Text: H.R.200 — 115th Congress (2017-2018)All Bill Information (Except Text)

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Introduced in House (01/03/2017)

 
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[H.R. 200 Introduced in House (IH)]

<DOC>






115th CONGRESS
  1st Session
                                H. R. 200

 To amend the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act 
     to provide flexibility for fishery managers and stability for 
                   fishermen, and for other purposes.


_______________________________________________________________________


                    IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

                            January 3, 2017

 Mr. Young of Alaska introduced the following bill; which was referred 
                 to the Committee on Natural Resources

_______________________________________________________________________

                                 A BILL


 
 To amend the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act 
     to provide flexibility for fishery managers and stability for 
                   fishermen, and for other purposes.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ``Strengthening Fishing Communities 
and Increasing Flexibility in Fisheries Management Act''.

SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.

    In this Act, any term used that is defined in section 3 of the 
Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 
1802) shall have the same meaning such term has under that section.

SEC. 3. REFERENCES.

    Except as otherwise specifically provided, whenever in this Act an 
amendment or repeal is expressed in terms of an amendment to, or repeal 
of, a provision, the reference shall be considered to be made to a 
provision of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management 
Act (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.).

SEC. 4. FLEXIBILITY IN REBUILDING FISH STOCKS.

    (a) General Requirements.--Section 304(e) (16 U.S.C. 1854(e)) is 
amended--
            (1) in paragraph (4)--
                    (A) in subparagraph (A)(i), by striking 
                ``possible'' and inserting ``practicable'';
                    (B) by amending subparagraph (A)(ii) to read as 
                follows:
                            ``(ii) may not exceed the time the stock 
                        would be rebuilt without fishing occurring plus 
                        one mean generation, except in a case in 
                        which--
                                    ``(I) the biology of the stock of 
                                fish, other environmental conditions, 
                                or management measures under an 
                                international agreement in which the 
                                United States participates dictate 
                                otherwise;
                                    ``(II) the Secretary determines 
                                that the cause of the stock being 
                                depleted is outside the jurisdiction of 
                                the Council or the rebuilding program 
                                cannot be effective only by limiting 
                                fishing activities;
                                    ``(III) the Secretary determines 
                                that one or more components of a mixed-
                                stock fishery is depleted but cannot be 
                                rebuilt within that time- frame without 
                                significant economic harm to the 
                                fishery, or cannot be rebuilt without 
                                causing another component of the mixed-
                                stock fishery to approach a depleted 
                                status;
                                    ``(IV) the Secretary determines 
                                that recruitment, distribution, or life 
                                history of, or fishing activities for, 
                                the stock are affected by informal 
                                transboundary agreements under which 
                                management activities outside the 
                                exclusive economic zone by another 
                                country may hinder conservation and 
                                management efforts by United States 
                                fishermen; and
                                    ``(V) the Secretary determines that 
                                the stock has been affected by unusual 
                                events that make rebuilding within the 
                                specified time period improbable 
                                without significant economic harm to 
                                fishing communities;'';
                    (C) by striking ``and'' after the semicolon at the 
                end of subparagraph (B), by redesignating subparagraphs 
                (B) and (C) as subparagraphs (C) and (D), and by 
                inserting after subparagraph (A) the following:
                    ``(B) take into account environmental condition 
                including predator/prey relationships;''; and
                    (D) by striking the period at the end of 
                subparagraph (D) (as so redesignated) and inserting ``; 
                and'', and by adding at the end the following:
                    ``(E) specify a schedule for reviewing the 
                rebuilding targets, evaluating environmental impacts on 
                rebuilding progress, and evaluating progress being made 
                toward reaching rebuilding targets.''; and
            (2) by adding at the end the following:
            ``(8) A fishery management plan, plan amendment, or 
        proposed regulations may use alternative rebuilding strategies, 
        including harvest control rules and fishing mortality-rate 
        targets to the extent they are in compliance with the 
        requirements of this Act.
            ``(9) A Council may terminate the application of paragraph 
        (3) to a fishery if the Council's scientific and statistical 
        committee determines and the Secretary concurs that the 
        original determination that the fishery was depleted was 
        erroneous, either--
                    ``(A) within the 2-year period beginning on the 
                effective date a fishery management plan, plan 
                amendment, or proposed regulation for a fishery under 
                this subsection takes effect; or
                    ``(B) within 90 days after the completion of the 
                next stock assessment after such determination.''.
    (b) Emergency Regulations and Interim Measures.--Section 
305(c)(3)(B) (16 U.S.C. 1855(c)(3)(B)) is amended by striking ``180 
days after'' and all that follows through ``provided'' and inserting 
``1 year after the date of publication, and may be extended by 
publication in the Federal Register for one additional period of not 
more than 1 year, if''.

SEC. 5. MODIFICATIONS TO THE ANNUAL CATCH LIMIT REQUIREMENT.

