Text: H.R.6227 — 115th Congress (2017-2018)All Information (Except Text)

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Public Law No: 115-368 (12/21/2018)

 
[115th Congress Public Law 368]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office]



[[Page 5091]]

                     NATIONAL QUANTUM INITIATIVE ACT

[[Page 132 STAT. 5092]]

Public Law 115-368
115th Congress

                                 An Act


 
   To provide for a coordinated Federal program to accelerate quantum 
 research and development for the economic and national security of the 
         United States. <<NOTE: Dec. 21, 2018 -  [H.R. 6227]>> 

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled, <<NOTE: National Quantum 
Initiative Act. 15 USC 8801 note.>> 
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.

    (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``National Quantum 
Initiative Act''.
    (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents of this Act is as 
follows:

Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.
Sec. 2. Definitions.
Sec. 3. Purposes.

                  TITLE I--NATIONAL QUANTUM INITIATIVE

Sec. 101. National Quantum Initiative Program.
Sec. 102. National Quantum Coordination Office.
Sec. 103. Subcommittee on Quantum Information Science.
Sec. 104. National Quantum Initiative Advisory Committee.
Sec. 105. Sunset.

    TITLE II--NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY QUANTUM 
                               ACTIVITIES

Sec. 201. National Institute of Standards and Technology activities and 
           quantum consortium.

        TITLE III--NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION QUANTUM ACTIVITIES

Sec. 301. Quantum information science research and education program.
Sec. 302. Multidisciplinary Centers for Quantum Research and Education.

            TITLE IV--DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY QUANTUM ACTIVITIES

Sec. 401. Quantum Information Science Research program.
Sec. 402. National Quantum Information Science Research Centers.

SEC. 2. <<NOTE: 15 USC 8801.>>  DEFINITIONS.

    In this Act:
            (1) Advisory committee.--The term ``Advisory Committee'' 
        means the National Quantum Initiative Advisory Committee 
        established under section 104(a).
            (2) Appropriate committees of congress.--The term 
        ``appropriate committees of Congress'' means--
                    (A) the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
                Transportation of the Senate;
                    (B) the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of 
                the Senate; and
                    (C) the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology 
                of the House of Representatives.

[[Page 132 STAT. 5093]]

            (3) Coordination office.--The term ``Coordination Office'' 
        means the National Quantum Coordination Office established under 
        section 102(a).
            (4) Institution of higher education.--The term ``institution 
        of higher education'' has the meaning given the term in section 
        101(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001(a)).
            (5) Program.--The term ``Program'' means the National 
        Quantum Initiative Program implemented under section 101(a).
            (6) Quantum information science.--The term ``quantum 
        information science'' means the use of the laws of quantum 
        physics for the storage, transmission, manipulation, computing, 
        or measurement of information.
            (7) Subcommittee.--The term ``Subcommittee'' means the 
        Subcommittee on Quantum Information Science of the National 
        Science and Technology Council established under section 103(a).
SEC. 3. <<NOTE: 15 USC 8802.>>  PURPOSES.

    The purpose of this Act is to ensure the continued leadership of the 
United States in quantum information science and its technology 
applications by--
            (1) supporting research, development, demonstration, and 
        application of quantum information science and technology--
                    (A) to expand the number of researchers, educators, 
                and students with training in quantum information 
                science and technology to develop a workforce pipeline;
                    (B) to promote the development and inclusion of 
                multidisciplinary curriculum and research opportunities 
                for quantum information science at the undergraduate, 
                graduate, and postdoctoral level;
                    (C) to address basic research knowledge gaps, 
                including computational research gaps;
                    (D) to promote the further development of facilities 
                and centers available for quantum information science 
                and technology research, testing and education; and
                    (E) to stimulate research on and promote more rapid 
                development of quantum-based technologies;
            (2) improving the interagency planning and coordination of 
        Federal research and development of quantum information science 
        and technology;
            (3) maximizing the effectiveness of the Federal Government's 
        quantum information science and technology research, 
        development, and demonstration programs;
            (4) promoting collaboration among the Federal Government, 
        Federal laboratories, industry, and universities; and
            (5) promoting the development of international standards for 
        quantum information science and technology security--
                    (A) to facilitate technology innovation and private 
                sector commercialization; and
                    (B) to meet economic and national security goals.

