and economic fabric of the Nation and improve the 
        lives of countless individuals;
Whereas women in the United States have been and continue to be leaders in 
        promoting justice and equality during times of great difficulty for the 
        Nation;
Whereas women in the United States have played a pivotal role in ensuring 
        freedom and security in the United States;
Whereas section 3 of the Expatriation Act of 1907 (34 Stat. 1228) left thousands 
        of women born in the United States, such as Elsie Knutson Moren from 
        Minnesota and Theresa Rosella Schwan from Wisconsin, stateless and 
        without a nationality after marrying a foreign national;
Whereas section 3 of the Expatriation Act of 1907 caused thousands of United 
        States women, such as Lorella Martorana from Pennsylvania who lost her 
        citizenship and was not able to vouch for her husband during his 
        naturalization proceedings, and Lena Weide Demke from South Dakota who 
        lost her citizenship and was almost deported during World War I, to have 
        their loyalties questioned, face harassment, and be subject to 
        deportation for various legal infractions;
Whereas section 3 of the Expatriation Act of 1907 affected numerous women, such 
        as Florence Bain Gual, a New York City school teacher whose tenure was 
        stripped after 15 years of teaching because she married a foreign 
        national, causing them to face difficulties providing for their families 
        because they lost, or were not able to gain, public employment after 
        marrying a foreign national;
Whereas section 3 of the Expatriation Act of 1907 prevented women in the United 
        States, such as Ethel MacKenzie from California who was unable to 
        register to vote because she married a foreign national, from 
        participating in the political process and casting ballots in various 
        elections;
Whereas section 3 of the Expatriation Act of 1907 is similar to discriminatory 
        State laws that criminalized or nullified marriages between individuals 
        of different races;
Whereas the revocation of citizenship restricted the ability of numerous women 
        in the United States to own houses and real estate;
Whereas an acknowledgment of the actions of the Senate that have contributed to 
        discrimination against women will not erase the past, but will highlight 
        the injustices of the national experience and help build a better, 
        stronger, and more equal Nation; and
Whereas the Senate recognizes the importance of addressing the error of section 
        3 of the Expatriation Act of 1907 in order to educate the public and 
        future generations regarding the impact of this law on women and to 
        prevent a similar law from being enacted in the future: Now, therefore, 
        be it
    Resolved, That the Senate--
            (1) acknowledges that section 3 of the Expatriation Act of 
        1907 (34 Stat. 1228) is incompatible with and antithetical to 
        the core principle that all persons, regardless of gender, 
        race, religion, or ethnicity, are created equal;
            (2) expresses sincere sympathy and regret to the 
        descendants of individuals whose citizenship was revoked under 
        section 3 of the Expatriation Act of 1907, who suffered 
        injustice, humiliation, and inequality, and who were deprived 
        of constitutional protections accorded to all citizens of the 
        United States; and
            (3) reaffirms the commitment to preserving civil rights and 
        constitutional protections for all people of the United States.
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