Text: H.R.6437 — 115th Congress (2017-2018)All Information (Except Text)

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Introduced in House (07/19/2018)

 
[Congressional Bills 115th Congress]
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[H.R. 6437 Introduced in House (IH)]

<DOC>






115th CONGRESS
  2d Session
                                H. R. 6437

  To combat subversive activities of the Russian Federation, and for 
                            other purposes.


_______________________________________________________________________


                    IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

                             July 19, 2018

Mr. Hoyer (for himself, Ms. Maxine Waters of California, Mr. Engel, Mr. 
  Nadler, Mr. Thompson of Mississippi, Mr. Cummings, Mr. Schiff, Mr. 
   Smith of Washington, Mr. Kilmer, Mr. Carbajal, Mr. Connolly, Mr. 
 Kennedy, Mr. Cohen, Mr. Moulton, Mr. Correa, Mr. Krishnamoorthi, Mr. 
Suozzi, Mr. Castro of Texas, Mr. Espaillat, Mr. Heck, Mrs. Demings, Ms. 
    Stefanik, Mr. Gallego, Mr. Jones, and Ms. Rosen) introduced the 
following bill; which was referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, 
 and in addition to the Committees on Intelligence (Permanent Select), 
    the Judiciary, Armed Services, House Administration, Energy and 
    Commerce, Appropriations, Financial Services, and Oversight and 
 Government Reform, for a period to be subsequently determined by the 
  Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall 
           within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned

_______________________________________________________________________

                                 A BILL


 
  To combat subversive activities of the Russian Federation, and for 
                            other purposes.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.

    (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``Secure America 
from Russian Interference Act of 2018''.
    (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for this Act is as 
follows:

Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.
 TITLE I--ACTIONS TO COMPREHEND AND EXPOSE RUSSIA'S SUBVERSIVE MEASURES

Sec. 101. Findings.
Sec. 102. Assessment of subversive activities by the Government of the 
                            Russian Federation.
Sec. 103. National Intelligence Estimate on intentions of Russia.
Sec. 104. Report on cyber countermeasures.
Sec. 105. Report on Kremlin-linked corruption.
Sec. 106. Publicize Russian misdeeds.
Sec. 107. Report on actions relating to Ukranian energy security.
TITLE II--DOMESTIC ACTIONS TO COUNTER RUSSIA'S SUBVERSIVE MEASURES AND 
                     CORRUPT NETWORKS OF INFLUENCE

                     Subtitle A--General Provisions

Sec. 201. Office of sanctions policy.
Sec. 202. National Russian Threat Response Center.
Sec. 203. Interagency task force relating to illicit Russian financial 
                            activities in Europe.
Sec. 204. Prohibition on licenses or other authorization for United 
                            States persons to engage in activities 
                            relating to certain projects to produce oil 
                            in the Russian Federation.
                  Subtitle B--SECURE Our Democracy Act

Sec. 211. Short title.
Sec. 212. Definitions.
Sec. 213. Identification of foreign persons responsible for actions to 
                            unlawfully access, disrupt, influence, or 
                            in any way alter information or information 
                            systems related to United States political 
                            parties or elections for Federal office.
Sec. 214. Inadmissibility of certain aliens.
Sec. 215. Financial measures.
Sec. 216. Reports to Congress.
  Subtitle C--Preventing Cyber Intrusion Into Election Infrastructure

Sec. 221. Election infrastructure designation.
Sec. 222. Timely threat information.
Sec. 223. Pre-election threat assessments.
Sec. 224. Notification of significant foreign cyber intrusions and 
                            active measures campaigns directed at 
                            elections for Federal offices.
                       Subtitle D--Honest Ads Act

Sec. 231. Short title.
Sec. 232. Purpose.
Sec. 233. Findings.
Sec. 234. Sense of Congress.
Sec. 235. Expansion of definition of public communication.
Sec. 236. Expansion of definition of electioneering communication.
Sec. 237. Application of disclaimer statements to online 
                            communications.
Sec. 238. Political record requirements for online platforms.
Sec. 239. Preventing contributions, expenditures, independent 
                            expenditures, and disbursements for 
                            electioneering communications by foreign 
                            nationals in the form of online 
                            advertising.
         Subtitle E--Countering Foreign Propaganda Act of 2018

Sec. 241. Short title.
Sec. 242. Disclosure requirements for United States-based foreign media 
                            outlets.
TITLE III--ACTIONS TO COUNTER RUSSIAN AGGRESSION AGAINST UNITED STATES 
                                 ALLIES

        Subtitle A--Stand With UK Against Russia Violations Act

Sec. 301. Short title.
Sec. 302. Findings.
Sec. 303. Sense of Congress.
Sec. 304. Imposition of sanctions with respect to Russian persons 
                            responsible for March 12 attack.
Sec. 305. Prohibition on transactions relating to new Russian sovereign 
                            debt.
Sec. 306. Implementation; penalties; termination.
Sec. 307. Enhanced military activities to deter Russian aggression.
Sec. 308. United States person defined.
   Subtitle B--Imposition of Sanctions on Certain Russian Parastatal 
                                Entities

Sec. 311. Imposition of sanctions on certain Russian parastatal 
                            entities.
       Subtitle C--Punishing Continued Occupation of Ukraine Act

Sec. 321. Short title.
Sec. 322. Findings.
Sec. 323. Prohibition against United States recognition of Russia's 
                            annexation of Crimea.
Sec. 324. Imposition of sanctions with respect to certain Russian 
                            financial institutions.
          Subtitle D--General Provisions To Bolster Alliances

Sec. 331. Strategy for offensive use of cyber capabilities.
Sec. 332. Matters relating to NATO.
Sec. 333. Countering Russian Influence and Corruption Fund.
 TITLE IV--COMBATING PUTIN'S REPRESSION (CPR) FOR RUSSIAN CIVIL SOCIETY

Sec. 401. Short title.
Sec. 402. Strengthening dialogue with the Russian people.
Sec. 403. Support Russian civil society.

 TITLE I--ACTIONS TO COMPREHEND AND EXPOSE RUSSIA'S SUBVERSIVE MEASURES

SEC. 101. FINDINGS.

    Congress finds the following:
            (1) The Russian Federation interfered in the United States 
        Presidential election in 2016 and continues to conduct 
        disinformation efforts designed to undermine the United States.
            (2) The Director of National Intelligence concluded in 
        light of the Russian Federation's hacking of the 2016 
        Presidential election that ``Russian efforts to influence the 
        2016 U.S. Presidential election represent the most recent 
        expression of Moscow's longstanding desire to undermine the 
        U.S.-led liberal democratic order''.
            (3) The Director of National Intelligence further 
        concluded, ``We also assess Putin and the Russian Government 
        aspired to help President-elect Trump's election chances when 
        possible by discrediting Secretary Clinton and publicly 
        contrasting her unfavorably to him.''.
            (4) To adequately combat Russian subversive activities, the 
        United States must have a better handle on the scope, nature, 
        and source of these efforts and take steps to combat Russia's 
        global influence.

SEC. 102. ASSESSMENT OF SUBVERSIVE ACTIVITIES BY THE GOVERNMENT OF THE 
              RUSSIAN FEDERATION.

