Text: S.3084 — 114th Congress (2015-2016)All Information (Except Text)

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[S. 3084 Enrolled Bill (ENR)]

        S.3084

                     One Hundred Fourteenth Congress

                                 of the

                        United States of America


                          AT THE SECOND SESSION

           Begun and held at the City of Washington on Monday,
           the fourth day of January, two thousand and sixteen


                                 An Act


 
To invest in innovation through research and development, and to improve 
                the competitiveness of the United States.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.
    (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``American 
Innovation and Competitiveness Act''.
    (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents of this Act is as 
follows:

Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.
Sec. 2. Definitions.

                   TITLE I--MAXIMIZING BASIC RESEARCH

Sec. 101. Reaffirmation of merit-based peer review.
Sec. 102. Transparency and accountability.
Sec. 103. EPSCoR reaffirmation and update.
Sec. 104. Cybersecurity research.
Sec. 105. Networking and Information Technology Research and Development 
          Update.
Sec. 106. Physical sciences coordination.
Sec. 107. Laboratory program improvements.
Sec. 108. Standard Reference Data Act update.
Sec. 109. NSF mid-scale project investments.
Sec. 110. Oversight of NSF major multi-user research facility projects.
Sec. 111. Personnel oversight.
Sec. 112. Management of the U.S. Antarctic Program.
Sec. 113. NIST campus security.
Sec. 114. Coordination of sustainable chemistry research and 
          development.
Sec. 115. Misrepresentation of research results.
Sec. 116. Research reproducibility and replication.
Sec. 117. Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies 
          Initiative.

        TITLE II--ADMINISTRATIVE AND REGULATORY BURDEN REDUCTION

Sec. 201. Interagency working group on research regulation.
Sec. 202. Scientific and technical collaboration.
Sec. 203. NIST grants and cooperative agreements update.
Sec. 204. Repeal of certain obsolete reports.
Sec. 205. Repeal of certain provisions.
Sec. 206. Grant subrecipient transparency and oversight.
Sec. 207. Micro-purchase threshold for procurement solicitations by 
          research institutions.
Sec. 208. Coordination of international science and technology 
          partnerships.

     TITLE III--SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATH EDUCATION

Sec. 301. Robert Noyce Teacher Scholarship Program update.
Sec. 302. Space grants.
Sec. 303. STEM Education Advisory Panel.
Sec. 304. Committee on STEM Education.
Sec. 305. Programs to expand STEM opportunities.
Sec. 306. NIST education and outreach.
Sec. 307. Presidential awards for excellence in STEM mentoring.
Sec. 308. Working group on inclusion in STEM fields.
Sec. 309. Improving undergraduate STEM experiences.
Sec. 310. Computer science education research.
Sec. 311. Informal STEM education.
Sec. 312. Developing STEM apprenticeships.
Sec. 313. NSF report on broadening participation.
Sec. 314. NOAA science education programs.
Sec. 315. Hispanic-serving institutions undergraduate program update.

                 TITLE IV--LEVERAGING THE PRIVATE SECTOR

Sec. 401. Prize competition authority update.
Sec. 402. Crowdsourcing and citizen science.
Sec. 403. NIST director functions update.
Sec. 404. NIST Visiting Committee on Advanced Technology update.

                         TITLE V--MANUFACTURING

Sec. 501. Hollings manufacturing extension partnership improvements.

              TITLE VI--INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

Sec. 601. Innovation corps.
Sec. 602. Translational research grants.
Sec. 603. Optics and photonics technology innovations.
Sec. 604. United States chief technology officer.
Sec. 605. National research council study on technology for emergency 
          notifications on campuses.
SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.
    In this Act, unless expressly provided otherwise:
        (1) Appropriate committees of congress.--The term ``appropriate 
    committees of Congress'' means the Committee on Commerce, Science, 
    and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Science, 
    Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives.
        (2) Federal science agency.--The term ``Federal science 
    agency'' has the meaning given the term in section 103 of the 
    America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 6623).
        (3) Foundation.--The term ``Foundation'' means the National 
    Science Foundation.
        (4) Institution of higher education.--The term ``institution of 
    higher education'' has the meaning given the term in section 101(a) 
    of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001(a)).
        (5) NIST.--The term ``NIST'' means the National Institute of 
    Standards and Technology.
        (6) STEM.--The term ``STEM'' has the meaning given the term in 
    section 2 of the American COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 (42 
    U.S.C. 6621 note).
        (7) STEM education.--The term ``STEM education'' has the 
    meaning given the term in section 2 of the STEM Education Act of 
    2015 (42 U.S.C. 6621 note).

                   TITLE I--MAXIMIZING BASIC RESEARCH

    SEC. 101. REAFFIRMATION OF MERIT-BASED PEER REVIEW.
    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) sustained, predictable Federal funding of basic research is 
    essential to United States leadership in science and technology;
        (2) the Foundation's intellectual merit and broader impacts 
    criteria are appropriate for evaluating grant proposals, as 
    concluded by the 2011 National Science Board Task Force on Merit 
    Review;
        (3) evaluating proposals on the basis of the Foundation's 
    intellectual merit and broader impacts criteria should be used to 
    assure that the Foundation's activities are in the national 
    interest as these reviews can affirm that--
            (A) the proposals funded by the Foundation are of high 
        quality and advance scientific knowledge; and
            (B) the Foundation's grants address societal needs through 
        basic research findings or through related activities; and
        (4) as evidenced by the Foundation's contributions to 
    scientific advancement, economic growth, human health, and national 
    security, its peer review and merit review processes have 
    identified and funded scientifically and societally relevant basic 
    research and should be preserved.
    (b) Merit Review Criteria.--The Foundation shall maintain the 
intellectual merit and broader impacts criteria, among other specific 
criteria as appropriate, as the basis for evaluating grant proposals in 
the merit review process.
    (c) Updates.--If after the date of enactment of this Act a change 
is made to the merit-review process, the Director shall submit a report 
to the appropriate committees of Congress not later than 30 days after 
the date of the change.
    SEC. 102. TRANSPARENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITY.
    (a) Findings.--
        (1) building the understanding of and confidence in investments 
    in basic research is essential to public support for sustained, 
    predictable Federal funding;
        (2) the Foundation has improved transparency and accountability 
    of the outcomes made through the merit review process, but 
    additional transparency into individual grants is valuable in 
    communicating and assuring the public value of federally funded 
    research; and
        (3) the Foundation should commit to transparency and 
    accountability and to clear, consistent public communication 
    regarding the national interest for each Foundation-awarded grant 
    and cooperative agreement.
    (b) Guidance.--
        (1) In general.--The Director of the Foundation shall issue and 
    periodically update, as appropriate, policy guidance for both 
    Foundation staff and other Foundation merit review process 
    participants on the importance of transparency and accountability 
    to the outcomes made through the merit review process.
        (2) Requirements.--The guidance under paragraph (1) shall 
    require that each public notice of a Foundation-funded research 
    project justify the expenditure of Federal funds by--
            (A) describing how the project--
                (i) reflects the statutory mission of the Foundation, 
            as established in the National Science Foundation Act of 
            1950 (42 U.S.C. 1861 et seq.); and
                (ii) addresses the Foundation's intellectual merit and 
            broader impacts criteria; and
            (B) clearly identifying the research goals of the project 
        in a manner that can be easily understood by both technical and 
        non-technical audiences.
    (c) Broader Impacts Review Criterion Update.--Section 526(a) of the 
America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 1862p-14(a)) is 
amended to read as follows:
    ``(a) Goals.--The Foundation shall apply a broader impacts review 
criterion to identify and demonstrate project support of the following 
goals:
        ``(1) Increasing the economic competitiveness of the United 
    States.
        ``(2) Advancing of the health and welfare of the American 
    public.
        ``(3) Supporting the national defense of the United States.
        ``(4) Enhancing partnerships between academia and industry in 
    the United States.
        ``(5) Developing an American STEM workforce that is globally 
    competitive through improved pre-kindergarten through grade 12 STEM 
    education and teacher development, and improved undergraduate STEM 
    education and instruction.
        ``(6) Improving public scientific literacy and engagement with 
    science and technology in the United States.
        ``(7) Expanding participation of women and individuals from 
    underrepresented groups in STEM.''.
    SEC. 103. EPSCOR REAFFIRMATION AND UPDATE.
    (a) Findings.--Section 517(a) of the America COMPETES 
Reauthorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 1862p-9(a)) is amended--
        (1) in paragraph (1)--
            (A) by striking ``The National'' and inserting ``the 
        National''; and
            (B) by striking ``education,'' and inserting ``education'';
        (2) in paragraph (2), by striking ``with 27 States'' and all 
    that follows through the semicolon at the end and inserting ``with 
    28 States and jurisdictions, taken together, receiving only about 
    12 percent of all National Science Foundation research funding;'';
        (3) by striking paragraph (3) and inserting the following:
        ``(3) each of the States described in paragraph (2) receives 
    only a fraction of 1 percent of the Foundation's research dollars 
    each year;''; and
        (4) by adding at the end the following:
        ``(4) first established at the National Science Foundation in 
    1979, the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research 
    (referred to in this section as `EPSCoR') assists States and 
    jurisdictions historically underserved by Federal research and 
    development funding in strengthening their research and innovation 
    capabilities;
        ``(5) the EPSCoR structure requires each participating State to 
    develop a science and technology plan suited to State and local 
    research, education, and economic interests and objectives;
        ``(6) EPSCoR has been credited with advancing the research 
    competitiveness of participating States, improving awareness of 
    science, promoting policies that link scientific investment and 
    economic growth, and encouraging partnerships between government, 
    industry, and academia;
        ``(7) EPSCoR proposals are evaluated through a rigorous and 
    competitive merit-review process to ensure that awarded research 
    and development efforts meet high scientific standards; and
        ``(8) according to the National Academy of Sciences, EPSCoR has 
    strengthened the national research infrastructure and enhanced the 
    educational opportunities needed to develop the science and 
    engineering workforce.''.
    (b) Sense of Congress.--
        (1) In general.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            (A) since maintaining the Nation's scientific and economic 
        leadership requires the participation of talented individuals 
        nationwide, EPSCoR investments into State research and 
        education capacities are in the Federal interest and should be 
        sustained; and
            (B) EPSCoR should maintain its experimental component by 
        supporting innovative methods for improving research capacity 
        and competitiveness.
        (2) Definition of epscor.--In this subsection, the term 
    ``EPSCoR'' has the meaning given the term in section 502 of the 
    America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 1862p 
    note).
    (c) Award Structure Updates.--Section 517 of the America COMPETES 
Reauthorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 1862p-9) is amended by adding at 
the end the following:
    ``(g) Award Structure Updates.--In implementing the mandate to 
maximize the impact of Federal EPSCoR support on building competitive 
research infrastructure, and based on the inputs and recommendations of 
previous EPSCoR reviews, the head of each Federal agency administering 
an EPSCoR program shall--
        ``(1) consider modifications to EPSCoR proposal solicitation, 
    award type, and project evaluation--
            ``(A) to more closely align with current agency priorities 
        and initiatives;
            ``(B) to focus EPSCoR funding on achieving critical 
        scientific, infrastructure, and educational needs of that 
        agency;
            ``(C) to encourage collaboration between EPSCoR-eligible 
        institutions and researchers, including with institutions and 
        researchers in other States and jurisdictions;
            ``(D) to improve communication between State and Federal 
        agency proposal reviewers; and
            ``(E) to continue to reduce administrative burdens 
        associated with EPSCoR;
        ``(2) consider modifications to EPSCoR award structures--
            ``(A) to emphasize long-term investments in building 
        research capacity, potentially through the use of larger, 
        renewable funding opportunities; and
            ``(B) to allow the agency, States, and jurisdictions to 
        experiment with new research and development funding models; 
        and
        ``(3) consider modifications to the mechanisms used to monitor 
    and evaluate EPSCoR awards--
            ``(A) to increase collaboration between EPSCoR-funded 
        researchers and agency staff, including by providing 
        opportunities for mentoring young researchers and for the use 
        of Federal facilities;
            ``(B) to identify and disseminate best practices; and
            ``(C) to harmonize metrics across participating Federal 
        agencies, as appropriate.''.
    (d) Reports.--
        (1) Congressional reports.--Section 517 of the America COMPETES 
    Reauthorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 1862p-9), as amended, is 
    further amended--
            (A) by striking subsection (c);
            (B) by redesignating subsections (d) through (g) as 
        subsections (c) through (f), respectively;
            (C) in subsection (c), as redesignated--
                (i) in paragraph (1), by striking ``Experimental 
            Programs to Stimulate Competitive Research'' and inserting 
            ``EPSCoR''; and
                (ii) in paragraph (2)--

                    (I) in subparagraphs (A) and (E), by striking 
                ``EPSCoR and Federal EPSCoR-like programs'' and 
                inserting ``each EPSCoR'';
                    (II) in subparagraph (D), by striking ``EPSCoR and 
                other Federal EPSCoR-like programs'' and inserting 
                ``each EPSCoR'';
                    (III) in subparagraph (E), by striking ``EPSCoR or 
                Federal EPSCoR-like programs'' and inserting ``each 
                EPSCoR''; and
                    (IV) in subparagraph (G), by striking ``EPSCoR 
                programs'' and inserting ``each EPSCoR''; and

            (D) by amending subsection (d), as redesignated, to read as 
        follows:
    ``(d) Federal Agency Reports.--Each Federal agency that administers 
an EPSCoR shall submit to Congress, as part of its Federal budget 
submission--
        ``(1) a description of the program strategy and objectives;
        ``(2) a description of the awards made in the previous fiscal 
    year, including--
            ``(A) the total amount made available, by State, under 
        EPSCoR;
            ``(B) the total amount of agency funding made available to 
        all institutions and entities within each EPSCoR State;
            ``(C) the efforts and accomplishments to more fully 
        integrate the EPSCoR States in major agency activities and 
        initiatives;
            ``(D) the percentage of EPSCoR reviewers from EPSCoR 
        States; and
            ``(E) the number of programs or large collaborator awards 
        involving a partnership of organizations and institutions from 
        EPSCoR and non-EPSCoR States; and
        ``(3) an analysis of the gains in academic research quality and 
    competitiveness, and in science and technology human resource 
    development, achieved by the program over the last 5 fiscal 
    years.''; and
            (E) in subsection (e)(1), as redesignated, by striking 
        ``Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research or a 
        program similar to the Experimental Program to Stimulate 
        Competitive Research'' and inserting ``EPSCoR''.
        (2) Results of award structure plan.--Not later than 1 year 
    after the date of enactment of this Act, the EPSCoR Interagency 
    Coordinating Committee shall brief the appropriate committees of 
    Congress on the updates made to the award structure under 517(f) of 
    the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 1862p-
    9(f)), as amended by this subsection.
    (e) Definition of EPSCoR.--
        (1) In general.--Section 502 of the America COMPETES 
    Reauthorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 1862p note) is amended by 
    amending paragraph (2) to read as follows:
        ``(2) EPSCoR.--The term `EPSCoR' means--
            ``(A) the Established Program to Stimulate Competitive 
        Research established by the Foundation; or
            ``(B) a program similar to the Established Program to 
        Stimulate Competitive Research at another Federal agency.''.
        (2) Technical and conforming amendments.--Section 113 of the 
    National Science Foundation Authorization Act of 1988 (42 U.S.C. 
    1862g) is amended--
            (A) in the heading, by striking ``experimental'' and 
        inserting ``established'';
            (B) in subsection (a), by striking ``an Experimental 
        Program to Stimulate Competitive Research'' and inserting ``a 
        program to stimulate competitive research (known as the 
        `Established Program to Stimulate Competitive Research')''; and
            (C) in subsection (b), by striking ``the program'' and 
        inserting ``the Program''.
    SEC. 104. CYBERSECURITY RESEARCH.
    (a) Foundation Cybersecurity Research.--Section 4(a)(1) of the 
Cyber Security Research and Development Act, as amended (15 U.S.C. 
7403(a)(1)) is amended--
        (1) in subparagraph (O), by striking ``and'' at the end;
        (2) in subparagraph (P), by striking the period at the end and 
    inserting a semicolon; and
        (3) by adding at the end the following:
            ``(Q) security of election-dedicated voting system software 
        and hardware; and
            ``(R) role of the human factor in cybersecurity and the 
        interplay of computers and humans and the physical world.''.
    (b) NIST Cybersecurity Priorities.--
        (1) Critical infrastructure awareness.--The Director of NIST 
    shall continue to raise public awareness of the voluntary, 
    industry-led cybersecurity standards and best practices for 
    critical infrastructure developed under section 2(c)(15) of the 
    National Institute of Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 
    272(c)(15)).
        (2) Quantum computing.--Under section 2(b) of the National 
    Institute of Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 272(b)) and 
    section 20 of that Act (15 U.S.C. 278g-3), the Director of NIST 
    shall--
            (A) research information systems for future cybersecurity 
        needs; and
            (B) coordinate with relevant stakeholders to develop a 
        process--
                (i) to research and identify or, if necessary, develop 
            cryptography standards and guidelines for future 
            cybersecurity needs, including quantum-resistant 
            cryptography standards; and
                (ii) to provide recommendations to Congress, Federal 
            agencies, and industry consistent with the National 
            Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (Public Law 
            104-113; 110 Stat. 775), for a secure and smooth transition 
            to the standards under clause (i).
        (3) Federal information systems research and development.--
    Section 20(d)(3) of the National Institute of Standards and 
    Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278g-3(d)(3)) is amended to read as 
    follows:
        ``(3) conduct research and analysis--
            ``(A) to determine the nature and extent of information 
        security vulnerabilities and techniques for providing cost-
        effective information security;
            ``(B) to review and determine prevalent information 
        security challenges and deficiencies identified by agencies or 
        the Institute, including any challenges or deficiencies 
        described in any of the annual reports under section 3553 or 
        3554 of title 44, United States Code, and in any of the reports 
        and the independent evaluations under section 3555 of that 
        title, that may undermine the effectiveness of agency 
        information security programs and practices; and
            ``(C) to evaluate the effectiveness and sufficiency of, and 
        challenges to, Federal agencies' implementation of standards 
        and guidelines developed under this section and policies and 
        standards promulgated under section 11331 of title 40, United 
        States Code;''.
        (4) Voting.--Section 2(c) of the National Institute of 
    Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 272(c)) is amended--
            (A) by redesignating paragraphs (16) through (23) as 
        paragraphs (17) through (24), respectively; and
            (B) by inserting after paragraph (15) the following:
        ``(16) perform research to support the development of 
    voluntary, consensus-based, industry-led standards and 
    recommendations on the security of computers, computer networks, 
    and computer data storage used in election systems to ensure voters 
    can vote securely and privately.''.
    SEC. 105. NETWORKING AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AND 
      DEVELOPMENT UPDATE.
    (a) Short Title.--This section may be cited as the ``Networking and 
Information Technology Research and Development Modernization Act of 
2016''.
    (b) Findings.--Section 2 of the High-Performance Computing Act of 
1991 (15 U.S.C. 5501) is amended--
        (1) in paragraphs (2) and (5), by striking ``high-performance 
    computing'' and inserting ``networking and information technology, 
    including high-performance computing,''; and
        (2) in paragraph (3), by striking ``high-performance 
    computing'' and inserting ``networking and information technology, 
    including high-performance computing'';
    (c) Purposes.--Section 3 of the High-Performance Computing Act of 
1991 (15 U.S.C. 5502) is amended--
        (1) in the matter preceding paragraph (1), by striking ``high-
    performance computing'' and inserting ``networking and information 
    technology'';
        (2) in paragraph (1)--
            (A) in the matter preceding subparagraph (A), by striking 
        ``expanding Federal support for research, development, and 
        application of high-performance computing'' and inserting 
        ``supporting Federal research, development, and application of 
        networking and information technology'';
            (B) in subparagraph (A), by striking ``high-performance 
        computing'' both places it appears and inserting ``networking 
        and information technology'';
            (C) by striking subparagraphs (C) and (D);
            (D) by inserting after subparagraph (B) the following:
            ``(C) stimulate research on and promote more rapid 
        development of high-end computing systems software and 
        applications software;'';
            (E) by redesignating subparagraphs (E) through (H) as 
        subparagraphs (D) through (G), respectively;
            (F) in subparagraph (D), as redesignated, by inserting 
        ``high-end'' after ``the development of'';
            (G) in subparagraphs (E) and (F), as redesignated, by 
        striking ``high-performance computing'' each place it appears 
        and inserting ``networking and information technology''; and
            (H) in subparagraph (G), as redesignated, by striking 
        ``high-performance'' and inserting ``high-end''; and
        (3) in paragraph (2)--
            (A) by striking ``high-performance computing and'' and 
        inserting ``networking and information technology and''; and
            (B) by striking ``high-performance computing network'' and 
        inserting ``networking and information technology''.
    (d) Definitions.--Section 4 of the High-Performance Computing Act 
of 1991 (15 U.S.C. 5503) is amended--
        (1) by striking paragraphs (3) and (5);
        (2) by redesignating paragraphs (1), (2), (4), (6), and (7) as 
    paragraphs (2), (3), (5), (8), and (9), respectively;
        (3) by inserting before paragraph (2), as redesignated, the 
    following:
        ``(1) `cyber-physical systems' means physical or engineered 
    systems whose networking and information technology functions and 
    physical elements are deeply integrated and are actively connected 
    to the physical world through sensors, actuators, or other means to 
    enable safe and effective, real-time performance in safety-critical 
    and other applications;'';
        (4) in paragraph (3), as redesignated, by striking ``high-
    performance computing'' and inserting ``networking and information 
    technology'';
        (5) by inserting after paragraph (3), as redesignated, the 
    following:
        ``(4) `high-end computing' means the most advanced and capable 
    computing systems, including their hardware, storage, networking 
    and software, encompassing both massive computational capability 
    and large-scale data analytics to solve computational problems of 
    national importance that are beyond the capability of small- to 
    medium-scale systems, including computing formerly known as high-
    performance computing;'';
        (6) by inserting after paragraph (5), as redesignated, the 
    following:
        ``(6) `networking and information technology' means high-end 
    computing, communications, and information technologies, high-
    capacity and high-speed networks, special purpose and experimental 
    systems, high-end computing systems software and applications 
    software, and the management of large data sets;
        ``(7) `participating agency' means an agency described in 
    section 101(a)(3)(C);''; and
        (7) in paragraph (8), as redesignated, by striking ``National 
    High-Performance Computing Program'' and inserting ``Networking and 
    Information Technology Research and Development Program''.
    (e) Title I Heading.--The heading of title I of the High-
Performance Computing Act of 1991 (15 U.S.C. 5511 et seq.) is amended 
by striking ``HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING'' and inserting ``NETWORKING 
AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY''.
    (f) Networking and Information Technology Research and Development 
Program.--Section 101 of the High-Performance Computing Act of 1991 (15 
U.S.C. 5511) is amended--
        (1) in the section heading, by striking ``national high-
    performance computing program'' and inserting ``networking and 
    information technology research and development program'';
        (2) in subsection (a)--
            (A) in the subsection heading, by striking ``National High-
        Performance Computing Program'' and inserting ``Networking and 
        Information Technology Research and Development'';
            (B) in paragraph (1)--
                (i) in the matter preceding subparagraph (A), by 
            striking ``National High-Performance Computing Program'' 
            and inserting ``Networking and Information Technology 
            Research and Development Program'';
                (ii) in subparagraph (A), by striking ``high-
            performance computing, including networking'' and inserting 
            ``networking and information technology'';
                (iii) in subparagraphs (B) and (G), by striking ``high-
            performance'' each place it appears and inserting ``high-
            end'';
                (iv) in subparagraph (C), by striking ``high-
            performance computing and networking'' and inserting 
            ``high-end computing, distributed, and networking'';
                (v) by amending subparagraph (D) to read as follows:
            ``(D) provide for efforts to increase software security and 
        reliability;'';
                (vi) in subparagraph (H)--