[[Page 132 STAT. 5094]]

                  TITLE I--NATIONAL QUANTUM INITIATIVE

SEC. 101. <<NOTE: President. 15 USC 8811.>>  NATIONAL QUANTUM 
                        INITIATIVE PROGRAM.

    (a) In General.--The President shall implement a National Quantum 
Initiative Program.
    (b) Requirements.--In carrying out the Program, the President, 
acting through Federal agencies, councils, working groups, 
subcommittees, and the Coordination Office, as the President considers 
appropriate, shall--
            (1) establish the goals, priorities, and metrics for a 10-
        year plan to accelerate development of quantum information 
        science and technology applications in the United States;
            (2) invest in fundamental Federal quantum information 
        science and technology research, development, demonstration, and 
        other activities to achieve the goals established under 
        paragraph (1);
            (3) invest in activities to develop a quantum information 
        science and technology workforce pipeline;
            (4) provide for interagency planning and coordination of 
        Federal quantum information science and technology research, 
        development, demonstration, standards engagement, and other 
        activities under the Program;
            (5) partner with industry and universities to leverage 
        knowledge and resources; and
            (6) leverage existing Federal investments efficiently to 
        advance Program goals and priorities established under paragraph 
        (1).
SEC. 102. <<NOTE: 15 USC 8812.>>  NATIONAL QUANTUM COORDINATION 
                        OFFICE.

    (a) Establishment.--
            (1) In general <<NOTE: President.>> .--The President shall 
        establish a National Quantum Coordination Office.
            (2) Administration.--The Coordination Office shall have--
                    (A) <<NOTE: Appointment. Consultation.>>  a Director 
                appointed by the Director of the Office of Science and 
                Technology Policy, in consultation with the Secretary of 
                Commerce, the Director of the National Science 
                Foundation, and the Secretary of Energy; and
                    (B) staff comprised of employees detailed from the 
                Federal departments and agencies described in section 
                103(b).

    (b) Responsibilities.--The Coordination Office shall--
            (1) provide technical and administrative support to--
                    (A) the Subcommittee; and
                    (B) the Advisory Committee;
            (2) oversee interagency coordination of the Program, 
        including by encouraging and supporting joint agency 
        solicitation and selection of applications for funding of 
        activities under the Program;
            (3) serve as the point of contact on Federal civilian 
        quantum information science and technology activities for 
        Federal departments and agencies, industry, universities 
        professional societies, State governments, and such other 
        persons as the Coordination Office considers appropriate to 
        exchange technical and programmatic information;
            (4) ensure coordination among the collaborative ventures or 
        consortia established under section 201(a), Multidisciplinary

[[Page 132 STAT. 5095]]

        Centers for Quantum Research and Education established under 
        section 302(a), and the National Quantum Information Science 
        Research Centers established under section 402(a);
            (5) conduct public outreach, including the dissemination of 
        findings and recommendations of the Advisory Committee, as 
        appropriate;
            (6) promote access to and early application of the 
        technologies, innovations, and expertise derived from Program 
        activities to agency missions and systems across the Federal 
        Government, and to industry, including startup companies; and
            (7) promote access, through appropriate Federal Government 
        agencies, and an open and competitive merit-reviewed process, to 
        existing quantum computing and communication systems developed 
        by industry, universities, and Federal laboratories to the 
        general user community in pursuit of discovery of the new 
        applications of such systems.

    (c) Funding.--Funds necessary to carry out the activities of the 
Coordination Office shall be made available each fiscal year by the 
Federal departments and agencies described in section 103(b), as 
determined by the Director of the Office of Science and Technology 
Policy.
SEC. 103. <<NOTE: 15 USC 8813.>>  SUBCOMMITTEE ON QUANTUM 
                        INFORMATION SCIENCE.