    (a) Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the Secretary of State shall submit to Congress 
a report setting forth an independent assessment obtained in accordance 
with subsection (b) of subversive activities by the Government of the 
Russian Federation.
    (b) Independent Assessment.--
            (1) In general.--The Secretary of State shall obtain an 
        independent assessment for purposes of subsection (a) from a 
        federally funded research and development center or another 
        appropriate independent entity that is selected by the 
        Secretary that has expertise in diplomatic and military 
        developments in Europe and Russia and undertakes to include 
        each of the following:
                    (A) An assessment of disinformation and propaganda 
                activities of the Government of the Russian Federation, 
                including an assessment of--
                            (i) support for disinformation and 
                        propaganda activities with respect to the 
                        United States and foreign countries;
                            (ii) the overall structure of the 
                        disinformation and influence apparatus of the 
                        Government of the Russian Federation, including 
                        its intelligence agencies and propaganda 
                        outlets such as Russia Today;
                            (iii) propaganda techniques, including 
                        forgery, use of media representatives and 
                        proxies, use of front organizations, and 
                        efforts to influence international 
                        organizations; and
                            (iv) use of corruption to advance Russian 
                        objectives.
                    (B) An assessment of support by the Government of 
                the Russian Federation for separatist activities and 
                other aggressive actions aimed at undermining the 
                sovereignty of foreign countries, particularly in 
                Ukraine, the Baltic countries, the Balkans, Georgia, 
                and Azerbaijan.
                    (C) An assessment of cyber intrusions by the 
                Government of the Russian Federation to influence the 
                infrastructure and democratic processes in the United 
                States and other countries.
                    (D) An assessment of--
                            (i) the use of energy exports by the 
                        Government of the Russian Federation for 
                        purposes of political or economic coercion; and
                            (ii) significant investment in energy 
                        infrastructure outside of Russia, including 
                        pipelines, by the Government of Russia or 
                        Russian-controlled entities.
                    (E) An assessment of the deterioration of 
                democratic conditions in the Russian Federation, 
                including--
                            (i) suppression of freedom of the press;
                            (ii) detention, beating, and murder of 
                        political activists and opposition leaders;
                            (iii) suppression of minority rights;
                            (iv) suppression of human rights; and
                            (v) efforts to undermine the Russian 
                        nongovernmental organizations and Russian civil 
                        society.
            (2) Use of previous studies.--The entity conducting the 
        assessment may use and incorporate information from previous 
        studies on matters appropriate to the assessment.
    (c) Form.--The report required under subsection (a) shall be 
submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.

SEC. 103. NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE ESTIMATE ON INTENTIONS OF RUSSIA.

    Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, 
the Director of National Intelligence, in consultation with the 
Secretary of State, shall produce a National Intelligence Estimate on 
the political and military intentions of Russia, including with respect 
to each of the following:
            (1) Russian leadership intentions in pursuing military and 
        subversive scenarios against members of the North Atlantic 
        Treaty Organization, including the conduct of an exercise on 
        the border with Belarus of more than 100,000 Russian forces in 
        September 2017.
            (2) Russian leadership reactions to the European Deterrence 
        Initiative.
            (3) Areas of possible joint dialogue with Russia.

SEC. 104. REPORT ON CYBER COUNTERMEASURES.

    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the 
President should promptly and fully implement Executive Order No. 13800 
(82 Fed. Reg. 22391; relating to strengthening the cybersecurity of 
Federal networks and critical infrastructure) so that Federal 
departments and agencies can better detect, monitor, and mitigate cyber 
attacks as quickly as possible.
    (b) Report.--Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment 
of this Act, the President shall submit to Congress a report describing 
each step taken to meet the objectives described in subsection (a) 
relating to cyber attack response.

SEC. 105. REPORT ON KREMLIN-LINKED CORRUPTION.

    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) the intelligence community should dedicate resources to 
        further expose the key networks that the corrupt political 
        class in Russia uses to hide the money it steals; and
            (2) the President should pursue efforts to stifle Russian 
        use of hidden financial channels, including anonymous shell 
        companies and real estate investments, in a manner similar to 
        the efforts undertaken to tighten banking regulations after the 
        terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001.
    (b) Report.--Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment 
of this Act, the Secretary of the Treasury, in coordination with the 
Secretary of State, shall submit a report to Congress on assets owned 
by Russian President Vladimir Putin, Russian oligarchs with close ties 
to Putin, and senior officials of the Government of the Russian 
Federation, including--
            (1) with respect to bank accounts, real estate holdings, 
        and other financial assets, including those outside of Russia, 
        that are owned by or accessible to Putin--
                    (A) the location of such accounts, holdings, or 
                assets; and
                    (B) the contents of such accounts or the amount 
                held through such holdings or assets;
            (2) the location, size, and contents of any assets of any 
        oligarch listed in the classified annex to the report submitted 
        pursuant to section 241 of the Countering America's Adversaries 
        Through Sanctions Act (Public Law 115-44; 131 Stat. 922); and
            (3) any ``front'' or shell companies, or other 
        intermediaries, used by senior officials of the Government of 
        the Russian Federation to hide assets from public disclosure.
    (c) Form.--The report required under subsection (b) shall be 
submitted in classified form.
    (d) Reasonable Attempt To Issue Unclassified Report.--Not later 
than 60 days after the date of the submission of the report required 
under subsection (b), the Secretary of the Treasury shall--
            (1) publish an unclassified version of such report on a 
        publicly available website of the Department of the Treasury; 
        or
            (2) submit a notification to Congress describing the 
        reasons for which the Secretary has determined that such 
        release is not possible.

SEC. 106. PUBLICIZE RUSSIAN MISDEEDS.

    (a) Donbass Recruitment.--
            (1) Report.--Not later than 90 days after the date of the 
        enactment of this Act, the Secretary of State shall compile and 
        publicly release a list of Russian-based persons, including 
        organizations and their executives, who recruited or otherwise 
        facilitated the transfer of Russian personnel for--
                    (A) the war in the Donbass; or
                    (B) targeting of civilians in Syria.
            (2) Visa ban.--Notwithstanding any other provision of law 
        any persons identified in the list required under paragraph (1) 
        shall be prohibited from entry to the United States.
    (b) Report on Actions by Russian Proxies.--Not later than 90 days 
after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of State 
shall submit to Congress a list of the following:
            (1) Persons, including corporations with United States 
        subsidiaries, acting in Europe and the United States as front 
        companies or intermediaries of the Government of Russia, and 
        the executives of such persons.
            (2) Politicians serving or acting as proxies of the 
        Government of Russia.
            (3) Russian media entities, including producers and 
        reporters, who--
                    (A) traffic in forgeries, fabrications, and altered 
                media products with intent to obfuscate factual 
                reporting; or
                    (B) instigate conflict and violence in Europe or 
                the United States.
            (4) Non-Russian persons that have knowingly or negligently 
        provided hardware or other forms of assistance to the 
        Government of Russia that has furthered Russia's efforts to--
                    (A) filter online political content;
                    (B) disrupt cell phone and Internet communications;
                    (C) monitor the online activities of Russian 
                citizens; or
                    (D) discriminate against or suppress the activities 
                of independent civil society institutions.
            (5) Each person that--
                    (A) receives subsidies from the Government of 
                Russia, thereby eroding market opportunities for 
                private businesses;
                    (B) provides financial or material support to 
                Russia-backed forces actively involved in aggression 
                against Russia's neighbors;
                    (C) provides financial or material support to 
                propaganda outlets of the Government of Russia that 
                legitimize Russian aggression; or
                    (D) provides financing or material support to 
                political and nongovernmental persons or entities, 
                including the United Russia political party, determined 
                by the Secretary of State to be engaged in the 
                suppression of fundamental freedoms in Russia.
    (c) Previously Listed Entities.--The lists required under this 
section may also include entities already identified in the list of 
specially designated nationals and blocked persons maintained by the 
Office of Foreign Assets Control of the Department of the Treasury.
    (d) Form.--The lists required under this section shall be 
unclassified but may be submitted in classified form.
    (e) Provision.--The Secretary of State shall transmit the 
unclassified lists required under this section to the heads of state 
of--
            (1) NATO member states;
            (2) Sweden;
            (3) Finland; and
            (4) Ireland.

SEC. 107. REPORT ON ACTIONS RELATING TO UKRANIAN ENERGY SECURITY.