                    (I) by inserting ``support and guidance'' after 
                ``provide''; and
                    (II) by striking ``and'' after the semicolon;

                (vii) in subparagraph (I)--

                    (I) by striking ``improving the security'' and 
                inserting ``improving the security, reliability, and 
                resilience''; and
                    (II) by striking the period at the end and 
                inserting a semicolon; and

                (viii) by adding at the end the following:
            ``(J) provide for increased understanding of the scientific 
        principles of cyber-physical systems and improve the methods 
        available for the design, development, and operation of cyber-
        physical systems that are characterized by high reliability, 
        safety, and security;
            ``(K) provide for research and development on human-
        computer interactions, visualization, and big data;
            ``(L) provide for research and development on the 
        enhancement of cybersecurity, including the human facets of 
        cyber threats and secure cyber systems;
            ``(M) provide for the understanding of the science, 
        engineering, policy, and privacy protection related to 
        networking and information technology;
            ``(N) provide for the transition of high-end computing 
        hardware, system software, development tools, and applications 
        into development and operations; and
            ``(O) foster public-private collaboration among government, 
        industry research laboratories, academia, and nonprofit 
        organizations to maximize research and development efforts and 
        the benefits of networking and information technology, 
        including high-end computing.'';
            (C) in paragraph (2)--
                (i) by amending subparagraph (A) to read as follows:
            ``(A) establish the goals and priorities for Federal 
        networking and information technology research, development, 
        education, and other activities;'';
                (ii) by amending subparagraph (C) to read as follows:
            ``(C) provide for interagency coordination of Federal 
        networking and information technology research, development, 
        education, and other activities undertaken pursuant to the 
        Program--
                ``(i) among the participating agencies; and
                ``(ii) to the extent practicable, with other Federal 
            agencies not described in paragraph (3)(C), other Federal 
            and private research laboratories, industry, research 
            entities, institutions of higher education, relevant 
            nonprofit organizations, and international partners of the 
            United States;'';
                (iii) by amending subparagraph (E) to read as follows:
            ``(E) encourage and monitor the efforts of the agencies 
        participating in the Program to allocate the level of resources 
        and management attention necessary to ensure that the strategic 
        plans under subsection (e) are developed and executed 
        effectively and that the objectives of the Program are met; 
        and''; and
                (iv) in subparagraph (F), by striking ``high-
            performance'' and inserting ``high-end''; and
            (D) in paragraph (3)--
                (i) by redesignating subparagraphs (B), (C), (D), and 
            (E) as subparagraphs (C), (D), (E), and (G), respectively;
                (ii) by inserting after subparagraph (A) the following:
            ``(B) provide a detailed description of the nature and 
        scope of research infrastructure designated as such under the 
        Program;'';
                (iii) in subparagraph (C), as redesignated--

                    (I) by amending clause (i) to read as follows:

                ``(i) the Department of Justice;'';

                    (II) by redesignating clauses (vii) through (xi) as 
                clauses (viii) through (xii), respectively;
                    (III) by inserting after clause (vi) the following:

                ``(vii) the Department of Homeland Security;''; and

                    (IV) by amending clause (viii), as redesignated, to 
                read as follows:

                ``(viii) the National Archives and Records 
            Administration;'';
                (iv) in subparagraph (D), as redesignated--

                    (I) by striking ``is submitted,'' and inserting 
                ``is submitted, the levels for the previous fiscal 
                year,''; and
                    (II) by striking ``each Program Component Area;'' 
                and inserting ``each Program Component Area and 
                research area supported in accordance with section 
                102;'';

                (v) by amending subparagraph (E), as redesignated, to 
            read as follows:
            ``(E) describe the levels of Federal funding for each 
        participating agency, and for each Program Component Area, for 
        the fiscal year during which such report is submitted, the 
        levels for the previous fiscal year, and the levels proposed 
        for the fiscal year with respect to which the budget submission 
        applies;''; and
                (vi) by inserting after subparagraph (E), as 
            redesignated, the following:
            ``(F) include a description of how the objectives for each 
        Program Component Area, and the objectives for activities that 
        involve multiple Program Component Areas, relate to the 
        objectives of the Program identified in the strategic plans 
        required under subsection (e); and'';
        (3) in subsection (b)--
            (A) in paragraph (1), in the matter preceding subparagraph 
        (A)--
                (i) by striking ``high-performance computing'' both 
            places it appears and inserting ``networking and 
            information technology''; and
                (ii) after the first sentence, by inserting the 
            following: ``Each chair of the advisory committee shall 
            meet the qualifications of committee membership and may be 
            a member of the President's Council of Advisors on Science 
            and Technology.'';
            (B) in paragraph (1)(D), by striking ``high-performance 
        computing, networking technology, and related software'' and 
        inserting ``networking and information technology''; and
            (C) in paragraph (2)--
                (i) in the second sentence, by striking ``2'' and 
            inserting ``3'';
                (ii) by striking ``Committee on Science and 
            Technology'' and inserting ``Committee on Science, Space, 
            and Technology''; and
                (iii) by striking ``The first report shall be due 
            within 1 year after the date of enactment of the America 
            COMPETES Act.'';
        (4) in subsection (c)(1)(A), by striking ``high-performance 
    computing'' and inserting ``networking and information 
    technology''; and
        (5) by adding at the end the following:
    ``(d) Periodic Reviews.--The heads of the participating agencies, 
working through the National Science and Technology Council and the 
Program, shall--
        ``(1) periodically assess and update, as appropriate, the 
    structure of the Program, including the Program Component Areas and 
    associated contents, scope, and funding levels, taking into 
    consideration any relevant recommendations of the advisory 
    committee established under subsection (b); and
        ``(2) ensure that such agency's implementation of the Program 
    includes foundational, large-scale, long-term, and 
    interdisciplinary information technology research and development 
    activities, including activities described in section 102.
    ``(e) Strategic Plans.--
        ``(1) In general.--The heads of the participating agencies, 
    working through the National Science and Technology Council and the 
    Program, shall develop and implement strategic plans to guide--
            ``(A) emerging activities of Federal networking and 
        information technology research and development; and
            ``(B) the activities described in subsection (a)(1).
        ``(2) Updates.--The heads of the participating agencies shall 
    update the strategic plans as appropriate.
        ``(3) Contents.--Each strategic plan shall--
            ``(A) specify near-term and long-term objectives for the 
        portions of the Program relevant to the strategic plan, the 
        anticipated schedule for achieving the near-term and long-term 
        objectives, and the metrics to be used for assessing progress 
        toward the near-term and long-term objectives;
            ``(B) specify how the near-term and long-term objectives 
        complement research and development areas in which academia and 
        the private sector are actively engaged;
            ``(C) describe how the heads of the participating agencies 
        will support mechanisms for foundational, large-scale, long-
        term, and interdisciplinary information technology research and 
        development and for Grand Challenges, including through 
        collaborations--
                ``(i) across Federal agencies;
                ``(ii) across Program Component Areas; and
                ``(iii) with industry, Federal and private research 
            laboratories, research entities, institutions of higher 
            education, relevant nonprofit organizations, and 
            international partners of the United States;
            ``(D) describe how the heads of the participating agencies 
        will foster the rapid transfer of research and development 
        results into new technologies and applications in the national 
        interest, including through cooperation and collaborations with 
        networking and information technology research, development, 
        and technology transition initiatives supported by the States; 
        and
            ``(E) describe how the portions of the Program relevant to 
        the strategic plan will address long-term challenges for which 
        solutions require foundational, large-scale, long-term, and 
        interdisciplinary information technology research and 
        development.
        ``(4) Private sector efforts.--In developing, implementing, and 
    updating strategic plans, the heads of the participating agencies, 
    working through the National Science and Technology Council and the 
    Program, shall coordinate with industry, academia, and other 
    interested stakeholders to ensure, to the extent practicable, that 
    the Federal networking and information technology research and 
    development activities carried out under this section do not 
    duplicate the efforts of the private sector.
        ``(5) Recommendations.--In developing and updating strategic 
    plans, the heads of the participating agencies shall solicit 
    recommendations and advice from--
            ``(A) the advisory committee under subsection (b);
            ``(B) the Committee on Science and relevant subcommittees 
        of the National Science and Technology Council; and
            ``(C) a wide range of stakeholders, including industry, 
        academia, National Laboratories, and other relevant 
        organizations and institutions.
    ``(f) Reports.--The heads of the participating agencies, working 
through the National Science and Technology Council and the Program, 
shall submit to the advisory committee, the Committee on Commerce, 
Science, and Transportation of the Senate, and the Committee on 
Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives--
        ``(1) the strategic plans developed under subsection (e)(1); 
    and
        ``(2) each update under subsection (e)(2).''.
    (g) National Research and Education Network.--Section 102 of the 
High-Performance Computing Act of 1991 (15 U.S.C. 5512) is repealed.
    (h) Next Generation Internet.--Section 103 of the High-Performance 
Computing Act of 1991 (15 U.S.C. 5513) is repealed.
    (i) Grand Challenges in Areas of National Importance.--Title I of 
the High-Performance Computing Act of 1991 (15 U.S.C. 5511 et seq.) is 
amended by adding at the end the following:
    ``SEC. 102. GRAND CHALLENGES IN AREAS OF NATIONAL IMPORTANCE.
    ``(a) In General.--The Program shall encourage the participating 
agencies to support foundational, large-scale, long-term, 
interdisciplinary, and interagency information technology research and 
development activities in networking and information technology 
directed toward agency mission areas that have the potential for 
significant contributions to national economic competitiveness and for 
other significant societal benefits. Such activities, ranging from 
basic research to the demonstration of technical solutions, shall be 
designed to advance the development of fundamental discoveries. The 
advisory committee established under section 101(b) shall make 
recommendations to the Program for candidate research and development 
areas for support under this section.
    ``(b) Characteristics.--
        ``(1) In general.--Research and development activities under 
    this section shall--
            ``(A) include projects selected on the basis of 
        applications for support through a competitive, merit-based 
        process;
            ``(B) to the extent practicable, involve collaborations 
        among researchers in institutions of higher education and 
        industry, and may involve nonprofit research institutions and 
        Federal laboratories, as appropriate;
            ``(C) to the extent practicable, leverage Federal 
        investments through collaboration with related State and 
        private sector initiatives; and
            ``(D) include a plan for fostering the transfer of research 
        discoveries and the results of technology demonstration 
        activities, including from institutions of higher education and 
        Federal laboratories, to industry for commercial development.
        ``(2) Cost-sharing.--In selecting applications for support, the 
    agencies may give special consideration to projects that include 
    cost sharing from non-Federal sources.''.
    (j) National Science Foundation Activities.--Section 201 of the 
High-Performance Computing Act of 1991 (15 U.S.C. 5521) is amended--
        (1) in subsection (a)--
            (A) by striking ``(a) General Responsibilities.--'';
            (B) in paragraph (1)--
                (i) by inserting ``high-end'' after ``National Science 
            Foundation shall provide''; and
                (ii) by striking ``high-performance computing'' and all 
            that follows through ``networking;'' and inserting 
            ``networking and information technology; and'';
            (C) by striking paragraphs (2) through (4); and
            (D) by inserting after paragraph (1) the following:
        ``(2) the National Science Foundation shall use its existing 
    programs, in collaboration with other agencies, as appropriate, to 
    improve the teaching and learning of networking and information 
    technology at all levels of education and to increase participation 
    in networking and information technology fields, including by 
    individuals identified in sections 33 and 34 of the Science and 
    Engineering Equal Opportunities Act (42 U.S.C. 1885a and 1885b).''; 
    and
        (2) by striking subsection (b).
    (k) National Aeronautics and Space Administration Activities.--
Section 202 of the High-Performance Computing Act of 1991 (15 U.S.C. 
5522) is amended--
        (1) by striking ``(a) General Responsibilities.--'';
        (2) by striking ``high-performance computing'' and inserting 
    ``networking and information technology''; and
        (3) by striking subsection (b).
    (l) Department of Energy Activities.--Section 203 of the High-
Performance Computing Act of 1991 (15 U.S.C. 5523) is amended--
        (1) by striking ``(a) General Responsibilities.--'';
        (2) in paragraph (1), by striking ``high-performance computing 
    and networking'' and inserting ``networking and information 
    technology'';
        (3) in paragraph (2)(A), by striking ``high-performance'' and 
    inserting ``high-end''; and
        (4) by striking subsection (b).
    (m) Department of Commerce Activities.--Section 204 of the High-
Performance Computing Act of 1991 (15 U.S.C. 5524) is amended--
        (1) in subsection (a)(1)--
            (A) in subparagraph (A), by striking ``high-performance 
        computing systems and networks'' and inserting ``networking and 
        information technology systems and capabilities'';
            (B) in subparagraph (B), by striking ``interoperability of 
        high-performance computing systems in networks and for common 
        user interfaces to systems'' and inserting ``interoperability 
        and usability of networking and information technology 
        systems''; and
            (C) in subparagraph (C), by striking ``high-performance 
        computing'' and inserting ``networking and information 
        technology'';
        (2) in subsection (b)--
            (A) in the heading, by striking ``High-Performance 
        Computing and Network'' and inserting ``Networking and 
        Information Technology'';
            (B) by striking ``Pursuant to the Computer Security Act of 
        1987 (Public Law 100-235; 101 Stat. 1724), the'' and inserting 
        ``The''; and
            (C) by striking ``sensitive information in Federal computer 
        systems'' and inserting ``Federal agency information and 
        information systems''; and
        (3) by striking subsections (c) and (d).
    (n) Environmental Protection Agency Activities.--Section 205 of the 
High-Performance Computing Act of 1991 (15 U.S.C. 5525) is repealed.
    (o) Role of the Department of Education.--Section 206 of the High-
Performance Computing Act of 1991 (15 U.S.C. 5526) is repealed.
    (p) Miscellaneous Provisions.--Section 207 of the High-Performance 
Computing Act of 1991 (15 U.S.C. 5527) is amended--
        (1) in subsection (a)(2), by striking ``paragraphs (1) through 
    (5) of section 2315(a) of title 10'' and inserting ``section 
    3552(b)(6)(A)(i) of title 44''; and
        (2) in subsection (b), by striking ``high-performance 
    computing'' and inserting ``networking and information 
    technology''.
    (q) Repeal.--Section 208 of the High-Performance Computing Act of 
1991 (15 U.S.C. 5528) is repealed.
    (r) National Science Foundation Research.--Section 4(b)(5)(K) of 
the Cyber Security Research and Development Act (15 U.S.C. 
7403(b)(5)(K)) is amended by striking ``high-performance computing'' 
and inserting ``networking and information technology''.
    (s) National Information Technology Research and Development 
Program.--Section 13202(b) of the America Recovery and Reinvestment Act 
of 2009 (42 U.S.C. 17912(b)) is amended by striking ``National High-
Performance Computing Program'' and inserting ``Networking and 
Information Technology Research and Development Program''.
    (t) Federal Cybersecurity Research and Development.--Section 
201(a)(4) of the Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 2014 (15 U.S.C. 
7431(a)(4)) is amended--
        (1) by striking ``clauses (i) through (x)'' and inserting 
    ``clauses (i) through (xi)''; and
        (2) by striking ``under clause (xi)'' and inserting ``under 
    clause (xii)''.
    (u) Additional Repeal.--Section 4 of the Department of Energy High-
End Computing Revitalization Act of 2004 (15 U.S.C. 5543) is repealed.
    SEC. 106. PHYSICAL SCIENCES COORDINATION.
    (a) High-energy Physics.--
        (1) In general.--The Physical Science Subcommittee of the 
    National Science and Technology Council (referred to in this 
    section as ``Subcommittee'') shall continue to coordinate Federal 
    efforts related to high-energy physics research to maximize the 
    efficiency and effectiveness of United States investment in high-
    energy physics.
        (2) Purposes.--The purposes of the Subcommittee include--
            (A) to advise and assist the Committee on Science and the 
        National Science and Technology Council on United States 
        policies, procedures, and plans in the physical sciences, 
        including high-energy physics; and
            (B) to identify emerging opportunities, stimulate 
        international cooperation, and foster the development of the 
        physical sciences in the United States, including--
                (i) in high-energy physics research, including related 
            underground science and engineering research;
                (ii) in physical infrastructure and facilities;
                (iii) in information and analysis; and
                (iv) in coordination activities.
        (3) Responsibilities.--In regard to coordinating Federal 
    efforts related to high-energy physics research, the Subcommittee 
    shall, taking into account the findings and recommendations of 
    relevant advisory committees--
            (A) provide recommendations on planning for construction 
        and stewardship of large facilities participating in high-
        energy physics;
            (B) provide recommendations on research coordination and 
        collaboration among the programs and activities of Federal 
        agencies related to underground science, neutrino research, 
        dark energy, and dark matter research;
            (C) establish goals and priorities for high-energy physics, 
        related underground science, and research and development that 
        will strengthen United States competitiveness in high-energy 
        physics;
            (D) propose methods for engagement with international, 
        Federal, and State agencies and Federal laboratories not 
        represented on the National Science and Technology Council to 
        identify and reduce regulatory, logistical, and fiscal barriers 
        that inhibit United States leadership in high-energy physics 
        and related underground science; and
            (E) develop, and update as necessary, a strategic plan to 
        guide Federal programs and activities in support of high-energy 
        physics research, including--
                (i) the efforts taken in support of paragraph (2) since 
            the last strategic plan;
                (ii) an evaluation of the current research needs for 
            maintaining United States leadership in high-energy 
            physics; and
                (iii) an identification of future priorities in the 
            area of high-energy physics.
    (b) Radiation Biology.--
        (1) In general.--The Subcommittee shall continue to coordinate 
    Federal efforts related to radiation biology research to maximize 
    the efficiency and effectiveness of United States investment in 
    radiation biology.
        (2) Responsibilities for radiation biology.--In regard to 
    coordinating Federal efforts related to radiation biology research, 
    the Subcommittee shall--
            (A) advise and assist the National Science and Technology 
        Council on policies and initiatives in radiation biology, 
        including enhancing scientific knowledge of the effects of low 
        dose radiation on biological systems to improve radiation risk 
        management methods;
            (B) identify opportunities to stimulate international 
        cooperation and leverage research and knowledge from sources 
        outside of the United States;
            (C) ensure coordination between the Department of Energy 
        Office of Science, Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space 
        Administration, National Institutes of Health, Environmental 
        Protection Agency, Department of Defense, Nuclear Regulatory 
        Commission, and Department of Homeland Security;
            (D) identify ongoing scientific challenges for 
        understanding the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on 
        biological systems; and
            (E) formulate overall scientific goals for the future of 
        low-dose radiation research in the United States.
    (c) Fusion Energy Sciences.--
        (1) In general.--The Subcommittee shall continue to coordinate 
    Federal efforts related to fusion energy research to maximize the 
    efficiency and effectiveness of United States investment in fusion 
    energy sciences.
        (2) Responsibilities for fusion energy sciences.--In regard to 
    coordinating Federal efforts related to fusion energy sciences, the 
    Subcommittee shall--
            (A) advise and assist the National Science and Technology 
        Council on policies and initiatives in fusion energy sciences, 
        including enhancing scientific knowledge of fusion energy 
        science, plasma physics, and related materials sciences;
            (B) identify opportunities to stimulate international 
        cooperation and leverage research and knowledge from sources 
        outside of the United States, including the ITER project;
            (C) ensure coordination between the Department of Energy 
        Office of Science, National Nuclear Security Administration, 
        Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy, National Aeronautics 
        and Space Administration, Foundation, and Department of Defense 
        regarding fusion energy sciences and plasma physics; and
            (D) formulate overall scientific goals for the future of 
        fusion energy sciences and plasma physics.
    SEC. 107. LABORATORY PROGRAM IMPROVEMENTS.
    (a) In General.--The Director of NIST, acting through the Associate 
Director for Laboratory Programs, shall develop and implement a 
comprehensive strategic plan for laboratory programs that expands--
        (1) interactions with academia, international researchers, and 
    industry; and
        (2) commercial and industrial applications.
    (b) Optimizing Commercial and Industrial Applications.--In 
accordance with the purpose under section 1(b)(3) of the National 
Institute of Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 271(b)(3)), the 
comprehensive strategic plan shall--
        (1) include performance metrics for the dissemination of 
    fundamental research results, measurements, and standards research 
    results to industry, including manufacturing, and other interested 
    parties;
        (2) document any positive benefits of research on the 
    competitiveness of the interested parties described in paragraph 
    (1);
        (3) clarify the current approach to the technology transfer 
    activities of NIST; and
        (4) consider recommendations from the National Academy of 
    Sciences.
    SEC. 108. STANDARD REFERENCE DATA ACT UPDATE.
    Section 2 of the Standard Reference Data Act (15 U.S.C. 290a) is 
amended to read as follows:
``SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.
    ``For the purposes of this Act:
        ``(1) Standard reference data.--The term `standard reference 
    data' means data that is--
            ``(A) either--
                ``(i) quantitative information related to a measurable 
            physical, or chemical, or biological property of a 
            substance or system of substances of known composition and 
            structure;
                ``(ii) measurable characteristics of a physical 
            artifact or artifacts;
                ``(iii) engineering properties or performance 
            characteristics of a system; or
                ``(iv) 1 or more digital data objects that serve--

