Text: H.R.3896 — 115th Congress (2017-2018)All Information (Except Text)

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Introduced in House (10/02/2017)

 
[Congressional Bills 115th Congress]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office]
[H.R. 3896 Introduced in House (IH)]

<DOC>






115th CONGRESS
  1st Session
                                H. R. 3896

     To require certain entities who collect and maintain personal 
 information of individuals to secure such information and to provide 
    notice to such individuals in the case of a breach of security 
          involving such information, and for other purposes.


_______________________________________________________________________


                    IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

                            October 2, 2017

Ms. Schakowsky (for herself, Mr. Pallone, Mr. Butterfield, Ms. Matsui, 
  Mr. Tonko, Mrs. Dingell, Mr. Welch, Mr. McNerney, Mr. Gene Green of 
Texas, and Ms. Kelly of Illinois) introduced the following bill; which 
          was referred to the Committee on Energy and Commerce

_______________________________________________________________________

                                 A BILL


 
     To require certain entities who collect and maintain personal 
 information of individuals to secure such information and to provide 
    notice to such individuals in the case of a breach of security 
          involving such information, and for other purposes.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ``Secure and Protect Americans' Data 
Act''.

SEC. 2. REQUIREMENTS FOR INFORMATION SECURITY.

    (a) General Security Policies, Practices, and Procedures.--
            (1) Regulations.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Commission shall promulgate 
        regulations under section 553 of title 5, United States Code, 
        to require each covered entity to establish and implement 
        reasonable policies, practices, and procedures regarding 
        information security practices for the treatment and protection 
        of personal information taking into consideration--
                    (A) the size of, and the nature, scope, and 
                complexity of the activities engaged in by such covered 
                entity;
                    (B) the sensitivity of any personal information at 
                issue;
                    (C) the current state of the art in administrative, 
                technical, and physical safeguards for protecting such 
                information; and
                    (D) the cost of implementing such safeguards.
            (2) Requirements.--Such regulations shall require the 
        policies, practices, and procedures to include the following:
                    (A) A written security policy with respect to the 
                collection, use, sale, other dissemination, and 
                maintenance of such personal information.
                    (B) The identification of an officer or other 
                individual as the point of contact with responsibility 
                for the management of information security.
                    (C) A process for identifying and assessing any 
                reasonably foreseeable vulnerabilities in the system or 
                systems maintained by such covered entity that contains 
                such data, which shall include regular monitoring for a 
                breach of security of such system or systems.
                    (D) A process for taking preventive and corrective 
                action to mitigate against any vulnerabilities 
                identified in the process required by subparagraph (C), 
                which may include implementing any changes to security 
                practices and the architecture, installation, or 
                implementation of network or operating software, and 
                for regularly testing or otherwise monitoring the 
                effectiveness of the safeguards.
                    (E) A process for determining if data is no longer 
                needed and disposing of data containing personal 
                information by shredding, permanently erasing, or 
                otherwise modifying the personal information contained 
                in such data to make such personal information 
                permanently unreadable or indecipherable.
                    (F) A process for overseeing persons who have 
                access to personal information, including through 
                Internet-connected devices, by--
                            (i) taking reasonable steps to select and 
                        retain persons that are capable of maintaining 
                        appropriate safeguards for the personal 
                        information or Internet-connected devices at 
                        issue; and
                            (ii) requiring all such persons to 
                        implement and maintain such security measures.
                    (G) A process for employee training and supervision 
                for implementation of the policies, practices, and 
                procedures required by this subsection.
                    (H) A written plan or protocol for internal and 
                public response in the event of a breach of security.
            (3) Periodic assessment and consumer privacy and data 
        security modernization.--Not less frequently than every 12 
        months, each covered entity shall monitor, evaluate, and 
        adjust, as appropriate, the consumer privacy and data security 
        program of such covered entity in light of any relevant changes 
        in--
                    (A) technology;
                    (B) internal or external threats and 
                vulnerabilities to personal information; and
                    (C) the changing business arrangements of the 
                covered entity, such as--
                            (i) mergers and acquisitions;
                            (ii) alliances and joint ventures;
                            (iii) outsourcing arrangements;
                            (iv) bankruptcy; and
                            (v) changes to personal information 
                        systems.