    Section 302 (16 U.S.C. 1852) is amended by adding at the end the 
following:
    ``(m) Considerations for Modifications to Annual Catch Limit 
Requirements.--
            ``(1) Consideration of ecosystem and economic impacts.--In 
        establishing annual catch limits a Council may, consistent with 
        section 302(h)(6), consider changes in an ecosystem and the 
        economic needs of the fishing communities.
            ``(2) Limitations to annual catch limit requirement for 
        special fisheries.--Notwithstanding subsection (h)(6), a 
        Council is not required to develop an annual catch limit for--
                    ``(A) an ecosystem component species;
                    ``(B) a fishery for a species that has a life cycle 
                of approximately 1 year, unless the Secretary has 
                determined the fishery is subject to overfishing; or
                    ``(C) a stock for which--
                            ``(i) more than half of a single-year class 
                        will complete their life cycle in less than 18 
                        months; and
                            ``(ii) fishing mortality will have little 
                        impact on the stock.
            ``(3) Relationship to international fishery efforts.--
                    ``(A) In general.--Each annual catch limit, 
                consistent with section 302(h)(6)--
                            ``(i) may take into account management 
                        measures under international agreements in 
                        which the United States participates; and
                            ``(ii) in the case of an annual catch limit 
                        developed by a Council for a species, shall 
                        take into account fishing for the species 
                        outside the exclusive economic zone and the 
                        life-history characteristics of the species 
                        that are not subject to the jurisdiction of the 
                        Council.
                    ``(B) Exception to annual catch limit 
                requirement.--If fishery management activities by 
                another country with respect to fishing outside the 
                exclusive economic zone may hinder conservation efforts 
                by United States fishermen for a fish species for which 
                any of the recruitment, distribution, life history, or 
                fishing activities are transboundary, and for which 
                there is no informal transboundary agreement with that 
                country in effect, then--
                            ``(i) notwithstanding subsection (h)(6), no 
                        annual catch limit is required to be developed 
                        for the species by a Council; and
                            ``(ii) if an annual catch limit is 
                        developed by a Council for the species, the 
                        catch limit shall take into account fishing for 
                        the species outside the exclusive economic zone 
                        that is not subject to the jurisdiction of the 
                        Council.
            ``(4) Authorization for multispecies complexes and 
        multiyear annual catch limits.--For purposes of subsection 
        (h)(6), a Council may establish--
                    ``(A) an annual catch limit for a stock complex; or
                    ``(B) annual catch limits for each year in any 
                continuous period that is not more than three years in 
                duration.
            ``(5) Ecosystem component species defined.--In this 
        subsection the term `ecosystem component species' means a stock 
        of fish that is a nontarget, incidentally harvested stock of 
        fish in a fishery, or a nontarget, incidentally harvested stock 
        of fish that a Council or the Secretary has determined--
                    ``(A) is not subject to overfishing, approaching a 
                depleted condition or depleted; and
                    ``(B) is not likely to become subject to 
                overfishing or depleted in the absence of conservation 
                and management measures.''.

SEC. 6. DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN OVERFISHED AND DEPLETED.

    (a) Definitions.--Section 3 (16 U.S.C. 1802) is amended--
            (1) in paragraph (34), by striking ``The terms 
        `overfishing' and `overfished' mean'' and inserting ``The term 
        `overfishing' means''; and
            (2) by inserting after paragraph (8) the following:
            ``(8a) The term `depleted' means, with respect to a stock 
        of fish or stock complex, that the stock or stock complex has a 
        biomass that has declined below a level that jeopardizes the 
        capacity of the stock or stock complex to produce maximum 
        sustainable yield on a continuing basis.''.
    (b) Substitution of Term.--The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery 
Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.) is amended--
            (1) in the heading of section 304(e), by striking 
        ``Overfished'' and inserting ``Depleted''; and
            (2) by striking ``overfished'' each place it appears and 
        inserting ``depleted''.
    (c) Clarity in Annual Report.--Section 304(e)(1) (16 U.S.C. 
1854(e)(1)) is amended by adding at the end the following: ``The report 
shall distinguish between fisheries that are depleted (or approaching 
that condition) as a result of fishing and fisheries that are depleted 
(or approaching that condition) as a result of factors other than 
fishing. The report shall state, for each fishery identified as 
depleted or approaching that condition, whether the fishery is the 
target of directed fishing.''.

SEC. 7. TRANSPARENCY AND PUBLIC PROCESS.