                    ``(I) to calibrate or characterize the performance 
                of a detection or measurement system; or
                    ``(II) to interpolate or extrapolate, or both, data 
                described in subparagraph (A) through (C); and

            ``(B) that is critically evaluated as to its reliability 
        under section 3 of this Act.
        ``(2) Secretary.--The term `Secretary' means the Secretary of 
    Commerce.''.
    SEC. 109. NSF MID-SCALE PROJECT INVESTMENTS.
    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
        (1) The Foundation funds major research facilities, 
    infrastructure, and instrumentation that provide unique 
    capabilities at the frontiers of science and engineering.
        (2) Modern and effective research facilities, infrastructure, 
    and instrumentation are critical to maintaining United States 
    leadership in science and engineering.
        (3) The costs of some proposed research instrumentation, 
    equipment, and upgrades to major research facilities fall between 
    programs currently funded by the Foundation, creating a gap between 
    the established parameters of the Major Research Instrumentation 
    and Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction programs, 
    including projects that have been identified as cost-effective 
    additions of high priority to the advancement of scientific 
    understanding.
        (4) The 2010 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey 
    recommended a mid-scale innovations program.
    (b) Mid-scale Projects.--
        (1) In general.--The Foundation shall evaluate the existing and 
    future needs, across all disciplines supported by the Foundation, 
    for mid-scale projects.
        (2) Strategy.--The Director of the Foundation shall develop a 
    strategy to address the needs identified in paragraph (1).
        (3) Briefing.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
    enactment of this Act, the Director of the Foundation shall provide 
    a briefing to the appropriate committees of Congress on the 
    evaluation under paragraph (1) and the strategy under paragraph 
    (2).
        (4) Definition of mid-scale projects.--In this subsection, the 
    term ``mid-scale projects'' means research instrumentation, 
    equipment, and upgrades to major research facilities or other 
    research infrastructure investments that exceed the maximum award 
    funded by the major research instrumentation program and are below 
    the minimum award funded by the major research equipment and 
    facilities construction program as described in section 507 of the 
    AMERICA Competes Reauthorization Act of 2010 (Public Law 111-358; 
    124 Stat. 4008).
    SEC. 110. OVERSIGHT OF NSF MAJOR MULTI-USER RESEARCH FACILITY 
      PROJECTS.
    (a) Facilities Oversight.--
        (1) In general.--The Director of the Foundation shall 
    strengthen oversight and accountability over the full life-cycle of 
    each major multi-user research facility project, including 
    planning, development, procurement, construction, operations, and 
    support, and shut-down of the facility, in order to maximize 
    research investment.
        (2) Requirements.--In carrying out paragraph (1), the Director 
    shall--
            (A) prioritize the scientific outcomes of a major multi-
        user research facility project and the internal management and 
        financial oversight of the major multi-user research facility 
        project;
            (B) clarify the roles and responsibilities of all 
        organizations, including offices, panels, committees, and 
        directorates, involved in supporting a major multi-user 
        research facility project, including the role of the Major 
        Research Equipment and Facilities Construction Panel;
            (C) establish policies and procedures for the planning, 
        management, and oversight of a major multi-user research 
        facility project at each phase of the life-cycle of the major 
        multi-user research facility project;
            (D) ensure that policies for estimating and managing costs 
        and schedules are consistent with the best practices described 
        in the Government Accountability Office Cost Estimating and 
        Assessment Guide, the Government Accountability Office Schedule 
        Assessment Guide, and the Office of Management and Budget 
        Uniform Guidance (2 C.F.R. Part 200);
            (E) establish the appropriate project management and 
        financial management expertise required for Foundation staff to 
        oversee each major multi-user research facility project 
        effectively, including by improving project management training 
        and certification;
            (F) coordinate the sharing of the best management practices 
        and lessons learned from each major multi-user research 
        facility project;
            (G) continue to maintain a Large Facilities Office to 
        support the research directorates in the development, 
        implementation, and oversight of each major multi-user research 
        facility project, including by--
                (i) serving as the Foundation's primary resource for 
            all policy or process issues related to the development, 
            implementation, and oversight of a major multi-user 
            research facility project;
                (ii) serving as a Foundation-wide resource on project 
            management, including providing expert assistance on 
            nonscientific and nontechnical aspects of project planning, 
            budgeting, implementation, management, and oversight;
                (iii) coordinating and collaborating with research 
            directorates to share best management practices and lessons 
            learned from prior major multi-user research facility 
            projects; and
                (iv) assessing each major multi-user research facility 
            project for cost and schedule risk; and
            (H) appoint a senior agency official whose responsibility 
        is oversight of the development, construction, and operations 
        of major multi-user research facilities across the Foundation.
    (b) Facilities Full Life-cycle Costs.--
        (1) In general.--Subject to subsection (c)(1), the Director of 
    the Foundation shall require that any pre-award analysis of a major 
    multi-user research facility project includes the development and 
    consideration of the full life-cycle cost (as defined in section 2 
    of the National Science Foundation Authorization Act of 1998 (42 
    U.S.C. 1862k note)) in accordance with section 14 of the National 
    Science Foundation Authorization Act of 2002 (42 U.S.C. 1862n-4).
        (2) Implementation.--Based on the pre-award analysis described 
    in paragraph (1), the Director of the Foundation shall include 
    projected operational costs within the Foundation's out-years as 
    part of the President's annual budget submission to Congress under 
    section 1105 of title 31, United States Code.
    (c) Cost Oversight.--
        (1) Pre-award analysis.--
            (A) In general.--The Director of the Foundation and the 
        National Science Board may not approve or execute any agreement 
        to start construction on any proposed major multi-user research 
        facility project unless--
                (i) an external analysis of the proposed budget has 
            been conducted to ensure the proposal is complete and 
            reasonable;
                (ii) the analysis under clause (i) follows the 
            Government Accountability Office Cost Estimating and 
            Assessment Guide;
                (iii) except as provided under subparagraph (C), an 
            analysis of the accounting systems has been conducted;
                (iv) an independent cost estimate of the construction 
            of the project has been conducted using the same detailed 
            technical information as the project proposal estimate to 
            determine whether the estimate is well-supported and 
            realistic; and
                (v) the Foundation and the National Science Board have 
            considered the analyses under clauses (i) and (iii) and the 
            independent cost estimate under clause (iv) and resolved 
            any major issues identified therein.
            (B) Audits.--An external analysis under subparagraph (A)(i) 
        may include an audit.
            (C) Exception.--The Director of the Foundation, at the 
        Director's discretion, may waive the requirement under 
        subparagraph (A)(iii) if a similar analysis of the accounting 
        systems was conducted in the prior years.
        (2) Construction oversight.--The Director of the Foundation 
    shall require for each major multi-user research facility project--
            (A) periodic external reviews on project management and 
        performance;
            (B) adequate internal controls, policies, and procedures, 
        and reliable accounting systems in preparation for the incurred 
        cost audits under subparagraph (D);
            (C) annual incurred cost submissions of financial 
        expenditures; and
            (D) an incurred cost audit of the major multi-user research 
        facility project in accordance with Government Accountability 
        Office Government Auditing Standards--
                (i) at least once during construction at a time 
            determined based on risk analysis and length of the award, 
            except that the length of time between audits may not 
            exceed 3 years; and
                (ii) at the completion of the construction phase.
        (3) Operations cost analysis.--The Director of the Foundation 
    shall require an independent cost analysis of the operational 
    proposal for each major multi-user research facility project.
    (d) Contingency.--
        (1) In general.--The Director of the Foundation shall 
    strengthen internal controls to improve oversight of contingency on 
    a major multi-user research facility project.
        (2) Requirements.--In carrying out paragraph (1), the Director 
    of the Foundation shall--
            (A) only include contingency amounts in an award in 
        accordance with section 200.433 of title 2, Code of Federal 
        Regulations (relating to contingency provisions), or any 
        successor regulation;
            (B) retain control over funds budgeted for contingency, 
        except that the Director may disburse budgeted contingency 
        funds incrementally to the awardee to ensure project stability 
        and continuity;
            (C) track contingency use; and
            (D) ensure that contingency amounts allocated to the 
        performance baseline are reasonable and allowable.
    (e) Use of Fees.--
        (1) Sense of congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            (A) the use of taxpayer-funded award fees should be 
        transparent and explicable; and
            (B) the Foundation should implement an award fee policy 
        that ensures more transparency and accountability in the 
        funding of necessary and appropriate expenses directly related 
        to the construction and operation of major multi-user research 
        facilities.
        (2) Reporting and recordkeeping.--The Director of the 
    Foundation shall establish guidelines for awardees regarding 
    inappropriate expenditures associated with all fee types used in 
    cooperative agreements, including for alcoholic beverages, 
    lobbying, meals or entertainment for non-business purposes, non-
    business travel, and any other purpose the Director determines is 
    inappropriate.
    (f) Oversight Implementation Progress.--The Director of the 
Foundation shall--
        (1) not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this 
    Act, and periodically thereafter until the completion date, provide 
    a briefing to the appropriate committees of Congress on the 
    response to or progress made toward implementation of--
            (A) this section;
            (B) all of the issues and recommendations identified in 
        cooperative agreement audit reports and memoranda issued by the 
        Inspector General of the Foundation in the last 5 years; and
            (C) all of the issues and recommendations identified by a 
        panel of the National Academy of Public Administration in the 
        December 2015 report entitled ``National Science Foundation: 
        Use of Cooperative Agreements to Support Large Scale Investment 
        in Research''; and
        (2) not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this 
    Act, notify the appropriate committees of Congress when the 
    Foundation has implemented the recommendations identified in a 
    panel of the National Academy of Public Administration report 
    issued December 2015.
    (g) Definitions.--In this section:
        (1) Appropriate committees of congress.--The term ``appropriate 
    committees of Congress'' means the Committee on Commerce, Science, 
    and Transportation and the Committee on Appropriations of the 
    Senate and the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology and the 
    Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives.
        (2) Major multi-user research facility project.--The term 
    ```major multi-user research facility project''' means a science 
    and engineering facility project that--
            (A) exceeds the lesser of--
                (i) 10 percent of a Directorate's annual budget; or
                (ii) $100,000,000 in total project costs; or
            (B) is funded by the major research equipment and 
        facilities construction account, or any successor account.
    SEC. 111. PERSONNEL OVERSIGHT.
    (a) Conflicts of Interest.--The Director of the Foundation shall 
update the policy and procedure of the Foundation relating to conflicts 
of interest to improve documentation and management of any known 
conflict of interest of an individual on temporary assignment at the 
Foundation, including an individual on assignment under the 
Intergovernmental Personnel Act of 1970 (42 U.S.C. 4701 et seq.).
    (b) Justifications.--The Deputy Director of the Foundation shall 
submit annually to the appropriate committees of Congress written 
justification for each rotator employed under the Intergovernmental 
Personnel Act of 1970 (42 U.S.C. 4701 et seq.), or other rotator 
employed, by the Foundation that year that is paid at a rate that 
exceeds the maximum rate of pay for the Senior Executive Service, 
including, if applicable, the level of adjustment for the certified 
Senior Executive Service Performance Appraisal System.
    (c) Report.--Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Director of the Foundation shall submit to the 
appropriate committees of Congress a report on the Foundation's efforts 
to control costs associated with employing rotators, including the 
results of and participation in the Foundation's cost-sharing pilot 
program and the Foundation's progress in responding to the findings and 
implementing the recommendations of the Office of Inspector General of 
the Foundation related to the employment of rotators.
    SEC. 112. MANAGEMENT OF THE U.S. ANTARCTIC PROGRAM.
    (a) Review.--
        (1) In general.--The Director of the Foundation shall continue 
    to review the efforts by the Foundation to sustain and strengthen 
    scientific efforts in the face of logistical challenges for the 
    United States Antarctic Program.
        (2) Issues to be examined.--In conducting the review, the 
    Director shall examine, at a minimum, the following:
            (A) Implementation by the Foundation of issues and 
        recommendations identified by--
                (i) the Inspector General of the National Science 
            Foundation in audit reports and memoranda on the United 
            States Antarctic Program in the last 4 years;
                (ii) the U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel 
            report, More and Better Science in Antarctica through 
            Increased Logistical Effectiveness, issued July 23, 2012; 
            and
                (iii) the National Research Council report, Future 
            Science Opportunities in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean, 
            issued September 2011.
            (B) Efforts by the Foundation to track its progress in 
        addressing the issues and recommendations under subparagraph 
        (A).
            (C) Efforts by the Foundation to address other 
        opportunities and challenges, including efforts on scientific 
        research, coordination with other Federal agencies and 
        international partners, logistics and transportation, health 
        and safety of participants, oversight and financial management 
        of awardees and contractors, and resources and policy 
        challenges.
    (b) Briefing.--Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment 
of this Act, the Director shall brief the appropriate committees of 
Congress on the ongoing review, including findings and any 
recommendations.
    SEC. 113. NIST CAMPUS SECURITY.
    (a) Supervisory Authority.--The Department of Commerce Office of 
Security shall directly manage the law enforcement and site security 
programs of NIST through an assigned Director of Security for NIST 
without increasing the number of full-time equivalent employees of the 
Department of Commerce, including NIST.
    (b) Reports.--The Director of Security for NIST shall provide an 
activities and security report on a quarterly basis for the first year 
after the date of enactment of this Act, and on an annual basis 
thereafter, to the Under Secretary for Standards and Technology and the 
appropriate committees of Congress.
    SEC. 114. COORDINATION OF SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY RESEARCH AND 
      DEVELOPMENT.
    (a) Importance of Sustainable Chemistry.--It is the sense of 
Congress that--
        (1) the science of chemistry is vital to improving the quality 
    of human life and plays an important role in addressing critical 
    global challenges, including water quality, energy, health care, 
    and agriculture;
        (2) sustainable chemistry can reduce risks to human health and 
    the environment, reduce waste, improve pollution prevention, 
    promote safe and efficient manufacturing, and promote efficient use 
    of resources in developing new materials, processes, and 
    technologies that support viable long-term solutions to a 
    significant number of challenges;
        (3) sustainable chemistry can stimulate innovation, encourage 
    new and creative approaches to problems, create jobs, and save 
    money; and
        (4) a coordinated effort on sustainable chemistry will allow 
    for a greater return on research investment in this area.
    (b) Sustainable Chemistry Basic Research.--Subject to the 
availability of appropriated funds, the Director of the Foundation may 
continue to carry out the Sustainable Chemistry Basic Research program 
authorized under section 509 of the National Science Foundation 
Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 1862p-3).
    SEC. 115. MISREPRESENTATION OF RESEARCH RESULTS.
    (a) Prohibition.--The Director of the Foundation may revise the 
regulations under part 689 of title 45, Code of Federal Regulations 
(relating to research misconduct) to ensure that the findings and 
conclusions of any article authored by a principal investigator, using 
the results of research conducted under a Foundation grant, that is 
published in a peer-reviewed publication, made publicly available, or 
incorporated in an application for a research grant or grant extension 
from the Foundation, does not contain any falsification, fabrication, 
or plagiarism.
    (b) Interagency Communication.--Upon a finding that research 
misconduct has occurred, the Foundation shall, in addition to any 
possible final action under section 689.3 of title 45, Code of Federal 
Regulations, notify other Federal science agencies of the finding.
    SEC. 116. RESEARCH REPRODUCIBILITY AND REPLICATION.
    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) the gold standard of good science is the ability of a 
    researcher or research laboratory to reproduce a published research 
    finding, including methods;
        (2) there is growing concern that some published research 
    findings cannot be reproduced or replicated, which can negatively 
    affect the public's trust in science;
        (3) there are a complex set of factors affecting 
    reproducibility and replication; and
        (4) the increasing interdisciplinary nature and complexity of 
    scientific research may be a contributing factor to issues with 
    research reproducibility and replication.
    (b) Report.--
        (1) In general.--Not later than 45 days after the date of 
    enactment of this Act, the Director of the Foundation shall enter 
    into an agreement with the National Research Council--
            (A) to assess research and data reproducibility and 
        replicability issues in interdisciplinary research;
            (B) to make recommendations for improving rigor and 
        transparency in scientific research; and
            (C) to submit to the Director of the Foundation a report on 
        the assessment, including its findings and recommendations, not 
        later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act.
        (2) Submission to congress.--Not later than 60 days after the 
    date the Director of the Foundation receives the report under 
    paragraph (1)(C), the Director shall submit the report to the 
    appropriate committees of Congress, including a response from the 
    Director of the Foundation and the Chair of the National Science 
    Board as to whether they agree with each of the findings and 
    recommendations in the report.
    SEC. 117. BRAIN RESEARCH THROUGH ADVANCING INNOVATIVE 
      NEUROTECHNOLOGIES INITIATIVE.
    (a) In General.--The Foundation shall support research activities 
related to the interagency Brain Research through Advancing Innovative 
Neurotechnologies Initiative.
    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the 
Foundation should work in conjunction with the Interagency Working 
Group on Neuroscience established by the National Science and 
Technology Council, Committee on Science to determine how to use the 
data infrastructure of the Foundation and other applicable Federal 
science agencies to help neuroscientists collect, standardize, manage, 
and analyze the large amounts of data that result from research 
attempting to understand how the brain functions.

