Text: S.647 — 114th Congress (2015-2016)All Information (Except Text)

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Introduced in Senate (03/03/2015)

 
[Congressional Bills 114th Congress]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office]
[S. 647 Introduced in Senate (IS)]

114th CONGRESS
  1st Session
                                 S. 647

To repeal title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and 
   to amend the Public Health Service Act to provide for cooperative 
governing of individual health insurance coverage offered in interstate 
                               commerce.


_______________________________________________________________________


                   IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES

                             March 3, 2015

Mr. Cruz (for himself, Mr. Vitter, Mr. Crapo, Mr. Rubio, Mr. Barrasso, 
 and Mr. Enzi) introduced the following bill; which was read twice and 
                  referred to the Committee on Finance

_______________________________________________________________________

                                 A BILL


 
To repeal title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and 
   to amend the Public Health Service Act to provide for cooperative 
governing of individual health insurance coverage offered in interstate 
                               commerce.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as ``Health Care Choice Act of 2015''.

SEC. 2. SPECIFICATION OF CONSTITUTIONAL AUTHORITY FOR ENACTMENT OF LAW.

    This Act is enacted pursuant to the power granted Congress under 
article I, section 8, clause 3, of the United States Constitution.

SEC. 3. FINDINGS.

    Congress finds the following:
            (1) The application of numerous and significant variations 
        in State law and the implementation of the Patient Protection 
        and Affordable Care Act impacts the ability of insurers to 
        offer, and individuals to obtain, affordable individual health 
        insurance coverage, thereby impeding commerce in individual 
        health insurance coverage.
            (2) Mandates for health care coverage established by title 
        I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will 
        significantly elevate health insurance costs beyond State and 
        Federal ability to pay.
            (3) Individual health insurance coverage is increasingly 
        offered through the Internet, other electronic means, and by 
        mail, all of which are inherently part of interstate commerce.
            (4) In response to these issues, it is appropriate to 
        encourage increased efficiency in the offering of individual 
        health insurance coverage through a collaborative approach by 
        the States in regulating this coverage.
            (5) The establishment of risk-retention groups has provided 
        a successful model for the sale of insurance across State 
        lines, as the acts establishing those groups allow insurance to 
        be sold in multiple States but regulated by a single State.

SEC. 4. REPEAL OF TITLE I OF PPACA.

    Effective as of the enactment of the Patient Protection and 
Affordable Care Act (Public Law 111-148), title I of such Act is 
repealed (and any amendments to such title, or to amendments made by 
such title, made by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 
2010 (Public Law 111-152) are repealed), and the provisions of law 
amended or repealed by such title (or amendments) are restored or 
revived as if such title (and amendments) had not been enacted.

SEC. 5. COOPERATIVE GOVERNING OF INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE.

    (a) In General.--Title XXVII of the Public Health Service Act (42 
U.S.C. 300gg et seq.) is amended by adding at the end the following new 
part:

``PART D--COOPERATIVE GOVERNING OF INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE

``SEC. 2795. DEFINITIONS.