    (a) Establishment <<NOTE: President.>> .--The President shall 
establish, through the National Science and Technology Council, the 
Subcommittee on Quantum Information Science.

    (b) Membership.--The Subcommittee shall include a representative 
of--
            (1) the National Institute of Standards and Technology;
            (2) the National Science Foundation;
            (3) the Department of Energy;
            (4) the National Aeronautics and Space Administration;
            (5) the Department of Defense;
            (6) the Office of the Director of National Intelligence;
            (7) the Office of Management and Budget;
            (8) the Office of Science and Technology Policy; and
            (9) such other Federal department or agency as the President 
        considers appropriate.

    (c) Chairpersons.--The Subcommittee shall be jointly chaired by the 
Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the 
Director of the National Science Foundation, and the Secretary of 
Energy.
    (d) Responsibilities <<NOTE: Assessments.>> .--The Subcommittee 
shall--
            (1) <<NOTE: Coordination.>>  coordinate the quantum 
        information science and technology research, information sharing 
        about international standards development and use, and education 
        activities and programs of the Federal agencies;
            (2) establish goals and priorities of the Program, based on 
        identified knowledge and workforce gaps and other national 
        needs;
            (3) <<NOTE: Recommenda- tions.>>  assess and recommend 
        Federal infrastructure needs to support the Program;
            (4) assess the status, development, and diversity of the 
        United States quantum information science workforce;
            (5) assess the global outlook for quantum information 
        science research and development efforts;

[[Page 132 STAT. 5096]]

            (6) <<NOTE: Evaluation.>>  evaluate opportunities for 
        international cooperation with strategic allies on research and 
        development in quantum information science and technology; and
            (7) <<NOTE: Budget.>>  propose a coordinated interagency 
        budget for the Program to the Office of Management and Budget to 
        ensure the maintenance of a balanced quantum information science 
        research portfolio and an appropriate level of research effort.

    (e) Strategic Plans <<NOTE: Deadlines.>> .--In order to guide the 
activities of the Program and meet the goals, priorities, and 
anticipated outcomes of the Federal departments and agencies described 
in subsection (b), the Subcommittee shall--
            (1) not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of 
        this Act, develop a 5-year strategic plan;
            (2) not later than 6 years after the date of enactment of 
        this Act, develop a subsequent 5-year strategic plan; and
            (3) periodically update each plan, as necessary.

    (f) Submittal to Congress.--The chairpersons of the Subcommittee 
shall submit to the President, the Advisory Committee, and the 
appropriate committees of Congress each strategic plan developed under 
subsection (e) and any updates thereto.
    (g) Annual Program Budget Report.--
            (1) In general.--Each year, concurrent with the annual 
        budget request submitted by the President to Congress under 
        section 1105 of title 31, United States Code, the chairpersons 
        of the Subcommittee shall submit to the appropriate committees 
        of Congress and such other committees of Congress as the 
        chairpersons deem appropriate a report on the budget for the 
        Program.
            (2) Contents.--Each report submitted under paragraph (1) 
        shall include the following:
                    (A) The budget of the Program for the current fiscal 
                year, for each Federal department and agency described 
                in subsection (b).
                    (B) The budget proposed for the Program for the next 
                fiscal year, for each Federal department and agency 
                described in subsection (b).
                    (C) <<NOTE: Analysis.>>  An analysis of the progress 
                made toward achieving the goals and priorities 
                established under subsection (d)(2).
SEC. 104. <<NOTE: 15 USC 8814.>>  NATIONAL QUANTUM INITIATIVE 
                        ADVISORY COMMITTEE.

    (a) In General <<NOTE: President.>> .--The President shall establish 
a National Quantum Initiative Advisory Committee.

    (b) Qualifications <<NOTE: Appointments. President.>> .--The 
Advisory Committee shall consist of members, appointed by the President, 
who are representative of industry, universities, and Federal 
laboratories and are qualified to provide advice and information on 
quantum information science and technology research, development, 
demonstrations, standards, education, technology transfer, commercial 
application, or national security and economic concerns.