    (a) Advice.--Section 302(g)(1)(B) (16 U.S.C. 1852(g)(1)(B)) is 
amended by adding at the end the following: ``Each scientific and 
statistical committee shall develop such advice in a transparent manner 
and allow for public involvement in the process.''.
    (b) Meetings.--Section 302(i)(2) (16 U.S.C. 1852(i)(2)) is amended 
by adding at the end the following:
            ``(G) Each Council shall make available on the Internet Web 
        site of the Council--
                    ``(i) to the extent practicable, a Webcast, an 
                audio recording, or a live broadcast of each meeting of 
                the Council, and of the Council Coordination Committee 
                established under subsection (l), that is not closed in 
                accordance with paragraph (3); and
                    ``(ii) audio, video (if the meeting was in person 
                or by video conference), or a searchable audio or 
                written transcript of each meeting of the Council and 
                of the meetings of committees referred to in section 
                302(g)(1)(B) of the Council by not later than 30 days 
                after the conclusion of the meeting.
            ``(H) The Secretary shall maintain and make available to 
        the public an archive of Council and scientific and statistical 
        committee meeting audios, videos, and transcripts made 
        available under clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (G).''.
    (c) Fishery Impact Statements.--
            (1) Requirement.--Section 303 (16 U.S.C. 1853) is amended--
                    (A) in subsection (a), by striking paragraph (9) 
                and redesignating paragraphs (10) through (15) as 
                paragraphs (9) through (14), respectively; and
                    (B) by adding at the end the following:
    ``(d) Fishery Impact Statement.--
            ``(1) Any fishery management plan (or fishery management 
        plan amendment) prepared by any Council or by the Secretary 
        pursuant to subsection (a) or (b), or proposed regulations 
        deemed necessary pursuant to subsection (c), shall include a 
        fishery impact statement which shall assess, specify and 
        analyze the likely effects and impact of the proposed action on 
        the quality of the human environment.
            ``(2) The fishery impact statement shall describe--
                    ``(A) a purpose of the proposed action;
                    ``(B) the environmental impact of the proposed 
                action;
                    ``(C) any adverse environmental effects which 
                cannot be avoided should the proposed action be 
                implemented;
                    ``(D) a reasonable range of alternatives to the 
                proposed action;
                    ``(E) the relationship between short-term use of 
                fishery resources and the enhancement of long-term 
                productivity;
                    ``(F) the cumulative conservation and management 
                effects; and
                    ``(G) economic, and social impacts of the proposed 
                action on--
                            ``(i) participants in the fisheries and 
                        fishing communities affected by the proposed 
                        action;
                            ``(ii) participants in the fisheries 
                        conducted in adjacent areas under the authority 
                        of another Council, after consultation with 
                        such Council and representatives of those 
                        participants; and
                            ``(iii) the safety of human life at sea, 
                        including whether and to what extent such 
                        measures may affect the safety of participants 
                        in the fishery.
            ``(3) A substantially complete fishery impact statement, 
        which may be in draft form, shall be available not less than 14 
        days before the beginning of the meeting at which a Council 
        makes its final decision on the proposal (for plans, plan 
        amendments, or proposed regulations prepared by a Council 
        pursuant to subsection (a) or (c)). Availability of this 
        fishery impact statement will be announced by the methods used 
        by the council to disseminate public information and the public 
        and relevant government agencies will be invited to comment on 
        the fishery impact statement.
            ``(4) The completed fishery impact statement shall 
        accompany the transmittal of a fishery management plan or plan 
        amendment as specified in section 304(a), as well as the 
        transmittal of proposed regulations as specified in section 
        304(b).
            ``(5) The Councils shall, subject to approval by the 
        Secretary, establish criteria to determine actions or classes 
        of action of minor significance regarding subparagraphs (A), 
        (B), (D), (E), and (F) of paragraph (2), for which preparation 
        of a fishery impact statement is unnecessary and categorically 
        excluded from the requirements of this section, and the 
        documentation required to establish the exclusion.
            ``(6) The Councils shall, subject to approval by the 
        Secretary, prepare procedures for compliance with this section 
        that provide for timely, clear, and concise analysis that is 
        useful to decisionmakers and the public, reduce extraneous 
        paperwork and effectively involve the public, including--
                    ``(A) using Council meetings to determine the scope 
                of issues to be addressed and identifying significant 
                issues related to the proposed action;
                    ``(B) integration of the fishery impact statement 
                development process with preliminary and final Council 
                decisionmaking in a manner that provides opportunity 
                for comment from the public and relevant government 
                agencies prior to these decision points; and
                    ``(C) providing scientific, technical, and legal 
                advice at an early stage of the development of the 
                fishery impact statement to ensure timely transmittal 
                and Secretarial review of the proposed fishery 
                management plan, plan amendment, or regulations to the 
                Secretary.
            ``(7) Actions taken in accordance with this section are 
        deemed to fulfill the requirements of the National 
        Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) and 
        all related implementing regulations.''.
            (2) Evaluation of adequacy.--Section 304(a)(2) (16 U.S.C. 
        1854(a)(2)) is amended by striking ``and'' after the semicolon 
        at the end of subparagraph (B), striking the period at the end 
        of subparagraph (C) and inserting ``; and'', and by adding at 
        the end the following:
                    ``(D) evaluate the adequacy of the accompanying 
                fishery impact statement as basis for fully considering 
                the environmental impacts of implementing the fishery 
                management plan or plan amendment.''.
            (3) Review of regulations.--Section 304(b) (16 U.S.C. 
        1854(b)) is amended by striking so much as precedes 
        subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) and inserting the following:
    ``(b) Review of Regulations.--
            ``(1) Upon transmittal by the Council to the Secretary of 
        proposed regulations prepared under section 303(c), the 
        Secretary shall immediately initiate an evaluation of the 
        proposed regulations to determine whether they are consistent 
        with the fishery management plan, plan amendment, this Act and 
        other applicable law. The Secretary shall also immediately 
        initiate an evaluation of the accompanying fishery impact 
        statement as a basis for fully considering the environmental 
        impacts of implementing the proposed regulations. Within 15 
        days of initiating such evaluation the Secretary shall make a 
        determination and--''.
            (4) Effect on time requirements.--Section 305(e) (16 U.S.C. 
        1855(e)) is amended by inserting ``the National Environmental 
        Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.),'' after ``the 
        Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.),''.

SEC. 8. LIMITATION ON FUTURE CATCH SHARE PROGRAMS.