            (4) Submission of policies to the ftc.--The regulations 
        promulgated under this subsection shall require each covered 
        entity to submit its security policies to the Commission in 
        conjunction with a notification of a breach of security under 
        section 3 or upon request of the Commission.
            (5) Treatment of entities governed by other federal law.--
        Any covered entity who is in compliance with any other Federal 
        law that requires such covered entity to maintain standards and 
        safeguards for information security and protection of personal 
        information that, taken as a whole and as the Commission shall 
        determine in the rulemaking required under this subsection, 
        requires covered entities to provide protections substantially 
        similar to, or greater than, those required under this 
        subsection, shall be deemed to be in compliance with this 
        subsection.
    (b) Special Requirements for Information Brokers.--
            (1) Post-breach audit.--For any information broker required 
        to provide notification under section 3, the Commission may 
        require the information broker to conduct independent audits of 
        such practices (by an independent auditor who has not audited 
        such information broker's security practices during the 
        preceding 5 years).
            (2) Accuracy of and individual access to personal 
        information.--
                    (A) Accuracy.--
                            (i) In general.--Each information broker 
                        shall establish reasonable procedures to assure 
                        the maximum possible accuracy of the personal 
                        information the information broker collects, 
                        assembles, or maintains, and any other 
                        information the information broker collects, 
                        assembles, or maintains that specifically 
                        identifies an individual, other than 
                        information which merely identifies an 
                        individual's name or address.
                            (ii) Limited exception for fraud 
                        databases.--The requirement in clause (i) shall 
                        not prevent the collection or maintenance of 
                        information that may be inaccurate with respect 
                        to a particular individual when that 
                        information is being collected or maintained 
                        solely--
                                    (I) for the purpose of indicating 
                                whether there may be a discrepancy or 
                                irregularity in the personal 
                                information that is associated with an 
                                individual; and
                                    (II) to help identify, or 
                                authenticate the identity of, an 
                                individual, or to protect against or 
                                investigate fraud or other unlawful 
                                conduct.
                    (B) Consumer access to information.--Each 
                information broker shall--
                            (i) provide to each individual whose 
                        personal information the information broker 
                        maintains, at the individual's request at least 
                        once per year and at no cost to the individual, 
                        and after verifying the identity of such 
                        individual, a means for the individual to 
                        review any personal information regarding such 
                        individual maintained by the information broker 
                        and any other information maintained by the 
                        information broker that specifically identifies 
                        such individual, other than information which 
                        merely identifies an individual's name or 
                        address; and
                            (ii) place a conspicuous notice on the 
                        Internet website of the information broker (if 
                        the information broker maintains such a 
                        website) notifying consumers that the entity is 
                        an information broker using specific language 
                        that the Commission shall determine in the 
                        rulemaking required under this subsection and 
                        instructing individuals how to request access 
                        to the information required to be provided 
                        under clause (i), and, as applicable, how to 
                        express a preference with respect to the use of 
                        personal information for marketing purposes 
                        under subparagraph (D).
                    (C) Disputed information.--Whenever an individual 
                whose information the information broker maintains 
                makes a written request disputing the accuracy of any 
                such information, the information broker, after 
                verifying the identity of the individual making such 
                request and unless there are reasonable grounds to 
                believe such request is frivolous or irrelevant, 
                shall--
                            (i) correct any inaccuracy; or
                            (ii) in the case of information that is--
                                    (I) public record information, 
                                inform the individual of the source of 
                                the information, and, if reasonably 
                                available, where a request for 
                                correction may be directed and, if the 
                                individual provides proof that the 
                                public record has been corrected or 
                                that the information broker was 
                                reporting the information incorrectly, 
