Text: H.R.3071 — 114th Congress (2015-2016)All Information (Except Text)

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Introduced in House (07/15/2015)

 
[Congressional Bills 114th Congress]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office]
[H.R. 3071 Introduced in House (IH)]

114th CONGRESS
  1st Session
                                H. R. 3071

To permit employees to request changes to their work schedules without 
    fear of retaliation and to ensure that employers consider these 
  requests, and to require employers to provide more predictable and 
stable schedules for employees in certain occupations with evidence of 
unpredictable and unstable scheduling practices that negatively affect 
                   employees, and for other purposes.


_______________________________________________________________________


                    IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

                             July 15, 2015

    Ms. DeLauro (for herself, Mr. Scott of Virginia, Ms. Adams, Mr. 
 Blumenauer, Ms. Bonamici, Mr. Brady of Pennsylvania, Mr. Cartwright, 
 Ms. Judy Chu of California, Ms. Clarke of New York, Mr. Conyers, Mr. 
 Courtney, Mr. Cummings, Mr. Delaney, Mr. DeSaulnier, Ms. Edwards, Mr. 
 Ellison, Ms. Fudge, Mr. Grijalva, Mr. Gutierrez, Ms. Hahn, Mr. Honda, 
Ms. Jackson Lee, Mr. Jeffries, Mr. Johnson of Georgia, Ms. Kaptur, Mr. 
 Kennedy, Mr. Langevin, Ms. Lee, Mr. Lewis, Mrs. Carolyn B. Maloney of 
   New York, Ms. Matsui, Ms. McCollum, Mr. McGovern, Ms. Moore, Mr. 
 Nadler, Ms. Norton, Mr. Pascrell, Ms. Pingree, Mr. Pocan, Mr. Rangel, 
  Mr. Rush, Mr. Ryan of Ohio, Ms. Loretta Sanchez of California, Ms. 
   Schakowsky, Mr. Takano, Mr. Tonko, Mr. Van Hollen, Ms. Wilson of 
 Florida, Mrs. Watson Coleman, Ms. Slaughter, Mr. Brendan F. Boyle of 
    Pennsylvania, Ms. Clark of Massachusetts, Mr. Danny K. Davis of 
Illinois, Mr. Gene Green of Texas, Mr. McDermott, Mrs. Napolitano, Ms. 
Plaskett, Ms. Speier, Mr. Becerra, Mr. Beyer, Mrs. Davis of California, 
 Mr. Al Green of Texas, Mr. Higgins, Mr. Larsen of Washington, Mr. Ted 
  Lieu of California, and Ms. Roybal-Allard) introduced the following 
    bill; which was referred to the Committee on Education and the 
 Workforce, and in addition to the Committees on House Administration, 
Oversight and Government Reform, and the Judiciary, for a period to be 
subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration 
  of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee 
                               concerned

_______________________________________________________________________

                                 A BILL


 
To permit employees to request changes to their work schedules without 
    fear of retaliation and to ensure that employers consider these 
  requests, and to require employers to provide more predictable and 
stable schedules for employees in certain occupations with evidence of 
unpredictable and unstable scheduling practices that negatively affect 
                   employees, and for other purposes.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; FINDINGS.

    (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``Schedules That 
Work Act''.
    (b) Findings.--Congress finds the following:
            (1) The vast majority of the United States workforce today 
        is juggling responsibilities at home and at work. Women are 
        primary breadwinners or co-breadwinners in 63 percent of 
        families in the United States.
            (2) Despite the dual responsibilities of today's workforce, 
        both hourly and salaried workers often have little ability to 
        make changes to their work schedules when those changes are 
        needed to accommodate family responsibilities.
            (3)(A) Low-wage working mothers are more likely to be 
        raising children on their own than higher-wage working mothers. 
        For example, more than half of mothers in low-wage jobs who 
        have very young children are single parents, compared to less 
        than one-third of all working mothers who have very young 
        children.
            (B) At the same time, low-wage workers have the least 
        control over their work schedules and the most unpredictable 
        schedules. For example--
                    (i) roughly half of low-wage workers reported very 
                little or no control over the timing of the hours they 
                were scheduled to work;
                    (ii)(I) many workers in low-wage jobs receive their 
                work schedules with very little advance notice; and
                    (II) 41 percent of workers who are ages 26 through 
                32 (referred to in this section as ``early career 
                workers'') in hourly jobs report getting their work 
                schedules a week or less in advance;
                    (iii) some workers in low-wage jobs are sent home 
                from work when work is slow without being paid for 
                their scheduled shift;
                    (iv)(I) many employers have adopted ``just-in-
                time'' scheduling, which bases workers' schedules on 
                perceived consumer demand and often results in workers 
                being given very little advance notice of their work 
                schedules; and
                    (II) in some industries, the use of ``call-in 
                shift'' requirements--requirements that workers call in 
                to work to find out whether they will be scheduled to 
                work later that day--have become common practice; and
                    (v)(I) 20 to 30 percent of workers in low-wage jobs 
                struggle with being required to work extra hours with 
                little or no notice; and
                    (II) in a typical month, for the 74 percent of 
                early-career workers in hourly jobs who report 
                fluctuations in their work hours, those hours typically 
                fluctuate by more than an 8-hour day of work and pay 
                per week.
            (4) Unfair work scheduling practices make it difficult for 
        low-wage workers to--
                    (A) provide necessary care for children and other 
                family members, including securing and maintaining 
                stable child care;
                    (B) access and receive needed care for the workers' 
                own serious health conditions;
                    (C) pursue workforce training;
                    (D) get or keep a second job, which many part-time 
                workers need to make ends meet;
                    (E) plan for and access transportation to reach 
                worksites; and
                    (F) qualify for and maintain eligibility for needed 
                public benefits and work supports, such as child care 
                subsidies and benefits under the supplemental nutrition 
                assistance program, due to fluctuations in income and 
                work hours.
            (5) Twenty-six percent of workers on irregular or on-call 
        schedules and 19 percent of workers on rotating or split shift 
        schedules experience work-family conflict, as compared to 11 
        percent of workers on regular work schedules.
            (6) Unpredictable and unstable schedules are common in a 
        wide range of occupations, including food preparation and 
        service, retail sales, and cleaning occupations. According to 
        data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics for early-career 
        adults, 64 percent of food service workers, 50 percent of 
        retail workers, and 40 percent of cleaning workers know their 
        schedules only a week or less in advance. The average variation 
        between the least and most hours worked in a single month is 70 
        percent for food service workers, 50 percent for retail 
        workers, and 40 percent for cleaning workers.
            (7) Food service workers, retail workers, and cleaning 
        workers are among the lowest-paid workers. The median pay for 
        workers in those 3 occupations is between $9.20 and $10.57 per 
        hour, and women make up more than half of the workers in those 
        occupations. Workers in those occupations account for nearly 18 
        percent of workers in the economy, which is more than 
        24,000,000 workers.
            (8) Employers that have implemented fair work scheduling 
        policies that allow workers to have more control over their 
        work schedules, and provide more predictable and stable 
        schedules, have experienced significant benefits, including 
        reductions in absenteeism and workforce turnover, and increased 
        worker morale and engagement.
            (9) This Act is a first step in responding to the needs of 
        workers for a voice in the timing of their work hours and for 
        more predictable schedules.

SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.

    As used in this Act:
            (1) Bona fide business reason.--The term ``bona fide 
        business reason'' means--
                    (A) the identifiable burden of additional costs to 
                an employer, including the cost of productivity loss, 
                retraining or hiring employees, or transferring 
                employees from one facility to another facility;
                    (B) a significant detrimental effect on the 
                employer's ability to meet organizational needs or 
                customer demand;
                    (C) a significant inability of the employer, 
                despite best efforts, to reorganize work among existing 
                (as of the date of the reorganization) staff;
                    (D) a significant detrimental effect on business 
                performance;
                    (E) insufficiency of work during the periods an 
                employee proposes to work;
                    (F) the need to balance competing scheduling 
                requests when it is not possible to grant all such 
                requests without a significant detrimental effect on 
                the employer's ability to meet organizational needs; or
                    (G) such other reason as may be specified by the 
                Secretary of Labor (or the corresponding administrative 
                officer specified in section 8).
            (2) Career-related educational or training program.--The 
        term ``career-related educational or training program'' means 
        an educational or training program or program of study offered 
        by a public, private, or nonprofit career and technical 
        education school, institution of higher education, or other 
        entity that provides academic education, career and technical 
        education, or training (including remedial education or English 
        as a second language, as appropriate), that is a program that 
        leads to a recognized postsecondary credential (as identified 
        under section 122(d) of the Workforce Innovation and 
        Opportunity Act), and provides career awareness information. 
        The term includes a program allowable under the Workforce 
        Innovation and Opportunity Act (29 U.S.C. 3101 et seq.), the 
        Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006 (20 
        U.S.C. 2301 et seq.), or the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 
        U.S.C. 1001 et seq.), without regard to whether or not the 
        program is funded under the corresponding Act.
            (3) Caregiver.--The term ``caregiver'' means an individual 
        with the status of being a significant provider of--
                    (A) ongoing care or education, including 
                responsibility for securing the ongoing care or 
                education, of a child; or
                    (B) ongoing care, including responsibility for 
                securing the ongoing care, of--
                            (i) a person with a serious health 
                        condition who is in a family relationship with 
                        the individual; or
                            (ii) a parent of the individual, who is age 
                        65 or older.
            (4) Child.--The term ``child'' means a biological, adopted, 
        or foster child, a stepchild, a legal ward, or a child of a 
        person standing in loco parentis to that child, who is--
                    (A) under age 18; or
                    (B) age 18 or older and incapable of self-care 
                because of a mental or physical disability.
            (5) Commerce terms.--The terms ``commerce'' and ``industry 
        or activity affecting commerce'' have the meanings given the 
        terms in section 101 of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 
        1993 (29 U.S.C. 2611).
            (6) Covered employer.--
                    (A) In general.--The term ``covered employer''--
                            (i) means any person engaged in commerce or 
                        in any industry or activity affecting commerce 
                        who employs 15 or more employees (described in 
                        paragraph (9)(A));
                            (ii) includes any person who acts, directly 
                        or indirectly, in the interest of such an 
                        employer to any of the employees (described in 
                        paragraph (9)(A)) of such employer;
                            (iii) includes any successor in interest of 
                        such an employer; and
                            (iv) includes an agency described in 
                        subparagraph (A)(iii) of section 101(4) of the 
                        Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (29 U.S.C. 
                        2611(4)), to which subparagraph (B) of such 
                        section shall apply.
                    (B) Rule.--For purposes of determining the number 
                of employees who work for a person described in 
                subparagraph (A)(i), all employees (described in 
                paragraph (9)(A)) performing work for compensation on a 
                full-time, part-time, or temporary basis shall be 
                counted, except that if the number of such employees 
                who perform work for such a person for compensation 
                fluctuates, the number may be determined for a calendar 
                year based upon the average number of such employees 
                who performed work for the person for compensation 
                during the preceding calendar year.
                    (C) Person.--In this paragraph, the term ``person'' 
                has the meaning given the term in section 3 of the Fair 
                Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 U.S.C. 203).
            (7) Domestic partner.--The term ``domestic partner'' means 
        the individual recognized as being in a relationship with an 
        employee under any domestic partnership, civil union, or 
        similar law of the State or political subdivision of a State in 
        which the employee resides.
            (8) Employ.--The term ``employ'' has the meaning given the 
        term in section 3 of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 
        U.S.C. 203).
            (9) Employee.--The term ``employee'' means an individual 
        who is--
                    (A) an employee, as defined in section 3(e) of the 
                Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 U.S.C. 203(e)), 
                who is not described in any of subparagraphs (B) 
                through (G);
                    (B) a State employee described in section 304(a) of 
                the Government Employee Rights Act of 1991 (42 U.S.C. 
                2000e-16c(a));
                    (C) a covered employee, as defined in section 101 
                of the Congressional Accountability Act of 1995 (2 
                U.S.C. 1301), other than an applicant for employment;
                    (D) a covered employee, as defined in section 
                411(c) of title 3, United States Code;
                    (E) a Federal officer or employee covered under 
                subchapter V of chapter 63 of title 5, United States 
                Code;
                    (F) an employee of the Library of Congress; or
                    (G) an employee of the Government Accountability 
                Office.