    (a) Catch Share Defined.--Section 3 (16 U.S.C. 1802) is amended by 
inserting after paragraph (2) the following:
            ``(2a) The term `catch share' means any fishery management 
        program that allocates a specific percentage of the total 
        allowable catch for a fishery, or a specific fishing area, to 
        an individual, cooperative, community, processor, 
        representative of a commercial sector, or regional fishery 
        association established in accordance with section 303A(c)(4), 
        or other entity.''.
    (b) Catch Share Referendum Pilot Program.--
            (1) In general.--Section 303A(c)(6)(D) (16 U.S.C. 
        1853a(c)(6)(D)) is amended to read as follows:
                    ``(D) Catch share referendum pilot program.--
                            ``(i) The New England, Mid-Atlantic, South 
                        Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico Councils may not 
                        submit a fishery management plan or amendment 
                        that creates a catch share program for a 
                        fishery, and the Secretary may not approve or 
                        implement such a plan or amendment submitted by 
                        such a Council or a secretarial plan or 
                        amendment under section 304(c) that creates 
                        such a program, unless the final program has 
                        been approved, in a referendum in accordance 
                        with this subparagraph, by a majority of the 
                        permit holders eligible to participate in the 
                        fishery. For multispecies permits in the Gulf 
                        of Mexico, any permit holder with landings from 
                        within the sector of the fishery being 
                        considered for the catch share program within 
                        the 5-year period preceding the date of the 
                        referendum and still active in fishing in the 
                        fishery shall be eligible to participate in 
                        such a referendum. If a catch share program is 
                        not approved by the requisite number of permit 
                        holders, it may be revised and submitted for 
                        approval in a subsequent referendum.
                            ``(ii) The Secretary may, at the request of 
                        the New England Fishery Management Council, 
                        allow participation in such a referendum for a 
                        fishery under the Council's authority, by 
                        fishing vessel crewmembers who derive a 
                        significant portion of their livelihood from 
                        such fishing.
                            ``(iii) The Secretary shall conduct a 
                        referendum under this subparagraph, including 
                        notifying all permit holders eligible to 
                        participate in the referendum and making 
                        available to them--
                                    ``(I) a copy of the proposed 
                                program;
                                    ``(II) an estimate of the costs of 
                                the program, including costs to 
                                participants;
                                    ``(III) an estimate of the amount 
                                of fish or percentage of quota each 
                                permit holder would be allocated; and
                                    ``(IV) information concerning the 
                                schedule, procedures, and eligibility 
                                requirements for the referendum 
                                process.
                            ``(iv) For the purposes of this 
                        subparagraph, the term `permit holder eligible 
                        to participate' only includes the holder of a 
                        permit for a fishery under which fishing has 
                        occurred in 3 of the 5 years preceding a 
                        referendum for the fishery, unless sickness, 
                        injury, or other unavoidable hardship prevented 
                        the permit holder from engaging in such 
                        fishing.
                            ``(v) The Secretary may not implement any 
                        catch share program for any fishery managed 
                        exclusively by the Secretary unless first 
                        petitioned by a majority of those permit 
                        holders eligible to participate in the 
                        fishery.''.
            (2) Limitation on application.--The amendment made by 
        paragraph (1) shall not apply to a catch share program that is 
        submitted to, or proposed by, the Secretary of Commerce before 
        the date of enactment of this Act.
            (3) Regulations.--Before conducting a referendum under the 
        amendment made by paragraph (1), the Secretary of Commerce 
        shall issue regulations implementing such amendment after 
        providing an opportunity for submission by the public of 
        comments on the regulations.

SEC. 9. REPORT ON FEE.

    Section 304(d)(2) (16 U.S.C. 1854(d)(2)) is amended by adding at 
the end the following:
            ``(D) The Secretary shall report annually on the amount 
        collected under this paragraph from each fishery and detail how 
        the funds were spent in the prior year on a fishery-by-fishery 
        basis, to--
                    ``(i) Congress; and
                    ``(ii) each Council from whose fisheries the fee 
                under this paragraph were collected.''.

SEC. 10. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM.

    Section 318 (16 U.S.C. 1867) is amended--
            (1) in subsection (a), by inserting ``(1)'' before the 
        first sentence, and by adding at the end the following:
    ``(2) Within one year after the date of enactment of the 
Strengthening Fishing Communities and Increasing Flexibility in 
Fisheries Management Act, and after consultation with the Councils, the 
Secretary shall publish a plan for implementing and conducting the 
program established in paragraph (1). Such plan shall identify and 
describe critical regional fishery management and research needs, 
possible projects that may address those needs, and estimated costs for 
such projects. The plan shall be revised and updated every 5 years, and 
updated plans shall include a brief description of projects that were 
funded in the prior 5-year period and the research and management needs 
that were addressed by those projects.''; and
            (2) in subsection (c)--
                    (A) in the heading, by striking ``Funding'' and 
                inserting ``Priorities''; and
                    (B) in paragraph (1), by striking all after 
                ``including'' and inserting an em dash, followed on the 
                next line by the following:
                    ``(A) the use of fishing vessels or acoustic or 
                other marine technology;
                    ``(B) expanding the use of electronic catch 
                reporting programs and technology; and
                    ``(C) improving monitoring and observer coverage 
                through the expanded use of electronic monitoring 
                devices.''.

SEC. 11. COUNCIL JURISDICTION FOR OVERLAPPING FISHERIES.

    Section 302(a)(1) (16 U.S.C. 1852(a)) is amended--
            (1) in subparagraph (A), in the second sentence--
                    (A) by striking ``18'' and inserting ``19''; and
                    (B) by inserting before the period at the end ``and 
                a liaison who is a member of the Mid-Atlantic Fishery 
                Management Council to represent the interests of 
                fisheries under the jurisdiction of such Council''; and
            (2) in subparagraph (B), in the second sentence--
                    (A) by striking ``21'' and inserting ``22''; and
                    (B) by inserting before the period at the end ``and 
                a liaison who is a member of the New England Fishery 
                Management Council to represent the interests of 
                fisheries under the jurisdiction of such Council''.

SEC. 12. GULF OF MEXICO FISHERIES COOPERATIVE RESEARCH AND RED SNAPPER 
              MANAGEMENT.