        TITLE II--ADMINISTRATIVE AND REGULATORY BURDEN REDUCTION

    SEC. 201. INTERAGENCY WORKING GROUP ON RESEARCH REGULATION.
    (a) Short Title.--This section may be cited as the ``Research and 
Development Efficiency Act''.
    (b) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
        (1) Scientific and technological advancement have been the 
    largest drivers of economic growth in the last 50 years, with the 
    Federal Government being the largest investor in basic research.
        (2) Substantial and increasing administrative burdens and costs 
    in Federal research administration, particularly in the higher 
    education sector where most federally funded research is performed, 
    are eroding funds available to carry out basic scientific research.
        (3) Federally funded grants are increasingly competitive, with 
    the Foundation funding only approximately 1 in every 5 grant 
    proposals.
        (4) Progress has been made over the last decade in streamlining 
    the pre-award grant application process through the Federal 
    Government's Grants.gov website.
        (5) Post-award administrative costs have increased as Federal 
    research agencies have continued to impose agency-unique compliance 
    and reporting requirements on researchers and research 
    institutions.
        (6) Researchers spend as much as 42 percent of their time 
    complying with Federal regulations, including administrative tasks 
    such as applying for grants or meeting reporting requirements.
    (c) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) administrative burdens faced by researchers may be reducing 
    the return on investment of federally funded research and 
    development; and
        (2) it is a matter of critical importance to United States 
    competitiveness that administrative costs of federally funded 
    research be streamlined so that a higher proportion of federal 
    funding is applied to direct research activities.
    (d) Establishment.--The Director of the Office of Management and 
Budget, in coordination with the Office of Science and Technology 
Policy, shall establish an interagency working group (referred to in 
this section as the ``Working Group'') for the purpose of reducing 
administrative burdens on federally funded researchers while protecting 
the public interest through the transparency of and accountability for 
federally funded activities.
    (e) Responsibilities.--
        (1) In general.--The Working Group shall--
            (A) regularly review relevant, administration-related 
        regulations imposed on federally funded researchers;
            (B) recommend those regulations or processes that may be 
        eliminated, streamlined, or otherwise improved for the purpose 
        described in subsection (d);
            (C) recommend ways to minimize the regulatory burden on 
        United States institutions of higher education performing 
        federally funded research while maintaining accountability for 
        federal funding; and
            (D) recommend ways to identify and update specific 
        regulations to refocus on performance-based goals rather than 
        on process while achieving the outcome described in 
        subparagraph (C).
        (2) Grant review.--
            (A) In general.--The Working Group shall--
                (i) conduct a comprehensive review of Federal science 
            agency grant proposal documents; and
                (ii) develop, to the extent practicable, a simplified, 
            uniform grant format to be used by all Federal science 
            agencies.
            (B) Considerations.--In developing the uniform grant 
        format, the Working Group shall consider whether to implement--
                (i) procedures for preliminary project proposals in 
            advance of peer-review selection;
                (ii) increased use of ``Just-In-Time'' procedures for 
            documentation that does not bear directly on the scientific 
            merit of a proposal;
                (iii) simplified initial budget proposals in advance of 
            peer review selection; and
                (iv) detailed budget proposals for applicants that peer 
            review selection identifies as likely to be funded.
        (3) Centralized researcher profile database.--
            (A) Establishment.--The Working Group shall establish, to 
        the extent practicable, a secure, centralized database for 
        investigator biosketches, curriculum vitae, licenses, lists of 
        publications, and other documents considered relevant by the 
        Working Group.
            (B) Considerations.--In establishing the centralized 
        profile database under subparagraph (A), the Working Group 
        shall consider incorporating existing investigator databases.
            (C) Grant proposals.--To the extent practicable, all grant 
        proposals shall utilize the centralized investigator profile 
        database established under subparagraph (A).
            (D) Requirements.--Each investigator shall--
                (i) be responsible for ensuring the investigator's 
            profile is current and accurate; and
                (ii) be assigned a unique identifier linked to the 
            database and accessible to all Federal funding agencies.
        (4) Centralized assurances repository.--The Working Group 
    shall--
            (A) establish a central repository for all of the 
        assurances required for Federal research grants; and
            (B) provide guidance to institutions of higher education 
        and Federal science agencies on the use of the centralized 
        assurances repository.
        (5) Comprehensive review.--
            (A) In general.--The Working Group shall--
                (i) conduct a comprehensive review of the mandated 
            progress reports for federally funded research; and
                (ii) develop a strategy to simplify investigator 
            progress reports.
            (B) Considerations.--In developing the strategy, the 
        Working Group shall consider limiting progress reports to 
        performance outcomes.
    (f) Consultation.--In carrying out its responsibilities under 
subsection (e)(1), the Working Group shall consult with academic 
researchers outside the Federal Government, including--
        (1) federally funded researchers;
        (2) non-federally funded researchers;
        (3) institutions of higher education and their representative 
    associations;
        (4) scientific and engineering disciplinary societies and 
    associations;
        (5) nonprofit research institutions;
        (6) industry, including small businesses;
        (7) federally funded research and development centers; and
        (8) members of the public with a stake in ensuring 
    effectiveness, efficiency, and accountability in the performance of 
    scientific research.
    (g) Reports.--Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of 
this Act, and annually thereafter for 3 years, the Working Group shall 
submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report on its 
responsibilities under this section, including a discussion of the 
considerations described in paragraphs (2)(B), (3)(B), and (5)(B) of 
subsection (e) and recommendations made under subsection (e)(1).
    SEC. 202. SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL COLLABORATION.
    (a) Definition of Scientific and Technical Workshop.--In this 
section, the term ``scientific and technical workshop'' means a 
symposium, seminar, or any other organized, formal gathering where 
scientists or engineers working in STEM research and development fields 
assemble to coordinate, exchange and disseminate information or to 
explore or clarify a defined subject, problem or area of knowledge in 
the STEM fields.
    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) the United States should encourage broad dissemination of 
    Federal research findings and engagement of Federal researchers 
    with the scientific and technical community; and
        (2) laboratory, test center, and field center directors and 
    other similar heads of offices should approve scientific and 
    technical workshop attendance if--
            (A) that attendance would meet the mission of the 
        laboratory or test center; and
            (B) sufficient laboratory or test center funds are 
        available for that purpose.
    (c) Attendance Policies.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the heads of the Federal science agencies shall 
each develop an action plan for the implementation of revisions and 
updates to their policies on attendance at scientific and technical 
workshops.
    (d) NIST Workshops.--Section 2(c) of the National Institute of 
Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 272(c)), as amended by section 
104 of this Act, is further amended--
        (1) by redesignating paragraphs (19) through (24) as paragraphs 
    (22) through (27), respectively; and
        (2) by inserting after paragraph (18) the following:
        ``(19) host, participate in, and support scientific and 
    technical workshops (as defined in section 202 of the American 
    Innovation and Competitiveness Act);
        ``(20) collect and retain any fees charged by the Secretary for 
    hosting a scientific and technical workshop described in paragraph 
    (19);
        ``(21) notwithstanding title 31 of the United States Code, use 
    the fees described in paragraph (20) to pay for any related 
    expenses, including subsistence expenses for participants;''.
    SEC. 203. NIST GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS UPDATE.
    Section 8(a) of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 
1980 (15 U.S.C. 3706(a)) is amended by striking ``The total amount of 
any such grant or cooperative agreement may not exceed 75 percent of 
the total cost of the program.''.
    SEC. 204. REPEAL OF CERTAIN OBSOLETE REPORTS.
    (a) Repeal of Certain Obsolete Reports.--
        (1) NIST reports.--
            (A) Report on donation of educationally useful federal 
        equipment to schools.--Section 6(b) of the Technology 
        Administration Act of 1998 (15 U.S.C. 272 note) is amended--
                (i) in paragraph (1), by striking ``(1) In general.--'' 
            and indenting appropriately; and
                (ii) by striking paragraph (2).
            (B) Three-year programmatic planning document.--
                (i) In general.--Section 23 of the National Institute 
            of Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278i) is amended 
            by striking subsections (c) and (d).
                (ii) Conforming amendment.--Section 10(h)(1) of the 
            National Institute of Standards and Technology Act (15 
            U.S.C. 278(h)(1)) is amended by striking the last sentence.
        (2) Multiagency report on innovation acceleration research.--
    Section 1008 of the America COMPETES Act (42 U.S.C. 6603) is 
    amended--
            (A) by striking subsection (c); and
            (B) by redesignating subsection (d) as subsection (c).
        (3) NSF reports.--
            (A) Funding for successful stem education programs; report 
        to congress.--Section 7012 of the America COMPETES Act (42 
        U.S.C. 1862o-4) is amended by striking subsection (c).
            (B) Encouraging participation; evaluation and report.--
        Section 7031 of the America COMPETES Act (42 U.S.C. 1862o-11) 
        is amended by striking subsection (b).
            (C) Math and science partnerships program coordination 
        report.--Section 9(c) of the National Science Foundation 
        Authorization Act of 2002 (42 U.S.C. 1862n(c)) is amended--
                (i) by striking paragraph (4); and
                (ii) by redesignating paragraph (5) as paragraph (4).
    (b) National Nanotechnology Initiative Reports.--The 21st Century 
Nanotechnology Research and Development Act (15 U.S.C. 7501 et seq.) is 
amended--
        (1) by amending section 2(c)(4) (15 U.S.C. 7501(c)(4)) to read 
    as follows:
        ``(4) develop, not later than 5 years after the date of the 
    release of the most-recent strategic plan, and update every 5 years 
    thereafter, a strategic plan to guide the activities described 
    under subsection (b) that describes--
            ``(A) the near-term and long-term objectives for the 
        Program;
            ``(B) the anticipated schedule for achieving the near-term 
        objectives; and
            ``(C) the metrics that will be used to assess progress 
        toward the near-term and long-term objectives;
            ``(D) how the Program will move results out of the 
        laboratory and into application for the benefit of society;
            ``(E) the Program's support for long-term funding for 
        interdisciplinary research and development in nanotechnology; 
        and
            ``(F) the allocation of funding for interagency 
        nanotechnology projects;'';
        (2) by amending section 4(d) (15 U.S.C. 7503(d)) to read as 
    follows:
    ``(d) Reports.--Not later than 4 years after the date of the most 
recent assessment under subsection (c), and quadrennially thereafter, 
the Advisory Panel shall submit to the President, the Committee on 
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, and the Committee 
on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives a 
report its assessments under subsection (c) and its recommendations for 
ways to improve the Program.''; and
        (3) in section 5 (15 U.S.C. 7504)--
            (A) in the heading, by striking ``triennial'' and inserting 
        ``quadrennial'';
            (B) in subsection (a), in the matter preceding paragraph 
        (1), by striking ``triennial'' and inserting ``quadrennial'';
            (C) in subsection (b), by striking ``triennial'' and 
        inserting ``quadrennial'';
            (D) in subsection (c), by striking ``triennial'' and 
        inserting ``quadrennial''; and
            (E) by amending subsection (d) to read as follows:
    ``(d) Report.--
        ``(1) In general.--Not later than 30 days after the date the 
    first evaluation under subsection (a) is received, and 
    quadrennially thereafter, the Director of the National 
    Nanotechnology Coordination Office shall report to the President 
    its assessments under subsection (c) and its recommendations for 
    ways to improve the Program.
        ``(2) Congress.--Not later than 30 days after the date the 
    President receives the report under paragraph (1), the Director of 
    the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall transmit a copy 
    of the report to Congress.''.
    (c) Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction.--Section 
14 of the National Science Foundation Authorization Act of 2002 (42 
U.S.C. 1862n-4) is amended--
        (1) by amending subsection (a) to read as follows:
    ``(a) Prioritization of Proposed Major Research Equipment and 
Facilities Construction.--
        ``(1) Development of priorities.--The Director shall--
            ``(A) develop a list indicating by number the relative 
        priority for funding under the major research equipment and 
        facilities construction account that the Director assigns to 
        each project the Board has approved for inclusion in a future 
        budget request; and
            ``(B) submit the list described in subparagraph (A) to the 
        Board for approval.
        ``(2) Criteria.--The Director shall include in the criteria for 
    developing the list under paragraph (1) the readiness of plans for 
    construction and operation, including confidence in the estimates 
    of the full life-cycle cost (as defined in section 2 of the 
    National Science Foundation Authorization Act of 1998 (42 U.S.C. 
    1862k note)) and the proposed schedule of completion.
        ``(3) Updates.--The Director shall update the list prepared 
    under paragraph (1) each time the Board approves a new project that 
    would receive funding under the major research equipment and 
    facilities construction account and periodically submit any updated 
    list to the Board for approval.'';
        (2) by striking subsection (e);
        (3) by redesignating subsections (c) and (d) as subsections (b) 
    and (c), respectively; and
        (4) by amending subsection (c), as redesignated, to read as 
    follows:
    ``(c) Board Approval of Major Research Equipment and Facilities 
Projects.--The Board shall explicitly approve any project to be funded 
out of the major research equipment and facilities construction account 
before any funds may be obligated from such account for such 
project.''.
    SEC. 205. REPEAL OF CERTAIN PROVISIONS.
    (a) Technology Innovation Program.--
        (1) In general.--Section 28 of the National Institute of 
    Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278n) is repealed.
        (2) Conforming amendments.--
            (A) Additional award criteria.--Section 4226(b) of the 
        Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 (15 U.S.C. 278n note) is 
        repealed.
            (B) Management costs.--Section 2(d) of the National 
        Institute of Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 272(d)) is 
        amended by striking ``sections 25, 26, and 28'' and inserting 
        ``sections 25 and 26''.
            (C) Annual and other reports to secretary and congress.--
        Section 10(h)(1) of the National Institute of Standards and 
        Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278(h)(1)) is amended by striking ``, 
        including the Program established under section 28,''.
    (b) Teachers for a Competitive Tomorrow.--Sections 6111 through 
6116 of the America COMPETES Act (20 U.S.C. 9811, 9812, 9813, 9814, 
9815, 9816) and the items relating to those sections in the table of 
contents under section 2 of that Act (Public Law 110-69; 121 Stat. 572) 
are repealed.
    SEC. 206. GRANT SUBRECIPIENT TRANSPARENCY AND OVERSIGHT.
    (a) In General.--Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment 
of this Act, the Inspector General of the Foundation shall prepare and 
submit to the appropriate committees of Congress an audit of the 
Foundation's policies and procedures governing the monitoring of pass-
through entities with respect to subrecipients.
    (b) Contents.--The audit shall include the following:
        (1) Information regarding the Foundation's process to oversee--
            (A) the compliance of pass-through entities under section 
        200.331 and subpart F of part 200 of chapter II of subtitle A 
        of title 2, Code of Federal Regulations, and the other 
        requirements of that title for subrecipients;
            (B) whether pass-through entities have processes and 
        controls in place regarding financial compliance of 
        subrecipients, where appropriate; and
            (C) whether pass-through entities have processes and 
        controls in place to maintain approved grant objectives for 
        subrecipients, where appropriate.
        (2) Recommendations, if necessary, to increase transparency and 
    oversight while balancing administrative burdens.
    SEC. 207. MICRO-PURCHASE THRESHOLD FOR PROCUREMENT SOLICITATIONS BY 
      RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS.
    (a) Micro-purchase Threshold.--The micro-purchase threshold for 
procurement activities administered under sections 6303 through 6305 of 
title 31, United States Code, awarded by the Foundation, the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration, or the National Institute of 
Standards and Technology to institutions of higher education, or 
related or affiliated nonprofit entities, or to nonprofit research 
organizations or independent research institutes is--
        (1) $10,000 (as adjusted periodically to account for 
    inflation); or
        (2) such higher threshold as determined appropriate by the head 
    of the relevant executive agency and consistent with audit findings 
    under chapter 75 of title 31, United States Code, internal 
    institutional risk assessment, or State law.
    (b) Uniform Guidance.--The Uniform Guidance shall be revised to 
conform with the requirements of this section. For purposes of the 
preceding sentence, the term ``Uniform Guidance'' means the uniform 
administrative requirements, cost principles, and audit requirements 
for Federal awards contained in part 200 of title 2 of the Code of 
Federal Regulations.
    SEC. 208. COORDINATION OF INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 
      PARTNERSHIPS.
    (a) Short Title.--This section may be cited as the ``International 
Science and Technology Cooperation Act of 2016''.
    (b) Establishment.--The Director of the Office of Science and 
Technology Policy shall establish a body under the National Science and 
Technology Council with the responsibility to identify and coordinate 
international science and technology cooperation that can strengthen 
the United States science and technology enterprise, improve economic 
and national security, and support United States foreign policy goals.
    (c) NSTC Body Leadership.--The body established under subsection 
(b) shall be co-chaired by senior level officials from the Office of 
Science and Technology Policy and the Department of State.
    (d) Responsibilities.--The body established under subsection (b) 
shall--
        (1) plan and coordinate interagency international science and 
    technology cooperative research and training activities and 
    partnerships supported or managed by Federal agencies;
        (2) work with other National Science and Technology Council 
    committees to help plan and coordinate the international component 
    of national science and technology priorities;
        (3) establish Federal priorities and policies for aligning, as 
    appropriate, international science and technology cooperative 
    research and training activities and partnerships supported or 
    managed by Federal agencies with the foreign policy goals of the 
    United States;
        (4) identify opportunities for new international science and 
    technology cooperative research and training partnerships that 
    advance both the science and technology and the foreign policy 
    priorities of the United States;
        (5) in carrying out paragraph (4), solicit input and 
    recommendations from non-Federal science and technology 
    stakeholders, including institutions of higher education, 
    scientific and professional societies, industry, and other relevant 
    organizations and institutions; and
        (6) identify broad issues that influence the ability of United 
    States scientists and engineers to collaborate with foreign 
    counterparts, including barriers to collaboration and access to 
    scientific information.
    (e) Report to Congress.--The Director of the Office of Science and 
Technology Policy shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, 
and Transportation and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate 
and the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology and the Committee 
on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives a biennial report on 
the requirements of this section.
    (f) Website.--The Director shall make each report available to the 
public on the Office of Science and Technology Policy website.
    (g) Termination.--The body established under subsection (b) shall 
terminate on the date that is 10 years after the date of enactment of 
this Act.
    (h) Additional Reports to Congress.--The Director of the Office of 
Science and Technology Policy shall submit, not later than 60 days 
after the date of enactment of this Act and annually thereafter, to the 
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the Committee on 
Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Science, Space, 
and Technology and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of 
Representatives a report that lists and describes the details of all 
foreign travel by Office of Science and Technology Policy staff and 
detailees.