            (10) Employer.--The term ``employer'' means a person--
                    (A) who is--
                            (i) a covered employer, as defined in 
                        paragraph (6), who is not described in any of 
                        clauses (ii) through (vii);
                            (ii) an entity employing a State employee 
                        described in section 304(a) of the Government 
                        Employee Rights Act of 1991;
                            (iii) an employing office, as defined in 
                        section 101 of the Congressional Accountability 
                        Act of 1995;
                            (iv) an employing office, as defined in 
                        section 411(c) of title 3, United States Code;
                            (v) an employing agency covered under 
                        subchapter V of chapter 63 of title 5, United 
                        States Code;
                            (vi) the Librarian of Congress; or
                            (vii) the Comptroller General of the United 
                        States; and
                    (B) who is engaged in commerce (including 
                government), in the production of goods for commerce, 
                or in an enterprise engaged in commerce (including 
                government) or in the production of goods for commerce.
            (11) Family relationship.--The term ``family relationship'' 
        means a relationship with--
                    (A) a child, spouse, domestic partner, parent, 
                grandchild, grandparent, sibling, or parent of a spouse 
                or domestic partner; or
                    (B) any individual related to the employee involved 
                by blood or affinity, whose close association with the 
                employee is the equivalent of a family relationship 
                described in subparagraph (A).
            (12) Grandchild.--The term ``grandchild'' means the child 
        of a child.
            (13) Grandparent.--The term ``grandparent'' means the 
        parent of a parent.
            (14) Minimum number of expected work hours.--The term 
        ``minimum number of expected work hours'' means the minimum 
        number of hours an employee will be assigned to work on a 
        weekly or monthly basis.
            (15) Nonexempt employee.--The ``nonexempt employee'' means 
        an employee who is not employed in a bona fide executive, 
        administrative, or professional capacity, as defined for 
        purposes of section 13(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 
        1938 (29 U.S.C. 213(a)(1)).
            (16) Parent.--The term ``parent'' means a biological or 
        adoptive parent, a stepparent, or a person who stood in a 
        parental relationship to an employee when the employee was a 
        child.
            (17) Parental relationship.--The term ``parental 
        relationship'' means a relationship in which a person assumed 
        the obligations incident to parenthood for a child and 
        discharged those obligations before the child reached 
        adulthood.
            (18) Part-time employee.--The term ``part-time employee'' 
        means an individual who works fewer than 30 hours per week on 
        average during any 1-month period.
            (19) Retail, food service, or cleaning employee.--The term 
        ``retail, food service, or cleaning employee'' means an 
        individual nonexempt employee who is employed in any of the 
        following occupations, as described by the Bureau of Labor 
        Statistics Standard Occupational Classification System (as in 
        effect on the day before the date of enactment of this Act):
                    (A) Retail sales occupations consisting of 
                occupations described in 41-1010 and 41-2000, and all 
                subdivisions thereof, of such System, which includes 
                first-line supervisors of sales workers, cashiers, 
                gaming change persons and booth cashiers, counter and 
                rental clerks, parts salespersons, and retail 
                salespersons.
                    (B) Food preparation and serving related 
                occupations as described in 35-0000, and all 
                subdivisions thereof, of such System, which includes 
                supervisors of food preparation and serving workers, 
                cooks and food preparation workers, food and beverage 
                serving workers, and other food preparation and serving 
                related workers.
                    (C) Building cleaning occupations as described in 
                37-2011, 37-2012 and 37-2019 of such System, which 
                includes janitors and cleaners, maids and housekeeping 
                cleaners, and building cleaning workers.
            (20) Secretary.--The term ``Secretary'' means the Secretary 
        of Labor.
            (21) Serious health condition.--The term ``serious health 
        condition'' has the meaning given the term in section 101 of 
        the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (29 U.S.C. 2611).
            (22) Sibling.--The term ``sibling'' means a brother or 
        sister, whether related by half blood, whole blood, or 
        adoption, or as a stepsibling.
            (23) Split shift.--The term ``split shift'' means a 
        schedule of daily hours in which the hours worked are not 
        consecutive, except that--
                    (A) a schedule in which the total time out for 
                meals does not exceed one hour shall not be treated as 
                a split shift; and
                    (B) a schedule in which the break in the employee's 
                work shift is requested by the employee shall not be 
                treated as a split shift.
            (24) Spouse.--
                    (A) In general.--The term ``spouse'' means a person 
                with whom an individual entered into--
                            (i) a marriage as defined or recognized 
                        under State law in the State in which the 
                        marriage was entered into; or
                            (ii) in the case of a marriage entered into 
                        outside of any State, a marriage that is 
                        recognized in the place where entered into and 
                        could have been entered into in at least 1 
                        State.
                    (B) Same-sex or common law marriage.--Such term 
                includes an individual in a same-sex or common law 
                marriage that meets the requirements of subparagraph 
                (A).
            (25) State.--The term ``State'' has the meaning given the 
        term in section 3 of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 
        U.S.C. 203).
            (26) Work schedule.--The term ``work schedule'' means those 
        days and times within a work period when an employee is 
        required by an employer to perform the duties of the employee's 
        employment for which the employee will receive compensation.
            (27) Work schedule change.--The term ``work schedule 
        change'' means any modification to an employee's work schedule, 
        such as an addition or reduction of hours, cancellation of a 
        shift, or a change in the date or time of a work shift, by an 
        employer.
            (28) Work shift.--The term ``work shift'' means the 
        specific hours of the workday during which an employee works.