    (a) Repeal.--Section 407 (16 U.S.C. 1883), and the item relating to 
such section in the table of contents in the first section, are 
repealed.
    (b) Reporting and Data Collection Program.--The Secretary of 
Commerce shall--
            (1) in conjunction with the States, the Gulf of Mexico 
        Fishery Management Council, and the recreational fishing 
        sectors, develop and implement a real-time reporting and data 
        collection program for the Gulf of Mexico red snapper fishery 
        using available technology; and
            (2) make implementation of this subsection a priority for 
        funds received by the Secretary and allocated to this region 
        under section 2 of the Act of August 11, 1939 (commonly known 
        as the ``Saltonstall-Kennedy Act'') (15 U.S.C. 713c-3).
    (c) Fisheries Cooperative Research Program.--The Secretary of 
Commerce--
            (1) shall, in conjunction with the States, the Gulf States 
        Marine Fisheries Commission and the Atlantic States Marine 
        Fisheries Commission, the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic 
        Fishery Management Councils, and the commercial, charter, and 
        recreational fishing sectors, develop and implement a 
        cooperative research program authorized under section 318 for 
        the fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic regions, 
        giving priority to those fisheries that are considered data-
        poor; and
            (2) may, subject to the availability of appropriations, use 
        funds received by the Secretary under section 2 of the Act of 
        August 11, 1939 (commonly known as the ``Saltonstall-Kennedy 
        Act'') (15 U.S.C. 713c-3) to implement this subsection.
    (d) Stock Surveys and Stock Assessments.--The Secretary of 
Commerce, acting through the National Marine Fisheries Service Regional 
Administrator of the Southeast Regional Office, shall for purposes of 
the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 
1801 et seq.)--
            (1) develop a schedule of stock surveys and stock 
        assessments for the Gulf of Mexico Region and the South 
        Atlantic Region for the 5-year period beginning on the date of 
        the enactment of this Act and for every 5-year period 
        thereafter;
            (2) direct the Southeast Science Center Director to 
        implement such schedule; and
            (3) in such development and implementation--
                    (A) give priority to those stocks that are 
                commercially or recreationally important; and
                    (B) ensure that each such important stock is 
                surveyed at least every 5 years.
    (e) Use of Fisheries Information in Stock Assessments.--The 
Southeast Science Center Director shall ensure that fisheries 
information made available through fisheries programs funded under 
Public Law 112-141 is incorporated as soon as possible into any 
fisheries stock assessments conducted after the date of the enactment 
of this Act.
    (f) State Fisheries Management in the Gulf of Mexico With Respect 
to Red Snapper.--Section 306(b) (16 U.S.C. 1856(b)) is amended by 
adding at the end the following:
    ``(4) Notwithstanding section 3(11), for the purposes of managing 
the recreational sector of the Gulf of Mexico red snapper fishery, the 
seaward boundary of a coastal State in the Gulf of Mexico is a line 9 
miles seaward from the baseline from which the territorial sea of the 
United States is measured.''.
    (g) Funding of Stock Assessments.--The Secretary of Commerce and 
the Secretary of the Interior, acting through the Bureau of Ocean 
Energy Management, shall enter into a cooperative agreement for the 
funding of stock assessments that are necessitated by any action by the 
Bureau with respect to offshore oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico that 
adversely impacts red snapper.

SEC. 13. NORTH PACIFIC FISHERY MANAGEMENT CLARIFICATION.

    Section 306(a)(3)(C) (16 U.S.C. 1856(a)(3)(C)) is amended--
            (1) by striking ``was no'' and inserting ``is no''; and
            (2) by striking ``on August 1, 1996''.

SEC. 14. ENSURING CONSISTENT MANAGEMENT FOR FISHERIES THROUGHOUT THEIR 
              RANGE.

    (a) In General.--The Act is amended by inserting after section 4 
the following:

``SEC. 5. ENSURING CONSISTENT FISHERIES MANAGEMENT UNDER CERTAIN OTHER 
              FEDERAL LAWS.

    ``(a) National Marine Sanctuaries Act and Antiquities Act of 
1906.--In any case of a conflict between this Act and the National 
Marine Sanctuaries Act (16 U.S.C. 1431 et seq.) or the Antiquities Act 
of 1906 (16 U.S.C. 431 et seq.), this Act shall control.
    ``(b) Fisheries Restrictions Under Endangered Species Act of 
1973.--To ensure transparency and consistent management of fisheries 
throughout their range, any restriction on the management of fish in 
the exclusive economic zone that is necessary to implement a recovery 
plan under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) 
shall be implemented--
            ``(1) using authority under this Act; and
            ``(2) in accordance with processes and time schedules 
        required under this Act.''.
    (b) Clerical Amendment.--The table of contents in the first section 
is amended by inserting after the item relating to section 3 the 
following:

``Sec. 4. Authorization of appropriations.
``Sec. 5. Ensuring consistent fisheries management under certain other 
                            Federal laws.''.

SEC. 15. LIMITATION ON HARVEST IN NORTH PACIFIC DIRECTED POLLOCK 
              FISHERY.

    Section 210(e)(1) of the American Fisheries Act (title II of 
division C of Public Law 105-277; 16 U.S.C. 1851 note) is amended to 
read as follows:
            ``(1) Harvesting.--
                    ``(A) Limitation.--No particular individual, 
                corporation, or other entity may harvest, through a 
                fishery cooperative or otherwise, a percentage of the 
                pollock available to be harvested in the directed 
                pollock fishery that exceeds the percentage established 
                for purposes of this paragraph by the North Pacific 
                Council.
                    ``(B) Maximum percentage.--The percentage 
                established by the North Pacific Council shall not 
                exceed 24 percent of the pollock available to be 
                harvested in the directed pollock fishery.''.

SEC. 16. RECREATIONAL FISHING DATA.