    (c) Membership Consideration <<NOTE: President.>> .--In selecting 
the members of the Advisory Committee, the President may seek and give 
consideration to recommendations from the Congress, industry, the 
scientific community (including the National Academy of Sciences, 
scientific professional societies, and universities), the defense 
community, and other appropriate organizations.

    (d) Duties.--

[[Page 132 STAT. 5097]]

            (1) In general <<NOTE: Recommenda- tions.>> .--The Advisory 
        Committee shall advise the President and the Subcommittee and 
        make recommendations for the President to consider when 
        reviewing and revising the Program.
            (2) Independent assessments.--The Advisory Committee shall 
        conduct periodic, independent assessments of--
                    (A) any trends or developments in quantum 
                information science and technology;
                    (B) the progress made in implementing the Program;
                    (C) the management, coordination, implementation, 
                and activities of the Program;
                    (D) whether the Program activities and the goals and 
                priorities established under section 103(d)(2) are 
                helping to maintain United States leadership in quantum 
                information science and technology;
                    (E) whether a need exists to revise the Program;
                    (F) whether opportunities exist for international 
                cooperation with strategic allies on research and 
                development in, and the development of open standards 
                for, quantum information science and technology; and
                    (G) whether national security, societal, economic, 
                legal, and workforce concerns are adequately addressed 
                by the Program.

    (e) Reports <<NOTE: Recommenda- tions.>> .--Not later than 180 days 
after the date of enactment of this Act, and at least biennially 
thereafter, the Advisory Committee shall submit to the President, the 
appropriate committees of Congress, and such other committees of 
Congress as the Advisory Committee deems appropriate a report on the 
findings of the independent assessment under subsection (d), including 
any recommendations for improvements to the Program.

    (f) Travel Expenses of Non-Federal Members.--Non-Federal members of 
the Advisory Committee, while attending meetings of the Advisory 
Committee or while otherwise serving at the request of the head of the 
Advisory Committee away from their homes or regular places of business, 
may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of 
subsistence, as authorized by section 5703 of title 5, United States 
Code, for individuals in the Government serving without pay. Nothing in 
this subsection shall be construed to prohibit members of the Advisory 
Committee who are officers or employees of the United States from being 
allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in 
accordance with existing law.
    (g) FACA Exemption.--The Advisory Committee shall be exempt from 
section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.).
SEC. 105. <<NOTE: 15 USC 8815.>>  SUNSET.

    (a) In General.--Except as provided in subsection (b), the authority 
to carry out sections 101, 102, 103, and 104 shall terminate on the date 
that is 11 years after the date of enactment of this Act.
    (b) Extension <<NOTE: President. Determination.>> .--The President 
may continue the activities under such sections if the President 
determines that such activities are necessary to meet national economic 
or national security needs.

[[Page 132 STAT. 5098]]

    TITLE II--NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY QUANTUM 
                               ACTIVITIES

SEC. 201. <<NOTE: 15 USC 8831.>>  NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS 
                        AND TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITIES AND QUANTUM 
                        CONSORTIUM.

    (a) National Institute of Standards and Technology Activities.--As 
part of the Program, the Director of the National Institute of Standards 
and Technology--
            (1) shall continue to support and expand basic and applied 
        quantum information science and technology research and 
        development of measurement and standards infrastructure 
        necessary to advance commercial development of quantum 
        applications;
            (2) <<NOTE: Collaboration.>>  shall use the existing 
        programs of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, 
        in collaboration with other Federal departments and agencies, as 
        appropriate, to train scientists in quantum information science 
        and technology to increase participation in the quantum fields;
            (3) shall establish or expand collaborative ventures or 
        consortia with other public or private sector entities, 
        including industry, universities, and Federal laboratories for 
        the purpose of advancing the field of quantum information 
        science and engineering; and
            (4) <<NOTE: Contracts. Grants.>>  may enter into and perform 
        such contracts, including cooperative research and development 
        arrangements and grants and cooperative agreements or other 
        transactions, as may be necessary in the conduct of the work of 
        the National Institute of Standards and Technology and on such 
        terms as the Director considers appropriate, in furtherance of 
        the purposes of this Act.