    ``In this part:
            ``(1) Primary state.--The term `primary State' means, with 
        respect to individual health insurance coverage offered by a 
        health insurance issuer, the State designated by the issuer as 
        the State whose covered laws shall govern the health insurance 
        issuer in the sale of such coverage under this part. An issuer, 
        with respect to a particular policy, may only designate one 
        such State as its primary State with respect to all such 
        coverage it offers. Such an issuer may not change the 
        designated primary State with respect to individual health 
        insurance coverage once the policy is issued, except that such 
        a change may be made upon renewal of the policy. With respect 
        to such designated State, the issuer is deemed to be doing 
        business in that State.
            ``(2) Secondary state.--The term `secondary State' means, 
        with respect to individual health insurance coverage offered by 
        a health insurance issuer, any State that is not the primary 
        State. In the case of a health insurance issuer that is selling 
        a policy in, or to a resident of, a secondary State, the issuer 
        is deemed to be doing business in that secondary State.
            ``(3) Health insurance issuer.--The term `health insurance 
        issuer' has the meaning given such term in section 2791(b)(2), 
        except that such an issuer must be licensed in the primary 
        State and be qualified to sell individual health insurance 
        coverage in that State.
            ``(4) Individual health insurance coverage.--The term 
        `individual health insurance coverage' means health insurance 
        coverage offered in the individual market, as defined in 
        section 2791(e)(1).
            ``(5) Applicable state authority.--The term `applicable 
        State authority' means, with respect to a health insurance 
        issuer in a State, the State insurance commissioner or official 
        or officials designated by the State to enforce the 
        requirements of this title for the State with respect to the 
        issuer.
            ``(6) Hazardous financial condition.--The term `hazardous 
        financial condition' means that, based on its present or 
        reasonably anticipated financial condition, a health insurance 
        issuer is unlikely to be able--
                    ``(A) to meet obligations to policyholders with 
                respect to known claims and reasonably anticipated 
                claims; or
                    ``(B) to pay other obligations in the normal course 
                of business.
            ``(7) Covered laws.--
                    ``(A) In general.--The term `covered laws' means 
                the laws, rules, regulations, agreements, and orders 
                governing the insurance business pertaining to--
                            ``(i) individual health insurance coverage 
                        issued by a health insurance issuer;
                            ``(ii) the offer, sale, rating (including 
                        medical underwriting), renewal, and issuance of 
                        individual health insurance coverage to an 
                        individual;
                            ``(iii) the provision to an individual in 
                        relation to individual health insurance 
                        coverage of health care and insurance related 
                        services;
                            ``(iv) the provision to an individual in 
                        relation to individual health insurance 
                        coverage of management, operations, and 
                        investment activities of a health insurance 
                        issuer; and
                            ``(v) the provision to an individual in 
                        relation to individual health insurance 
                        coverage of loss control and claims 
                        administration for a health insurance issuer 
                        with respect to liability for which the issuer 
                        provides insurance.
                    ``(B) Exception.--Such term does not include any 
                law, rule, regulation, agreement, or order governing 
                the use of care or cost management techniques, 
                including any requirement related to provider 
                contracting, network access or adequacy, health care 
                data collection, or quality assurance.
            ``(8) State.--The term `State' means the 50 States and 
        includes the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin 
        Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana 
        Islands.
            ``(9) Unfair claims settlement practices.--The term `unfair 
        claims settlement practices' means only the following 
        practices:
                    ``(A) Knowingly misrepresenting to claimants and 
                insured individuals relevant facts or policy provisions 
                relating to coverage at issue.
                    ``(B) Failing to acknowledge with reasonable 