    (a) Recreational Data Collection.--Section 401(g) (16 U.S.C. 
1881(g)) is amended by redesignating paragraph (4) as paragraph (5), 
and by inserting after paragraph (3) the following:
            ``(4) Federal-state partnerships.--
                    ``(A) Establishment.--The Secretary shall establish 
                partnerships with States to develop best practices for 
                implementation of State programs established pursuant 
                to paragraph (2).
                    ``(B) Guidance.--The Secretary shall develop 
                guidance, in cooperation with the States, that details 
                best practices for administering State programs 
                pursuant to paragraph (2), and provide such guidance to 
                the States.
                    ``(C) Biennial report.--The Secretary shall submit 
                to the Congress and publish biennial reports that 
                include--
                            ``(i) the estimated accuracy of the 
                        registry program established under paragraph 
                        (1) and of State programs that are exempted 
                        under paragraph (2);
                            ``(ii) priorities for improving 
                        recreational fishing data collection; and
                            ``(iii) an explanation of any use of 
                        information collected by such State programs 
                        and by the Secretary, including a description 
                        of any consideration given to the information 
                        by the Secretary.
                    ``(D) States grant program.--The Secretary shall 
                make grants to States to improve implementation of 
                State programs consistent with this subsection. The 
                Secretary shall prioritize such grants based on the 
                ability of the grant to improve the quality and 
                accuracy of such programs.''.
    (b) Study on Recreational Fisheries Data.--Section 401(g) (16 
U.S.C. 1881(g)) is further amended by adding at the end the following:
            ``(6) Study on program implementation.--
                    ``(A) In general.--Not later than 60 days after the 
                enactment of this paragraph, the Secretary shall enter 
                into an agreement with the National Research Council of 
                the National Academy of Sciences to study the 
                implementation of the programs described in this 
                section. The study shall--
                            ``(i) provide an updated assessment of 
                        recreational survey methods established or 
                        improved since the publication of the Council's 
                        report `Review of Recreational Fisheries Survey 
                        Methods (2006)';
                            ``(ii) evaluate the extent to which the 
                        recommendations made in that report were 
                        implemented pursuant to paragraph (3)(B); and
                            ``(iii) examine any limitations of the 
                        Marine Recreational Fishery Statistics Survey 
                        and the Marine Recreational Information Program 
                        established under paragraph (1).
                    ``(B) Report.--Not later than 1 year after entering 
                into an agreement under subparagraph (A), the Secretary 
                shall submit a report to Congress on the results of the 
                study under subparagraph (A).''.

SEC. 17. STOCK ASSESSMENTS USED FOR FISHERIES MANAGED UNDER GULF OF 
              MEXICO COUNCIL'S REEF FISH MANAGEMENT PLAN.

    (a) In General.--Title IV (16 U.S.C. 1881 et seq.) is amended by 
adding at the end the following:

``SEC. 409. STOCK ASSESSMENTS USED FOR FISHERIES MANAGED UNDER GULF OF 
              MEXICO COUNCIL'S REEF FISH MANAGEMENT PLAN.

    ``(a) In General.--The Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission 
shall conduct all fishery stock assessments used for management 
purposes by the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council for the 
fisheries managed under the Council's Reef Fish Management Plan.
    ``(b) Use of Other Information and Assets.--
            ``(1) In general.--Such fishery assessments shall--
                    ``(A) incorporate fisheries survey information 
                collected by university researchers; and
                    ``(B) to the extent practicable, use State, 
                university, and private assets to conduct fisheries 
                surveys.
            ``(2) Surveys at artificial reefs.--Any such fishery stock 
        assessment conducted after the date of the enactment of the 
        Strengthening Fishing Communities and Increasing Flexibility in 
        Fisheries Management Act shall incorporate fishery surveys 
        conducted, and other relevant fisheries information collected, 
        on and around natural and artificial reefs.
    ``(c) Constituent and Stakeholder Participation.--Each such fishery 
assessment shall--
            ``(1) emphasize constituent and stakeholder participation 
        in the development of the assessment;
            ``(2) contain all of the raw data used in the assessment 
        and a description of the methods used to collect that data; and
            ``(3) employ an assessment process that is transparent and 
        includes--
                    ``(A) includes a rigorous and independent 
                scientific review of the completed fishery stock 
                assessment; and
                    ``(B) a panel of independent experts to review the 
                data and assessment and make recommendations on the 
                most appropriate values of critical population and 
                management quantities.''.
    (b) Clerical Amendment.--The table of contents in the first section 
is amended by adding at the end of the items relating to title IV the 
following:

``Sec. 408. Deep sea coral research and technology program.
``Sec. 409. Stock assessments used for fisheries managed under Gulf of 
                            Mexico Council's Reef Fish Management 
                            Plan.''.

SEC. 18. ESTIMATION OF COST OF RECOVERY FROM FISHERY RESOURCE DISASTER.

    Section 312(a)(1) (16 U.S.C. 1861a(1)) is amended--
            (1) by inserting ``(A)'' after ``(1)'';
            (2) by redesignating existing subparagraphs (A) through (C) 
        as clauses (i) through (iii), respectively, of subparagraph (A) 
        (as designated by the amendment made by paragraph (1)); and
            (3) by adding at the end the following:
    ``(B) The Secretary shall publish the estimated cost of recovery 
from a fishery resource disaster no later than 30 days after the 
Secretary makes the determination under subparagraph (A) with respect 
to such disaster.''.

SEC. 19. DEADLINE FOR ACTION ON REQUEST BY GOVERNOR FOR DETERMINATION 
              REGARDING FISHERY RESOURCE DISASTER.

    Section 312(a) (16 U.S.C. 1861a(a)) is amended by redesignating 
paragraphs (2) through (4) as paragraphs (3) through (5), and by 
inserting after paragraph (1) the following:
    ``(2) The Secretary shall make a decision regarding a request from 
a Governor under paragraph (1) within 90 days after receiving an 
estimate of the economic impact of the fishery resource disaster from 
the entity requesting the relief.''.

SEC. 20. PROHIBITION ON CONSIDERING RED SNAPPER KILLED DURING REMOVAL 
              OF OIL RIGS.

    Any red snapper that are killed during the removal of any offshore 
oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico shall not be considered in determining 
under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 
U.S.C. 1801 et seq.) whether the total allowable catch for red snapper 
has been reached.

SEC. 21. PROHIBITION ON CONSIDERING FISH SEIZED FROM FOREIGN FISHING.