    TITLE III--SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATH EDUCATION

    SEC. 301. ROBERT NOYCE TEACHER SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM UPDATE.
    Section 10A of the National Science Foundation Authorization Act of 
2002 (42 U.S.C. 1862n-1a) is amended by adding at the end the 
following:
    ``(k) STEM Teacher Service and Retention.--
        ``(1) In general.--The Director shall develop and implement 
    practices for increasing the proportion of individuals receiving 
    fellowships under this section who--
            ``(A) fulfill the service obligation required under 
        subsection (h); and
            ``(B) remain in the teaching profession in a high need 
        local educational agency beyond the service obligation.
        ``(2) Practices.--The practices described under paragraph (1) 
    may include--
            ``(A) partnering with nonprofit or professional 
        associations or with other government entities to provide 
        individuals receiving fellowships under this section with 
        opportunities for professional development, including 
        mentorship programs that pair those individuals with currently 
        employed and recently retired science, technology, engineering, 
        mathematics, or computer science professionals;
            ``(B) increasing recruitment from high need districts;
            ``(C) establishing a system to better collect, track, and 
        respond to data on the career decisions of individuals 
        receiving fellowships under this section;
            ``(D) conducting research to better understand factors 
        relevant to teacher service and retention, including factors 
        specifically impacting the retention of teachers who are 
        individuals identified in sections 33 and 34 of the Science and 
        Engineering Equal Opportunities Act (42 U.S.C. 1885a, 1885b); 
        and
            ``(E) conducting pilot programs to improve teacher service 
        and retention.''.
    SEC. 302. SPACE GRANTS.
    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the 
National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program has been an 
important program by which the Federal Government has partnered with 
universities, colleges, industry, and other organizations to provide 
hands-on STEM experiences, fostering of multidisciplinary space 
research, and supporting graduate fellowships in space-related fields, 
among other purposes.
    (b) Administrative Costs.--Section 40303 of title 51, United States 
Code, is amended by adding at the end the following:
    ``(d) Program Administration Costs.--In carrying out the provisions 
of this chapter, the Administrator--
        ``(1) shall maximize appropriated funds for grants and 
    contracts made under section 40304 in each fiscal year; and
        ``(2) in each fiscal year, the Administrator shall limit its 
    program administration costs to no more than 5 percent of funds 
    appropriated for this program for that fiscal year.
    ``(e) Reports.--For any fiscal year in which the Administrator 
cannot meet the administration cost target under subsection (d)(2), if 
the Administration is unable to limit program costs under subsection 
(b), the Administrator shall submit to the appropriate committees of 
Congress a report, including--
        ``(1) a description of why the Administrator did not meet the 
    cost target under subsection (d); and
        ``(2) the measures the Administrator will take in the next 
    fiscal year to meet the cost target under subsection (d) without 
    drawing upon other Federal funding.''.
    SEC. 303. STEM EDUCATION ADVISORY PANEL.
    (a) Establishment.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
enactment this Act, the Director of the Foundation, Secretary of 
Education, Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration, and Administrator of the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration shall jointly establish an advisory panel 
(referred to in this section as the ``STEM Education Advisory Panel'') 
to advise the Committee on STEM Education of the National Science and 
Technology Council (referred to in this section as ``CoSTEM'') on 
matters relating to STEM education.
    (b) Members.--
        (1) In general.--The STEM Education Advisory Panel shall be 
    composed of not less than 11 members.
        (2) Appointment.--
            (A) In general.--Subject to subparagraph (B), the Director 
        of the Foundation, in consultation with the Secretary of 
        Education and the heads of the Federal science agencies, shall 
        appoint the members of the STEM Education Advisory Panel.
            (B) Consideration.--In selecting individuals to appoint 
        under subparagraph (A), the Director of the Foundation shall 
        seek and give consideration to recommendations from Congress, 
        industry, the scientific community, including the National 
        Academy of Sciences, scientific professional societies, 
        academia, State and local governments, organizations 
        representing individuals identified in section 33 or section 34 
        of the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act (42 
        U.S.C. 1885a, 1885b), and such other organizations as the 
        Director considers appropriate.
            (C) Qualifications.--Members shall--
                (i) primarily be individuals from academic 
            institutions, nonprofit organizations, and industry, 
            including in-school, out-of-school, and informal education 
            practitioners; and
                (ii) be individuals who are qualified to provide advice 
            and information on STEM education research, development, 
            training, implementation, interventions, professional 
            development, or workforce needs or concerns.
    (c) Responsibilities.--
        (1) In general.--The STEM Education Advisory Panel shall--
            (A) advise CoSTEM;
            (B) periodically assess CoSTEM's progress in carrying out 
        its responsibilities under section 101(b) of the America 
        COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 6621(b)); and
            (C) help identify any need or opportunity to update the 
        strategic plan under section 101(b) of that Act.
        (2) Considerations.--In its advisory role, the STEM Education 
    Advisory Panel shall consider--
            (A) the management, coordination, and implementation of 
        STEM education programs and activities across the Federal 
        Government;
            (B) the appropriateness of criteria used by Federal 
        agencies to evaluate the effectiveness of Federal STEM 
        education programs and activities;
            (C) whether societal and workforce concerns are adequately 
        addressed by current Federal STEM education programs and 
        activities;
            (D) how Federal agencies can incentivize institutions of 
        higher education to improve retention of STEM students;
            (E) ways to leverage private and nonprofit STEM investments 
        and encourage public-private partnerships to strengthen STEM 
        education and help build the STEM workforce pipeline;
            (F) ways to incorporate workforce needs into Federal STEM 
        education programs and activities, particularly for specific 
        employment fields of national interest and employment fields 
        experiencing high unemployment rates;
            (G) ways to better vertically and horizontally integrate 
        Federal STEM education programs and activities from pre-
        kindergarten through graduate study and the workforce, and from 
        in-school to out-of-school in order to improve transitions for 
        students moving through the STEM education and workforce 
        pipelines;
            (H) the extent to which Federal STEM education programs and 
        activities are contributing to recruitment and retention of 
        individuals identified in sections 33 and 34 of the Science and 
        Engineering Equal Opportunities Act (42 U.S.C. 1885a, 1885b) in 
        the STEM education and workforce pipelines; and
            (I) ways to encourage geographic diversity in the STEM 
        education and the workforce pipelines.
        (3) Recommendations.--The STEM Education Advisory Panel shall 
    make recommendations to improve Federal STEM education programs and 
    activities based on each assessment under paragraph (1)(B).
    (d) Funding.--The Director of the Foundation, the Secretary of 
Education, the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration, and the Administrator of the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration shall jointly make funds available on an 
annual basis to support the activities of the STEM Education Advisory 
Panel.
    (e) Reports.--Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of 
this Act, and after each assessment under subsection (c)(1)(B), the 
STEM Education Advisory Panel shall submit to the appropriate 
committees of Congress and CoSTEM a report on its assessment under that 
subsection and its recommendations under subsection (c)(3).
    (f) Travel Expenses of Non-Federal Members.--
        (1) In general.--Non-Federal members of the STEM Education 
    Advisory Panel, while attending meetings of the panel or while 
    otherwise serving at the request of a co-chairperson away from 
    their homes or regular places of business, may be allowed travel 
    expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized 
    by section 5703 of title 5, United States Code, for individuals in 
    the Government serving without pay.
        (2) Rule of construction.--Nothing in this subsection shall be 
    construed to prohibit members of the STEM Advisory Panel who are 
    officers or employees of the United States from being allowed 
    travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in 
    accordance with existing law.
    (g) Termination.--The STEM Education Advisory Panel established 
under subsection (a) shall terminate on the date that is 5 years after 
the date that it is established.
    SEC. 304. COMMITTEE ON STEM EDUCATION.
    (a) Responsibilities.--Section 101(b) of the America COMPETES 
Reauthorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 6621(b)) is amended--
        (1) in paragraph (5)(D), by striking ``; and'' and inserting a 
    semicolon;
        (2) in paragraph (6), by striking the period at the end and 
    inserting a semicolon; and
        (3) by adding at the end the following:
        ``(7) collaborate with the STEM Education Advisory Panel 
    established under section 303 of the American Innovation and 
    Competitiveness Act and other outside stakeholders to ensure the 
    engagement of the STEM education community;
        ``(8) review the measures used by a Federal agency to evaluate 
    its STEM education activities and programs;
        ``(9) request and review feedback from States on how the States 
    are utilizing Federal STEM education programs and activities; and
        ``(10) recommend the reform, termination, or consolidation of 
    Federal STEM education activities and programs, taking into 
    consideration the recommendations of the STEM Education Advisory 
    Panel.''.
    (b) Reports.--Section 101 of the America COMPETES Reauthorization 
Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 6621) is amended--
        (1) by striking ``(c) Report.--'' and inserting ``(d) 
    Reports.--'';
        (2) by striking ``(b) Responsibilities of OSTP.--'' and 
    inserting ``(c) Responsibilities of OSTP.--''; and
        (3) in subsection (d), as redesignated--
            (A) in paragraph (4), by striking ``; and'' and inserting a 
        semicolon;
            (B) in paragraph (5), by striking the period at the end and 
        inserting a semicolon; and
            (C) by adding at the end the following:
        ``(6) a description of all consolidations and terminations of 
    Federal STEM education programs and activities implemented in the 
    previous fiscal year, including an explanation for the 
    consolidations and terminations;
        ``(7) recommendations for reforms, consolidations, and 
    terminations of STEM education programs or activities in the 
    upcoming fiscal year; and
        ``(8) a description of any significant new STEM education 
    public-private partnerships.''.
    SEC. 305. PROGRAMS TO EXPAND STEM OPPORTUNITIES.
    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
        (1) Economic projections by the Bureau of Labor Statistics 
    indicate that by 2018, there could be 2,400,000 unfilled STEM jobs.
        (2) Women represent slightly more than half the United States 
    population, and projections indicate that 54 percent of the 
    population will be a member of a racial or ethnic minority group by 
    2050.
        (3) Despite representing half the population, women comprise 
    only about 30 percent of STEM workers according to a 2015 report by 
    the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics.
        (4) A 2014 National Center for Education Statistics study found 
    that underrepresented populations leave the STEM fields at higher 
    rates than their counterparts.
        (5) The representation of women in STEM drops significantly at 
    the faculty level. Overall, women hold only 25 percent of all 
    tenured and tenure-track positions and 17 percent of full professor 
    positions in STEM fields in our Nation's universities and 4-year 
    colleges.
        (6) Black and Hispanic faculty together hold about 6.5 percent 
    of all tenured and tenure-track positions and 5 percent of full 
    professor positions.
        (7) Many of the numbers in the American Indian or Alaskan 
    Native and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander categories for 
    different faculty ranks were too small for the Foundation to report 
    publicly without potentially compromising confidential information 
    about the individuals being surveyed.
    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) it is critical to our Nation's economic leadership and 
    global competitiveness that the United States educate, train, and 
    retain more scientists, engineers, and computer scientists;
        (2) there is currently a disconnect between the availability of 
    and growing demand for STEM-skilled workers;
        (3) historically, underrepresented populations are the largest 
    untapped STEM talent pools in the United States; and
        (4) given the shifting demographic landscape, the United States 
    should encourage full participation of individuals from 
    underrepresented populations in STEM fields.
    (c) Reaffirmation.--The Director of the Foundation shall continue 
to support programs designed to broaden participation of 
underrepresented populations in STEM fields.
    (d) Grants To Broaden Participation.--
        (1) In general.--The Director of the Foundation shall award 
    grants on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis, to eligible entities 
    to increase the participation of underrepresented populations in 
    STEM fields, including individuals identified in section 33 or 
    section 34 of the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act 
    (42 U.S.C. 1885a, 1885b).
        (2) Center of excellence.--
            (A) In general.--Grants awarded under this subsection may 
        include grants for the establishment of a Center of Excellence 
        to collect, maintain, and disseminate information to increase 
        participation of underrepresented populations in STEM fields.
            (B) Purpose.--The purpose of a Center of Excellence under 
        this subsection is to promote diversity in STEM fields by 
        building on the success of the INCLUDES programs, providing 
        technical assistance, maintaining best practices, and providing 
        related training at federally funded academic institutions.
    (e) Accountability and Dissemination.--
        (1) Evaluation.--
            (A) In general.--Not later than 5 years after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Director of the Foundation shall 
        evaluate the grants provided under this section.
            (B) Requirements.--In conducting the evaluation under 
        subparagraph (A), the Director shall--
                (i) use a common set of benchmarks and assessment tools 
            to identify best practices and materials developed or 
            demonstrated by the research; and
                (ii) to the extent practicable, combine the research 
            resulting from the grant activity under subsection (e) with 
            the current research on serving underrepresented students 
            in grades kindergarten through 8.
        (2) Report on evaluations.--Not later than 180 days after the 
    completion of the evaluation under paragraph (1), the Director of 
    the Foundation shall submit to the appropriate committees of 
    Congress and make widely available to the public a report that 
    includes--
            (A) the results of the evaluation; and
            (B) any recommendations for administrative and legislative 
        action that could optimize the effectiveness of the program.
    (f) Coordination.--In carrying out this section, the Director of 
the Foundation shall consult and cooperate with the programs and 
policies of other relevant Federal agencies to avoid duplication with 
and enhance the effectiveness of the program under this section.
    SEC. 306. NIST EDUCATION AND OUTREACH.
    (a) Repeal.--The National Institute of Standards and Technology Act 
(15 U.S.C. 271 et seq.) is amended by striking section 18 (15 U.S.C. 
278g-1).
    (b) Education and Outreach.--The National Institute of Standards 
and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 271 et seq.), as amended, is further 
amended by inserting after section 17, the following:
  ``SEC. 18. EDUCATION AND OUTREACH.
    ``(a) In General.--The Director is authorized to expend funds 
appropriated for activities of the Institute in any fiscal year, to 
support, promote, and coordinate activities and efforts to enhance 
public awareness and understanding of measurement sciences, standards 
and technology at the national measurement laboratories and otherwise 
in fulfillment of the mission of the Institute. The Director may carry 
out activities under this subsection, including education and outreach 
activities to the general public, industry and academia in support of 
the Institute's mission.
    ``(b) Hiring.--The Director, in coordination with the Director of 
the Office of Personnel Management, may revise the procedures the 
Director applies when making appointments to laboratory positions 
within the competitive service--
        ``(1) to ensure corporate memory of and expertise in the 
    fundamental ongoing work, and on developing new capabilities in 
    priority areas;
        ``(2) to maintain high overall technical competence;
        ``(3) to improve staff diversity;
        ``(4) to balance emphases on the noncore and core areas; or
        ``(5) to improve the ability of the Institute to compete in the 
    marketplace for qualified personnel.
    ``(c) Volunteers.--
        ``(1) In general.--The Director may establish a program to use 
    volunteers in carrying out the programs of the Institute.
        ``(2) Acceptance of personnel.--The Director may accept, 
    subject to regulations issued by the Office of Personnel 
    Management, voluntary service for the Institute for such purpose if 
    the service--
            ``(A) is to be without compensation; and
            ``(B) will not be used to displace any current employee or 
        act as a substitute for any future full-time employee of the 
        Institute.
        ``(3) Federal employee status.--Any individual who provides 
    voluntary service under this subsection shall not be considered a 
    Federal employee, except for purposes of chapter 81 of title 5, 
    United States Code (relating to compensation for injury), and 
    sections 2671 through 2680 of title 28, United States Code 
    (relating to tort claims).
    ``(d) Research Fellowships.--
        ``(1) In general.--The Director may expend funds appropriated 
    for activities of the Institute in any fiscal year, as the Director 
    considers appropriate, for awards of research fellowships and other 
    forms of financial and logistical assistance, including direct 
    stipend awards to--
            ``(A) students at institutions of higher learning within 
        the United States who show promise as present or future 
        contributors to the mission of the Institute; and
            ``(B) United States citizens for research and technical 
        activities of the Institute, including programs.
        ``(2) Selection criteria.--The selection of persons to receive 
    such fellowships and assistance shall be made on the basis of 
    ability and of the relevance of the proposed work to the mission 
    and programs of the Institute.
        ``(3) Financial and logistical assistance.--Notwithstanding 
    section 1345 of title 31, United States Code, or any other law to 
    the contrary, the Director may include as a form of financial or 
    logistical assistance under this subsection temporary housing and 
    transportation to and from Institute facilities.
    ``(e) Educational Outreach Activities.--The Director may--
        ``(1) facilitate education programs for undergraduate and 
    graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and academic and 
    industry employees;
        ``(2) sponsor summer workshops for STEM kindergarten through 
    grade 12 teachers as appropriate;
        ``(3) develop programs for graduate student internships and 
    visiting faculty researchers;
        ``(4) document publications, presentations, and interactions 
    with visiting researchers and sponsoring interns as performance 
    metrics for improving and continuing interactions with those 
    individuals; and
        ``(5) facilitate laboratory tours and provide presentations for 
    educational, industry, and community groups.''.
    (c) Post-doctoral Fellowship Program.--Section 19 of the National 
Institute of Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278g-2) is amended 
to read as follows:
  ``SEC. 19. POST-DOCTORAL FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM.
    ``(a) In General.--The Institute and the National Academy of 
Sciences, jointly, shall establish and conduct a post-doctoral 
fellowship program, subject to the availability of appropriations.
    ``(b) Organization.--The post-doctoral fellowship program shall 
include not less than 20 new fellows per fiscal year.
    ``(c) Evaluations.--In evaluating applications for post-doctoral 
fellowships under this section, the Director of the Institute and the 
President of the National Academy of Sciences shall give consideration 
to the goal of promoting the participation of individuals identified in 
sections 33 and 34 of the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities 
Act (42 U.S.C. 1885a, 1885b) in research areas supported by the 
Institute.''.
    (d) Savings Clauses.--
        (1) Research fellowships and other financial assistance to 
    students at institutes of higher education.--The repeal made by 
    subsection (a) of this section shall not affect any award of a 
    research fellowship or other form of financial assistance made 
    under section 18 of the National Institute of Standards and 
    Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278g-1) before the date of enactment of 
    this Act. Such award shall continue to be subject to the 
    requirements to which such funds were subject under that section 
    before the date of enactment of this Act.
        (2)  Post-doctoral fellowship program.--The amendment made by 
    subsection (c) of this section shall not affect any award of a 
    post-doctoral fellowship or other form of financial assistance made 
    under section 19 of the National Institute of Standards and 
    Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278g-2) before the date of enactment of 
    this Act. Such awards shall continue to be subject to the 
    requirements to which such funds were subject under that section 
    before the date of enactment of this Act.
    SEC. 307. PRESIDENTIAL AWARDS FOR EXCELLENCE IN STEM MENTORING.
    (a) In General.--The Director of the Foundation shall continue to 
administer awards on behalf of the Office of Science and Technology 
Policy to recognize outstanding mentoring in STEM fields.
    (b) Annual Award Recipients.--The Director of the Foundation shall 
provide Congress with a list of award recipients, including the name, 
institution, and a brief synopsis of the impact of the mentoring 
efforts.
    SEC. 308. WORKING GROUP ON INCLUSION IN STEM FIELDS.
    (a) Establishment.--The Office of Science and Technology Policy, in 
collaboration with Federal departments and agencies, shall establish an 
interagency working group to compile and summarize available research 
and best practices on how to promote diversity and inclusions in STEM 
fields and examine whether barriers exist to promoting diversity and 
inclusion within Federal agencies employing scientists and engineers.
    (b) Responsibilities.--The working group shall be responsible for 
reviewing and assessing research, best practices, and policies across 
Federal science agencies related to the inclusion of individuals 
identified in sections 33 and 34 of the Science and Engineering Equal 
Opportunities Act (42 U.S.C. 1885a, 1885b) in the Federal STEM 
workforce, including available research and best practices on how to 
promote diversity and inclusion in STEM fields, including--
        (1) policies providing flexibility for scientists and engineers 
    that are also caregivers, particularly on the timing of research 
    grants;
        (2) policies to address the proper handling of claims of sexual 
    harassment;
        (3) policies to minimize the effects of implicit bias and other 
    systemic factors in hiring, promotion, evaluation and the workplace 
    in general; and
        (4) other evidence-based strategies that the working group 
    considers effective for promoting diversity and inclusion in the 
    STEM fields.
    (c) Stakeholder Input.--In carrying out the responsibilities under 
section (b), the working group shall solicit and consider input and 
recommendations from non-Federal stakeholders, including--
        (1) the Council of Advisors on Science and Technology;
        (2) federally funded and non-federally funded researchers, 
    institutions of higher education, scientific disciplinary 
    societies, and associations;
        (3) nonprofit research institutions;
        (4) industry, including small businesses;
        (5) federally funded research and development centers;
        (6) non-governmental organizations; and
        (7) such other members of the public interested in promoting a 
    diverse and inclusive Federal STEM workforce.
    (d) Public Reports.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
enactment of this Act, and periodically thereafter, the working group 
shall publish a report on the review and assessment under subsection 
(b), including a summary of available research and best practices, any 
recommendations for Federal actions to promote a diverse and inclusive 
Federal STEM workforce, and updates on the implementation of previous 
recommendations for Federal actions.
    (e) Termination.--The interagency working group established under 
subsection (a) shall terminate on the date that is 10 years after the 
date that it is established.
    SEC. 309. IMPROVING UNDERGRADUATE STEM EXPERIENCES.
    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that each 
Federal science agency should invest in and expand research 
opportunities for undergraduate students attending institutions of 
higher education during the undergraduate students' first 2 academic 
years of postsecondary education.
    (b) Identification of Research Programs.--Not later than 1 year 
after the date of enactment of this Act, the head of each Federal 
agency shall submit to the President recommendations regarding how the 
agency could best fulfill the goals described in subsection (a).
    SEC. 310. COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION RESEARCH.
    (a) Findings.--Congress finds that as the lead Federal agency for 
building the research knowledge base for computer science education, 
the Foundation is well positioned to make investments that will 
accelerate ongoing efforts to enable rigorous and engaging computer 
science throughout the Nation as an integral part of STEM education.
    (b) Grant Program.--
        (1) In general.--The Director of the Foundation shall award 
    grants to eligible entities to research computer science education 
    and computational thinking.
        (2) Research.--The research described in paragraph (1) may 
    include the development or adaptation, piloting or full 
    implementation, and testing of--
            (A) models of preservice preparation for teachers who will 
        teach computer science and computational thinking;
            (B) scalable and sustainable models of professional 
        development and ongoing support for the teachers described in 
        subparagraph (A);
            (C) tools and models for teaching and learning aimed at 
        supporting student success and inclusion in computing within 
        and across diverse populations, particularly poor, rural, and 
        tribal populations and other populations that have been 
        historically underrepresented in computer science and STEM 
        fields; and
            (D) high-quality learning opportunities for teaching 
        computer science and, especially in poor, rural, or tribal 
        schools at the elementary school and middle school levels, for 
        integrating computational thinking into STEM teaching and 
        learning.
    (c) Collaborations.--In carrying out the grants established in 
subsection (b), eligible entities may collaborate and partner with 
local or remote schools to support the integration of computing and 
computational thinking within pre-kindergarten through grade 12 STEM 
curricula and instruction.
    (d) Metrics.--The Director of the Foundation shall develop metrics 
to measure the success of the grant program funded under this section 
in achieving program goals.
    (e) Report.--The Director of the Foundation shall report, in the 
annual budget submission to Congress, on the success of the program as 
measured by the metrics in subsection (d).
    (f) Definition of Eligible Entity.--In this section, the term 
``eligible entity'' means an institution of higher education or a 
nonprofit research organization.
    SEC. 311. INFORMAL STEM EDUCATION.
    (a) National STEM Partnership Grants.--Section 3(a) of the STEM 
Education Act of 2015 (42 U.S.C. 1862q(a)) is amended--
        (1) in paragraph (1), by striking ``; and'' and inserting a 
    semicolon;
        (2) in paragraph (2), by striking the period at the end and 
    inserting ``; and''; and
        (3) by adding at the end the following:
        ``(3) a national partnership of institutions involved in 
    informal STEM learning.''.
    (b) Use of Funds.--Section 3(b) of the STEM Education Act of 2015 
(42 U.S.C. 1862q(b)) is amended--
        (1) in paragraph (1), by striking ``; and'' and inserting a 
    semicolon;
        (2) in paragraph (2), by striking the period at the end and 
    inserting a semicolon; and
        (3) by adding at the end the following:
        ``(3) fostering on-going partnerships between institutions 
    involved in informal STEM learning, institutions of higher 
    education, and education research centers; and
        ``(4) developing, and making available informal STEM education 
    activities and educational materials.''.
    SEC. 312. DEVELOPING STEM APPRENTICESHIPS.
    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
        (1) The lack of data on the return on investment for United 
    States employers using registered apprenticeships makes it 
    difficult--
            (A) to communicate the value of these programs to 
        businesses; and
            (B) to expand registered apprenticeships.
        (2) The lack of data on the value and impact of employer-
    provided worker training, which is likely substantial, hinders the 
    ability of the Federal Government to formulate policy related to 
    workforce training.
        (3) The Secretary of Commerce has initiated--
            (A) the first study on the return on investment for United 
        States employers using registered apprenticeships through case 
        studies of firms in various sectors, occupations, and 
        geographic locations to provide the business community with 
        data on employer benefits and costs; and
            (B) discussions with officials at relevant Federal agencies 
        about the need to collect comprehensive data on--
                (i) employer-provided worker training; and
                (ii) existing tools that could be used to collect such 
            data.
    (b) Development of Apprenticeship Information.--The Secretary of 
Commerce shall continue to research the value to businesses of 
utilizing apprenticeship programs, including--
        (1) evidence of return on investment of apprenticeships, 
    including estimates for the average time it takes a business to 
    recover the costs associated with training apprentices; and
        (2) data from the United States Census Bureau and other 
    statistical surveys on employer-provided training, including 
    apprenticeships and other on-the-job training and industry-
    recognized certification programs.
    (c) Dissemination of Apprenticeship Information.--The Secretary of 
Commerce shall disseminate findings from research on apprenticeships to 
businesses and other relevant stakeholders, including--
        (1) institutions of higher education;
        (2) State and local chambers of commerce; and
        (3) workforce training organizations.
    (d) New Apprenticeship Program Study.--The Secretary of Commerce 
may collaborate with the Secretary of Labor to study approaches for 
reducing the cost of creating new apprenticeship programs and hosting 
apprentices for businesses, particularly small businesses, including--
        (1) training sharing agreements;
        (2) group training models; and
        (3) pooling resources and best practices.
    (e) Economic Development Administration Grants.--The Stevenson-
Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3701 et seq.) is 
amended by adding at the end the following:
  ``SEC. 28. STEM APPRENTICESHIP PROGRAMS.
    ``(a) In General.--The Secretary of Commerce may carry out a grant 
program to identify the need for skilled science, technology, 
engineering, and mathematics (referred to in this section as `STEM') 
workers and to expand STEM apprenticeship programs.
    ``(b) Eligible Recipient Defined.--In this section, the term 
`eligible recipient' means--
        ``(1) a State;
        ``(2) an Indian tribe;
        ``(3) a city or other political subdivision of a State;
        ``(4) an entity that--
            ``(A) is a nonprofit organization, an institution of higher 
        education, a public-private partnership, a science or research 
        park, a Federal laboratory, or an economic development 
        organization or similar entity; and
            ``(B) has an application that is supported by a State, a 
        political subdivision of a State, or a native organization; or
        ``(5) a consortium of any of the entities described in 
    paragraphs (1) through (5).
    ``(c) Needs Assessment Grants.--The Secretary of Commerce may 
provide a grant to an eligible recipient to conduct a needs assessment 
to identify--
        ``(1) the unmet need of a region's employer base for skilled 
    STEM workers;
        ``(2) the potential of STEM apprenticeships to address the 
    unmet need described in paragraph (1); and
        ``(3) any barriers to addressing the unmet need described in 
    paragraph (1).
    ``(d) Apprenticeship Expansion Grants.--The Secretary of Commerce 
may provide a grant to an eligible recipient that has conducted a needs 
assessment as described in subsection (c)(1) to develop infrastructure 
to expand STEM apprenticeship programs.''.
    SEC. 313. NSF REPORT ON BROADENING PARTICIPATION.
    Section 204(e) of the National Science Foundation Authorization Act 
of 1988 (42 U.S.C. 1885c(e)) is amended to read as follows:
    ``(e) Biennial Report.--Every 2 years, the Committee shall prepare 
and submit to the Director a report on its activities during the 
previous 2 years and proposed activities for the next 2 years. The 
Director shall submit to Congress the report, unaltered, together with 
such comments as the Director considers appropriate, including--
        ``(1) review data on the participation in Foundation activities 
    of institutions serving populations that are underrepresented in 
    STEM disciplines, including poor, rural, and tribal populations; 
    and
        ``(2) recommendations regarding how the Foundation could 
    improve outreach and inclusion of these populations in Foundation 
    activities.''.
    SEC. 314. NOAA SCIENCE EDUCATION PROGRAMS.
    (a) In General.--Section 4002(a) of the America COMPETES Act (33 
U.S.C. 893a(a)) is amended by striking ``agency, with consideration 
given to the goal of promoting the participation of individuals from 
underrepresented groups'' and inserting ``the agency, with 
consideration given to the goal of promoting the participation of 
individuals identified in sections 33 and 34 of the Science and 
Engineering Equal Opportunities Act (42 U.S.C. 1885a, 1885b)''.
    (b) Educational Program Goals.--Section 4002(b)(4) of the America 
COMPETES Act (33 U.S.C. 893a(b)(4)) is amended--
        (1) in subparagraph (B), by striking ``and'' at the end;
        (2) by redesignating subparagraph (C) and subparagraph (D);
        (3) by inserting after subparagraph (B) the following:
            ``(C) are designed considering the unique needs of 
        underrepresented groups, translating such materials and other 
        resources;''; and
        (4) by adding at the end the following:
            ``(E) are promoted widely, especially among individuals 
        identified in sections 33 and 34 of the Science and Engineering 
        Equal Opportunities Act (42 U.S.C. 1885a, 1885b); and''.
    (c) Metrics.--Section 4002 of the America COMPETES Act (33 U.S.C. 
893a) is amended--
        (1) by redesignating subsections (d) and (e) as subsections (e) 
    and (f), respectively; and
        (2) by adding after section (c) the following:
    ``(d) Metrics.--In executing the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration science education plan under subsection (c), the 
Administrator shall maintain a comprehensive system for evaluating the 
Administration's educational programs and activities. In so doing, the 
Administrator shall ensure that such education programs have measurable 
objectives and milestones as well as clear, documented metrics for 
evaluating programs. For each such education program or portfolio of 
similar programs, the Administrator shall--
        ``(1) encourage the collection of evidence as relevant to the 
    measurable objectives and milestones; and
        ``(2) ensure that program or portfolio evaluations focus on 
    educational outcomes and not just inputs, activities completed, or 
    the number of participants.''.
    SEC. 315. HISPANIC-SERVING INSTITUTIONS UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM 
      UPDATE.
    (a) In General.--Section 7033(a) of the America COMPETES Act (42 
U.S.C. 1862o-12(a)) is amended as follows:
    ``(a) In General.--The Director shall award grants on a 
competitive, merit-reviewed basis to Hispanic-serving institutions (as 
defined in section 502 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 
1101a)) to enhance the quality of undergraduate STEM education at such 
institutions and to increase the retention and graduation rates of 
students pursuing associate's or baccalaureate degrees in science, 
technology, engineering, and mathematics.''.
    (b) Savings Provision.--The amendment made by subsection (a) of 
this section shall not affect any award of a grant or other form of 
financial assistance made under section 7033 of the America COMPETES 
Act (42 U.S.C. 1862o-12) before the date of enactment of this Act. Such 
awards shall continue to be subject to the requirements to which such 
funds were subject under that section before the date of enactment of 
this Act.