SEC. 3. RIGHT TO REQUEST AND RECEIVE A FLEXIBLE, PREDICTABLE OR STABLE 
              WORK SCHEDULE.

    (a) Right To Request.--An employee may apply to the employee's 
employer to request a change in the terms and conditions of employment 
as they relate to--
            (1) the number of hours the employee is required to work or 
        be on call for work;
            (2) the times when the employee is required to work or be 
        on call for work;
            (3) the location where the employee is required to work;
            (4) the amount of notification the employee receives of 
        work schedule assignments; and
            (5) minimizing fluctuations in the number of hours the 
        employee is scheduled to work on a daily, weekly, or monthly 
        basis.
    (b) Employer Obligation To Engage in an Interactive Process.--
            (1) In general.--If an employee applies to the employee's 
        employer to request a change in the terms and conditions of 
        employment as set forth in subsection (a), the employer shall 
        engage in a timely, good faith interactive process with the 
        employee that includes a discussion of potential schedule 
        changes that would meet the employee's needs.
            (2) Result.--Such process shall result in--
                    (A) either granting or denying the request;
                    (B) in the event of a denial, considering 
                alternatives to the proposed change that might meet the 
                employee's needs and granting or denying a request for 
                an alternative change in the terms and conditions of 
                employment as set forth in subsection (a); and
                    (C) in the event of a denial, stating the reason 
                for denial, including whether any such reason is a bona 
                fide business reason.
            (3) Information.--If information provided by the employee 
        making a request under this section requires clarification, the 
        employer shall explain what further information is needed and 
        give the employee reasonable time to produce the information.
    (c) Requests Related to Caregiving, Enrollment in Education or 
Training, or a Second Job.--If an employee makes a request for a change 
in the terms and conditions of employment as set forth in subsection 
(a) because of a serious health condition of the employee, due to the 
employee's responsibilities as a caregiver, or due to the employee's 
enrollment in a career-related educational or training program, or if a 
part-time employee makes a request for such a change for a reason 
related to a second job, the employer shall grant the request, unless 
the employer has a bona fide business reason for denying the request.
    (d) Other Requests.--If an employee makes a request for a change in 
the terms and conditions of employment as set forth in subsection (a), 
for a reason other than those reasons set forth in subsection (c), the 
employer may deny the request for any reason that is not unlawful. If 
the employer denies such a request, the employer shall provide the 
employee with the reason for the denial, including whether any such 
reason is a bona fide business reason.

SEC. 4. REQUIREMENTS FOR REPORTING TIME PAY, SPLIT SHIFT PAY, AND 
              ADVANCE NOTICE OF WORK SCHEDULES FOR RETAIL, FOOD 
              SERVICE, CLEANING, OR SECRETARY'S DESIGNATED EMPLOYEES.