    Any fish that are seized from a foreign vessel engaged in illegal 
fishing activities in the Exclusive Economic Zone shall not be 
considered in determining under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery 
Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.) the total 
allowable catch for that fishery.

SEC. 22. SUBSISTENCE FISHING.

    (a) Definition.--Section 3 (16 U.S.C. 1802) is amended by inserting 
after paragraph (43) the following:
            ``(43a)(A) The term `subsistence fishing' means fishing in 
        which the fish harvested are intended for customary and 
        traditional uses, including for direct personal or family 
        consumption as food or clothing; for the making or selling of 
        handicraft articles out of nonedible byproducts taken for 
        personal or family consumption, for barter, or sharing for 
        personal or family consumption; and for customary trade.
            ``(B) In this paragraph--
                    ``(i) the term `family' means all persons related 
                by blood, marriage, or adoption, or any person living 
                within the household on a permanent basis; and
                    ``(ii) the term `barter' means the exchange of a 
                fish or fish part--
                            ``(I) for another fish or fish part; or
                            ``(II) for other food or for nonedible 
                        items other than money if the exchange is of a 
                        limited and noncommercial nature.''.
    (b) Council Seat.--Section 302(b)(2) (16 U.S.C. 1852(b)(2)) is 
amended--
            (1) in subparagraph (A), by striking ``or recreational'' 
        and inserting ``, recreational, or subsistence fishing''; and
            (2) in subparagraph (C), in the second sentence, by 
        inserting ``, and in the case of the Governor of Alaska with 
        the subsistence fishing interests of the State,'' after 
        ``interests of the State''.
    (c) Purpose.--Section 2(b)(3) (16 U.S.C. 1801(b)(3)) is amended by 
striking ``and recreational'' and inserting ``, recreational, and 
subsistence''.

SEC. 23. INTER-SECTOR TRADING OF COMMERCIAL CATCH SHARE ALLOCATIONS IN 
              THE GULF OF MEXICO.

    Section 301 (16 U.S.C. 1851) is amended by adding at the end the 
following:
    ``(c) Inter-Sector Trading of Commercial Catch Share Allocations in 
the Gulf of Mexico.--Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, 
any commercial fishing catch share allocation in a fishery in the Gulf 
of Mexico may only be traded by sale or lease within the same 
commercial fishing sector.''.

SEC. 24. ARCTIC COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT QUOTA.

    Section 313 (16 U.S.C. 1862) is amended by adding at the end the 
following:
    ``(k) Arctic Community Development Quota.--If the North Pacific 
Fishery Management Council issues a fishery management plan for the 
exclusive economic zone in the Arctic Ocean, or an amendment to the 
Fishery Management Plan for Fish Resources of the Arctic Management 
Area issued by such Council, that makes available to commercial 
fishing, and establishes a sustainable harvest level, for any part of 
such zone, the Council shall set aside not less than 10 percent of the 
total allowable catch therein as a community development quota for 
coastal villages located north and east of the Bering Strait.''.

SEC. 25. PREFERENCE FOR STUDENTS STUDYING WATER RESOURCE ISSUES.

    Section 402(e) (16 U.S.C. 1881a(e)) is amended by adding at the end 
the following:
    ``(4) The Secretary shall, to the extent practicable, when hiring 
individuals to collect information regarding marine recreational 
fishing under this subsection, give preference to students studying 
fisheries conservation and management, water resource issues, or other 
relevant subjects at an institution of higher education in the United 
States.''.

SEC. 26. REQUIREMENTS FOR LIMITED ACCESS PRIVILEGES.

    Section 3303A(c)(1)(G) (16 U.S.C. 1853a(c)(1)(G)) is amended to 
read as follows:
                    ``(G) include provisions for a formal and detailed 
                review 5 years after the implementation of the program, 
                and thereafter the regular monitoring and review by the 
                Council and the Secretary of the operations and impacts 
                of the program, to coincide with scheduled Council 
                review of the relevant fishery management plan (but no 
                less frequently than once every 7 years) including--
                            ``(i) determining progress in meeting the 
                        goals of the program and this Act;
                            ``(ii) delineating the positive and 
                        negative economic effects of the program on 
                        fishermen and processors who are part of the 
                        program and the coastal communities in which 
                        they reside; and
                            ``(iii) any necessary modification of the 
                        program to meet those goals, including a formal 
                        schedule for action to be taken within 2 
                        years;''.

SEC. 27. HEALTHY FISHERIES THROUGH BETTER SCIENCE.