    (a) Report by Secretary of State.--
            (1) In general.--The Secretary of State shall submit to the 
        appropriate congressional committees a report on actions the 
        Department of State is taking to implement section 257 of the 
        Countering America's Adversaries through Sanctions Act of 2017 
        (Public Law 115-44; 22 U.S.C. 9546).
            (2) Elements.--The report shall include details on the 
        following:
                    (A) Efforts by the Department of State since August 
                3, 2017, to work with European Union member states and 
                institutions to promote energy security and decrease 
                their dependence on Russian sources of energy, 
                including use of the Countering Russian Influence Fund 
                authorized pursuant to section 254 of the Countering 
                America's Adversaries through Sanctions Act of 2017 
                (Public Law 115-44; 22 U.S.C. 9543).
                    (B) Diplomatic efforts undertaken by the Department 
                of State to oppose directly the Nord Stream 2 pipeline 
                and the Turk Stream pipeline.
                    (C) An estimation of European natural gas supply 
                demand from 2019 through 2023.
    (b) Report by Secretary of the Treasury.--
            (1) In general.--The Secretary of Treasury, in coordination 
        with the Secretary of State, shall submit to the appropriate 
        congressional committees a report on each entity involved in 
        construction of the Nord Stream 2 pipeline or construction of 
        the Turk Stream pipeline.
            (2) Entity defined.--In this subsection, the term 
        ``entity''--
                    (A) means an entity organized under the laws of the 
                United States; and
                    (B) includes, with respect to the entity, a sub 
                entity, parent entity, subsidiary, or any other entity.
    (c) Report by Director of National Intelligence.--The Director of 
National Intelligence, in coordination with the Secretary of Defense, 
shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on 
the impact of the Nord Stream 2 pipeline on--
            (1) United States interests and security objectives;
            (2) European energy security and defense posture;
            (3) Russian influence in Europe; and
            (4) Ukraine, including the implications of reductions in 
        transit fees as a result of the Nord Stream 2 pipeline.
    (d) Form.--The reports required by this section shall be submitted 
in unclassified form, but may contain a classified annex.
    (e) Appropriate Congressional Committees Defined.--In this section, 
the term ``appropriate congressional committees'' means--
            (1) in the House of Representatives--
                    (A) the Committee on Armed Services;
                    (B) the Committee on Foreign Affairs;
                    (C) the Committee in Financial Services;
                    (D) the Committee on Energy and Commerce;
                    (E) the Committee on Oversight and Government 
                Reform; and
                    (F) the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence; 
                and
            (2) in the Senate--
                    (A) the Committee on Armed Services;
                    (B) the Committee on Foreign Relations;
                    (C) the Committee on Finance;
                    (D) the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban 
                Affairs;
                    (E) the Committee on Homeland Security and 
                Governmental Affairs; and
                    (F) the Select Committee on Intelligence.

TITLE II--DOMESTIC ACTIONS TO COUNTER RUSSIA'S SUBVERSIVE MEASURES AND 
                     CORRUPT NETWORKS OF INFLUENCE

                     Subtitle A--General Provisions

SEC. 201. OFFICE OF SANCTIONS POLICY.

    (a) Establishment.--Section 1 of the State Department Basic 
Authorities Act (22 U.S.C. 2651a) is amended by adding at the end the 
following new subsection:
    ``(h) Coordinator of Sanctions Policy.--
            ``(1) In general.--There shall be established within the 
        Department of State a Coordinator for Sanctions Policy, who 
        shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and 
        consent of the Senate, and shall report directly to the 
        Secretary of State.
            ``(2) Duties.--The Coordinator for Sanctions Policy shall 
        be responsible for the following:
                    ``(A) Overseeing the diplomatic aspects of the 
                enforcement of United States and United Nations 
                sanctions, including sanctions with respect to Russia, 
                Iran, North Korea, and other countries.
                    ``(B) Coordinating with allies regarding the 
                enforcement of such sanctions.
                    ``(C) Coordinating determinations with respect to 
                such sanctions by the heads of other Federal 
                departments and agencies, including the Secretary of 
                the Treasury and the United States intelligence 
                community.
            ``(3) Rank and status of ambassador.--The Coordinator for 
        Sanctions Policy shall have the rank and status of Ambassador 
        at Large.''.
    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the 
Coordinator for Sanctions Policy established pursuant to subsection (a) 
should be provided sufficient office space and support staff to ensure 
its successful establishment.

SEC. 202. NATIONAL RUSSIAN THREAT RESPONSE CENTER.

    (a) Establishment.--The National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 
3001 et seq.) is amended by inserting after section 119B the following 
new section:

``SEC. 119C. NATIONAL RUSSIAN THREAT RESPONSE CENTER.

    ``(a) Establishment.--There is within the Office of the Director of 
National Intelligence a National Russian Threat Response Center (in 
this section referred to as the `Center').
    ``(b) Mission.--The primary missions of the Center shall be as 
follows:
            ``(1) To serve as the primary organization in the United 
        States Government for analyzing and integrating all 
        intelligence possessed or acquired by the United States 
        Government pertaining to threats posed by the Russian 
        Federation to the national security, political sovereignty, and 
        economic activity of the United States and its allies.
            ``(2) To synchronize the efforts of the intelligence 
        community, the Department of Justice, the Federal Bureau of 
        Investigation, and other departments and agencies of the United 
        States with respect to countering efforts by Russia to 
        undermine the national security, political sovereignty, and 
        economic activity of the United States and its allies, 
        including by--
                    ``(A) ensuring that each such element is aware of 
                and coordinating on such efforts; and
                    ``(B) overseeing the development and implementation 
                of comprehensive and integrated policy responses to 
                such efforts.
            ``(3) In coordination with the relevant elements of the 
        Department of State, the Department of Defense, the Department 
        of Justice, the intelligence community, and other departments 
        and agencies of the United States--
                    ``(A) to develop policy recommendations for the 
                President to detect, deter, and respond to the threats 
                posed by Russia described in paragraph (1), including 
                with respect to covert activities pursuant to section 
                503; and
                    ``(B) to monitor and assess efforts by Russia to 
                carry out such threats.
            ``(4) In coordination with the head of the Global 
        Engagement Center established by section 1287 of the National 
        Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 (Public Law 114-
        328), to examine current and emerging efforts by Russia to use 
        propaganda and information operations relating to the threats 
        posed by Russia described in paragraph (1).
            ``(5) To identify and close gaps across the departments and 
        agencies of the Federal Government with respect to expertise, 
        readiness, and planning to address the threats posed by Russia 
        described in paragraph (1).
    ``(c) Director.--
            ``(1) Appointment.--There is a Director of the Center, who 
        shall be the head of the Center, and who shall be appointed by 
        the Director of National Intelligence, with the concurrence of 
        the Secretary of State. The Director may not simultaneously 
        serve in any other capacity in the executive branch.
            ``(2) Reporting.--The Director of the Center shall directly 
        report to the Director of National Intelligence.
            ``(3) Responsibilities.--The Director of the Center shall--
                    ``(A) ensure that the relevant departments and 
                agencies of the Federal Government participate in the 
                mission of the Center, including by recruiting 
                detailees from such departments and agencies in 
                accordance with subsection (e)(1); and
                    ``(B) have primary responsibility within the United 
                States Government, in coordination with the Director of 
                National Intelligence, for establishing requirements 
                for the collection of intelligence related to, or 
                regarding, the threats posed by Russia described in 
                subsection (b)(1), in accordance with applicable 
                provisions of law and Executive orders.
    ``(d) Annual Reports.--
            ``(1) In general.--At the direction of the Director of 
        National Intelligence, but not less than once each year, the 
        Director of the Center shall submit to the appropriate 
        congressional committees a report on threats posed by Russia to 
        the national security, political sovereignty, and economic 
        activity of the United States and its allies.
            ``(2) Matters included.--Each report under paragraph (1) 
        shall include, with respect to the period covered by the 
        report, a discussion of the following:
                    ``(A) The nature of the threats described in such 
                paragraph.
                    ``(B) The ability of the United States Government 
                to address such threats.
                    ``(C) The progress of the Center in achieving its 
                missions.
                    ``(D) Recommendations the Director determines 
                necessary for legislative actions to improve the 
                ability of the Center to achieve its missions.
            ``(3) Form.--Each report under paragraph (1) shall be 
        submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified 
        annex.
    ``(e) Employees.--
            ``(1) Detailees.--Any Federal Government employee may be 
        detailed to the Center on a reimbursable or nonreimbursable 
        basis, and such detail shall be without interruption or loss of 
        civil service status or privilege for a period of not more than 
        8 years.
            ``(2) Personal service contractors.--The Director of 
        National Intelligence, in consultation with the Secretary of 
        State, may hire United States citizens or aliens as personal 
        services contractors for purposes of personnel resources of the 
        Center, if--
                    ``(A) the Director of National Intelligence 
                determines that existing personnel resources are 
                insufficient;
                    ``(B) the period in which services are provided by 
                a personal services contractor, including options, does 
                not exceed 3 years, unless the Director of National 
                Intelligence determines that exceptional circumstances 
                justify an extension of up to 1 additional year;
                    ``(C) not more than 10 United States citizens or 
                aliens are employed as personal services contractors 
                under the authority of this paragraph at any time; and
                    ``(D) the authority of this paragraph is only used 
                to obtain specialized skills or experience or to 
                respond to urgent needs.
            ``(3) Security clearances.--Each employee detailed to the 
        Center and contractor of the Center shall have the security 
        clearance appropriate for the assigned duties of the employee 
        or contractor.
    ``(f) Board.--
            ``(1) Establishment.--There is established a Board of the 
        National Russian Threat Response Center (in this section 
        referred to as the `Board').
            ``(2) Functions.--The Board shall conduct oversight of the 
        Center to ensure the Center is achieving the missions of the 
        Center. In conducting such oversight, upon a majority vote of 
        the members of the Board, the Board may recommend to the 
        Director of National Intelligence that the Director of the 
        Center should be removed for failing to achieve such missions.
            ``(3) Membership.--
                    ``(A) Appointment.--The Board shall consist of 6 
                members. The head of each department or agency of the 
                Federal Government specified in subparagraph (B) shall 
                appoint a senior official from that department or 
                agency, who shall be a member of the Senior Executive 
                Service, as a member.
                    ``(B) Departments and agencies represented.--The 
                department or agency of the Federal Government 
                specified in this subparagraph are the following:
                            ``(i) The Department of State.
                            ``(ii) The Department of Defense.
                            ``(iii) The Department of Justice.
                            ``(iv) The Department of the Treasury.
                            ``(v) The Department of Homeland Security.
                            ``(vi) The Central Intelligence Agency.
            ``(4) Meetings.--The Board shall meet not less than 
        biannually and shall be convened by the member appointed by the 
        Secretary of State.
    ``(g) International Engagement.--The Director of the Center may 
convene biannual conferences to coordinate international efforts 
against threats posed by Russia described in subsection (b)(1).
    ``(h) Termination.--The Center shall terminate on the date that is 
8 years after the date of the enactment of this section.
    ``(i) Appropriate Congressional Committees Defined.--In this 
section, the term `appropriate congressional committees' means--
            ``(1) the congressional intelligence committees;
            ``(2) the Committee on Foreign Affairs, the Committee on 
        Armed Services, and the Committee on Oversight and Government 
        Reform of the House of Representatives; and
            ``(3) the Committee on Foreign Relations, the Committee on 
        Armed Services, and the Committee on Homeland Security and 
        Governmental Affairs of the Senate.''.
    (b) Clerical Amendment.--The table of contents at the beginning of 
such Act is amended by inserting after the item relating to section 
119B the following new item:

``Sec. 119C. National Russian Threat Response Center.''.
    (c) Conforming Amendment.--Section 507(a) of such Act (50 U.S.C. 
3106) is amended by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
            ``(6) An annual report submitted under section 
        119C(d)(1).''.
    (d) Funding.--
            (1) In general.--In addition to any other authority of the 
        Director of National Intelligence to transfer or reprogram 
        funds, the Director may transfer not more than $10,000,000 in 
        each of fiscal years 2019 and 2020 to carry out the functions 
        of the National Russian Threat Response Center established by 
        section 119C of the National Security Act of 1947, as added by 
        subsection (a), during such fiscal years.
            (2) Notice.--The Director of National Intelligence shall 
        notify the congressional intelligence committees (as defined in 
        section 3 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 
        3003)) of a proposed transfer under paragraph (1) not less than 
        15 days prior to making such transfer.
            (3) Inapplicability of reprogramming requirements.--The 
        authority to transfer amounts under paragraph (1) shall not be 
        subject to any transfer or reprogramming requirements under any 
        other provision of law.

SEC. 203. INTERAGENCY TASK FORCE RELATING TO ILLICIT RUSSIAN FINANCIAL 
              ACTIVITIES IN EUROPE.

    (a) In General.--Title I of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 
U.S.C. 3021 et seq.) is amended by adding at the end the following new 
section:

``SEC. 119C. INTERAGENCY TASK FORCE RELATING TO ILLICIT RUSSIAN 
              FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES IN EUROPE.

    ``(a) Establishment.--The President shall establish an interagency 
task force relating to illicit Russian financial activities in Europe 
(in this section referred to as the `task force').
    ``(b) Head of Task Force.--The head of the task force shall be a 
senior director, who shall be appointed by the President and who shall 
report to the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs 
(commonly referred to as the `National Security Advisor').
    ``(c) Functions.--The task force shall carry out the following 
functions:
            ``(1) In coordination with the intelligence community, 
        synchronize intelligence analysis relating to financial 
        networks of the Russian Federation that operate in European 
        countries relating to investments in the real estate, energy, 
        media, infrastructure, philanthropy, civil society, sports, 
        nongovernmental organization, and other sectors.
            ``(2) In coordination with the Secretary of the Treasury, 
        ensure training of United States liaison officers to serve in 
        key United States diplomatic and consular posts in European 
        countries to cooperate with foreign partners in the uncovering 
        and prosecution of illicit Russian financial activity.
    ``(d) Personnel.--The task force is authorized to accept details or 
assignments of any personnel on a reimbursable or nonreimbursable basis 
for the purpose of carrying out this section, and the head of any 
Federal agency is authorized to detail or assign personnel of such 
agency on a reimbursable or nonreimbursable basis to the task force for 
purposes of carrying out this section.''.
    (b) Clerical Amendment.--The table of contents for the National 
Security Act of 1947 is amended by inserting after the item relating to 
section 119B the following new item:

``Sec. 119C. Interagency task force relating to illicit Russian 
                            financial activities in Europe.''.

SEC. 204. PROHIBITION ON LICENSES OR OTHER AUTHORIZATION FOR UNITED 
              STATES PERSONS TO ENGAGE IN ACTIVITIES RELATING TO 
              CERTAIN PROJECTS TO PRODUCE OIL IN THE RUSSIAN 
              FEDERATION.

    (a) In General.--Effective as of the date of the enactment of this 
Act--
            (1) the Secretary of the Treasury, acting directly or 
        through any person, agency, or instrumentality, may not provide 
        a license or other authorization pursuant to Directive 4 under 
        Executive Order 13662 to engage in any of the activities 
        prohibited under such Directive; and
            (2) any license or other authorization provided before such 
        date of enactment by the Secretary of the Treasury, acting 
        directly or through any person, agency, or instrumentality, 
        pursuant to Directive 4 under Executive Order 13662 to engage 
        in any of the activities prohibited under such Directive shall 
        have no force or effect.
    (b) Definition.--In this section, the term ``Directive 4 under 
Executive Order 13662'' means Directive 4 of September 12, 2014, under 
Executive Order 13662 of March 20, 2014 (79 Fed. Reg. 16169; relating 
to Blocking Property of Additional Persons Contributing to the 
Situation in Ukraine) or any successor Directive or other Executive 
action.

                  Subtitle B--SECURE Our Democracy Act

SEC. 211. SHORT TITLE.

    This subtitle may be cited as the ``Safeguard our Elections and 
Combat Unlawful Interference in Our Democracy Act'' or the ``SECURE Our 
Democracy Act''.

SEC. 212. DEFINITIONS.