    (a) Reporting Time Pay Requirement.--An employer shall pay a 
retail, food service, or cleaning employee or a designated employee, in 
an additional occupation designated by the Secretary, under section 
8(a)(2) as appropriate for coverage under this Act (referred to in this 
Act as ``a retail, food service, cleaning, or Secretary's designated 
employee'')--
            (1) for at least 4 hours at the regular rate of pay of the 
        employee involved for each day on which the retail, food 
        service, cleaning, or Secretary's designated employee reports 
        for work, as required by the employer, but is given less than 
        four hours of work, except that if the employee's scheduled 
        hours for a day are less than 4 hours, such employee shall be 
        paid for the scheduled hours of the employee involved for that 
        day if given less than the scheduled hours of work; and
            (2) for at least 1 hour at the regular rate of pay of the 
        employee involved for each day the retail, food service, 
        cleaning, or Secretary's designated employee is given specific 
        instructions to contact the employer of the employee involved, 
        or wait to be contacted by the employer, less than 24 hours in 
        advance of the start of a potential work shift to determine 
        whether the employee must report to work for such shift.
    (b) Split Shift Pay Requirement.--An employer shall pay a retail, 
food service, cleaning, or Secretary's designated employee for one 
additional hour at the employee's regular rate of pay for each day 
during which the employee works a split shift.
    (c) Advance Notice Requirement.--
            (1) Initial schedule.--On or before a new retail, food 
        service, cleaning, or Secretary's designated employee's first 
        day of work, the employer shall inform the employee in writing 
        of the work schedule of the employee involved and the minimum 
        number of expected work hours the employee will be assigned to 
        work per month.
            (2) Providing notice of new schedules.--Except as provided 
        in paragraph (3), if a retail, food service, cleaning, or 
        Secretary's designated employee's work schedule changes from 
        the work schedule of which the employee was informed pursuant 
        to paragraph (1), the employer shall provide the employee with 
        the new work schedule of the employee involved not less than 14 
        days before the first day of the new work schedule. If the 
        expected minimum number of work hours that a retail, food 
        service, cleaning, or Secretary's designated employee will be 
        assigned changes from the number of which the employee involved 
        was informed pursuant to paragraph (1), the employer shall also 
        provide notification of that change, not less than 14 days in 
        advance of the first day this change will go into effect. 
        Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prohibit an 
        employer from providing greater advance notice of a retail, 
        food service, cleaning, or Secretary's designated employee's 
        work schedule than is required under this section.
            (3) Work schedule changes made with less than 24 hours' 
        notice.--An employer may make work schedule changes as needed, 
        including by offering additional hours of work to retail, food 
        service, cleaning, or Secretary's designated employees beyond 
        those previously scheduled, but an employer shall be required 
        to provide one extra hour of pay at the employee's regular rate 
        for each shift that is changed with less than 24 hours' notice, 
        except in the case of the need to schedule the employee due to 
        the unforeseen unavailability of a retail, food service, 
        cleaning, or Secretary's designated employee previously 
        scheduled to work that shift.
            (4) Notifications in writing.--The notifications required 
        under paragraphs (1) and (2) shall be made to the employee 
        involved in writing. Nothing in this subsection shall be 
        construed as prohibiting an employer from using any additional 
        means of notifying a retail, food service, cleaning, or 
        Secretary's designated employee of the work schedule of the 
        employee involved.
            (5) Schedule posting requirement.--Every employer employing 
        any retail, food service, cleaning, or Secretary's designated 
        employee, subject to this Act shall post the schedule and keep 
        it posted in a conspicuous place in every establishment where 
        such employee is employed so as to permit the employee involved 
        to observe readily a copy. Availability of that schedule by 
        electronic means accessible by all retail, food service, 
        cleaning, or Secretary's designated employees, of that employer 
        shall be considered compliance with this subsection.
            (6) Employee shift trading.--Nothing in this subsection 
        shall be construed to prevent an employer from allowing a 
        retail, food service, cleaning, or Secretary's designated 
        employee to work in place of another employee who has been 
        scheduled to work a particular shift as long as the change in 
        schedule is mutually agreed upon by the employees. An employer 
        shall not be subject to the requirements of paragraph (2) or 
        (3) for such voluntary shift trades.
    (d) Pay Stub Transparency.--Any pay provided to an employee 
pursuant to subsection (a), (b), or (c)(3) (referred to in this 
paragraph as ``additional pay'') shall be included in the employee's 
regular paycheck. The employer shall identify, in the corresponding 
written wage statement or pay stub, the total number of hours of 
additional pay provided for the pay period involved and whether the 
additional pay was due to the requirements of subsection (a)(1), the 
requirements of subsection (a)(2), the requirements of subsection (b), 
or the requirements of subsection (c)(3).
    (e) Exception.--The requirements in subsections (a) through (d) 
shall not apply during periods when regular operations of the employer 
are suspended due to events beyond the employer's control.

SEC. 5. PROHIBITED ACTS.

    (a) Interference With Rights.--It shall be unlawful for any 
employer to interfere with, restrain, or deny the exercise or the 
attempt to exercise, any right of an employee as set forth in section 3 
or of a retail, food service, cleaning, or Secretary's designated 
employee as set forth in section 4.
    (b) Retaliation Prohibited.--It shall be unlawful for any employer 
to discharge, threaten to discharge, demote, suspend, reduce work hours 
of, or take any other adverse employment action against any employee in 
retaliation for exercising the rights of an employee under this Act or 
opposing any practice made unlawful by this Act. For purposes of 
section 3, such retaliation shall include taking an adverse employment 
action against any employee on the basis of that employee's eligibility 
or perceived eligibility to request or receive a change in the terms 
and conditions of employment, as described in such section, on the 
basis of a reason set forth in section 3(c).
    (c) Interference With Proceedings or Inquiries.--It shall be 
unlawful for any person to discharge or in any other manner 
discriminate against any individual because such individual--
            (1) has filed any charge, or has instituted or caused to be 
        instituted any proceeding, under or related to this Act;
            (2) has given or is about to give, any information in 
        connection with any inquiry or proceeding relating to any right 
        provided under this Act; or
            (3) has testified, or is about to testify, in any inquiry 
        or proceeding relating to any right provided under this Act.

SEC. 6. REMEDIES AND ENFORCEMENT.