                TITLE IV--LEVERAGING THE PRIVATE SECTOR

    SEC. 401. PRIZE COMPETITION AUTHORITY UPDATE.
    (a) Short Title.--This section may be cited as the ``Science Prize 
Competition Act''.
    (b) In General.--Section 24 of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology 
Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3719) is amended--
        (1) in subsection (c)--
            (A) in the subsection heading, by striking ``Prizes'' and 
        by inserting ``Prize Competitions'';
            (B) in the matter preceding paragraph (1), by striking 
        ``prize may be one or more of the following'' and inserting 
        ``prize competition may be 1 or more of the following types of 
        activities'';
            (C) in paragraph (2), by inserting ``competition'' after 
        ``prize''; and
            (D) in paragraphs (3) and (4), by striking ``prizes'' and 
        inserting ``prize competitions'';
        (2) in subsection (f)--
            (A) in the matter preceding paragraph (1), by striking ``in 
        the Federal Register'' and inserting ``on a publicly accessible 
        Government website, such as www.challenge.gov,'';
            (B) in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3), by inserting ``prize'' 
        before ``competition''; and
            (C) in paragraph (4), by striking ``prize'' and inserting 
        ``cash prize purse or non-cash prize award'';
        (3) in subsection (g)--
            (A) in the matter preceding paragraph (1), by striking 
        ``prize'' and inserting ``cash prize purse''; and
            (B) in paragraph (1), by inserting ``prize'' before 
        ``competition'';
        (4) in subsection (h), by inserting ``prize'' before 
    ``competition'' each place it appears;
        (5) in subsection (i)--
            (A) in paragraph (1)(B), by inserting ``prize'' before 
        ``competition'';
            (B) in paragraph (2)(A), by inserting ``prize'' before 
        ``competition'' each place it appears;
            (C) by redesignating paragraph (3) as paragraph (4); and
            (D) by inserting after paragraph (2) the following:
        ``(3) Waivers.--
            ``(A) In general.--An agency may waive the requirement 
        under paragraph (2).
            ``(B) List.--The Director shall include a list of all of 
        the waivers granted under this paragraph during the preceding 
        fiscal year, including a detailed explanation of the reason for 
        granting the waiver.'';
        (6) in subsection (j)--
            (A) in paragraph (1), by inserting ``prize'' before 
        ``competition''; and
            (B) by amending paragraph (2) to read as follows:
        ``(2) Licenses.--As appropriate and to further the goals of a 
    prize competition, the Federal Government may negotiate a license 
    for the use of intellectual property developed by a registered 
    participant in a prize competition.'';
        (7) in subsection (k)--
            (A) in paragraph (1), by striking ``each competition'' and 
        inserting ``each prize competition'' each place it appears;
            (B) in paragraph (2)(A), by inserting ``prize'' before 
        ``competition''; and
            (C) in paragraph (3), by inserting ``prize'' before 
        ``competitions'' each place it appears;
        (8) in subsection (l), by striking ``an agreement with'' and 
    all that follows through the period at the end and inserting ``a 
    grant, contract, cooperative agreement, or other agreement with a 
    private sector for-profit or nonprofit entity or State or local 
    government agency to administer the prize competition, subject to 
    the provisions of this section.'';
        (9) in subsection (m)--
            (A) by amending paragraph (1) to read as follows:
        ``(1) In general.--Support for a prize competition under this 
    section, including financial support for the design and 
    administration of a prize competition or funds for a cash prize 
    purse, may consist of Federal appropriated funds and funds provided 
    by private sector for-profit and nonprofit entities. The head of an 
    agency may request and accept funds from other Federal agencies, 
    State, United States territory, local, or tribal government 
    agencies, private sector for-profit entities, and nonprofit 
    entities, to be available to the extent provided by appropriations 
    Acts, to support such prize competitions. The head of an agency may 
    not give any special consideration to any agency or entity in 
    return for a donation.'';
            (B) in paragraph (2), by striking ``prize awards'' and 
        inserting ``cash prize purses or non-cash prize awards'';
            (C) in paragraph (3)--
                (i) by amending subparagraph (A) to read as follows:
            ``(A) Announcement.--No prize competition may be announced 
        under subsection (f) until all the funds needed to pay out the 
        announced amount of the cash prize purse have been appropriated 
        or committed in writing by a private or State, United States 
        territory, local, or tribal government source.''; and
                (ii) in subparagraph (B)--

                    (I) in the matter preceding clause (i), by striking 
                ``a prize'' and inserting ``a cash prize purse or non-
                cash prize award'';
                    (II) in clause (i), by inserting ``competition'' 
                after ``prize''; and
                    (III) in clause (ii), by inserting ``or State, 
                United States territory, local, or tribal government'' 
                after ``private''; and

            (D) in paragraph (4)--
                (i) in subparagraph (A)--

                    (I) by striking ``a prize'' and inserting ``a cash 
                prize purse or a non-cash prize award''; and
                    (II) by striking ``Science and Technology'' and 
                inserting ``Science, Space, and Technology''; and

                (ii) in subparagraph (B), by striking ``cash prizes'' 
            and inserting ``cash prize purses or non-cash prize 
            awards'';
        (10) in subsection (n)--
            (A) in the heading, by striking ``Service'' and inserting 
        ``Services'';
            (B) by striking ``the date of the enactment of the America 
        COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010,'' and inserting ``the 
        date of enactment of the American Innovation and 
        Competitiveness Act,''; and
            (C) by inserting ``for both for-profit and nonprofit 
        entities and State, United States territory, local, and tribal 
        government entities,'' after ``contract vehicle'';
        (11) in subsection (o)(1), by striking ``or providing a prize'' 
    and inserting ``a prize competition or providing a cash prize purse 
    or non-cash prize award''; and
        (12) in subsection (p)--
            (A) in the heading, by striking ``Annual'' and inserting 
        ``Biennial'';
            (B) in paragraph (1)--
                (i) by striking ``each year'' and inserting ``every 
            other year'';
                (ii) by striking ``Science and Technology'' and 
            inserting ``Science, Space, and Technology''; and
                (iii) by striking ``fiscal year'' and inserting ``2 
            fiscal years''; and
            (C) in paragraph (2)--
                (i) by striking ``The report for a fiscal year'' and 
            inserting ``A report'';
                (ii) in subparagraph (C)--

                    (I) in the heading, by striking ``prizes'' and 
                inserting ``prize purses or non-cash prize awards''; 
                and
                    (II) by striking ``cash prizes'' each place it 
                appears and inserting ``cash prize purses or non-cash 
                prize awards''; and