                promptness pertinent communications with respect to 
                claims arising under policies.
                    ``(C) Failing to adopt and implement reasonable 
                standards for the prompt investigation and settlement 
                of claims arising under policies.
                    ``(D) Failing to effectuate prompt, fair, and 
                equitable settlement of claims submitted in which 
                liability has become reasonably clear.
                    ``(E) Refusing to pay claims without conducting a 
                reasonable investigation.
                    ``(F) Failing to affirm or deny coverage of claims 
                within a reasonable period of time after having 
                completed an investigation related to those claims.
                    ``(G) A pattern or practice of compelling insured 
                individuals or their beneficiaries to institute suits 
                to recover amounts due under its policies by offering 
                substantially less than the amounts ultimately 
                recovered in suits brought by them.
                    ``(H) A pattern or practice of attempting to settle 
                or settling claims for less than the amount that a 
                reasonable person would believe the insured individual 
                or his or her beneficiary was entitled by reference to 
                written or printed advertising material accompanying or 
                made part of an application.
                    ``(I) Attempting to settle or settling claims on 
                the basis of an application that was materially altered 
                without notice to, or knowledge or consent of, the 
                insured.
                    ``(J) Failing to provide forms necessary to present 
                claims within 15 calendar days of a requests with 
                reasonable explanations regarding their use.
                    ``(K) Attempting to cancel a policy in less time 
                than that prescribed in the policy or by the law of the 
                primary State.
            ``(10) Fraud and abuse.--The term `fraud and abuse' means 
        an act or omission committed by a person who, knowingly and 
        with intent to defraud, commits, or conceals any material 
        information concerning, one or more of the following:
                    ``(A) Presenting, causing to be presented or 
                preparing with knowledge or belief that it will be 
                presented to or by an insurer, a reinsurer, broker or 
                its agent, false information as part of, in support of 
                or concerning a fact material to one or more of the 
                following:
                            ``(i) An application for the issuance or 
                        renewal of an insurance policy or reinsurance 
                        contract.
                            ``(ii) The rating of an insurance policy or 
                        reinsurance contract.
                            ``(iii) A claim for payment or benefit 
                        pursuant to an insurance policy or reinsurance 
                        contract.
                            ``(iv) Premiums paid on an insurance policy 
                        or reinsurance contract.
                            ``(v) Payments made in accordance with the 
                        terms of an insurance policy or reinsurance 
                        contract.
                            ``(vi) A document filed with the 
                        commissioner or the chief insurance regulatory 
                        official of another jurisdiction.
                            ``(vii) The financial condition of an 
                        insurer or reinsurer.
                            ``(viii) The formation, acquisition, 
                        merger, reconsolidation, dissolution or 
                        withdrawal from one or more lines of insurance 
                        or reinsurance in all or part of a State by an 
                        insurer or reinsurer.
                            ``(ix) The issuance of written evidence of 
                        insurance.
                            ``(x) The reinstatement of an insurance 
                        policy.
                    ``(B) Solicitation or acceptance of new or renewal 
                insurance risks on behalf of an insurer reinsurer or 
                other person engaged in the business of insurance by a 
                person who knows or should know that the insurer or 
                other person responsible for the risk is insolvent at 
                the time of the transaction.
                    ``(C) Transaction of the business of insurance in 
                violation of laws requiring a license, certificate of 
                authority or other legal authority for the transaction 
                of the business of insurance.
                    ``(D) Attempt to commit, aiding or abetting in the 
                commission of, or conspiracy to commit the acts or 
                omissions specified in this paragraph.