    (b) Quantum Consortium.--
            (1) In general <<NOTE: Deadline.>> .--Not later than 1 year 
        after the date of enactment of this Act, the Director of the 
        National Institute of Standards and Technology shall convene a 
        consortium of stakeholders to identify the future measurement, 
        standards, cybersecurity, and other appropriate needs for 
        supporting the development of a robust quantum information 
        science and technology industry in the United States.
            (2) Goals.--The goals of the consortium shall be--
                    (A) <<NOTE: Assessment.>>  to assess the current 
                research on the needs identified in paragraph (1);
                    (B) to identify any gaps in the research necessary 
                to meet the needs identified in paragraph (1); and
                    (C) <<NOTE: Recommenda- tions.>>  to provide 
                recommendations on how the National Institute of 
                Standards and Technology and the Program can address the 
                gaps in the necessary research identified in 
                subparagraph (B).
            (3) Report to congress.--Not later than 2 years after the 
        date of enactment of this Act, the Director of the National 
        Institute of Standards and Technology shall submit to the 
        Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate 
        and the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House 
        of Representatives a report summarizing the findings of the 
        consortium.

[[Page 132 STAT. 5099]]

    (c) Funding.--The Director of the National Institute of Standards 
and Technology shall allocate up to $80,000,000 to carry out the 
activities under this section for each of fiscal years 2019 through 
2023, subject to the availability of appropriations. Amounts made 
available to carry out this section shall be derived from amounts 
appropriated or otherwise made available to the National Institute of 
Standards and Technology.

        TITLE III--NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION QUANTUM ACTIVITIES

SEC. 301. <<NOTE: 15 USC 8841.>>  QUANTUM INFORMATION SCIENCE 
                        RESEARCH AND EDUCATION PROGRAM.

    (a) In General <<NOTE: Grants.>> .--The Director of the National 
Science Foundation shall carry out a basic research and education 
program on quantum information science and engineering, including the 
competitive award of grants to institutions of higher education or 
eligible nonprofit organizations (or consortia thereof).

    (b) Program Components.--
            (1) In general.--In carrying out the program under 
        subsection (a), the Director of the National Science Foundation 
        shall carry out activities that--
                    (A) support basic interdisciplinary quantum 
                information science and engineering research; and
                    (B) support human resources development in all 
                aspects of quantum information science and engineering.
            (2) Requirements.--The activities described in paragraph (1) 
        shall include--
                    (A) <<NOTE: Collaboration.>>  using the existing 
                programs of the National Science Foundation, in 
                collaboration with other Federal departments and 
                agencies, as appropriate--
                          (i) to improve the teaching and learning of 
                      quantum information science and engineering at the 
                      undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate levels; 
                      and
                          (ii) to increase participation in the quantum 
                      fields, including by individuals identified in 
                      sections 33 and 34 of the Science and Engineering 
                      Equal Opportunities Act (42 U.S.C. 1885a, 1885b);
                    (B) formulating goals for quantum information 
                science and engineering research and education 
                activities to be supported by the National Science 
                Foundation;
                    (C) leveraging the collective body of knowledge from 
                existing quantum information science and engineering 
                research and education activities;
                    (D) <<NOTE: Coordination.>>  coordinating research 
                efforts funded through existing programs across the 
                directorates of the National Science Foundation; and
                    (E) engaging with other Federal departments and 
                agencies, research communities, and potential users of 
                information produced under this section.

    (c) Graduate Traineeships.--The Director of the National Science 
Foundation may establish a program to provide traineeships to graduate 
students at institutions of higher education within the United States 
who are citizens of the United States and who choose to pursue masters 
or doctoral degrees in quantum information science.