                (iii) by adding at the end the following:
            ``(G) Plan.--A description of crosscutting topical areas 
        and agency-specific mission needs that may be the strongest 
        opportunities for prize competitions during the upcoming 2 
        fiscal years.''.
    SEC. 402. CROWDSOURCING AND CITIZEN SCIENCE.
    (a) Short Title.--This section may be cited as the ``Crowdsourcing 
and Citizen Science Act''.
    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) the authority granted to Federal agencies under the America 
    COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 (Public Law 111-358; 124 Stat. 
    3982) to pursue the use of incentive prizes and challenges has 
    yielded numerous benefits;
        (2) crowdsourcing and citizen science projects have a number of 
    additional unique benefits, including accelerating scientific 
    research, increasing cost effectiveness to maximize the return on 
    taxpayer dollars, addressing societal needs, providing hands-on 
    learning in STEM, and connecting members of the public directly to 
    Federal science agency missions and to each other; and
        (3) granting Federal science agencies the direct, explicit 
    authority to use crowdsourcing and citizen science will encourage 
    its appropriate use to advance Federal science agency missions and 
    stimulate and facilitate broader public participation in the 
    innovation process, yielding numerous benefits to the Federal 
    Government and citizens who participate in such projects.
    (c) Definitions.--In this section:
        (1) Citizen science.--The term ``citizen science'' means a form 
    of open collaboration in which individuals or organizations 
    participate voluntarily in the scientific process in various ways, 
    including--
            (A) enabling the formulation of research questions;
            (B) creating and refining project design;
            (C) conducting scientific experiments;
            (D) collecting and analyzing data;
            (E) interpreting the results of data;
            (F) developing technologies and applications;
            (G) making discoveries; and
            (H) solving problems.
        (2) Crowdsourcing.--The term ``crowdsourcing'' means a method 
    to obtain needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting 
    voluntary contributions from a group of individuals or 
    organizations, especially from an online community.
        (3) Participant.--The term ``participant'' means any individual 
    or other entity that has volunteered in a crowdsourcing or citizen 
    science project under this section.
    (d) Crowdsourcing and Citizen Science.--
        (1) In general.--The head of each Federal science agency, or 
    the heads of multiple Federal science agencies working 
    cooperatively, may utilize crowdsourcing and citizen science to 
    conduct projects designed to advance the mission of the respective 
    Federal science agency or the joint mission of Federal science 
    agencies, as applicable.
        (2) Voluntary services.--Notwithstanding section 1342 of title 
    31, United States Code, the head of a Federal science agency may 
    accept, subject to regulations issued by the Director of the Office 
    of Personnel Management, in coordination with the Director of the 
    Office of Science and Technology Policy, services from participants 
    under this section if such services--
            (A) are performed voluntarily as a part of a crowdsourcing 
        or citizen science project authorized under paragraph (1);
            (B) are not financially compensated for their time; and
            (C) will not be used to displace any employee of the 
        Federal Government.
        (3) Outreach.--The head of each Federal science agency engaged 
    in a crowdsourcing or citizen science project under this section 
    shall make public and promote such project to encourage broad 
    participation.
        (4) Consent, registration, and terms of use.--
            (A) In general.--Each Federal science agency shall 
        determine the appropriate level of consent, registration, or 
        acknowledgment of the terms of use that are required from 
        participants in crowdsourcing or citizen science projects under 
        this section on a per-project basis.
            (B) Disclosures.--In seeking consent, conducting 
        registration, or developing terms of use for a project under 
        this subsection, a Federal science agency shall disclose the 
        privacy, intellectual property, data ownership, compensation, 
        service, program, and other terms of use to the participant in 
        a clear and reasonable manner.
            (C) Mode of consent.--A Federal agency or Federal science 
        agencies, as applicable, may obtain consent electronically or 
        in written form from participants under this section.
        (5) Protections for human subjects.--Any crowdsourcing or 
    citizen science project under this section that involves research 
    involving human subjects shall be subject to part 46 of title 28, 
    Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulation).
        (6) Data.--
            (A) In general.--A Federal science agency shall, where 
        appropriate and to the extent practicable, make data collected 
        through a crowdsourcing or citizen science project under this 
        section available to the public, in a machine readable format, 
        unless prohibited by law.
            (B) Notice.--As part of the consent process, the Federal 
        science agency shall notify all participants--
                (i) of the expected uses of the data compiled through 
            the project;
                (ii) if the Federal science agency will retain 
            ownership of such data;
                (iii) if and how the data and results from the project 
            would be made available for public or third party use; and
                (iv) if participants are authorized to publish such 
            data.
        (7) Technologies and applications.--Federal science agencies 
    shall endeavor to make technologies, applications, code, and 
    derivations of such intellectual property developed through a 
    crowdsourcing or citizen science project under this section 
    available to the public.
        (8) Liability.--Each participant in a crowdsourcing or citizen 
    science project under this section shall agree--
            (A) to assume any and all risks associated with such 
        participation; and
            (B) to waive all claims against the Federal Government and 
        its related entities, except for claims based on willful 
        misconduct, for any injury, death, damage, or loss of property, 
        revenue, or profits (whether direct, indirect, or 
        consequential) arising from participation in the project.
        (9) Research misconduct.--Federal science agencies coordinating 
    crowdsourcing or citizen science projects under this section shall 
    make all practicable efforts to ensure that participants adhere to 
    all relevant Federal research misconduct policies and other 
    applicable ethics policies.
        (10) Multi-sector partnerships.--The head of each Federal 
    science agency engaged in crowdsourcing or citizen science under 
    this section, or the heads of multiple Federal science agencies 
    working cooperatively, may enter into a contract or other agreement 
    to share administrative duties for such projects with--
            (A) a for profit or nonprofit private sector entity, 
        including a private institution of higher education;
            (B) a State, tribal, local, or foreign government agency, 
        including a public institution of higher education; or
            (C) a public-private partnership.
        (11) Funding.--In carrying out crowdsourcing and citizen 
    science projects under this section, the head of a Federal science 
    agency, or the heads of multiple Federal science agencies working 
    cooperatively--
            (A) may use funds appropriated by Congress;
            (B) may publicize projects and solicit and accept funds or 
        in-kind support for such projects, to be available to the 
        extent provided by appropriations Acts, from--
                (i) other Federal agencies;
                (ii) for profit or nonprofit private sector entities, 
            including private institutions of higher education; or
                (iii) State, tribal, local, or foreign government 
            agencies, including public institutions of higher 
            education; and
            (C) may not give any special consideration to any entity 
        described in subparagraph (B) in return for such funds or in-
        kind support.
        (12) Facilitation.--
            (A) General services administration assistance.--The 
        Administrator of the General Services Administration, in 
        coordination with the Director of the Office of Personnel 
        Management and the Director of the Office of Science and 
        Technology Policy, shall, at no cost to Federal science 
        agencies, identify and develop relevant products, training, and 
        services to facilitate the use of crowdsourcing and citizen 
        science projects under this section, including by specifying 
        the appropriate contract vehicles and technology and 
        organizational platforms to enhance the ability of Federal 
        science agencies to carry out the projects under this section.
            (B) Additional guidance.--The head of each Federal science 
        agency engaged in crowdsourcing or citizen science under this 
        section may--
                (i) consult any guidance provided by the Director of 
            the Office of Science and Technology Policy, including the 
            Federal Crowdsourcing and Citizen Science Toolkit;
                (ii) designate a coordinator for that Federal science 
            agency's crowdsourcing and citizen science projects; and
                (iii) share best practices with other Federal agencies, 
            including participation of staff in the Federal Community 
            of Practice for Crowdsourcing and Citizen Science.
    (e) Report.--
        (1) In general.--Not later than 2 years after the date of the 
    enactment of this Act, the Director of the Office of Science and 
    Technology Policy shall include, as a component of an annual report 
    required under section 24(p) of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology 
    Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3719(p)), a report on the 
    projects and activities carried out under this section.
        (2) Information included.--The report required under paragraph 
    (1) shall include--
            (A) a summary of each crowdsourcing and citizen science 
        project conducted by a Federal science agency during the most 
        recently completed 2 fiscal years, including a description of 
        the proposed goals of each crowdsourcing and citizen science 
        project;
            (B) an analysis of why the utilization of a crowdsourcing 
        or citizen science project summarized in subparagraph (A) was 
        the preferable method of achieving the goals described in 
        subparagraph (A) as opposed to other authorities available to 
        the Federal science agency, such as contracts, grants, 
        cooperative agreements, and prize competitions;
            (C) the participation rates, submission levels, number of 
        consents, and any other statistic that might be considered 
        relevant in each crowdsourcing and citizen science project;
            (D) a detailed description of--
                (i) the resources, including personnel and funding, 
            that were used in the execution of each crowdsourcing and 
            citizen science project;
                (ii) the project activities for which such resources 
            were used; and
                (iii) how the obligations and expenditures relating to 
            the project's execution were allocated among the accounts 
            of the Federal science agency, including a description of 
            the amount and source of all funds, private, public, and 
            in-kind, contributed to each crowdsourcing and citizen 
            science project;
            (E) a summary of the use of crowdsourcing and citizen 
        science by all Federal science agencies, including interagency 
        and multi-sector partnerships;
            (F) a description of how each crowdsourcing and citizen 
        science project advanced the mission of each participating 
        Federal science agency;
            (G) an identification of each crowdsourcing or citizen 
        science project where data collected through such project was 
        not made available to the public, including the reasons for 
        such action; and
            (H) any other information that the Director of the Office 
        of Science and Technology Policy considers relevant.
    (f) Savings Provision.--Nothing in this section may be construed--
        (1) to affect the authority to conduct crowdsourcing and 
    citizen science authorized by any other provision of law; or
        (2) to displace Federal Government resources allocated to the 
    Federal science agencies that use crowdsourcing or citizen science 
    authorized under this section to carry out a project.
    SEC. 403. NIST DIRECTOR FUNCTIONS UPDATE.
    Section 2(b) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology 
Act (15 U.S.C. 272(b)), as amended by section 403 of this Act, is 
further amended--
        (1) in the matter preceding paragraph (1), by striking 
    ``authorized to take'' and inserting ``authorized to serve as the 
    President's principal adviser on standards policy pertaining to the 
    Nation's technological competitiveness and innovation ability and 
    to take'';
        (2) in paragraph (3), by striking ``compare standards'' and all 
    that follows through ``Federal Government'' and inserting 
    ``facilitate standards-related information sharing and cooperation 
    between Federal agencies''; and
        (3) in paragraph (13), by striking ``Federal, State, and 
    local'' and all that follows through ``private sector'' and 
    inserting ``technical standards activities and conformity 
    assessment activities of Federal, State, and local governments with 
    private sector''.
    SEC. 404. NIST VISITING COMMITTEE ON ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY UPDATE.
    Section 10 of the National Institute of Standards and Technology 
Act (15 U.S.C. 278) is amended--
        (1) in subsection (a)--
            (A) in the second sentence, by striking ``15 members 
        appointed by the Director, at least 10 of whom'' and inserting 
        ``not fewer than 9 members appointed by the Director, a 
        majority of whom''; and
            (B) in the third sentence, by striking ``National Bureau of 
        Standards'' and inserting ``National Institute of Standards and 
        Technology''; and
        (2) in subsection (h)(1), by striking ``, including the Program 
    established under section 28,''.

                         TITLE V--MANUFACTURING

    SEC. 501. HOLLINGS MANUFACTURING EXTENSION PARTNERSHIP 
      IMPROVEMENTS.
    (a) Short Title.--This section may be cited as the ``Manufacturing 
Extension Partnership Improvement Act''.
    (b) In General.--Section 25 of the National Institute of Standards 
and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278k) is amended to read as follows:
  ``SEC. 25. HOLLINGS MANUFACTURING EXTENSION PARTNERSHIP.
    ``(a) Definitions.--In this section:
        ``(1) Appropriate committees of congress.--The term 
    `appropriate committees of Congress' means--
            ``(A) the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
        Transportation of the Senate; and
            ``(B) the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of 
        the House of Representatives.
        ``(2) Area career and technical education school.--The term 
    `area career and technical education school' has the meaning given 
    the term in section 3 of the Vocational Education Act of 1963 (20 
    U.S.C. 2302).
        ``(3) Center.--The term `Center' means a manufacturing 
    extension center that--
            ``(A) is created under subsection (b); and
            ``(B) is affiliated with an eligible entity that applies 
        for and is awarded financial support under subsection (e).
        ``(4) Community college.--The term `community college' means an 
    institution of higher education (as defined under section 101(a) of 
    the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001(a))) at which the 
    highest degree that is predominately awarded to students is an 
    associate's degree.
        ``(5) Eligible entity.--The term `eligible entity' means a 
    United States-based nonprofit institution, or consortium thereof, 
    an institution of higher education, or a State, United States 
    territory, local, or tribal government.
        ``(6) Hollings manufacturing extension partnership or 
    program.--The term `Hollings Manufacturing Extension Partnership' 
    or `Program' means the program established under subsection (b).
        ``(7) MEP advisory board.--The term `MEP Advisory Board' means 
    the Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board established 
    under subsection (n).
    ``(b) Establishment and Purpose.--The Secretary, acting through the 
Director and, if appropriate, through other Federal officials, shall 
establish a program to provide assistance for the creation and support 
of manufacturing extension centers for the transfer of manufacturing 
technology and best business practices.
    ``(c) Objective.--The objective of the Program shall be to enhance 
competitiveness, productivity, and technological performance in United 
States manufacturing through--
        ``(1) the transfer of manufacturing technology and techniques 
    developed at the Institute to Centers and, through them, to 
    manufacturing companies throughout the United States;
        ``(2) the participation of individuals from industry, 
    institutions of higher education, State governments, other Federal 
    agencies, and, when appropriate, the Institute in cooperative 
    technology transfer activities;
        ``(3) efforts to make new manufacturing technology and 
    processes usable by United States-based small and medium-sized 
    companies;
        ``(4) the active dissemination of scientific, engineering, 
    technical, and management information about manufacturing to 
    industrial firms, including small and medium-sized manufacturing 
    companies;
        ``(5) the utilization, when appropriate, of the expertise and 
    capability that exists in Federal agencies, other than the 
    Institute, and federally-sponsored laboratories;
        ``(6) the provision to community colleges and area career and 
    technical education schools of information about the job skills 
    needed in manufacturing companies, including small and medium-sized 
    manufacturing businesses in the regions they serve;
        ``(7) the promotion and expansion of certification systems 
    offered through industry, associations, and local colleges when 
    appropriate, including efforts such as facilitating training, 
    supporting new or existing apprenticeships, and providing access to 
    information and experts, to address workforce needs and skills gaps 
    in order to assist small- and medium-sized manufacturing 
    businesses; and
        ``(8) the growth in employment and wages at United States-based 
    small and medium-sized companies.
    ``(d) Activities.--The activities of a Center shall include--
        ``(1) the establishment of automated manufacturing systems and 
    other advanced production technologies, based on Institute-
    supported research, for the purpose of demonstrations and 
    technology transfer;
        ``(2) the active transfer and dissemination of research 
    findings and Center expertise to a wide range of companies and 
    enterprises, particularly small and medium-sized manufacturers; and
        ``(3) the facilitation of collaborations and partnerships 
    between small and medium-sized manufacturing companies, community 
    colleges, and area career and technical education schools, to help 
    those entities better understand the specific needs of 
    manufacturers and to help manufacturers better understand the skill 
    sets that students learn in the programs offered by such colleges 
    and schools.
    ``(e) Financial Assistance.--
        ``(1) Authorization.--Except as provided in paragraph (2), the 
    Secretary may provide financial assistance for the creation and 
    support of a Center through a cooperative agreement with an 
    eligible entity.
        ``(2) Cost sharing.--The Secretary may not provide more than 50 
    percent of the capital and annual operating and maintenance funds 
    required to establish and support a Center.
        ``(3) Rule of construction.--For purposes of paragraph (2), any 
    amount received by an eligible entity for a Center under a 
    provision of law other than paragraph (1) shall not be considered 
    an amount provided under paragraph (1).
        ``(4) Regulations.--The Secretary may revise or promulgate such 
    regulations as necessary to carry out this subsection.
    ``(f) Applications.--
        ``(1) In general.--An eligible entity shall submit an 
    application to the Secretary at such time, in such manner, and 
    containing such information as the Secretary may require.
        ``(2) Program description.--The Secretary shall establish and 
    update, as necessary--
            ``(A) a description of the Program;
            ``(B) the application procedures;
            ``(C) performance metrics;
            ``(D) criteria for determining qualified applicants; and
            ``(E) criteria for choosing recipients of financial 
        assistance from among the qualified applicants.
            ``(F) procedures for determining allowable cost share 
        contributions; and
            ``(G) such other program policy objectives and operational 
        procedures as the Secretary considers necessary.
        ``(3) Cost sharing.--
            ``(A) In general.--To be considered for financial 
        assistance under this section, an applicant shall provide 
        adequate assurances that the applicant and if applicable, the 
        applicant's partnering organizations, will obtain funding for 
        not less than 50 percent of the capital and annual operating 
        and maintenance funds required to establish and support the 
        Center from sources other than the financial assistance 
        provided under subsection (e).
            ``(B) Agreements with other entities.--In meeting the cost-
        sharing requirement under subparagraph (A), an eligible entity 
        may enter into an agreement with 1 or more other entities, such 
        as a private industry, institutions of higher education, or a 
        State, United States territory, local, or tribal government for 
        the contribution by that other entity of funding if the 
        Secretary determines the agreement--
                ``(i) is programmatically reasonable;
                ``(ii) will help accomplish programmatic objectives; 
            and
                ``(iii) is allocable under Program procedures under 
            subsection (f)(2).
        ``(4) Legal rights.--Each applicant shall include in the 
    application a proposal for the allocation of the legal rights 
    associated with any intellectual property which may result from the 
    activities of the Center.
        ``(5) Merit review of applications.--
            ``(A) In general.--The Secretary shall subject each 
        application to merit review.
            ``(B) Considerations.--In making a decision whether to 
        approve an application and provide financial assistance under 
        subsection (e), the Secretary shall consider, at a minimum--
                ``(i) the merits of the application, particularly those 
            portions of the application regarding technology transfer, 
            training and education, and adaptation of manufacturing 
            technologies to the needs of particular industrial sectors;
                ``(ii) the quality of service to be provided;
                ``(iii) the geographical diversity and extent of the 
            service area; and
                ``(iv) the type and percentage of funding and in-kind 
            commitment from other sources under paragraph (3).
    ``(g) Evaluations.--
        ``(1) Third and eighth year evaluations by panel.--
            ``(A) In general.--The Secretary shall ensure that each 
        Center is evaluated during its third and eighth years of 
        operation by an evaluation panel appointed by the Secretary.
            ``(B) Composition.--The Secretary shall ensure that each 
        evaluation panel appointed under subparagraph (A) is composed 
        of--
                ``(i) private experts, none of whom are connected with 
            the Center evaluated by the panel; and
                ``(ii) Federal officials.
            ``(C) Chairperson.--For each evaluation panel appointed 
        under subparagraph (B), the Secretary shall appoint a 
        chairperson who is an official of the Institute.
        ``(2) Fifth year evaluations by secretary.--In the fifth year 
    of operation of a Center, the Secretary shall conduct a review of 
    the Center.
        ``(3) Performance measurement.--In evaluating a Center an 
    evaluation panel or the Secretary, as applicable, shall measure the 
    performance of the Center against--
            ``(A) the objective specified in subsection (c);
            ``(B) the performance metrics under subsection (f)(2)(C); 
        and
            ``(C) such other criterion as considered appropriate by the 
        Secretary.
        ``(4) Positive evaluations.--If an evaluation of a Center is 
    positive, the Secretary may continue to provide financial 
    assistance for the Center--
            ``(A) in the case of an evaluation occurring in the third 
        year of a Center, through the fifth year of the Center;
            ``(B) in the case of an evaluation occurring in the fifth 
        year of a Center, through the eighth year of the Center; and
            ``(C) in the case of an evaluation occurring in the eighth 
        year of a Center, through the tenth year of the Center.
        ``(5) Other than positive evaluations.--
            ``(A) Probation.--If an evaluation of a Center is other 
        than positive, the Secretary shall put the Center on probation 
        during the period beginning on the date that the Center 
        receives notice under subparagraph (B)(i) and ending on the 
        date that the reevaluation is complete under subparagraph 
        (B)(iii).
            ``(B) Notice and reevaluation.--If a Center receives an 
        evaluation that is other than positive, the evaluation panel or 
        Secretary, as applicable, shall--
                ``(i) notify the Center of the reason, including any 
            deficiencies in the performance of the Center identified 
            during the evaluation;
                ``(ii) assist the Center in remedying the deficiencies 
            by providing the Center, not less frequently than once 
            every 3 months, an analysis of the Center, if considered 
            appropriate by the panel or Secretary, as applicable; and
                ``(iii) reevaluate the Center not later than 1 year 
            after the date of the notice under clause (i).
            ``(C) Continued support during period of probation.--
                ``(i) In general.--The Secretary may continue to 
            provide financial assistance under subsection (e) for a 
            Center during the probation period.
                ``(ii) Post probation.--After the period of probation, 
            the Secretary shall not provide any financial assistance 
            unless the Center has received a positive evaluation under 
            subparagraph (B)(iii).
        ``(6) Failure to remedy.--
            ``(A) In general.--If a Center fails to remedy a deficiency 
        or to show significant improvement in performance before the 
        end of the probation period under paragraph (5), the Secretary 
        shall conduct a competition to select an operator for the 
        Center under subsection (h).
            ``(B) Treatment of centers subject to new competition.--
        Upon the selection of an operator for a Center under subsection 
        (h), the Center shall be considered a new Center and the 
        calculation of the years of operation of that Center for 
        purposes of paragraphs (1) through (5) of this subsection and 
        subsection (h)(1) shall start anew.
    ``(h) Reapplication Competition for Financial Assistance After 10 
Years.--
        ``(1) In general.--If an eligible entity has operated a Center 
    under this section for a period of 10 consecutive years, the 
    Secretary shall conduct a competition to select an eligible entity 
    to operate the Center in accordance with the process plan under 
    subsection (i).
        ``(2) Incumbent eligible entities.--An eligible entity that has 
    received financial assistance under this section for a period of 10 
    consecutive years and that the Secretary determines is in good 
    standing shall be eligible to compete in the competition under 
    paragraph (1).
        ``(3) Treatment of centers subject to reapplication 
    competition.--Upon the selection of an operator for a Center under 
    paragraph (1), the Center shall be considered a new Center and the 
    calculation of the years of operation of that Center for purposes 
    of paragraphs (1) through (5) of subsection (g) shall start anew.
    ``(i) Process Plan.--Not later than 180 days after the date of the 
enactment of the American Innovation and Competitiveness Act, the 
Secretary shall implement and submit to Congress a plan for how the 
Institute will conduct an evaluation, competition, and reapplication 
competition under this section.
    ``(j) Operational Requirements.--
        ``(1) Protection of confidential information of center 
    clients.--The following information, if obtained by the Federal 
    Government in connection with an activity of a Center or the 
    Program, shall be exempt from public disclosure under section 552 
    of title 5, United States Code:
            ``(A) Information on the business operation of any 
        participant in the Program or of a client of a Center.
            ``(B) Trade secrets of any client of a Center.
    ``(k) Oversight Boards.--
        ``(1) In general.--As a condition on receipt of financial 
    assistance for a Center under subsection (e), an eligible entity 
    shall establish a board to oversee the operations of the Center.
        ``(2) Standards.--
            ``(A) In general.--The Director shall establish appropriate 
        standards for each board described under paragraph (1).
            ``(B) Considerations.--In establishing the standards, the 
        Director shall take into account the type and organizational 
        structure of an eligible entity.
            ``(C) Requirements.--The standards shall address--
                ``(i) membership;
                ``(ii) composition;
                ``(iii) term limits;
                ``(iv) conflicts of interest; and
                ``(v) such other requirements as the Director considers 
            necessary.
        ``(3) Membership.--
            ``(A) In general.--Each board established under paragraph 
        (1) shall be composed of members as follows:
                ``(i) The membership of each board shall be 
            representative of stakeholders in the region in which the 
            Center is located.
                ``(ii) A majority of the members of the board shall be 
            selected from among individuals who own or are employed by 
            small or medium-sized manufacturers.
            ``(B) Limitation.--A member of a board established under 
        paragraph (1) may not serve on more than 1 board established 
        under that paragraph.
        ``(4) Bylaws.--
            ``(A) In general.--Each board established under paragraph 
        (1) shall adopt and submit to the Director bylaws to govern the 
        operation of the board.
            ``(B) Conflicts of interest.--Bylaws adopted under 
        subparagraph (A) shall include policies to minimize conflicts 
        of interest, including such policies relating to disclosure of 
        relationships and recusal as may be necessary to minimize 
        conflicts of interest.
    ``(l) Acceptance of Funds.--In addition to such sums as may be 
appropriated to the Secretary and Director to operate the Program, the 
Secretary and Director may also accept funds from other Federal 
departments and agencies and from the private sector under section 
2(c)(7) of this Act (15 U.S.C. 272(c)(7)), to be available to the 
extent provided by appropriations Acts, for the purpose of 
strengthening United States manufacturing.
    ``(m) MEP Advisory Board.--
        ``(1) Establishment.--There is established within the Institute 
    a Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board.
        ``(2) Membership.--
            ``(A) Composition.--
                ``(i) In general.--The MEP Advisory Board shall consist 
            of not fewer than 10 members appointed by the Director and 
            broadly representative of stakeholders.
                ``(ii) Requirements.--Of the members appointed under 
            clause (i)--

                    ``(I) at least 2 members shall be employed by or on 
                an advisory board for a Center;
                    ``(II) at least 5 members shall be from United 
                States small businesses in the manufacturing sector; 
                and
                    ``(III) at least 1 member shall represent a 
                community college.