    In this subtitle:
            (1) Admitted; alien.--The terms ``admitted'' and ``alien'' 
        have the meanings given such terms in section 101 of the 
        Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101).
            (2) Appropriate congressional committees.--The term 
        ``appropriate congressional committees'' means--
                    (A) in the House of Representatives--
                            (i) the Committee on Foreign Affairs;
                            (ii) the Committee on Homeland Security;
                            (iii) the Committee on Financial Services;
                            (iv) the Committee on the Judiciary; and
                            (v) the Permanent Select Committee on 
                        Intelligence; and
                    (B) in the Senate--
                            (i) the Committee on Foreign Relations;
                            (ii) the Committee on Homeland Security and 
                        Governmental Affairs;
                            (iii) the Committee on Banking, Housing, 
                        and Urban Affairs;
                            (iv) the Committee on the Judiciary; and
                            (v) the Select Committee on Intelligence.
            (3) Financial institution.--The term ``financial 
        institution'' has the meaning given such term in section 5312 
        of title 31, United States Code.
            (4) Foreign person.--The term ``foreign person'' means a 
        person that is not a United States person.
            (5) United states person.--The term ``United States 
        person'' means--
                    (A) a United States citizen or an alien lawfully 
                admitted for permanent residence to the United States; 
                or
                    (B) an entity organized under the laws of the 
                United States or of any jurisdiction within the United 
                States, including a foreign branch of such an entity.

SEC. 213. IDENTIFICATION OF FOREIGN PERSONS RESPONSIBLE FOR ACTIONS TO 
              UNLAWFULLY ACCESS, DISRUPT, INFLUENCE, OR IN ANY WAY 
              ALTER INFORMATION OR INFORMATION SYSTEMS RELATED TO 
              UNITED STATES POLITICAL PARTIES OR ELECTIONS FOR FEDERAL 
              OFFICE.

    (a) In General.--Not later than 120 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the President shall transmit to the appropriate 
congressional committees and the Secretary of State a list of each 
foreign person that the President, in consultation with the heads of 
other relevant Federal departments and agencies, determines--
            (1) was, at any time since January 1, 2015, knowingly 
        involved in actions to unlawfully access, disrupt, 
        misappropriate, influence, or in any way alter information or 
        information systems related to United States political parties, 
        candidates in elections for Federal office, or the 
        administration of elections for Federal office; or
            (2) worked or acted as an agent or instrumentality of or on 
        behalf of or was otherwise associated with such a foreign 
        person in a matter relating to an action described in paragraph 
        (1).
    (b) Updates.--The President shall transmit to the appropriate 
congressional committees and the Secretary of State an update of the 
list required under subsection (a) as new information becomes 
available.
    (c) Form.--
            (1) In general.--Except as provided in paragraph (2), the 
        list required under subsection (a) and any updates under 
        subsection (b) shall be submitted in unclassified form.
            (2) Exception.--The name of a foreign person to be included 
        in the list required under subsection (a) and any updates under 
        subsection (b) may be submitted in a classified annex only if 
        the President--
                    (A) determines that it is in the national security 
                interests of the United States to do so; and
                    (B) 15 days prior to submitting any such name in 
                such a classified annex, provides to the appropriate 
                congressional committees notice of, and a justification 
                for, including or continuing to include any such 
                foreign person in any such classified annex despite any 
                publicly available information indicating that such 
                foreign person is described in paragraph (1) or (2) of 
                such subsection.
            (3) Public availability; nonapplicability of 
        confidentiality requirement with respect to visa records.--The 
        unclassified portion of the list required under subsection (a), 
        including any updates thereto, shall be made available to the 
        public and published in the Federal Register, without regard to 
        the requirements of section 222(f) of the Immigration and 
        Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1202(f)) with respect to 
        confidentiality of records pertaining to the issuance or 
        refusal of visas or permits to enter the United States.

SEC. 214. INADMISSIBILITY OF CERTAIN ALIENS.

    (a) Ineligibility for Visas.--An alien is ineligible to receive a 
visa to enter the United States and ineligible to be admitted to the 
United States if such alien is a foreign person on the list required 
under section 213(a) or any update thereto.
    (b) Current Visas Revoked.--The Secretary of State shall revoke, in 
accordance with section 221(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act 
(8 U.S.C. 1201(i)), the visa or other documentation of any alien who is 
a foreign person on the list required under section 213(a) or any 
update thereto, and who would therefore be ineligible to receive such a 
visa or documentation under subsection (a) of this section.
    (c) Applicability to Foreign Entities and Foreign Governments.--
Subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall apply to aliens who are 
officials of, agents or instrumentalities of, working or acting on 
behalf of, or otherwise associated with a foreign entity or foreign 
government that is a foreign person included on the list required under 
section 213(a) or any update thereto, if the President determines that 
such aliens have knowingly authorized, conspired to commit, been 
responsible for, engaged in, or otherwise assisted or facilitated the 
actions described in such section 213(a).
    (d) Waiver for National Security Interests.--The Secretary of State 
may waive the application of subsection (a) or (b) in the case of an 
alien if--
            (1) the Secretary determines that such a waiver--
                    (A) is necessary to permit the United States to 
                comply with the Agreement between the United Nations 
                and the United States of America regarding the 
                Headquarters of the United Nations, signed June 26, 
                1947, and entered into force November 21, 1947, or 
                other applicable international obligations of the 
                United States; or
                    (B) is in the national security interests of the 
                United States; and
            (2) not later than 15 days prior to granting such a waiver, 
        the Secretary provides to the appropriate congressional 
        committees notice of, and a justification for, such waiver.

SEC. 215. FINANCIAL MEASURES.

    (a) Freezing of Assets.--
            (1) In general.--The President, acting through the 
        Secretary of the Treasury, shall exercise all powers granted by 
        the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 
        et seq.) (except that the requirements of section 202 of such 
        Act (50 U.S.C. 1701) shall not apply) to the extent necessary 
        to freeze and prohibit all transactions in all property and 
        interests in property of a foreign person that is on the list 
        required under section 213(a), including any update thereto, of 
        this Act if such property or interests in property are in the 
        United States, are or come within the United States, or are or 
        come within the possession or control of a United States 
        person.
            (2) Applicability to foreign entities and foreign 
        governments.--Paragraph (1) shall apply to aliens who are 
        officials of, agents or instrumentalities of, working or acting 
        on behalf of, or otherwise associated with a foreign entity or 
        foreign government that is a foreign person included on the 
        list required under section 213(a), including any update 
        thereto, if the Director of National Intelligence determines 
        that such aliens have knowingly authorized, conspired to 
        commit, been responsible for, engaged in, or otherwise assisted 
        or facilitated the actions described in such section 213(a).
    (b) Waiver for National Security Interests.--The Secretary of the 
Treasury may waive the application of subsection (a) if--
            (1) the Secretary determines that such a waiver is in the 
        national security interests of the United States; and
            (2) not less than 15 days prior to granting such a waiver, 
        the Secretary provides to the appropriate congressional 
        committees notice of, and a justification for, such waiver.
    (c) Enforcement.--
            (1) Penalties.--A foreign person that violates, attempts to 
        violate, conspires to violate, or causes a violation of this 
        section or any regulation, license, or order issued to carry 
        out this section shall be subject to the penalties specified in 
        subsections (b) and (c) of section 206 of the International 
        Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1705) to the same 
        extent as a person that commits an unlawful act described in 
        subsection (a) of such section.
            (2) Applicability to foreign entities and foreign 
        governments.--Paragraph (1) shall apply to aliens who are 
        officials of, agents or instrumentalities of, working or acting 
        on behalf of, or otherwise associated with a foreign entity or 
        foreign government that is a foreign person included on the 
        list required under section 213(a), including any update 
        thereto, if the Director of National Intelligence determines 
        that such aliens have knowingly authorized, conspired to 
        commit, been responsible for, engaged in, or otherwise assisted 
        or facilitated the actions described in such section 213(a).
            (3) Requirements for financial institutions.--Not later 
        than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the 
        President, acting through the Secretary of the Treasury, shall 
        prescribe or amend regulations as needed to require each 
        financial institution that is a United States person and has 
        within its possession or control assets that are property or 
        interests in property of a foreign person that is on the list 
        required under section 213(a), including any update thereto, if 
        such property or interests in property are in the United 
        States, are or come within the United States, or are or come 
        within the possession or control of a United States person, to 
        certify to the Secretary that, to the best of the knowledge of 
        such financial institution, such financial institution has 
        frozen all assets within the possession or control of such 
        financial institution that are required to be frozen pursuant 
        to subsection (a) of this section.
    (d) Regulatory Authority.--The President, acting through the 
Secretary of the Treasury, shall issue such regulations, licenses, and 
orders as are necessary to carry out this section.