``SEC. 2796. APPLICATION OF LAW.

    ``(a) In General.--The covered laws of the primary State shall 
apply to individual health insurance coverage offered by a health 
insurance issuer in the primary State and in any secondary State, but 
only if the coverage and issuer comply with the conditions of this 
section with respect to the offering of coverage in any secondary 
State.
    ``(b) Exemptions From Covered Laws in a .--Except as provided in 
this section, a health insurance issuer with respect to its offer, 
sale, rating (including medical underwriting), renewal, and issuance of 
individual health insurance coverage in any secondary State is exempt 
from any covered laws of the secondary State (and any rules, 
regulations, agreements, or orders sought or issued by such State under 
or related to such covered laws) to the extent that such laws would--
            ``(1) make unlawful, or regulate, directly or indirectly, 
        the operation of the health insurance issuer operating in the 
        secondary State, except that any secondary State may require 
        such an issuer--
                    ``(A) to pay, on a nondiscriminatory basis, 
                applicable premium and other taxes (including high risk 
                pool assessments) which are levied on insurers and 
                surplus lines insurers, brokers, or policyholders under 
                the laws of the State;
                    ``(B) to register with and designate the State 
                insurance commissioner as its agent solely for the 
                purpose of receiving service of legal documents or 
                process;
                    ``(C) to submit to an examination of its financial 
                condition by the State insurance commissioner in any 
                State in which the issuer is doing business to 
                determine the issuer's financial condition, if--
                            ``(i) the State insurance commissioner of 
                        the primary State has not done an examination 
                        within the period recommended by the National 
                        Association of Insurance Commissioners; and
                            ``(ii) any such examination is conducted in 
                        accordance with the examiners' handbook of the 
                        National Association of Insurance Commissioners 
                        and is coordinated to avoid unjustified 
                        duplication and unjustified repetition;
                    ``(D) to comply with a lawful order issued--
                            ``(i) in a delinquency proceeding commenced 
                        by the State insurance commissioner if there 
                        has been a finding of financial impairment 
                        under subparagraph (C); or
                            ``(ii) in a voluntary dissolution 
                        proceeding;
                    ``(E) to comply with an injunction issued by a 
                court of competent jurisdiction, upon a petition by the 
                State insurance commissioner alleging that the issuer 
                is in hazardous financial condition;
                    ``(F) to participate, on a nondiscriminatory basis, 
                in any insurance insolvency guaranty association or 
                similar association to which a health insurance issuer 
                in the State is required to belong;
                    ``(G) to comply with any State law regarding fraud 
                and abuse (as defined in section 2795(10)), except that 
                if the State seeks an injunction regarding the conduct 
                described in this subparagraph, such injunction must be 
                obtained from a court of competent jurisdiction;
                    ``(H) to comply with any State law regarding unfair 
                claims settlement practices (as defined in section 
                2795(9)); or
                    ``(I) to comply with the applicable requirements 
                for independent review under section 2798 with respect 
                to coverage offered in the State;
            ``(2) require any individual health insurance coverage 
        issued by the issuer to be countersigned by an insurance agent 
        or broker residing in that secondary State; or
            ``(3) otherwise discriminate against the issuer issuing 
        insurance in both the primary State and in any secondary State.
    ``(c) Clear and Conspicuous Disclosure.--A health insurance issuer 
shall provide the following notice, in 12-point bold type, in any 
insurance coverage offered in a secondary State under this part by such 
a health insurance issuer and at renewal of the policy, with the 5 
blank spaces therein being appropriately filled with the name of the 
health insurance issuer, the name of the primary State, the name of the 
secondary State, the name of the secondary State, and the name of the 
secondary State, respectively, for the coverage concerned:

                               ```Notice

    ```This policy is issued by _____ and is governed by the laws and 
regulations of the State of _____, and it has met all the laws of that 
State as determined by that State's Department of Insurance. This 
policy may be less expensive than others because it is not subject to 
all of the insurance laws and regulations of the State of _____, 
including coverage of some services or benefits mandated by the law of 
the State of _____. Additionally, this policy is not subject to all of 
the consumer protection laws or restrictions on rate changes of the 
State of _____. As with all insurance products, before purchasing this 
policy, you should carefully review the policy and determine what 
health care services the policy covers and what benefits it provides, 
including any exclusions, limitations, or conditions for such services 
or benefits.'.
    ``(d) Prohibition on Certain Reclassifications and Premium 
Increases.--
            ``(1) In general.--For purposes of this section, a health 
        insurance issuer that provides individual health insurance 
        coverage to an individual under this part in a primary or 
        secondary State may not upon renewal--
                    ``(A) move or reclassify the individual insured 
                under the health insurance coverage from the class such 
                individual is in at the time of issue of the contract 
                based on the health-status related factors of the 
                individual; or
                    ``(B) increase the premiums assessed the individual 
                for such coverage based on a health status-related 
                factor or change of a health status-related factor or 
                the past or prospective claim experience of the insured 
                individual.
            ``(2) Construction.--Nothing in paragraph (1) shall be 
        construed to prohibit a health insurance issuer--
                    ``(A) from terminating or discontinuing coverage or 
                a class of coverage in accordance with subsections (b) 
                and (c) of section 2742;
                    ``(B) from raising premium rates for all policy 
                holders within a class based on claims experience;
                    ``(C) from changing premiums or offering discounted 
                premiums to individuals who engage in wellness 
                activities at intervals prescribed by the issuer, if 
                such premium changes or incentives--
                            ``(i) are disclosed to the consumer in the 
                        insurance contract;
                            ``(ii) are based on specific wellness 
                        activities that are not applicable to all 
                        individuals; and
                            ``(iii) are not obtainable by all 
                        individuals to whom coverage is offered;
                    ``(D) from reinstating lapsed coverage; or
                    ``(E) from retroactively adjusting the rates 
                charged an insured individual if the initial rates were 
                set based on material misrepresentation by the 
                individual at the time of issue.
    ``(e) Prior Offering of Policy in Primary State.--A health 
insurance issuer may not offer for sale individual health insurance 
coverage in a secondary State unless that coverage is currently offered 
for sale in the primary State.
    ``(f) Licensing of Agents or Brokers for Health Insurance 
Issuers.--Any State may require that a person acting, or offering to 
act, as an agent or broker for a health insurance issuer with respect 
to the offering of individual health insurance coverage obtain a 
license from that State, with commissions or other compensation subject 
to the provisions of the laws of that State, except that a State may 
not impose any qualification or requirement which discriminates against 
a nonresident agent or broker.
    ``(g) Documents for Submission to State Insurance Commissioner.--
Each health insurance issuer issuing individual health insurance 
coverage in both primary and secondary States shall submit--
            ``(1) to the insurance commissioner of each State in which 
        it intends to offer such coverage, before it may offer 
        individual health insurance coverage in such State--
                    ``(A) a copy of the plan of operation or 
                feasibility study or any similar statement of the 
                policy being offered and its coverage (which shall 
                include the name of its primary State and its principal 
                place of business);
                    ``(B) written notice of any change in its 
                designation of its primary State; and
                    ``(C) written notice from the issuer of the 
                issuer's compliance with all the laws of the primary 
                State; and
            ``(2) to the insurance commissioner of each secondary State 
        in which it offers individual health insurance coverage, a copy 
        of the issuer's quarterly financial statement submitted to the 
        primary State, which statement shall be certified by an 
        independent public accountant and contain a statement of 
        opinion on loss and loss adjustment expense reserves made by--
                    ``(A) a member of the American Academy of 
                Actuaries; or
                    ``(B) a qualified loss reserve specialist.
    ``(h) Power of Courts To Enjoin Conduct.--Nothing in this section 
shall be construed to affect the authority of any Federal or State 
court to enjoin--
            ``(1) the solicitation or sale of individual health 
        insurance coverage by a health insurance issuer to any person 
        or group who is not eligible for such insurance; or
            ``(2) the solicitation or sale of individual health 
        insurance coverage that violates the requirements of the law of 
        a secondary State which are described in subparagraphs (A) 
        through (H) of section 2796(b)(1).
    ``(i) Power of Secondary States To Take Administrative Action.--
Nothing in this section shall be construed to affect the authority of 
any State to enjoin conduct in violation of that State's laws described 
in section 2796(b)(1).
    ``(j) State Powers To Enforce State Laws.--
            ``(1) In general.--Subject to the provisions of subsection 
        (b)(1)(G) (relating to injunctions) and paragraph (2), nothing 
        in this section shall be construed to affect the authority of 
        any State to make use of any of its powers to enforce the laws 
        of such State with respect to which a health insurance issuer 
        is not exempt under subsection (b).
            ``(2) Courts of competent jurisdiction.--If a State seeks 
        an injunction regarding the conduct described in paragraphs (1) 
        and (2) of subsection (h), such injunction must be obtained 
        from a Federal or State court of competent jurisdiction.
    ``(k) States' Authority To Sue.--Nothing in this section shall 
affect the authority of any State to bring action in any Federal or 
State court.
    ``(l) Generally Applicable Laws.--Nothing in this section shall be 
construed to affect the applicability of State laws generally 
applicable to persons or corporations.
    ``(m) Guaranteed Availability of Coverage to HIPAA Eligible 
Individuals.--To the extent that a health insurance issuer is offering 
coverage in a primary State that does not accommodate residents of 
secondary States or does not provide a working mechanism for residents 
of a secondary State, and the issuer is offering coverage under this 
part in such secondary State which has not adopted a qualified high 
risk pool as its acceptable alternative mechanism (as defined in 
section 2744(c)(2)), the issuer shall, with respect to any individual 
health insurance coverage offered in a secondary State under this part, 
comply with the guaranteed availability requirements for eligible 
individuals in section 2741.

``SEC. 2797. PRIMARY STATE MUST MEET FEDERAL FLOOR BEFORE ISSUER MAY 
              SELL INTO SECONDARY STATES.

    ``A health insurance issuer may not offer, sell, or issue 
individual health insurance coverage in a secondary State if the State 
insurance commissioner does not use a risk-based capital formula for 
the determination of capital and surplus requirements for all health 
insurance issuers.

``SEC. 2798. INDEPENDENT EXTERNAL APPEALS PROCEDURES.