    (a) Investigative Authority.--
            (1) In general.--To ensure compliance with this Act, or any 
        regulation or order issued under this Act, the Secretary shall 
        have, subject to paragraph (3), the investigative authority 
        provided under section 11(a) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 
        1938 (29 U.S.C. 211(a)).
            (2) Obligation to keep and preserve records.--Each employer 
        shall make, keep, and preserve records pertaining to compliance 
        with this Act in accordance with regulations issued by the 
        Secretary under section 8.
            (3) Required submissions generally limited to an annual 
        basis.--The Secretary shall not under the authority of this 
        subsection require any employer to submit to the Secretary any 
        books or records more than once during any 12-month period, 
        unless the Secretary has reasonable cause to believe there may 
        exist a violation of this Act or any regulation or order issued 
        pursuant to this Act, or is investigating a charge pursuant to 
        subsection (c).
            (4) Subpoena powers.--For the purposes of any investigation 
        provided for in this section, the Secretary shall have the 
        subpoena authority provided for under section 9 of the Fair 
        Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 U.S.C. 209).
    (b) Civil Action by Employees.--
            (1) Liability.--Any employer who violates section 5(a) 
        (with respect to a right set forth in subsection (a), (b), or 
        (c)(3) of section 4) or subsection (b) or (c) of section 5 
        (referred to in this section as a ``covered provision'') shall 
        be liable to any employee affected for--
                    (A) damages equal to the amount of--
                            (i) any wages, salary, employment benefits 
                        (as defined in section 101 of the Family and 
                        Medical Leave Act of 1993 (29 U.S.C. 2611)), or 
                        other compensation denied, lost, or owed to 
                        such employee by reason of the violation; or
                            (ii) in a case in which wages, salary, 
                        employment benefits (as so defined), or other 
                        compensation have not been denied, lost, or 
                        owed to the employee, any actual monetary 
                        losses sustained by the employee as a direct 
                        result of the violation;
                    (B) interest on the amount described in 
                subparagraph (A) calculated at the prevailing rate;
                    (C) an additional amount as liquidated damages 
                equal to the sum of the amount described in 
                subparagraph (A) and the interest described in 
                subparagraph (B), except that if an employer who has 
                violated a covered provision proves to the satisfaction 
                of the court that the act or omission which violated 
                the covered provision was in good faith and that the 
                employer had reasonable grounds for believing that the 
                act or omission was not a violation of a covered 
                provision, such court may, in the discretion of the 
                court, reduce the amount of liability to the amount and 
                interest determined under subparagraphs (A) and (B), 
                respectively; and
                    (D) such equitable relief as may be appropriate, 
                including employment, reinstatement, and promotion.
            (2) Right of action.--An action to recover the damages or 
        equitable relief set forth in paragraph (1) may be maintained 
        against any employer (including a public agency) in any Federal 
        or State court of competent jurisdiction by any one or more 
        employees for and on behalf of--
                    (A) the employees; or
                    (B) the employees and other employees similarly 
                situated.
            (3) Fees and costs.--The court in such an action shall, in 
        addition to any judgment awarded to the plaintiff, allow a 
        reasonable attorney's fee, reasonable expert witness fees, and 
        other costs of the action to be paid by the defendant.
            (4) Limitations.--The right provided by paragraph (2) to 
        bring an action by or on behalf of any employee shall terminate 
        on the filing of a complaint by the Secretary in an action 
        under subsection (c)(3) in which a recovery is sought of the 
        damages described in paragraph (1)(A) owing to an employee by 
        an employer liable under paragraph (1) unless the action 
        described is dismissed without prejudice on motion of the 
        Secretary.
    (c) Actions by the Secretary.--
            (1) Administrative action.--The Secretary shall receive, 
        investigate, and attempt to resolve complaints of violations of 
        this Act in the same manner that the Secretary receives, 
        investigates, and attempts to resolve complaints of violations 
        of sections 6 and 7 of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 
        U.S.C. 206 and 207), and may issue an order making 
        determinations, and assessing a civil penalty described in 
        paragraph (3) (in accordance with paragraph (3)), with respect 
        to such an alleged violation.
            (2) Administrative review.--An affected person who takes 
        exception to an order issued under paragraph (1) may request 
        review of and a decision regarding such an order by an 
        administrative law judge. In reviewing the order, the 
        administrative law judge may hold an administrative hearing 
        concerning the order, in accordance with the requirements of 
        sections 554, 556, and 557 of title 5, United States Code. Such 
        hearing shall be conducted expeditiously. If no affected person 
        requests such review within 60 days after the order is issued 
        under paragraph (1), the order shall be considered to be a 
        final order that is not subject to judicial review.
            (3) Civil penalty.--An employer who willfully and 
        repeatedly violates--
                    (A) paragraph (1), (2), (4), or (5) of section 
                4(c), or section 4(d), shall be subject to a civil 
                penalty in an amount to be determined by the Secretary, 
                but not to exceed $100 per violation; and
                    (B) subsection (b) or (c) of section 5 shall be 
                subject to a civil penalty in an amount to be 
                determined by the Secretary, but not to exceed $1,100 
                per violation.
            (4) Civil action.--The Secretary may bring an action in any 
        court of competent jurisdiction on behalf of aggrieved 
        employees to--
                    (A) restrain violations of this Act;
                    (B) award such equitable relief as may be 
                appropriate, including employment, reinstatement, and 
                promotion; and
                    (C) in the case of a violation of a covered 
                provision, recover the damages and interest described 
                in subparagraphs (A) through (C) of subsection (b)(1).
    (d) Limitation.--
            (1) In general.--Except as provided in paragraph (2), an 
        action may be brought under this section not later than 2 years 
        after the date of the last event constituting the alleged 
        violation for which the action is brought.
            (2) Willful violation.--In the case of such action brought 
        for a willful violation of section 5, such action may be 
        brought within 3 years of the date of the last event 
        constituting the alleged violation for which such action is 
        brought.
            (3) Commencement.--In determining when an action is 
        commenced by the Secretary under this section for the purposes 
        of this subsection, it shall be considered to be commenced on 
        the date when the complaint is filed.
    (e) Other Administrative Officers.--
            (1) Board.--In the case of employees described in section 
        2(9)(C), the authority of the Secretary under this Act shall be 
        exercised by the Board of Directors of the Office of 
        Compliance.
            (2) President; merit systems protection board.--In the case 
        of employees described in section 2(9)(D), the authority of the 
        Secretary under this Act shall be exercised by the President 
        and the Merit Systems Protection Board.
            (3) Office of personnel management.--In the case of 
        employees described in section 2(9)(E), the authority of the 
        Secretary under this Act shall be exercised by the Office of 
        Personnel Management.
            (4) Librarian of congress.--In the case of employees of the 
        Library of Congress, the authority of the Secretary under this 
        Act shall be exercised by the Librarian of Congress.
            (5) Comptroller general.--In the case of employees of the 
        Government Accountability Office, the authority of the 
        Secretary under this Act shall be exercised by the Comptroller 
        General of the United States.