SEC. 216. REPORTS TO CONGRESS.

    (a) In General.--The Director of National Intelligence, in 
consultation with the heads of other relevant Federal departments and 
agencies, shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a 
report on the actions taken to carry out this subtitle, including--
            (1) a description of each foreign person on the list 
        required under section 213(a), including any update thereto;
            (2) the dates on which such foreign persons were added to 
        such list; and
            (3) a description of the actions described in such section 
        that were undertaken by each such foreign person.
    (b) Timing.--The Director of National Intelligence shall submit the 
first report required under this section not later than one year after 
the date of the enactment of this Act. The Director shall submit 
subsequent reports under this section not later than 60 days after the 
date of each regularly scheduled general election for Federal office, 
beginning with the election held in 2018.
    (c) Form.--Each report required under subsection (a) shall be 
submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex if 
the Director of National Intelligence determines and includes in such 
report a specific national security justification for such classified 
annex.

  Subtitle C--Preventing Cyber Intrusion Into Election Infrastructure

SEC. 221. ELECTION INFRASTRUCTURE DESIGNATION.

    Subparagraph (J) of section 2001(3) of the Homeland Security Act of 
2002 (6 U.S.C. 601(3)) is amended by inserting ``, including election 
infrastructure'' before the period at the end.

SEC. 222. TIMELY THREAT INFORMATION.

    Subsection (d) of section 201 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 
(6 U.S.C. 121) is amended by adding at the end the following new 
paragraph:
            ``(27) To provide timely threat information regarding 
        election infrastructure to the chief State election official of 
        the State with respect to which such information pertains.''.

SEC. 223. PRE-ELECTION THREAT ASSESSMENTS.

    (a) Submission of Assessment by DNI.--Not later than 180 days 
before the date of each regularly scheduled general election for 
Federal office, the Director of National Intelligence shall submit an 
assessment of the full scope of threats to election infrastructure, 
including cybersecurity threats posed by State actors and terrorist 
groups, and recommendations to address or mitigate the threats, as 
developed by the Secretary of Homeland Security and Chairman of the 
Election Assistance Commission, to--
            (1) the chief State election official of each State;
            (2) the Committees on Homeland Security and House 
        Administration of the House of Representatives and the 
        Committees on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs and 
        Rules and Administration of the Senate; and
            (3) any other appropriate congressional committees.
    (b) Effective Date.--Subsection (a) shall apply with respect to the 
regularly scheduled general election for Federal office held in 
November 2018 and each succeeding regularly scheduled general election 
for Federal office.

SEC. 224. NOTIFICATION OF SIGNIFICANT FOREIGN CYBER INTRUSIONS AND 
              ACTIVE MEASURES CAMPAIGNS DIRECTED AT ELECTIONS FOR 
              FEDERAL OFFICES.

    (a) Determinations of Significant Foreign Cyber Intrusions and 
Active Measures Campaigns.--The Director of National Intelligence, the 
Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the Secretary of 
Homeland Security shall jointly carry out subsection (b) if such 
Directors and the Secretary jointly determine--
            (1) that on or after the date of the enactment of this Act, 
        a significant foreign cyber intrusion or active measures 
        campaign intended to influence an upcoming election for any 
        Federal office has occurred or is occurring; and
            (2) with moderate or high confidence, that such intrusion 
        or campaign can be attributed to a foreign state or to a 
        foreign nonstate person, group, or other entity.
    (b) Briefing.--
            (1) In general.--Not later than 14 days after making a 
        determination under subsection (a), the Director of National 
        Intelligence, the Director of the Federal Bureau of 
        Investigation, and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall 
        jointly provide a briefing to the congressional leadership, the 
        congressional intelligence committees and, consistent with the 
        protection of sources and methods, the other appropriate 
        congressional committees. The briefing shall be classified and 
        address, at a minimum, the following:
                    (A) A description of the significant foreign cyber 
                intrusion or active measures campaign, as the case may 
                be, covered by the determination.
                    (B) An identification of the foreign state or 
                foreign nonstate person, group, or other entity, to 
                which such intrusion or campaign has been attributed.
                    (C) The desirability and feasibility of the public 
                release of information about the cyber intrusion or 
                active measures campaign.
                    (D) Any other information such Directors and the 
                Secretary jointly determine appropriate.
            (2) Electronic election infrastructure briefings.--With 
        respect to a significant foreign cyber intrusion covered by a 
        determination under subsection (a), the Secretary of Homeland 
        Security, in consultation with the Director of National 
        Intelligence and the Director of the Federal Bureau of 
        Investigation, shall offer to the owner or operator of any 
        electronic election infrastructure directly affected by such 
        intrusion, a briefing on such intrusion, including any steps 
        that may be taken to mitigate such intrusion. Such briefing may 
        be classified and made available only to individuals with 
        appropriate security clearances.
            (3) Protection of sources and methods.--This subsection 
        shall be carried out in a manner that is consistent with the 
        protection of sources and methods.
    (c) Definitions.--In this section:
            (1) Active measures campaign.--The term ``active measures 
        campaign'' means a foreign semi-covert or covert intelligence 
        operation.
            (2) Candidate, election, and political party.--The terms 
        ``candidate'', ``election'', and ``political party'' have the 
        meanings given those terms in section 301 of the Federal 
        Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30101).
            (3) Congressional leadership.--The term ``congressional 
        leadership'' includes the following:
                    (A) The majority leader of the Senate.
                    (B) The minority leader of the Senate.
                    (C) The Speaker of the House of Representatives.
                    (D) The minority leader of the House of 
                Representatives.
            (4) Cyber intrusion.--The term ``cyber intrusion'' means an 
        electronic occurrence that actually or imminently jeopardizes, 
        without lawful authority, electronic election infrastructure, 
        or the integrity, confidentiality, or availability of 
        information within such infrastructure.
            (5) Electronic election infrastructure.--The term 
        ``electronic election infrastructure'' means an electronic 
        information system of any of the following that is related to 
        an election for Federal office:
                    (A) The Federal Government.
                    (B) A State or local government.
                    (C) A political party.
                    (D) The election campaign of a candidate.
            (6) Federal office.--The term ``Federal office'' has the 
        meaning given that term in section 301 of the Federal Election 
        Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30101).
            (7) High confidence.--The term ``high confidence'', with 
        respect to a determination, means that the determination is 
        based on high-quality information from multiple sources.
            (8) Moderate confidence.--The term ``moderate confidence'', 
        with respect to a determination, means that a determination is 
        credibly sourced and plausible but not of sufficient quality or 
        corroborated sufficiently to warrant a higher level of 
        confidence.
            (9) Other appropriate congressional committees.--The term 
        ``other appropriate congressional committees'' means--
                    (A) the Committee on Armed Services and the 
                Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs 
                of the Senate; and
                    (B) the Committee on Armed Services and the 
                Committee on Homeland Security of the House of 
                Representatives.

                       Subtitle D--Honest Ads Act

SEC. 231. SHORT TITLE.

    This subtitle may be cited as the ``Honest Ads Act''.

SEC. 232. PURPOSE.

    The purpose of this subtitle is to enhance the integrity of 
American democracy and national security by improving disclosure 
requirements for online political advertisements in order to uphold the 
United States Supreme Court's well-established standard that the 
electorate bears the right to be fully informed.

SEC. 233. FINDINGS.