    ``(a) Right to External Appeal.--A health insurance issuer may not 
offer, sell, or issue individual health insurance coverage in a 
secondary State under the provisions of this title unless--
            ``(1) both the secondary State and the primary State have 
        legislation or regulations in place establishing an independent 
        review process for individuals who are covered by individual 
        health insurance coverage, or
            ``(2) in any case in which the requirements of subparagraph 
        (A) are not met with respect to the either of such States, the 
        issuer provides an independent review mechanism substantially 
        identical (as determined by the applicable State authority of 
        such State) to that prescribed in the `Health Carrier External 
        Review Model Act' of the National Association of Insurance 
        Commissioners for all individuals who purchase insurance 
        coverage under the terms of this part, except that, under such 
        mechanism, the review is conducted by an independent medical 
        reviewer, or a panel of such reviewers, with respect to whom 
        the requirements of subsection (b) are met.
    ``(b) Qualifications of Independent Medical Reviewers.--In the case 
of any independent review mechanism referred to in subsection (a)(2)--
            ``(1) In general.--In referring a denial of a claim to an 
        independent medical reviewer, or to any panel of such 
        reviewers, to conduct independent medical review, the issuer 
        shall ensure that--
                    ``(A) each independent medical reviewer meets the 
                qualifications described in paragraphs (2) and (3);
                    ``(B) with respect to each review, each reviewer 
                meets the requirements of paragraph (4) and the 
                reviewer, or at least 1 reviewer on the panel, meets 
                the requirements described in paragraph (5); and
                    ``(C) compensation provided by the issuer to each 
                reviewer is consistent with paragraph (6).
            ``(2) Licensure and expertise.--Each independent medical 
        reviewer shall be a physician (allopathic or osteopathic) or 
        health care professional who--
                    ``(A) is appropriately credentialed or licensed in 
                1 or more States to deliver health care services; and
                    ``(B) typically treats the condition, makes the 
                diagnosis, or provides the type of treatment under 
                review.
            ``(3) Independence.--
                    ``(A) In general.--Subject to subparagraph (B), 
                each independent medical reviewer in a case shall--
                            ``(i) not be a related party (as defined in 
                        paragraph (7));
                            ``(ii) not have a material familial, 
                        financial, or professional relationship with 
                        such a party; and
                            ``(iii) not otherwise have a conflict of 
                        interest with such a party (as determined under 
                        regulations).
                    ``(B) Exception.--Nothing in subparagraph (A) shall 
                be construed to--
                            ``(i) prohibit an individual, solely on the 
                        basis of affiliation with the issuer, from 
                        serving as an independent medical reviewer if--
                                    ``(I) a non-affiliated individual 
                                is not reasonably available;
                                    ``(II) the affiliated individual is 
                                not involved in the provision of items 
                                or services in the case under review;
                                    ``(III) the fact of such an 
                                affiliation is disclosed to the issuer 
                                and the enrollee (or authorized 
                                representative) and neither party 
                                objects; and
                                    ``(IV) the affiliated individual is 
                                not an employee of the issuer and does 
                                not provide services exclusively or 
                                primarily to or on behalf of the 
                                issuer;
                            ``(ii) prohibit an individual who has staff 
                        privileges at the institution where the 
                        treatment involved takes place from serving as 
                        an independent medical reviewer merely on the 
                        basis of such affiliation if the affiliation is 
                        disclosed to the issuer and the enrollee (or 
                        authorized representative), and neither party 
                        objects; or
                            ``(iii) prohibit receipt of compensation by 
                        an independent medical reviewer from an entity 
                        if the compensation is provided consistent with 
                        paragraph (6).
            ``(4) Practicing health care professional in same field.--
                    ``(A) In general.--In a case involving treatment, 
                or the provision of items or services--
                            ``(i) by a physician, a reviewer shall be a 
                        practicing physician (allopathic or 
                        osteopathic) of the same or similar specialty, 
                        as a physician who, acting within the 
                        appropriate scope of practice within the State 
                        in which the service is provided or rendered, 
                        typically treats the condition, makes the 
                        diagnosis, or provides the type of treatment 
                        under review; or
                            ``(ii) by a non-physician health care 
                        professional, the reviewer, or at least 1 
                        member of the review panel, shall be a 
                        practicing non-physician health care 
                        professional of the same or similar specialty 
                        as the non-physician health care professional 
                        who, acting within the appropriate scope of 
                        practice within the State in which the service 
                        is provided or rendered, typically treats the 
                        condition, makes the diagnosis, or provides the 
                        type of treatment under review.
                    ``(B) Practicing defined.--For purposes of this 
                paragraph, the term `practicing' means, with respect to 
                an individual who is a physician or other health care 
                professional, that the individual provides health care 
                services to individual patients on average at least 2 
                days per week.
            ``(5) Pediatric expertise.--In the case of an external 
        review relating to a child, a reviewer shall have expertise 
        under paragraph (2) in pediatrics.
            ``(6) Limitations on reviewer compensation.--Compensation 
        provided by the issuer to an independent medical reviewer in 
        connection with a review under this section shall--
                    ``(A) not exceed a reasonable level; and
                    ``(B) not be contingent on the decision rendered by 
                the reviewer.
            ``(7) Related party defined.--For purposes of this section, 
        the term `related party' means, with respect to a denial of a 
        claim under a coverage relating to an enrollee, any of the 
        following:
                    ``(A) The issuer involved, or any fiduciary, 
                officer, director, or employee of the issuer.
                    ``(B) The enrollee (or authorized representative).
                    ``(C) The health care professional that provides 
                the items or services involved in the denial.
                    ``(D) The institution at which the items or 
                services (or treatment) involved in the denial are 
                provided.
                    ``(E) The manufacturer of any drug or other item 
                that is included in the items or services involved in 
                the denial.
                    ``(F) Any other party determined under any 
                regulations to have a substantial interest in the 
                denial involved.
            ``(8) Definitions.--For purposes of this subsection--
                    ``(A) Enrollee.--The term `enrollee' means, with 
                respect to health insurance coverage offered by a 
                health insurance issuer, an individual enrolled with 
                the issuer to receive such coverage.
                    ``(B) Health care professional.--The term `health 
                care professional' means an individual who is licensed, 
                accredited, or certified under State law to provide 
                specified health care services and who is operating 
                within the scope of such licensure, accreditation, or 
                certification.