                                correct the inaccuracy in the 
                                information broker's records; or
                                    (II) nonpublic information, note 
                                the information that is disputed, 
                                including the individual's statement 
                                disputing such information, and take 
                                reasonable steps to independently 
                                verify such information under the 
                                procedures outlined in subparagraph (A) 
                                if such information can be 
                                independently verified.
                    (D) Alternative procedure for certain marketing 
                information.--In accordance with regulations issued 
                under subparagraph (F), an information broker that 
                maintains any information described in subparagraph (A) 
                which is used, shared, or sold by such information 
                broker for marketing purposes, may, in lieu of 
                complying with the access and dispute requirements set 
                forth in subparagraphs (B) and (C), provide each 
                individual whose information the information broker 
                maintains with a reasonable means of expressing a 
                preference not to have his or her information used for 
                such purposes. If the individual expresses such a 
                preference, the information broker may not use, share, 
                or sell the individual's information for marketing 
                purposes.
                    (E) Limitations.--An information broker may limit 
                the access to information required under subparagraph 
                (B)(i), is not required to provide notice to 
                individuals as required under subparagraph (B)(ii), and 
                is not required to comply with a disputed information 
                request under subparagraph (C) in the following 
                circumstances:
                            (i) If access of the individual to the 
                        information is limited by law or legally 
                        recognized privilege.
                            (ii) If the information is used for a 
                        legitimate governmental or fraud prevention 
                        purpose that would be compromised by such 
                        access.
                            (iii) If the information consists of a 
                        published media record, unless that record has 
                        been included in a report about an individual 
                        shared with a third party.
                    (F) Rulemaking.--Not later than 1 year after the 
                date of enactment of this Act, the Commission shall 
                promulgate regulations under section 553 of title 5, 
                United States Code, to carry out this paragraph and to 
                facilitate the purposes of this Act. In addition, the 
                Commission shall issue regulations, as necessary, under 
                section 553 of title 5, United States Code, on the 
                scope of the application of the limitations in 
                subparagraph (E), including any additional 
                circumstances in which an information broker may limit 
                access to information under such subparagraph that the 
                Commission determines to be appropriate.
                    (G) FCRA regulated persons.--Any information broker 
                who is engaged in activities subject to the Fair Credit 
                Reporting Act and who is in compliance with sections 
                609, 610, and 611 of such Act (15 U.S.C. 1681g; 1681h; 
                1681i) with respect to information subject to such Act, 
                shall be deemed to be in compliance with this paragraph 
                with respect to such information.
            (3) Requirement of audit log of accessed and transmitted 
        information.--Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment 
        of this Act, the Commission shall promulgate regulations under 
        section 553 of title 5, United States Code, to require 
        information brokers to establish measures which facilitate the 
        auditing or retracing of any internal or external access to, or 
        transmissions of, any data containing personal information 
        collected, assembled, or maintained by such information broker.
            (4) Prohibition on pretexting by information brokers.--
                    (A) Prohibition on obtaining personal information 
                by false pretenses.--It shall be unlawful for an 
                information broker to obtain or attempt to obtain, or 
                cause to be disclosed or attempt to cause to be 
                disclosed to any person, personal information or any 
                other information relating to any person by--
                            (i) making a false, fictitious, or 
                        fraudulent statement or representation to any 
                        person; or
                            (ii) providing any document or other 
                        information to any person that the information 
                        broker knows or should know to be forged, 
                        counterfeit, lost, stolen, or fraudulently 
                        obtained, or to contain a false, fictitious, or 
                        fraudulent statement or representation.
                    (B) Prohibition on solicitation to obtain personal 
                information under false pretenses.--It shall be 
                unlawful for an information broker to request a person 
                to obtain personal information or any other information 
                relating to any other person, if the information broker 
                knew or should have known that the person to whom such 
                a request is made will obtain or attempt to obtain such 
                information in the manner described in subparagraph 
                (A).