    Congress makes the following findings:
            (1) On January 6, 2017, the Office of the Director of 
        National Intelligence published a report titled ``Assessing 
        Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent U.S. Elections'', 
        noting that ``Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered an 
        influence campaign in 2016 aimed at the U.S. Presidential 
        election . . .''. Moscow's influence campaign followed a 
        Russian messaging strategy that blends covert intelligence 
        operation--such as cyber activity--with overt efforts by 
        Russian Government agencies, State-funded media, third-party 
        intermediaries, and paid social media users or ``trolls.''
            (2) On November 24, 2016, the Washington Post reported 
        findings from 2 teams of independent researchers that concluded 
        Russians ``exploited American-made technology platforms to 
        attack U.S. democracy at a particularly vulnerable moment . . . 
        as part of a broadly effective strategy of sowing distrust in 
        U.S. democracy and its leaders.''.
            (3) Findings from a 2017 study on the manipulation of 
        public opinion through social media conducted by the 
        Computational Propaganda Research Project at the Oxford 
        Internet Institute found that the Kremlin is using pro-Russian 
        bots to manipulate public discourse to a highly targeted 
        audience. With a sample of nearly 1,300,000 tweets, researchers 
        found that in the 2016 election's 3 decisive States, propaganda 
        constituted 40 percent of the sampled election-related tweets 
        that went to Pennsylvanians, 34 percent to Michigan voters, and 
        30 percent to those in Wisconsin. In other swing States, the 
        figure reached 42 percent in Missouri, 41 percent in Florida, 
        40 percent in North Carolina, 38 percent in Colorado, and 35 
        percent in Ohio.
            (4) On September 6, 2017, the Nation's largest social media 
        platform disclosed that between June 2015 and May 2017, Russian 
        entities purchased $100,000 in political advertisements, 
        publishing roughly 3,000 ads linked to fake accounts associated 
        with the Internet Research Agency, a pro-Kremlin organization. 
        According to the company, the ads purchased focused ``on 
        amplifying divisive social and political messages . . .''.
            (5) In 2002, the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act became law, 
        establishing disclosure requirements for political 
        advertisements distributed from a television or radio broadcast 
        station or provider of cable or satellite television. In 2003, 
        the Supreme Court upheld regulations on electioneering 
        communications established under the Act, noting that such 
        requirements ``provide the electorate with information and 
        insure that the voters are fully informed about the person or 
        group who is speaking.''.
            (6) According to a study from Borrell Associates, in 2016, 
        $1,415,000,000 was spent on online advertising, more than 
        quadruple the amount in 2012.
            (7) The reach of a few large internet platforms--larger 
        than any broadcast, satellite, or cable provider--has greatly 
        facilitated the scope and effectiveness of disinformation 
        campaigns. For instance, the largest platform has over 
        210,000,000 American users--over 160,000,000 of them on a daily 
        basis. By contrast, the largest cable television provider has 
        22,430,000 subscribers, while the largest satellite television 
        provider has 21,000,000 subscribers. And the most-watched 
        television broadcast in U.S. history had 118,000,000 viewers.
            (8) The public nature of broadcast television, radio, and 
        satellite ensures a level of publicity for any political 
        advertisement. These communications are accessible to the 
        press, fact-checkers, and political opponents; this creates 
        strong disincentives for a candidate to disseminate materially 
        false, inflammatory, or contradictory messages to the public. 
        Social media platforms, in contrast, can target portions of the 
        electorate with direct, ephemeral advertisements often on the 
        basis of private information the platform has on individuals, 
        enabling political advertisements that are contradictory, 
        racially or socially inflammatory, or materially false.
            (9) According to comScore, 2 companies own eight of the 10 
        most popular smartphone applications as of June 2017, including 
        the most popular social media and email services--which deliver 
        information and news to users without requiring proactivity by 
        the user. Those same 2 companies accounted for 99 percent of 
        revenue growth from digital advertising in 2016, including 77 
        percent of gross spending. Seventy-nine percent of online 
        Americans--representing 68 percent of all Americans--use the 
        single largest social network, while 66 percent of these users 
        are most likely to get their news from that site.
            (10) In its 2006 rulemaking, the Federal Election 
        Commission noted that only 18 percent of all Americans cited 
        the internet as their leading source of news about the 2004 
        Presidential election; by contrast, the Pew Research Center 
        found that 65 percent of Americans identified an internet-based 
        source as their leading source of information for the 2016 
        election.
            (11) The Federal Election Commission, the independent 
        Federal agency charged with protecting the integrity of the 
        Federal campaign finance process by providing transparency and 
        administering campaign finance laws, has failed to take action 
        to address online political advertisements.
            (12) In testimony before the Senate Select Committee on 
        Intelligence titled, ``Disinformation: A Primer in Russian 
        Active Measures and Influence Campaigns,'' multiple expert 
        witnesses testified that while the disinformation tactics of 
        foreign adversaries have not necessarily changed, social media 
        services now provide ``platform[s] practically purpose-built 
        for active measures[.]'' Similarly, as Gen. (RET) Keith B. 
        Alexander, the former Director of the National Security Agency, 
        testified, during the Cold War ``if the Soviet Union sought to 
        manipulate information flow, it would have to do so principally 
        through its own propaganda outlets or through active measures 
        that would generate specific news: planting of leaflets, 
        inciting of violence, creation of other false materials and 
        narratives. But the news itself was hard to manipulate because 
        it would have required actual control of the organs of media, 
        which took long-term efforts to penetrate. Today, however, 
        because the clear majority of the information on social media 
        sites is uncurated and there is a rapid proliferation of 
        information sources and other sites that can reinforce 
        information, there is an increasing likelihood that the 
        information available to average consumers may be inaccurate 
        (whether intentionally or otherwise) and may be more easily 
        manipulable than in prior eras.''.
            (13) Current regulations on political advertisements do not 
        provide sufficient transparency to uphold the public's right to 
        be fully informed about political advertisements made online.

SEC. 234. SENSE OF CONGRESS.

    It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) the dramatic increase in digital political 
        advertisements, and the growing centrality of online platforms 
        in the lives of Americans, requires the Congress and the 
        Federal Election Commission to take meaningful action to ensure 
        that laws and regulations provide the accountability and 
        transparency that is fundamental to our democracy;
            (2) free and fair elections require both transparency and 
        accountability which give the public a right to know the true 
        sources of funding for political advertisements in order to 
        make informed political choices and hold elected officials 
        accountable; and
            (3) transparency of funding for political advertisements is 
        essential to enforce other campaign finance laws, including the 
        prohibition on campaign spending by foreign nationals.

SEC. 235. EXPANSION OF DEFINITION OF PUBLIC COMMUNICATION.

    (a) In General.--Paragraph (22) of section 301 of the Federal 
Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30101(22)) is amended by 
striking ``or satellite communication'' and inserting ``satellite, paid 
internet, or paid digital communication''.
    (b) Treatment of Contributions and Expenditures.--Section 301 of 
such Act (52 U.S.C. 30101) is amended--
            (1) in paragraph (8)(B)--
                    (A) by striking ``on broadcasting stations, or in 
                newspapers, magazines, or similar types of general 
                public political advertising'' in clause (v) and 
                inserting ``in any public communication'';
                    (B) by striking ``broadcasting, newspaper, 
                magazine, billboard, direct mail, or similar type of 
                general public communication or political advertising'' 
                in clause (ix)(1) and inserting ``public 
                communication''; and
                    (C) by striking ``but not including the use of 
                broadcasting, newspapers, magazines, billboards, direct 
                mail, or similar types of general public communication 
                or political advertising'' in clause (x) and inserting 
                ``but not including use in any public communication''; 
                and
            (2) in paragraph (9)(B)--
                    (A) by striking clause (i) and inserting the 
                following:
                            ``(i) any news story, commentary, or 
                        editorial distributed through the facilities of 
                        any broadcasting station or any print, online, 
                        or digital newspaper, magazine, blog, 
                        publication, or periodical, unless such 
                        broadcasting, print, online, or digital 
                        facilities are owned or controlled by any 
                        political party, political committee, or 
                        candidate;''; and
                    (B) by striking ``on broadcasting stations, or in 
                newspapers, magazines, or similar types of general 
                public political advertising'' in clause (iv) and 
                inserting ``in any public communication''.
    (c) Disclosure and Disclaimer Statements.--Subsection (a) of 
section 318 of such Act (52 U.S.C. 30120) is amended--
            (1) by striking ``financing any communication through any 
        broadcasting station, newspaper, magazine, outdoor advertising 
        facility, mailing, or any other type of general public 
        political advertising'' and inserting ``financing any public 
        communication''; and
            (2) by striking ``solicits any contribution through any 
        broadcasting station, newspaper, magazine, outdoor advertising 
        facility, mailing, or any other type of general public 
        political advertising'' and inserting ``solicits any 
        contribution through any public communication''.