                ``(iii) Limitation.--No member of the MEP Advisory 
            Board shall be an employee of the Federal Government.
            ``(B) Term.--Except as provided in subparagraph (C), the 
        term of office of each member of the MEP Advisory Board shall 
        be 3 years.
            ``(C) Vacancies.--Any member appointed to fill a vacancy 
        occurring prior to the expiration of the term for which his 
        predecessor was appointed shall be appointed for the remainder 
        of such term.
            ``(D) Serving consecutive terms.--Any person who has 
        completed 2 consecutive full terms of service on the MEP 
        Advisory Board shall thereafter be ineligible for appointment 
        during the 1-year period following the expiration of the second 
        such term.
        ``(3) Meetings.--The MEP Advisory Board shall--
            ``(A) meet not less than biannually; and
            ``(B) provide to the Director--
                ``(i) advice on the activities, plans, and policies of 
            the Program;
                ``(ii) assessments of the soundness of the plans and 
            strategies of the Program; and
                ``(iii) assessments of current performance against the 
            plans of the Program.
        ``(4) FACA applicability.--
            ``(A) In general.--In discharging its duties under this 
        subsection, the MEP Advisory Board shall function solely in an 
        advisory capacity, in accordance with the Federal Advisory 
        Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.).
            ``(B) Exception.--Section 14 of the Federal Advisory 
        Committee Act shall not apply to the MEP Advisory Board.
        ``(5) Annual report.--
            ``(A) In general.--At a minimum, the MEP Advisory Board 
        shall transmit an annual report to the Secretary for 
        transmittal to Congress not later than 30 days after the 
        submission to Congress of the President's annual budget under 
        section 1105 of title 31, United States Code.
            ``(B) Contents.--The report shall address the status of the 
        Program and describe the relevant sections of the programmatic 
        planning document and updates thereto transmitted to Congress 
        by the Director under subsections (c) and (d) of section 23 (15 
        U.S.C. 278i).
    ``(n) Small Manufacturers.--
        ``(1) Evaluation of obstacles.--As part of the Program, the 
    Director shall--
            ``(A) identify obstacles that prevent small manufacturers 
        from effectively competing in the global market;
            ``(B) implement a comprehensive plan to train the Centers 
        to address the obstacles identified in paragraph (2); and
            ``(C) facilitate improved communication between the Centers 
        to assist such manufacturers in implementing appropriate, 
        targeted solutions to the obstacles identified in paragraph 
        (2).
        ``(2) Development of open access resources.--As part of the 
    Program, the Secretary shall develop open access resources that 
    address best practices related to inventory sourcing, supply chain 
    management, manufacturing techniques, available Federal resources, 
    and other topics to further the competitiveness and profitability 
    of small manufacturers.''.
    (c) Competitive Awards Program.--The National Institute of 
Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 271 et seq.) is amended by 
inserting after section 25 the following:
    ``SEC. 25A. COMPETITIVE AWARDS PROGRAM.
    ``(a) Establishment.--The Director shall establish within the 
Hollings Manufacturing Extension Partnership under section 25 (15 
U.S.C. 278k) and section 26 (15 U.S.C. 278l) a program of competitive 
awards among participants described in subsection (b) of this section 
for the purposes described in subsection (c).
    ``(b) Participants.--Participants receiving awards under this 
section shall be Centers, or a consortium of Centers.
    ``(c) Purpose, Themes, and Reimbursement.--
        ``(1) Purpose.--The purpose of the program established under 
    subsection (a) is to add capabilities to the Hollings Manufacturing 
    Extension Partnership, including the development of projects to 
    solve new or emerging manufacturing problems as determined by the 
    Director, in consultation with the Director of the Hollings 
    Manufacturing Extension Partnership, the MEP Advisory Board, other 
    Federal agencies, and small and medium-sized manufacturers.
        ``(2) Themes.--The Director may identify 1 or more themes for a 
    competition carried out under this section, which may vary from 
    year to year, as the Director considers appropriate after assessing 
    the needs of manufacturers and the success of previous 
    competitions.
        ``(3) Reimbursement.--Centers may be reimbursed for costs 
    incurred by the Centers under this section.
    ``(d) Applications.--Applications for awards under this section 
shall be submitted in such manner, at such time, and containing such 
information as the Director shall require in consultation with the MEP 
Advisory Board.
    ``(e) Selection.--
        ``(1) Peer review and competitively awarded.--The Director 
    shall ensure that awards under this section are peer reviewed and 
    competitively awarded.
        ``(2) Geographic diversity.--The Director shall endeavor to 
    have broad geographic diversity among selected proposals.
        ``(3) Criteria.--The Director shall select applications to 
    receive awards that the Director determines will achieve 1 or more 
    of the following:
            ``(A) Improve the competitiveness of industries in the 
        region in which the Center or Centers are located.
            ``(B) Create jobs or train newly hired employees.
            ``(C) Promote the transfer and commercialization of 
        research and technology from institutions of higher education, 
        national laboratories or other federally funded research 
        programs, and nonprofit research institutes.
            ``(D) Recruit a diverse manufacturing workforce, including 
        through outreach to underrepresented populations, including 
        individuals identified in section 33 or section 34 of the 
        Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act (42 U.S.C. 
        1885a, 1885b).
            ``(E) Such other result as the Director determines will 
        advance the objective set forth in section 25(c) (15 U.S.C. 
        278k) or in section 26 (15 U.S.C. 278l).
    ``(f) Program Contribution.--Recipients of awards under this 
section shall not be required to provide a matching contribution.
    ``(g) Global Marketplace Projects.--In making an award under this 
section, the Director, in consultation with the MEP Advisory Board and 
the Secretary, may take into consideration whether an application has 
significant potential for enhancing the competitiveness of small and 
medium-sized United States manufacturers in the global marketplace.
    ``(h) Duration.--The duration of an award under this section shall 
be for not more than 3 years.
    ``(i) Definitions.--The terms used in this section have the 
meanings given the terms in section 25 (15 U.S.C. 278k).''.
    (d) Reports.--
        (1) In general.--Not later than 2 years after the date of 
    enactment of this Act, the Comptroller General of the United 
    States, in consultation with the MEP Advisory Board (as defined in 
    section 25 of the National Institute of Standards and Technology 
    Act (15 U.S.C. 278k)), shall submit to the appropriate committees 
    of Congress a report analyzing--
            (A) the effectiveness of the changes in the cost share to 
        Centers under section 25 of the National Institute of Standards 
        and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278k);
            (B) the engagement in services and the characteristics of 
        services provided by 2 types of Centers, including volume and 
        type of service; and
            (C) whether the cost-sharing ratio has any effect on the 
        services provided by either type of Center.
        (2) Independent assessment.--
            (A) In general.--Not later than 3 years after the date of 
        submission of the report under paragraph (1), the Director of 
        NIST shall contract with an independent organization to perform 
        an assessment of the implementation of the reapplication 
        competition process.
            (B) Consultation.--The independent organization performing 
        the assessment under subparagraph (A) may consult with the MEP 
        Advisory Board (as defined in section 25 of the National 
        Institute of Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278k)).
        (3) Comparison of centers.--
            (A) In general.--Not later than 2 years after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Director shall submit to the 
        appropriate committees of Congress a report providing 
        information on the first and second years of operations for 
        Centers (as defined in section 25 of the National Institute of 
        Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278k)) operating from 
        new competitions or recompetition as compared to longstanding 
        Centers.
            (B) Contents.--The report shall provide detail on the 
        engagement in services provided by Centers and the 
        characteristics of services provided, including volume and type 
        of services, so that the appropriate committees of Congress can 
        evaluate whether the cost-sharing ratio has an effect on the 
        services provided at Centers.
    (e) Conforming Amendments.--
        (1) Definitions.--Section 2199(3) of title 10, United States 
    Code, is amended--
            (A) by striking ``regional center'' and inserting 
        ``manufacturing extension center'';
            (B) by inserting ``and best business practices'' before 
        ``referred''; and
            (C) by striking ``25(a)'' and inserting ``25(b)''.
        (2) Enterprise integration initiative.--Section 3(a) of the 
    Enterprise Integration Act of 2002 (15 U.S.C. 278g-5(a)) is amended 
    by inserting ``Hollings'' before ``Manufacturing Extension 
    Partnership''.
        (3) Assistance to state technology programs.--Section 26(a) of 
    the National Institute of Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 
    278l(a)) is amended by striking ``Centers program created'' and 
    inserting ``Hollings Manufacturing Extension Partnership''.
    (f) Savings Provisions.--Notwithstanding the amendments made by 
subsections (a) and (b) of this section, the Secretary of Commerce may 
carry out section 25 of the National Institute of Standards and 
Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278k) as that section was in effect on the 
day before the date of enactment of this Act, with respect to existing 
grants, agreements, cooperative agreements, or contracts, and with 
respect to applications for such items that are received by the 
Secretary prior to the date of enactment of this Act.
    (g) Patent Rights.--The provisions of chapter 18 of title 35, 
United States Code, shall apply, to the extent not inconsistent with 
section 25 of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Act 
(15 U.S.C. 278k) and section 25 of that Act, to the promotion of 
technology from research by Centers under those sections, except for 
contracts for such specific technology extension or transfer services 
as may be specified by the Director of NIST or under other law.

              TITLE VI--INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

    SEC. 601. INNOVATION CORPS.
    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
        (1) The National Science Foundation Innovation Corps (referred 
    to in this section as the ``I-Corps'') was established to foster a 
    national innovation ecosystem by encouraging institutions, 
    scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs to identify and explore 
    the innovation and commercial potential of National Science 
    Foundation-funded research well beyond the laboratory.
        (2) Through I-Corps, the Foundation invests in entrepreneurship 
    and commercialization education, training, and mentoring that can 
    ultimately lead to the practical deployment of technologies, 
    products, processes, and services that improve the Nation's 
    competitiveness, promote economic growth, and benefit society.
        (3) By building networks of entrepreneurs, educators, mentors, 
    institutions, and collaborations, and supporting specialized 
    education and training, I-Corps is at the leading edge of a strong, 
    lasting foundation for an American innovation ecosystem.
        (4) By translating federally funded research to a commercial 
    stage more quickly and efficiently, programs like the I-Corps 
    create new jobs and companies, help solve societal problems, and 
    provide taxpayers with a greater return on their investment in 
    research.
        (5) The I-Corps program model has a strong record of success 
    that should be replicated at all Federal science agencies.
    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) commercialization of federally funded research can improve 
    the Nation's competitiveness, grow the economy, and benefit 
    society;
        (2) I-Corps is a useful tool in promoting the commercialization 
    of federally funded research by training researchers funded by the 
    Foundation in entrepreneurship and commercialization;
        (3) I-Corps should continue to build a network of 
    entrepreneurs, educators, mentors, and institutions and support 
    specialized education and training;
        (4) researchers other than those funded by the Foundation may 
    also benefit from the education and training described in paragraph 
    (3); and
        (5) I-Corps should continue to promote a strong innovation 
    system by investing in and supporting female entrepreneurs through 
    mentorship, education, and training because they are historically 
    underrepresented in entrepreneurial fields.
    (c) I-Corps Program.--
        (1) In general.--In order to promote a strong, lasting 
    foundation for the national innovation ecosystem and increase the 
    positive economic and social impact of federally funded research, 
    the Director of the Foundation shall set forth eligibility 
    requirements and carry out a program to award grants for 
    entrepreneurship and commercialization education, training, and 
    mentoring.
        (2) Expansion of i-corps.--
            (A) In general.--The Director--
                (i) shall encourage the development and expansion of I-
            Corps and other training programs that focus on 
            professional development, including education in 
            entrepreneurship and commercialization; and
                (ii) may establish an agreement with another Federal 
            science agency--

                    (I) to make researchers, students, and institutions 
                funded by that agency eligible to participate in the I-
                Corps program; or
                    (II) to assist that agency with the design and 
                implementation of its own program that is similar to 
                the I-Corps program.

            (B) Partnership funding.--In negotiating an agreement with 
        another Federal science agency under subparagraph (A)(ii), the 
        Director shall require that Federal science agency to provide 
        funding for--
                (i) the training for researchers, students, and 
            institutions selected for the I-Corps program; and
                (ii) the locations that Federal science agency 
            designates as regional and national infrastructure for 
            science and engineering entrepreneurship.
        (3) Follow-on grants.--
            (A) In general.--Subject to subparagraph (B), the Director, 
        in consultation with the Director of the Small Business 
        Innovation Research Program, shall make funds available for 
        competitive grants, including to I-Corps participants, to help 
        support--
                (i) prototype or proof-of-concept development; and
                (ii) such activities as the Director considers 
            necessary to build local, regional, and national 
            infrastructure for science and engineering 
            entrepreneurship.
            (B) Limitation.--Grants under subparagraph (A) shall be 
        limited to participants with innovations that because of the 
        early stage of development are not eligible to participate in a 
        Small Business Innovation Research Program or a Small Business 
        Technology Transfer Program.
        (4) State and local partnerships.--The Director may engage in 
    partnerships with State and local governments, economic development 
    organizations, and nonprofit organizations to provide access to the 
    I-Corps program to support entrepreneurship education and training 
    for researchers, students, and institutions under this subsection.
        (5) Reports.--The Director shall submit to the appropriate 
    committees of Congress a biennial report on I-Corps program 
    efficacy, including metrics on the effectiveness of the program. 
    Each Federal science agency participating in the I-Corps program or 
    that implements a similar program under paragraph (2)(A) shall 
    contribute to the report.
        (6) Definitions.--In this subsection, the terms ``Small 
    Business Innovation Research Program'' and ``Small Business 
    Technology Transfer Program'' have the meanings given those terms 
    in section 9 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 638).
    SEC. 602. TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH GRANTS.
    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) commercialization of federally funded research may benefit 
    society and the economy; and
        (2) not-for-profit organizations support the commercialization 
    of federally funded research by providing useful business and 
    technical expertise to researchers.
    (b) Commercialization Promotion.--The Director of the Foundation 
shall continue to award grants on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis 
to eligible entities to promote the commercialization of federally 
funded research results.
    (c) Use of Funds.--Activities supported by grants under this 
section may include--
        (1) identifying Foundation-sponsored research and technologies 
    that have the potential for accelerated commercialization;
        (2) supporting prior or current Foundation-sponsored 
    investigators, institutions of higher education, and non-profit 
    organizations that partner with an institution of higher education 
    in undertaking proof-of-concept work, including development of 
    prototypes of technologies that are derived from Foundation-
    sponsored research and have potential market value;
        (3) promoting sustainable partnerships between Foundation-
    funded institutions, industry, and other organizations within 
    academia and the private sector with the purpose of accelerating 
    the transfer of technology;
        (4) developing multi-disciplinary innovation ecosystems which 
    involve and are responsive to specific needs of academia and 
    industry; and
        (5) providing professional development, mentoring, and advice 
    in entrepreneurship, project management, and technology and 
    business development to innovators.
    (d) Eligibility.--
        (1) In general.--The following organizations may be eligible 
    for grants under this section:
            (A) Institutions of higher education.
            (B) Public or nonprofit technology transfer organizations.
            (C) A nonprofit organization that partners with an 
        institution of higher education.
            (D) A consortia of 2 or more of the organizations described 
        under subparagraphs (A) through (C).
        (2) Lead organizations.--Any eligible organization under 
    paragraph (1) may apply as a lead organization.
    (e) Applications.--An eligible entity seeking a grant under this 
section shall submit an application to the Director at such time, in 
such manner, and containing such information as the Director may 
require.
    SEC. 603. OPTICS AND PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY INNOVATIONS.
    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
        (1) The 1998 National Research Council Report, ``Harnessing 
    Light'' presented a comprehensive overview on the importance of 
    optics and photonics to various sectors of the United States 
    economy.
        (2) In 2012, in response to increased coordination and 
    investment by other nations, the National Research Council released 
    a follow up study recommending a national photonics initiative to 
    increase collaboration and coordination among United States 
    industry, Federal and State government, and academia to identify 
    and further advance areas of photonics critical to regaining United 
    States competitiveness and maintaining national security.
        (3) Publicly-traded companies focused on optics and photonics 
    in the United States enable more than $3 trillion in revenue 
    annually.
    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) optics and photonics research and technologies promote 
    United States global competitiveness in industry sectors, including 
    telecommunications and information technology, energy, healthcare 
    and medicine, manufacturing, and defense;
        (2) Federal science agencies, industry, and academia should 
    seek partnerships with each other to develop basic research in 
    optics and photonics into more mature technologies and 
    capabilities; and
        (3) each Federal science agency, as appropriate, should--
            (A) survey and identify optics and photonics-related 
        programs within that Federal science agency and share results 
        with other Federal science agencies for the purpose of 
        generating multiple applications and uses;
            (B) partner with the private sector and academia to 
        leverage knowledge and resources to maximize opportunities for 
        innovation in optics and photonics;
            (C) explore research and development opportunities, 
        including Federal and private sector-sponsored internships, to 
        ensure a highly trained optics and photonics workforce in the 
        United States;
            (D) encourage partnerships between academia and industry to 
        promote improvement in the education of optics and photonics 
        technicians at the secondary school level, undergraduate level, 
        and 2-year college level, including through the Foundation's 
        Advanced Technological Education program; and
            (E) assess existing programs and explore alternatives to 
        modernize photonics laboratory equipment in undergraduate 
        institutions in the United States to facilitate critical hands-
        on learning.
    SEC. 604. UNITED STATES CHIEF TECHNOLOGY OFFICER.
    (a) Short Title.--This section may be cited as the ``United States 
Chief Technology Officer Act''.
    (b) In General.--Section 203 the National Science and Technology 
Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976 (42 U.S.C. 6612) is 
amended--
        (1) by inserting ``(b) Associate Directors.--'' before ``The 
    President is authorized'' and indenting appropriately;
        (2) by inserting ``(a) In General.--'' before ``There shall 
    be'' and indenting appropriately; and
        (3) by adding at the end the following:
    ``(c) Chief Technology Officer.--Subject to subsection (b), the 
President is authorized to designate 1 of the Associate Directors under 
that subsection as a United States Chief Technology Officer.''.
    SEC. 605. NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL STUDY ON TECHNOLOGY FOR 
      EMERGENCY NOTIFICATIONS ON CAMPUSES.
    (a) In General.--Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment 
of this Act, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology 
Policy shall enter into an arrangement with the National Research 
Council to conduct and complete a study to identify and review 
technologies employed at institutions of higher education to provide 
notifications to students, faculty, and other personnel during 
emergency situations in accordance with law.
    (b) Contents.--The study shall address--
        (1) the timeliness of notifications provided by the 
    technologies during emergency situations;
        (2) the durability of the technologies in delivering the 
    notifications to students, faculty, and other personnel; and
        (3) the limitations exhibited by the technologies to 
    successfully deliver the notifications not more than 30 seconds 
    after the institution of higher education transmits the 
    notifications.
    (c) Report Required.--Not later than 1 year after the date that the 
National Research Council enters into the arrangement under subsection 
(a), the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall 
submit to Congress a report on the study, including recommendations for 
addressing any limitations identified under subsection (b)(3).

                               Speaker of the House of Representatives.

                            Vice President of the United States and    
                                               President of the Senate.