SEC. 3. NOTIFICATION OF INFORMATION SECURITY BREACH.

    (a) Individual Notification.--
            (1) In general.--Each covered entity shall, following the 
        discovery of a breach of security, notify each individual who 
        is a citizen or resident of the United States whose personal 
        information was, or is reasonably believed to have been, 
        acquired or accessed by an unauthorized person, or used for an 
        unauthorized purpose.
            (2) Timeliness of notification.--
                    (A) In general.--Unless subject to a delay 
                authorized under subparagraph (B), a notification 
                required under paragraph (1) shall be made as 
                expeditiously as practicable and without unreasonable 
                delay, but not later than 30 days following the 
                discovery of a breach of security.
                    (B) Delay of notification authorized for law 
                enforcement or national security purposes.--
                            (i) Law enforcement.--If a Federal or State 
                        law enforcement agency, including an attorney 
                        general of a State, determines that the 
                        notification required under this section would 
                        impede a civil or criminal investigation, such 
                        notification shall be delayed upon the written 
                        request of the law enforcement agency for 30 
                        days or such lesser period of time which the 
                        law enforcement agency determines is reasonably 
                        necessary and requests in writing. Such a law 
                        enforcement agency may, by a subsequent written 
                        request, revoke such delay or extend the period 
                        of time set forth in the original request made 
                        under this clause if further delay is 
                        necessary.
                            (ii) National security.--If a Federal 
                        national security agency or homeland security 
                        agency determines that the notification 
                        required under this section would threaten 
                        national or homeland security, such 
                        notification may be delayed for a period of 
                        time of up to 60 days which the national 
                        security agency or homeland security agency 
                        determines is reasonably necessary and requests 
                        in writing. A Federal national security agency 
                        or homeland security agency may revoke such 
                        delay or extend the period of time set forth in 
                        the original request made under this clause by 
                        a subsequent written request if further delay 
                        is necessary.
                            (iii) Limitation on delay or extension.--
                        Any delay or extension of notification 
                        permitted under this subparagraph may not 
                        exceed a total time period of one year.
    (b) Coordination of Notification With Consumer Reporting 
Agencies.--If a covered entity is required to provide notification to 
more than 5,000 individuals under subsection (a)(1), the covered entity 
shall also notify the major consumer reporting agencies that compile 
and maintain files on consumers on a nationwide basis, of the timing 
and distribution of the notifications, except for a case in which the 
only information that is the subject of the breach of security is the 
individual's first name or initial and last name, address, or phone 
number, in combination with a credit or debit card number and any 
required security code. Such notification shall be given to the 
consumer reporting agencies without unreasonable delay and, if such 
notification will not delay notification to the affected individuals, 
prior to the distribution of notifications to the affected individuals.
    (c) Method and Content of Notification.--
            (1) General notification.--A covered entity required to 
        provide notification to individuals under subsection (a)(1) 
        shall be in compliance with such requirement if the covered 
        entity provides conspicuous and clearly identified notification 
        by one of the following methods (provided the selected method 
        can reasonably be expected to reach the intended individual):
                    (A) Written notification to the last known home 
                mailing address of the individual in the records of the 
                covered entity.
                    (B) Notification by email or other electronic 
                means, if--
                            (i) the covered entity's primary method of 
                        communication with the individual is by email 
                        or such other electronic means; or
                            (ii) the individual has consented to 
                        receive such notification and the notification 
                        is provided in a manner that is consistent with 
                        the provisions permitting electronic 
                        transmission of notifications under section 101 
                        of the Electronic Signatures in Global and 
                        National Commerce Act (15 U.S.C. 7001).
            (2) Website notification.--The covered entity shall also 
        provide conspicuous notification on the Internet website of the 
        covered entity (if such covered entity maintains such a 
        website) for a period of not less than 90 days.
            (3) Media notification.--If the number of residents of a 
        State whose personal information was, or is reasonably believed 
        to have been, acquired or accessed by an unauthorized person, 
        or used for an unauthorized purpose, exceeds 5,000, the covered 
        entity shall also provide notification in print and to 
        broadcast media, including major media in metropolitan and 
        rural areas where the individuals whose personal information 
        was, or is reasonably believed to have been, acquired or 
        accessed by an unauthorized person, or used for an unauthorized 
        purpose, reside.
            (4) Content of notification.--
                    (A) In general.--Regardless of the method by which 
                notification is provided to an individual under 
                paragraphs (1), (2), and (3), such notification shall 
                include--
                            (i) a description of the personal 
                        information that was, or is reasonably believed 
                        to have been, acquired or accessed by an 
                        unauthorized person, or used for an 
                        unauthorized purpose;
                            (ii) a general description of the incident 
                        and the date or estimated date of the breach of 
                        security and the date range during which the 
                        personal information was compromised;
                            (iii) the acts the covered entity, or the 
                        agent of the covered entity, has taken to 
                        protect personal information from further 
                        breach of security;
                            (iv) a telephone number, website, and email 
                        address that the individual may use, at no cost 
                        to such individual, to contact the covered 
                        entity, or agent of the covered entity, to 
                        inquire about the breach of security or the 
                        information the covered entity maintained about 
                        that individual;
                            (v) in the case of an individual that is 
                        entitled to receive services under subsection 
                        (e), notification that the individual is 
                        entitled to receive such services;
                            (vi) the toll-free contact telephone 
                        numbers and addresses for the major consumer 
                        reporting agencies; and
                            (vii) a toll-free telephone number and 
                        Internet website address for the Commission 