[[Page 132 STAT. 5100]]

SEC. 302. <<NOTE: 15 USC 8842.>>  MULTIDISCIPLINARY CENTERS FOR 
                        QUANTUM RESEARCH AND EDUCATION.

    (a) In General <<NOTE: Consultation. Grants.>> .--The Director of 
the National Science Foundation, in consultation with other Federal 
departments and agencies, as appropriate, shall award grants to 
institutions of higher education or eligible nonprofit organizations (or 
consortia thereof) to establish at least 2, but not more than 5, 
Multidisciplinary Centers for Quantum Research and Education (referred 
to in this section as ``Centers'').

    (b) Collaborations.--A collaboration receiving an award under this 
subsection may include institutions of higher education, nonprofit 
organizations, and private sector entities.
    (c) Purpose.--The purpose of the Centers shall be to conduct basic 
research and education activities in support of the goals and priorities 
established under section 103(d)(2), including by--
            (1) continuing to advance quantum information science and 
        engineering;
            (2) supporting curriculum and workforce development in 
        quantum information science and engineering; and
            (3) fostering innovation by bringing industry perspectives 
        to quantum research and workforce development, including by 
        leveraging industry knowledge and resources.

    (d) Requirements.--
            (1) In general.--An institution of higher education or an 
        eligible nonprofit organization (or a consortium thereof) 
        seeking funding under this section shall submit an application 
        to the Director of the National Science Foundation at such time, 
        in such manner, and containing such information as the Director 
        may require.
            (2) Applications.--Each application under paragraph (1) 
        shall include a description of--
                    (A) how the Center will work with other research 
                institutions and industry partners to leverage expertise 
                in quantum science, education and curriculum 
                development, and technology transfer;
                    (B) how the Center will promote active collaboration 
                among researchers in multiple disciplines involved in 
                quantum research, including physics, engineering, 
                mathematics, computer science, chemistry, and material 
                science;
                    (C) how the Center will support long-term and short-
                term workforce development in the quantum field;
                    (D) how the Center can support an innovation 
                ecosystem to work with industry to translate Center 
                research into applications; and
                    (E) a long-term plan to become self-sustaining after 
                the expiration of funding under this section.

    (e) Selection and Duration.--
            (1) In general.--Each Center established under this section 
        is authorized to carry out activities for a period of 5 years.
            (2) Reapplication.--An awardee may reapply for additional, 
        subsequent periods of 5 years on a competitive, merit-reviewed 
        basis.
            (3) Termination.--Consistent with the authorities of the 
        National Science Foundation, the Director of the National 
        Science Foundation may terminate an underperforming Center for 
        cause during the performance period.

[[Page 132 STAT. 5101]]

    (f) Funding.--The Director of the National Science Foundation shall 
allocate up to $10,000,000 for each Center established under this 
section for each of fiscal years 2019 through 2023, subject to the 
availability of appropriations. Amounts made available to carry out this 
section shall be derived from amounts appropriated or otherwise made 
available to the National Science Foundation.

            TITLE IV--DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY QUANTUM ACTIVITIES

SEC. 401. <<NOTE: 15 USC 8851.>>  QUANTUM INFORMATION SCIENCE 
                        RESEARCH PROGRAM.

    (a) In General.--The Secretary of Energy shall carry out a basic 
research program on quantum information science.
    (b) Program Components.--In carrying out the program under 
subsection (a), the Secretary of Energy shall--
            (1) formulate goals for quantum information science research 
        to be supported by the Department of Energy;
            (2) leverage the collective body of knowledge from existing 
        quantum information science research;
            (3) provide research experiences and training for additional 
        undergraduate and graduate students in quantum information 
        science, including in the fields of--
                    (A) quantum information theory;
                    (B) quantum physics;
                    (C) quantum computational science;
                    (D) applied mathematics and algorithm development;
                    (E) quantum networking;
                    (F) quantum sensing and detection; and
                    (G) materials science and engineering;
            (4) <<NOTE: Coordination.>>  coordinate research efforts 
        funded through existing programs across the Department of 
        Energy, including--
                    (A) the Nanoscale Science Research Centers;
                    (B) the Energy Frontier Research Centers;
                    (C) the Energy Innovation Hubs;
                    (D) the National Laboratories;
                    (E) the Advanced Research Projects Agency; and
                    (F) the National Quantum Information Science 
                Research Centers; and
            (5) <<NOTE: Coordination.>>  coordinate with other Federal 
        departments and agencies, research communities, and potential 
        users of information produced under this section.
SEC. 402. <<NOTE: 15 USC 8852.>>  NATIONAL QUANTUM INFORMATION 
                        SCIENCE RESEARCH CENTERS.