SEC. 7. NOTICE AND POSTING.

    (a) In General.--Each employer shall post and keep posted, in 
conspicuous places on the premises of the employer where notices to 
employees and applicants for employment are customarily posted, a 
notice, to be prepared or approved by the Secretary (or the 
corresponding administrative officer specified in section 8) setting 
forth excerpts from, or summaries of, the pertinent provisions of this 
Act and information pertaining to the filing of a complaint under this 
Act.
    (b) Penalty.--Any employer that willfully violates this section may 
be assessed a civil money penalty not to exceed $100 for each separate 
offense.

SEC. 8. REGULATIONS.

    (a) Secretary of Labor.--
            (1) In general.--Except as provided in subsections (b) 
        through (f), not later than 180 days after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall issue such 
        regulations as may be necessary to implement this Act.
            (2) Regulations regarding additional occupations to be 
        covered.--
                    (A) In general.--In carrying out paragraph (1), the 
                Secretary shall issue regulations that specify a 
                process the Secretary will follow to identify and 
                designate additional occupations, for purposes of 
                section 4(a), that are appropriate for coverage under 
                this Act. Nonexempt employees in such occupations shall 
                be considered to be designated employees for purposes 
                of this Act.
                    (B) Criteria.--The regulations shall provide that 
                the Secretary shall so designate an additional 
                occupation--
                            (i) in which not less than 10 percent of 
                        workers employed in the occupation generally--
                                    (I) receive advance notice of their 
                                work schedules less than 14 days before 
                                the first day of the work schedules; or
                                    (II) experience fluctuations in the 
                                number of hours the employees are 
                                scheduled to work on a daily, weekly, 
                                or monthly basis; or
                            (ii) for which the Secretary determines 
                        such designation is appropriate.
                    (C) Data review.--In issuing the regulations, the 
                Secretary shall specify the process by which the 
                Department of Labor will review data from stakeholders, 
                and data collected or generated by the Department, in 
                making those designations.
    (b) Board.--
            (1) In general.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Board of Directors of the Office of 
        Compliance shall issue such regulations as may be necessary to 
        implement this Act with respect to employees described in 
        section 2(9)(C). The procedures applicable to regulations of 
        the Board issued for the implementation of the Congressional 
        Accountability Act of 1995 (2 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.), prescribed 
        in section 304 of that Act (2 U.S.C. 1384), shall be the 
        procedures applicable to regulations issued under this 
        subsection.
            (2) Consideration.--In prescribing the regulations, the 
        Board shall take into consideration the enforcement and 
        remedies provisions concerning the Board, and applicable to 
        rights and protections under the Family and Medical Leave Act 
        of 1993 (29 U.S.C. 2611 et seq.), under the Congressional 
        Accountability Act of 1995 (2 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.).
            (3) Modifications.--The regulations issued under paragraph 
        (1) to implement this Act shall be the same as substantive 
        regulations issued by the Secretary to implement this Act, 
        except to the extent that the Board may determine, for good 
        cause shown and stated together with the regulations issued by 
        the Board, that a modification of such substantive regulations 
        would be more effective for the implementation of the rights 
        and protections under this Act.
    (c) President.--
            (1) In general.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the President shall issue such 
        regulations as may be necessary to implement this Act with 
        respect to employees described in section 2(9)(D).
            (2) Consideration.--In prescribing the regulations, the 
        President shall take into consideration the enforcement and 
        remedies provisions concerning the President and the Merit 
        Systems Protection Board, and applicable to rights and 
        protections under the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, 
        under chapter 5 of title 3, United States Code.
            (3) Modifications.--The regulations issued under paragraph 
        (1) to implement this Act shall be the same as substantive 
        regulations issued by the Secretary to implement this Act, 
        except to the extent that the President may determine, for good 
        cause shown and stated together with the regulations issued by 
        the President, that a modification of such substantive 
        regulations would be more effective for the implementation of 
        the rights and protections under this Act.
    (d) Office of Personnel Management.--
            (1) In general.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Office of Personnel Management shall 
        issue such regulations as may be necessary to implement this 
        Act with respect to employees described in section 2(9)(E).
            (2) Consideration.--In prescribing the regulations, the 
        Office shall take into consideration the enforcement and 
        remedies provisions concerning the Office under subchapter V of 
        chapter 63 of title 5, United States Code.
            (3) Modifications.--The regulations issued under paragraph 
        (1) to implement this Act shall be the same as substantive 
        regulations issued by the Secretary to implement this Act, 
        except to the extent that the Office may determine, for good 
        cause shown and stated together with the regulations issued by 
        the Office, that a modification of such substantive regulations 
        would be more effective for the implementation of the rights 
        and protections under this Act.
    (e) Librarian of Congress.--
            (1) In general.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Librarian of Congress shall issue 
        such regulations as may be necessary to implement this Act with 
        respect to employees of the Library of Congress.
            (2) Consideration.--In prescribing the regulations, the 
        Librarian shall take into consideration the enforcement and 
        remedies provisions concerning the Librarian of Congress under 
        title I of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (29 U.S.C. 
        2611 et seq.).
            (3) Modifications.--The regulations issued under paragraph 
        (1) to implement this Act shall be the same as substantive 
        regulations issued by the Secretary to implement this Act, 
        except to the extent that the Librarian may determine, for good 
        cause shown and stated together with the regulations issued by 
        the Librarian, that a modification of such substantive 
        regulations would be more effective for the implementation of 
        the rights and protections under this Act.
    (f) Comptroller General.--
            (1) In general.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Comptroller General shall issue such 
        regulations as may be necessary to implement this Act with 
        respect to employees of the Government Accountability Office.
            (2) Consideration.--In prescribing the regulations, the 
        Comptroller General shall take into consideration the 
        enforcement and remedies provisions concerning the Comptroller 
        General under title I of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 
        1993.
            (3) Modifications.--The regulations issued under paragraph 
        (1) to implement this Act shall be the same as substantive 
        regulations issued by the Secretary to implement this Act, 
        except to the extent that the Comptroller General may 
        determine, for good cause shown and stated together with the 
        regulations issued by the Comptroller General, that a 
        modification of such substantive regulations would be more 
        effective for the implementation of the rights and protections 
        under this Act.