                        whereby the individual may obtain information 
                        regarding identity theft.
                    (B) Direct business relationship.--The notification 
                required under subsection (a) shall identify the 
                covered entity that has a direct business relationship 
                with the individual, if applicable, as well as the 
                entity that experienced the breach of security.
            (5) Regulations for substitute notification.--Not later 
        than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the 
        Commission shall, by regulation under section 553 of title 5, 
        United States Code--
                    (A) establish criteria for determining 
                circumstances under which substitute notification may 
                be provided in lieu of direct notification required by 
                paragraph (1), including criteria for determining if 
                notification under paragraph (1) is not feasible due to 
                excessive costs to the covered entity required to 
                provide such notification relative to the resources of 
                such covered entity; and
                    (B) establish the form and content of substitute 
                notification.
    (d) Notification for Law Enforcement and Other Purposes.--A covered 
entity shall, as expeditiously as practicable and without unreasonable 
delay, but not later than 5 days following the discovery of a breach of 
security, provide notification of the breach to--
            (1) the Commission;
            (2) the Federal Bureau of Investigation;
            (3) the Secret Service;
            (4) for common carriers, the Federal Communications 
        Commission;
            (5) for entities that provide a consumer financial product 
        or service (as defined in section 1002 of the Consumer 
        Financial Protection Act of 2010 (12 U.S.C. 5481)), the Bureau 
        of Consumer Financial Protection; and
            (6) the attorney general of each State in which the 
        personal information of a resident or residents of the State 
        was, or is reasonably believed to have been, acquired or 
        accessed by an unauthorized person, or used for an unauthorized 
        purpose.
    (e) Other Obligations Following Breach.--
            (1) In general.--A covered entity required to provide 
        notification under subsection (a) shall, upon request of an 
        individual whose personal information was included in the 
        breach of security, provide or arrange for the provision of, to 
        each such individual and at no cost to such individual--
                    (A) at the option of such individual, either--
                            (i) consumer credit reports from all of the 
                        major consumer reporting agencies beginning not 
                        later than 60 days following the individual's 
                        request and continuing on a quarterly basis for 
                        a period of not less than 10 years thereafter; 
                        or
                            (ii) a credit monitoring or other service 
                        that--
                                    (I) enables consumers to detect the 
                                misuse of their personal information, 
                                beginning not later than 60 days 
                                following the individual's request and 
                                continuing for a period of not less 
                                than 10 years thereafter; and
                                    (II) includes monitoring of the 
                                individual's credit file at all of the 
                                major consumer reporting agencies; and
                    (B) a service that enables consumers to control 
                access to their personal information and credit 
                reports, beginning not later than 60 days following the 
                individual's request and continuing for a period of not 
                less than 10 years thereafter.
            (2) Limitation.--This subsection shall not apply if the 
        only personal information which has been the subject of the 
        breach of security is the individual's first name or initial 
        and last name, address, or phone number, in combination with a 
        credit or debit card number and any required security code.
    (f) Exemption.--
            (1) General exemption.--A covered entity shall be exempt 
        from the requirements under this section if the data containing 
        personal information that was, or is reasonably believed to 
        have been, acquired or accessed by an unauthorized person, or 
        used for an unauthorized purpose, is unusable, unreadable, or 
        indecipherable because of security technologies or 
        methodologies generally accepted by experts in the field of 
        information security at the time the breach of security 
        occurred. This exemption does not apply with regard to the use 
        of encryption technology generally accepted by experts in the 
        field of information security at the time the breach of 
        security occurred if any cryptographic keys necessary to enable 
        decryption of such data are also accessed or acquired without 
        authorization.
            (2) FTC guidance.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Commission shall issue guidance 
        regarding the application of the exemption in paragraph (1).
    (g) Website Notification of Federal Trade Commission.--If the 
Commission, upon receiving notification of any breach of security that 
is reported to the Commission under subsection (d)(1), finds that 
notification of such a breach of security via the Commission's Internet 
website would be in the public interest, the Commission shall place 
such a notification in a clear and conspicuous location on its Internet 
website.
    (h) Website Notification of State Attorneys General.--If a State 
attorney general, upon receiving notification of any breach of security 
that is reported to such State attorney general under subsection 
(d)(6), finds that notification of such breach of security via the 
State attorney general's Internet website would be in the public 
interest or for the protection of consumers, the State attorney general 
may place such a notification in a clear and conspicuous location on 
its Internet website.
    (i) FTC Study on Notification in Languages in Addition to 
English.--Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this 
Act, the Commission shall conduct a study on the practicality and cost 
effectiveness of requiring the notification required by subsection 
(c)(1) to be provided in a language in addition to English to 
individuals known to speak only such other language.
    (j) Education and Outreach for Small Businesses.--The Commission 
shall conduct education and outreach for small business concerns on 
data security practices and how to prevent hacking and other 
unauthorized access to, acquisition of, or use of data maintained by 
such small business concerns.
    (k) Website on Data Security Best Practices.--The Commission shall 
maintain an Internet website containing nonbinding best practices for 
businesses regarding data security and how to prevent hacking and other 
unauthorized access to, acquisition of, or use of data maintained by 
such businesses.
    (l) General Rulemaking Authority.--
            (1) In general.--The Commission may promulgate regulations 
        necessary under section 553 of title 5, United States Code, to 
        effectively enforce the requirements of this section.
            (2) Limitation.--In promulgating rules under this Act, the 
        Commission shall not require the deployment or use of any 
        specific products or technologies, including any specific 
        computer software or hardware.
    (m) Treatment of Persons Governed by Other Law.--A covered entity 
who is in compliance with any other Federal law that requires such 
covered entity to provide notification to individuals following a 
breach of security in at least the same or substantially similar 
circumstances and in at the least same or substantially similar manner 
as required to be provided under this Act, taken as a whole and as 
determined by the Commission in the rulemaking required under this 
section, shall be deemed to be in compliance with this section with 
respect to activities and information covered under such Federal law.