``SEC. 2799. ENFORCEMENT.

    ``(a) In General.--Subject to subsection (b), with respect to 
specific individual health insurance coverage the primary State for 
such coverage has sole jurisdiction to enforce the primary State's 
covered laws in the primary State and any secondary State.
    ``(b) Secondary State's Authority.--Nothing in subsection (a) shall 
be construed to affect the authority of a secondary State to enforce 
its laws as set forth in the exception specified in section 2796(b)(1).
    ``(c) Court Interpretation.--In reviewing action initiated by the 
applicable secondary State authority, the court of competent 
jurisdiction shall apply the covered laws of the primary State.
    ``(d) Notice of Compliance Failure.--In the case of individual 
health insurance coverage offered in a secondary State that fails to 
comply with the covered laws of the primary State, the applicable State 
authority of the secondary State may notify the applicable State 
authority of the primary State.''.
    (b) Effective Date.--The amendment made by subsection (a) shall 
apply to individual health insurance coverage offered, issued, or sold 
after the date that is one year after the date of the enactment of this 
Act.
    (c) GAO Ongoing Study and Reports.--
            (1) Study.--The Comptroller General of the United States 
        shall conduct an ongoing study concerning the effect of the 
        amendment made by subsection (a) on--
                    (A) the number of uninsured and underinsured;
                    (B) the availability and cost of health insurance 
                policies for individuals with pre-existing medical 
                conditions;
                    (C) the availability and cost of health insurance 
                policies generally;
                    (D) the elimination or reduction of different types 
                of benefits under health insurance policies offered in 
                different States; and
                    (E) cases of fraud or abuse relating to health 
                insurance coverage offered under such amendment and the 
                resolution of such cases.
            (2) Annual reports.--The Comptroller General shall submit 
        to Congress an annual report, after the end of each of the 5 
        years following the effective date of the amendment made by 
        subsection (a), on the ongoing study conducted under paragraph 
        (1).

SEC. 6. SEVERABILITY.

    If any provision of the Act or the application of such provision to 
any person or circumstance is held to be unconstitutional, the 
remainder of this Act and the application of the provisions of such to 
any other person or circumstance shall not be affected.
                                 <all>

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