SEC. 9. RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM AND 
              SURVEYS.

    (a) In General.--The Secretary shall provide information and 
technical assistance to employers, labor organizations, and the general 
public concerning compliance with this Act.
    (b) Program.--In order to achieve the objectives of this Act--
            (1) the Secretary, acting through the Administrator of the 
        Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor, shall issue 
        guidance on compliance with this Act regarding providing a 
        flexible, predictable, or stable work environment through 
        changes in the terms and conditions of employment as provided 
        in section 3(a); and
            (2) the Secretary shall carry on a continuing program of 
        research, education, and technical assistance, including--
                    (A)(i) conducting pilot programs that implement 
                fairer work schedules, including by promoting cross 
                training, providing three weeks or more advance notice 
                of schedules, providing employees with a minimum number 
                of hours of work, and using computerized scheduling 
                software to provide more flexible, predictable, and 
                stable schedules for employees; and
                    (ii) evaluating the results of such pilot programs 
                for employees, employee's families, and employers;
                    (B) publishing and otherwise making available to 
                employers, labor organizations, professional 
                associations, educational institutions, the various 
                communication media, and the general public the 
                findings of studies regarding fair work scheduling 
                policies and other materials for promoting compliance 
                with this Act;
                    (C) sponsoring and assisting State and community 
                informational and educational programs; and
                    (D) providing technical assistance to employers, 
                labor organizations, professional associations, and 
                other interested persons on means of achieving and 
                maintaining compliance with the provisions of this Act.
    (c) Current Population Survey.--The Secretary, acting through the 
Commissioner of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and the Director of the 
Bureau of the Census shall--
            (1) include in the Current Population Survey questions on--
                    (A) the amount of fluctuation in the number of 
                hours the employee is scheduled to work on a daily, 
                weekly or monthly basis;
                    (B) the extent of advance notice an employee 
                receives of the employee's work schedule; and
                    (C) the extent to which an employee has input in 
                the employee's work schedule; and
            (2) conduct at regular intervals the Contingent Worker 
        Supplement, the Work Schedules and Work at Home Supplement, and 
        other relevant supplements (as determined by the Secretary), to 
        the Current Population Survey.

SEC. 10. RIGHTS RETAINED BY EMPLOYEES.

    This Act provides minimum requirements and shall not be construed 
to preempt, limit, or otherwise affect the applicability of any other 
law, regulation, requirement, policy, or standard that provides for 
greater rights for employees than are required in this Act.

SEC. 11. EXEMPTION.

    This Act shall not apply to any employee covered by a bona fide 
collective bargaining agreement if the terms of the collective 
bargaining agreement include terms that govern work scheduling 
practices.

SEC. 12. EFFECT ON OTHER LAW.

    (a) In General.--Nothing in this Act shall be construed as 
superseding, or creating or imposing any requirement in conflict with, 
any Federal, State, or local regulation or other law (including the 
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.), the 
Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (29 U.S.C. 2611 et seq.), the 
National Labor Relations Act (29 U.S.C. 151 et seq.), the Fair Labor 
Standards Act of 1938 (29 U.S.C. 201 et seq.), and title VII of the 
Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e et seq.)).
    (b) Relationship to Collective Bargaining Rights.--Nothing in this 
Act shall be construed to diminish or impair the rights of an employee 
under any valid collective bargaining agreement.
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