SEC. 4. APPLICATION AND ENFORCEMENT.

    (a) Enforcement by the Federal Trade Commission.--
            (1) Unfair or deceptive acts or practices.--A violation of 
        section 2 or 3 shall be treated as an unfair and deceptive act 
        or practice in violation of a regulation under section 
        18(a)(1)(B) of the Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C. 
        57a(a)(1)(B)) regarding unfair or deceptive acts or practices 
        and shall be subject to enforcement by the Commission under 
        that Act with respect to any covered entity. All of the 
        functions and powers of the Commission under the Federal Trade 
        Commission Act are available to the Commission to enforce 
        compliance by any person with the requirements imposed under 
        this Act, irrespective of whether that person is engaged in 
        commerce or meets any other jurisdictional tests under the 
        Federal Trade Commission Act.
            (2) Coordination with federal communications commission.--
        Where enforcement relates to entities subject to the authority 
        of the Federal Communications Commission, enforcement actions 
        by the Commission will be coordinated with the Federal 
        Communications Commission.
            (3) Coordination with bureau of consumer financial 
        protection.--Where enforcement relates to entities that provide 
        a consumer financial product or service (as defined in section 
        1002 of the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010 (12 
        U.S.C. 5481)), enforcement actions by the Commission will be 
        coordinated with the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection.
    (b) Enforcement by State Attorneys General.--
            (1) In general.--If the chief law enforcement officer of a 
        State, or an official or agency designated by a State, has 
        reason to believe that any covered entity has violated or is 
        violating section 2 or 3 of this Act, the attorney general, 
        official, or agency of the State, in addition to any authority 
        it may have to bring an action in State court under its 
        consumer protection law, may bring a civil action in any 
        appropriate United States district court or in any other court 
        of competent jurisdiction, including a State court, to--
                    (A) enjoin further such violation by the defendant;
                    (B) enforce compliance with such section;
                    (C) obtain civil penalties; and
                    (D) obtain damages, restitution, or other 
                compensation on behalf of residents of the State.
            (2) Notice and intervention by the ftc.--The attorney 
        general of a State shall provide prior written notice of any 
        action under paragraph (1) to the Commission and provide the 
        Commission with a copy of the complaint in the action, except 
        in any case in which such prior notice is not feasible, in 
        which case the attorney general shall serve such notice 
        immediately upon instituting such action. The Commission shall 
        have the right--
                    (A) to intervene in the action;
                    (B) upon so intervening, to be heard on all matters 
                arising therein; and
                    (C) to file petitions for appeal.
            (3) Limitation on state action while federal action is 
        pending.--If the Commission has instituted a civil action for 
        violation of this Act, no State attorney general, or official 
        or agency of a State, may bring an action under this subsection 
        during the pendency of that action against any defendant named 
        in the complaint of the Commission for any violation of this 
        Act alleged in the complaint.
            (4) Relationship with state-law claims.--If the attorney 
        general of a State has authority to bring an action under State 
        law directed at acts or practices that also violate this Act, 
        the attorney general may assert the State-law claim and a claim 
        under this Act in the same civil action.