    (a) Definition of Stock Assessment.--Section 3 (16 U.S.C. 1802), as 
amended by section 22(a) of this Act, is further amended by 
redesignating the paragraphs after paragraph (42) in order as 
paragraphs (44) through (53), and by inserting after paragraph (42) the 
following:
            ``(43) The term `stock assessment' means an evaluation of 
        the past, present, and future status of a stock of fish, that 
        includes--
                    ``(A) a range of life history characteristics for 
                such stock, including--
                            ``(i) the geographical boundaries of such 
                        stock; and
                            ``(ii) information on age, growth, natural 
                        mortality, sexual maturity and reproduction, 
                        feeding habits, and habitat preferences of such 
                        stock; and
                    ``(B) fishing for the stock.''.
    (b) Stock Assessment Plan.--
            (1) In general.--Section 404 (16 U.S.C. 1881c), as amended 
        by section 9(d) of this Act, is further amended by adding at 
        the end the following:
    ``(f) Stock Assessment Plan.--
            ``(1) In general.--The Secretary shall develop and publish 
        in the Federal Register, on the same schedule as required for 
        the strategic plan required under subsection (b) of this 
        section, a plan to conduct stock assessments for all stocks of 
        fish for which a fishery management plan is in effect under 
        this Act.
            ``(2) Contents.--The plan shall--
                    ``(A) for each stock of fish for which a stock 
                assessment has previously been conducted--
                            ``(i) establish a schedule for updating the 
                        stock assessment that is reasonable given the 
                        biology and characteristics of the stock; and
                            ``(ii) subject to the availability of 
                        appropriations, require completion of a new 
                        stock assessment, or an update of the most 
                        recent stock assessment--
                                    ``(I) every 5 years; or
                                    ``(II) within such other time 
                                period specified and justified by the 
                                Secretary in the plan;
                    ``(B) for each stock of fish for which a stock 
                assessment has not previously been conducted--
                            ``(i) establish a schedule for conducting 
                        an initial stock assessment that is reasonable 
                        given the biology and characteristics of the 
                        stock; and
                            ``(ii) subject to the availability of 
                        appropriations, require completion of the 
                        initial stock assessment within 3 years after 
                        the plan is published in the Federal Register 
                        unless another time period is specified and 
                        justified by the Secretary in the plan; and
                    ``(C) identify data and analysis, especially 
                concerning recreational fishing, that, if available, 
                would reduce uncertainty in and improve the accuracy of 
                future stock assessments, including whether such data 
                and analysis could be provided by fishermen, fishing 
                communities, universities, and research institutions.
            ``(3) Waiver of stock assessment requirement.--
        Notwithstanding subparagraphs (A)(ii) and (B)(ii), a stock 
        assessment is not required for a stock of fish in the plan if 
        the Secretary determines that such a stock assessment is not 
        necessary and justifies such determination in the Federal 
        Register notice required by this subsection.''.
            (2) Deadline.--Notwithstanding paragraph (1) of section 
        404(f) of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and 
        Management Act, as amended by this section, the Secretary of 
        Commerce shall issue the first stock assessment plan under such 
        section by not later than 2 years after the date of enactment 
        of this Act.
    (c) Improving Science.--
            (1) Incorporation of information from wide variety of 
        sources.--Section 2(a)(8) of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery 
        Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801) is amended by 
        adding at the end the following: ``Fisheries management is most 
        effective when it incorporates information provided by 
        governmental and nongovernmental sources, including State and 
        Federal agency staff, fishermen, fishing communities, 
        universities, and research institutions. As appropriate, such 
        information should be considered the best scientific 
        information available and form the basis of conservation and 
        management measures as required by this Act.''.
            (2) Improving data collection and analysis.--Section 404 
        (16 U.S.C. 1881c), as amended by this section, is further 
        amended by adding at the end the following:
    ``(g) Improving Data Collection and Analysis.--
            ``(1) In general.--The Secretary, in consultation with the 
        Councils acting in reliance on their science and statistical 
        committees established under section 302(g), shall develop and 
        publish in the Federal Register guidelines that will facilitate 
        greater incorporation of data, analysis, and stock assessments 
        from nongovernmental sources, including fishermen, fishing 
        communities, universities, and research institutions, into 
        fisheries management decisions.
            ``(2) Content.--The guidelines shall--
                    ``(A) identify types of data and analysis, 
                especially concerning recreational fishing, that can be 
                reliably used as the basis for establishing 
                conservation and management measures as required by 
                section 303(a)(1), including setting standards for the 
                collection and use of such data and analysis in stock 
                assessments and for other purposes; and
                    ``(B) provide specific guidance for collecting data 
                and performing analyses identified as necessary to 
                reduce the uncertainty referred to in section 
                404(f)(2)(C).
            ``(3) Acceptance and use of data and analyses.--The 
        Secretary and Regional Fishery Management Councils shall--
                    ``(A) use all data and analyses that meet the 
                guidelines published under paragraph (1) as the best 
                scientific information available for purposes of this 
                Act in fisheries management decisions, unless otherwise 
                determined by the science and statistical committee of 
                the Councils established pursuant to section 302(g) of 
                the Act; and
                    ``(B) explain in the Federal Register notice 
                announcing the fishery management decision how such 
                data and analyses have been used to establish 
                conservation and management measures.''.
            (3) Deadline.--The Secretary of Commerce shall develop and 
        publish guidelines under the amendment made by paragraph (2) by 
        not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act.
    (d) Cost Reduction Report.--Within 1 year after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Commerce, in consultation with 
the Regional Fishery Management Councils, shall submit a report to 
Congress that, with respect to each fishery governed by a fishery 
management plan in effect under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery 
Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.)--
            (1) identifies the goals of the applicable programs 
        governing monitoring and enforcement of fishing that is subject 
        to such plan;
            (2) identifies methods to accomplish those goals, including 
        human observers, electronic monitoring, and vessel monitoring 
        systems;
            (3) certifies which such methods are most cost-effective 
        for fishing that is subject to such plan; and
            (4) explains why such most-cost-effective methods are not 
        required, if applicable.

SEC. 28. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

    Section 4 (16 U.S.C. 1803) is amended--
            (1) by striking ``this Act'' and all that follows through 
        ``(7)'' and inserting ``this Act''; and
            (2) by striking ``fiscal year 2013'' and inserting ``each 
        of fiscal years 2018 through 2022''.

SEC. 29. AUTHORITY TO USE ALTERNATIVE FISHERY MANAGEMENT MEASURES.

    Section 302(h) (16 U.S.C. 1852(h)) is amended--
            (1) by redesignating paragraph (8) as paragraph (9); and
            (2) by inserting after paragraph (7), the following:
            ``(8) have the authority to use alternative fishery 
        management measures in a recreational fishery (or the 
        recreational component of a mixed-use fishery), including 
        extraction rates, fishing mortality targets, and harvest 
        control rules, in developing a fishery management plan, plan 
        amendment, or proposed regulations.''.
                                 <all>