    (a) Establishment.--
            (1) In general <<NOTE: Consultation.>> .--The Secretary of 
        Energy, acting through the Director of the Office of Science 
        (referred to in this section as the ``Director''), shall ensure 
        that the Office of Science carries out a program, in 
        consultation with other Federal departments and agencies, as 
        appropriate, to establish and operate at least 2, but not more 
        than 5, National Quantum Information Science Research Centers 
        (referred to in this section as ``Centers'') to conduct basic 
        research to accelerate scientific breakthroughs in quantum 
        information science and technology and to support research 
        conducted under section 401.
            (2) Requirements.--

[[Page 132 STAT. 5102]]

                    (A) Competitive, merit-reviewed process.--The 
                Centers shall be established through a competitive, 
                merit-reviewed process.
                    (B) Applications.--An eligible applicant under this 
                subsection shall submit to the Director an application 
                at such time, in such manner, and containing such 
                information as the Director determines to be 
                appropriate.
                    (C) Eligible applicants.--The Director shall 
                consider applications from National Laboratories, 
                institutions of higher education, research centers, 
                multi-institutional collaborations, and any other entity 
                that the Secretary of Energy determines to be 
                appropriate.

    (b) Collaborations.--A collaboration that receives an award under 
this section may include multiple types of research institutions and 
private sector entities.
    (c) Requirements.--To the maximum extent practicable, the Centers 
developed, constructed, operated, or maintained under this section shall 
serve the needs of the Department of Energy, industry, the academic 
community, and other relevant entities to create and develop processes 
for the purpose of advancing basic research in quantum information 
science and improving the competitiveness of the United States.
    (d) Coordination.--The Secretary of Energy shall ensure the 
coordination, and avoid unnecessary duplication, of the activities of 
each Center with the activities of--
            (1) other research entities of the Department of Energy, 
        including--
                    (A) the Nanoscale Science Research Centers;
                    (B) the Energy Frontier Research Centers;
                    (C) the Energy Innovation Hubs; and
                    (D) the National Laboratories;
            (2) institutions of higher education; and
            (3) industry.

    (e) Duration.--
            (1) In general.--Each Center established under this section 
        is authorized to carry out activities for a period of 5 years.
            (2) Reapplication.--An awardee may reapply for additional, 
        subsequent periods of 5 years. The Director shall approve or 
        disapprove of each reapplication on a competitive, merit-
        reviewed basis.
            (3) Termination.--Consistent with the authorities of the 
        Department of Energy, the Secretary of Energy may terminate an 
        underperforming Center for cause during the performance period.

    (f) Funding.--The Secretary of Energy shall allocate up to 
$25,000,000 for each Center established under this section for each of 
fiscal years 2019 through 2023, subject to the availability of 
appropriations. Amounts made available to carry out this section

[[Page 132 STAT. 5103]]

shall be derived from amounts appropriated or otherwise made available 
to the Department of Energy.

    Approved December 21, 2018.

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY--H.R. 6227 (S. 3143):
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

HOUSE REPORTS: No. 115-950 (Comm. on Science, Space, and Technology).
SENATE REPORTS: No. 115-389 (Comm. on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation) accompanying S. 3143.
CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, Vol. 164 (2018):
            Sept. 13, considered and passed House.
            Dec. 13, considered and passed Senate, amended.
            Dec. 19, House concurred in Senate amendment.

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