SEC. 5. DEFINITIONS.

    In this Act:
            (1) Breach of security.--The term ``breach of security'' 
        means unauthorized access to, acquisition of, or use of data 
        containing personal information.
            (2) Commission.--The term ``Commission'' means the Federal 
        Trade Commission.
            (3) Consumer reporting agency.--The term ``consumer 
        reporting agency'' has the meaning given that term in section 
        603 of the Fair Credit Reporting Act (15 U.S.C. 1681a).
            (4) Covered entity.--The term ``covered entity'' means--
                    (A) any organization, corporation, trust, 
                partnership, sole proprietorship, unincorporated 
                association, or venture over which the Commission has 
                authority pursuant to section 5(a)(2) of the Federal 
                Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C. 45(a)(2));
                    (B) notwithstanding section 5(a)(2) of the Federal 
                Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C. 45(a)(2)), common 
                carriers subject to the Communications Act of 1934 (47 
                U.S.C. 151 et seq.); and
                    (C) notwithstanding sections 4 and 5(a)(2) of the 
                Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C. 44 and 
                45(a)(2)), any nonprofit organization, including any 
                organization described in section 501(c) of the 
                Internal Revenue Code of 1986 that is exempt from 
                taxation under section 501(a) of the Internal Revenue 
                Code of 1986.
            (5) Information broker.--The term ``information broker''--
                    (A) means a commercial entity whose business is to 
                collect, assemble, or maintain personal information 
                concerning individuals who are not current or former 
                customers of such entity in order to sell such 
                information or provide access to such information to 
                any nonaffiliated third party in exchange for 
                consideration, whether such collection, assembly, or 
                maintenance of personal information is performed by the 
                information broker directly, or by contract or 
                subcontract with any other entity; and
                    (B) does not include a commercial entity to the 
                extent that such entity processes information collected 
                by and received from a nonaffiliated third party 
                concerning individuals who are current or former 
                customers or employees of the third party to enable the 
                third party to provide benefits for the employees or 
                directly transact business with the customers.
            (6) Personal information.--
                    (A) Definition.--The term ``personal information'' 
                means any information or compilation of information 
                that includes any of the following:
                            (i) An individual's first name or initial 
                        and last name in combination with any 2 or more 
                        of the following data elements for that 
                        individual:
                                    (I) Home address or telephone 
                                number.
                                    (II) Mother's maiden name.
                                    (III) Month, day, and year of 
                                birth.
                                    (IV) User name or electronic mail 
                                address.
                            (ii) Driver's license number, passport 
                        number, military identification number, alien 
                        registration number, or other similar number 
                        issued on a government document used to verify 
                        identity.
                            (iii) Unique account identifier, including 
                        a financial account number, or credit or debit 
                        card number, electronic identification number, 
                        user name, or routing code.
                            (iv) Partial or complete Social Security 
                        number.
                            (v) Unique biometric or genetic data such 
                        as a faceprint, fingerprint, voice print, a 
                        retina or iris image, or any other unique 
                        physical representations.
                            (vi) Information that could be used to 
                        access an individual's account, such as user 
                        name and password or email address and 
                        password.
                            (vii) Any security code, access code, or 
                        password, or source code that could be used to 
                        generate such codes or passwords, in 
                        combination with either of the following data 
                        elements:
                                    (I) An individual's first and last 
                                name or first initial and last name.
                                    (II) A unique account identifier, 
                                including a financial account number or 
                                credit or debit card number, electronic 
                                identification number, user name, or 
                                routing code.
                            (viii) Information generated or derived 
                        from the operation or use of an electronic 
                        communications device that is sufficient to 
                        identify the street name and name of the city 
                        or town in which the device is located.
                            (ix) Any information regarding an 
                        individual's medical history, mental or 
                        physical condition, medical treatment or 
                        diagnosis by a health care professional, or the 
                        provision of health care to the individual, 
                        including health information provided to a 
                        website or mobile application.
                            (x) A health insurance policy number or 
                        subscriber identification number and any unique 
                        identifier used by a health insurer to identify 
                        the individual, or any information in an 
                        individual's health insurance application and 
                        claims history, including any appeals records.
                            (xi) Digitized or other electronic 
                        signature.
                            (xii) Nonpublic communications or other 
                        user-created content such as emails, 
                        photographs, or videos.
                            (xiii) Any record or information concerning 
                        payroll, income, financial accounts, mortgages, 
                        loans, lines of credit, utility bills, 
                        accumulated purchases, or any other information 
                        regarding financial assets, obligations, or 
                        spending habits.
                            (xiv) Any additional element the Commission 
                        defines as personal information.
                    (B) Modified definition by rulemaking.--The 
                Commission may, by rule promulgated under section 553 
                of title 5, United States Code, modify the definition 
                of ``personal information'' under subparagraph (A).
            (7) State.--The term ``State'' means each of the several 
        States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto 
        Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the United States Virgin Islands, 
        the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, any other 
        territory or possession of the United States, and each 
        federally recognized Indian tribe.

SEC. 6. EFFECT ON OTHER LAWS.

    (a) Preemption of State Data Security and Breach Notification 
Laws.--No State or political subdivision thereof shall have any 
authority to establish or continue in effect any standard or 
requirement that is not identical to the standards and requirements 
established under this Act for--
            (1) information security practices for the treatment and 
        protection of the personal information defined in section 
        5(6)(A), or as subsequently amended by the Commission under 
        section 5(6)(B), by covered entities, as defined in section 
        5(4); or
            (2) notification to individuals of a breach of security of 
        the personal information defined in section 5(6)(A), or as 
        subsequently amended by the Commission under section 5(6)(B), 
        by covered entities, as defined in section 5(4).
    (b) Effect on State Law.--In the case of a provision of the law of 
a State that is superseded by subsection (a), this Act may be enforced 
in the same manner and to the same extent as the State law could have 
been enforced under State law had the provision of the law of the State 
not been superseded.
    (c) Effect on Other State Laws.--Except as provided in subsection 
(a), nothing in this Act shall be construed to--
            (1) preempt or limit any provision of any law, rule, 
        regulation, requirement, standard, or other provision having 
        the force and effect of law of any State, including any State 
        consumer protection law, any State law relating to acts of 
        fraud or deception, and any State trespass, contract, or tort 
        law;
            (2) preempt or limit any provision of any law, rule, 
        regulation, requirement, standard, or other provision having 
        the force and effect of law of any State regarding post-data 
        breach services, including security or credit freezes, credit 
        monitoring, identity theft monitoring, and identity theft 
        services;
            (3) prevent or limit the attorney general of a State from 
        exercising the powers conferred upon the attorney general by 
        the laws of the State, including conducting investigations, 
        administering oaths or affirmations, or compelling the 
        attendance of witnesses or the production of documentary and 
        other evidence; or
            (4) preempt or limit any provision of any law, rule, 
        regulation, requirement, standard, or other provision having 
        the force and effect of law of any State with respect to any 
        person that is not a covered entity, as defined in section 
        5(4), or any information that is not personal information, as 
        defined in section 5(6)(A), or as subsequently amended by the 
        Commission under section 5(6)(B).
    (d) Preservation of Authority.--
            (1) Federal trade commission.--Nothing in this Act may be 
        construed in any way to limit the Commission's authority under 
        any other provision of law.
            (2) Federal communications commission.--Nothing in this Act 
        may be construed in any way to limit or affect the Federal 
        Communications Commission's authority under any other provision 
        of law.
            (3) Bureau of consumer financial protection.--Nothing in 
        this Act may be construed in any way to limit or affect the 
        authority of the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection under 
        any other provision of law.

SEC. 7. EFFECTIVE DATE.

    This Act shall take effect 90 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act.
                                 <all>

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