SEC. 236. EXPANSION OF DEFINITION OF ELECTIONEERING COMMUNICATION.

    (a) Expansion to Online Communications.--
            (1) Application to qualified internet and digital 
        communications.--
                    (A) In general.--Subparagraph (A) of section 
                304(f)(3) of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 
                (52 U.S.C. 30104(f)(3)(A)) is amended by striking ``or 
                satellite communication'' each place it appears in 
                clauses (i) and (ii) and inserting ``satellite, or 
                qualified internet or digital communication''.
                    (B) Qualified internet or digital communication.--
                Paragraph (3) of section 304(f) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 
                30104(f)) is amended by adding at the end the following 
                new subparagraph:
                    ``(D) Qualified internet or digital 
                communication.--The term `qualified internet or digital 
                communication' means any communication which is placed 
                or promoted for a fee on an online platform (as defined 
                in subsection (j)(3)).''.
            (2) Nonapplication of relevant electorate to online 
        communications.--Section 304(f)(3)(A)(i)(III) of such Act (52 
        U.S.C. 30104(f)(3)(A)(i)(III)) is amended by inserting ``any 
        broadcast, cable, or satellite'' before ``communication''.
            (3) News exemption.--Section 304(f)(3)(B)(i) of such Act 
        (52 U.S.C. 30104(f)(3)(B)(i)) is amended to read as follows:
                            ``(i) a communication appearing in a news 
                        story, commentary, or editorial distributed 
                        through the facilities of any broadcasting 
                        station or any online or digital newspaper, 
                        magazine, blog, publication, or periodical, 
                        unless such broadcasting, online, or digital 
                        facilities are owned or controlled by any 
                        political party, political committee, or 
                        candidate;''.
    (b) Effective Date.--The amendments made by this section shall 
apply with respect to communications made on or after January 1, 2018.

SEC. 237. APPLICATION OF DISCLAIMER STATEMENTS TO ONLINE 
              COMMUNICATIONS.

    (a) Clear and Conspicuous Manner Requirement.--Subsection (a) of 
section 318 of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 
30120(a)) is amended--
            (1) by striking ``shall clearly state'' each place it 
        appears in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) and inserting ``shall 
        state in a clear and conspicuous manner''; and
            (2) by adding at the end the following flush sentence: 
        ``For purposes of this subsection, a communication does not 
        make a statement in a clear and conspicuous manner if it is 
        difficult to read or hear or if the placement is easily 
        overlooked.''.
    (b) Special Rules for Qualified Internet or Digital 
Communications.--
            (1) In general.--Section 318 of such Act (52 U.S.C. 30120) 
        is amended by adding at the end the following new subsection:
    ``(e) Special Rules Qualified Internet or Digital Communications.--
            ``(1) Special rules with respect to statements.--In the 
        case of any qualified internet or digital communication (as 
        defined in section 304(f)(3)(D)) which is disseminated through 
        a medium in which the provision of all of the information 
        specified in this section is not possible, the communication 
        shall, in a clear and conspicuous manner--
                    ``(A) state the name of the person who paid for the 
                communication; and
                    ``(B) provide a means for the recipient of the 
                communication to obtain the remainder of the 
                information required under this section with minimal 
                effort and without receiving or viewing any additional 
                material other than such required information.
            ``(2) Safe harbor for determining clear and conspicuous 
        manner.--A statement in qualified internet or digital 
        communication (as defined in section 304(f)(3)(D)) shall be 
        considered to be made in a clear and conspicuous manner as 
        provided in subsection (a) if the communication meets the 
        following requirements:
                    ``(A) Text or graphic communications.--In the case 
                of a text or graphic communication, the statement--
                            ``(i) appears in letters at least as large 
                        as the majority of the text in the 
                        communication; and
                            ``(ii) meets the requirements of paragraphs 
                        (2) and (3) of subsection (c).
                    ``(B) Audio communications.--In the case of an 
                audio communication, the statement is spoken in a 
                clearly audible and intelligible manner at the 
                beginning or end of the communication and lasts at 
                least 3 seconds.
                    ``(C) Video communications.--In the case of a video 
                communication which also includes audio, the 
                statement--
                            ``(i) is included at either the beginning 
                        or the end of the communication; and
                            ``(ii) is made both in--
                                    ``(I) a written format that meets 
                                the requirements of subparagraph (A) 
                                and appears for at least 4 seconds; and
                                    ``(II) an audible format that meets 
                                the requirements of subparagraph (B).
                    ``(D) Other communications.--In the case of any 
                other type of communication, the statement is at least 
                as clear and conspicuous as the statement specified in 
                subparagraphs (A), (B), or (C).''.
            (2) Nonapplication of certain exceptions.--The exceptions 
        provided in section 110.11(f)(1)(i) and (ii) of title 11, Code 
        of Federal Regulations, or any successor to such rules, shall 
        have no application to qualified internet or digital 
        communications (as defined in section 304(f)(3)(D) of the 
        Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971).
    (c) Modification of Additional Requirements for Certain 
Communications.--Section 318(d) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 30120(d)) is 
amended--
            (1) in paragraph (1)(A)--
                    (A) by striking ``which is transmitted through 
                radio'' and inserting ``which is in an audio format''; 
                and
                    (B) by striking ``By radio'' in the heading and 
                inserting ``Audio format'';
            (2) in paragraph (1)(B)--
                    (A) by striking ``which is transmitted through 
                television'' and inserting ``which is in video 
                format''; and
                    (B) by striking ``By television'' in the heading 
                and inserting ``Video format''; and
            (3) in paragraph (2)--
                    (A) by striking ``transmitted through radio or 
                television'' and inserting ``made in audio or video 
                format''; and
                    (B) by striking ``through television'' in the 
                second sentence and inserting ``in video format''.

SEC. 238. POLITICAL RECORD REQUIREMENTS FOR ONLINE PLATFORMS.

    (a) In General.--Section 304 of the Federal Election Campaign Act 
of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30104) is amended by adding at the end the following 
new subsection:
    ``(j) Disclosure of Certain Online Advertisements.--
            ``(1) In general.--
                    ``(A) Requirements for online platforms.--An online 
                platform shall maintain, and make available for online 
                public inspection in machine readable format, a 
                complete record of any request to purchase on such 
                online platform a qualified political advertisement 
                which is made by a person whose aggregate requests to 
                purchase qualified political advertisements on such 
                online platform during the calendar year exceeds $500.
                    ``(B) Requirements for advertisers.--Any person who 
                requests to purchase a qualified political 
                advertisement on an online platform shall provide the 
                online platform with such information as is necessary 
                for the online platform to comply with the requirements 
                of subparagraph (A).
            ``(2) Contents of record.--A record maintained under 
        paragraph (1)(A) shall contain--
                    ``(A) a digital copy of the qualified political 
                advertisement;
                    ``(B) a description of the audience targeted by the 
                advertisement, the number of views generated from the 
                advertisement, and the date and time that the 
                advertisement is first displayed and last displayed; 
                and
                    ``(C) information regarding--
                            ``(i) the average rate charged for the 
                        advertisement;
                            ``(ii) the name of the candidate to which 
                        the advertisement refers and the office to 
                        which the candidate is seeking election, the 
                        election to which the advertisement refers, or 
                        the national legislative issue to which the 
                        advertisement refers (as applicable);
                            ``(iii) in the case of a request made by, 
                        or on behalf of, a candidate, the name of the 
                        candidate, the authorized committee of the 
                        candidate, and the treasurer of such committee; 
                        and
                            ``(iv) in the case of any request not 
                        described in clause (iii), the name of the 
                        person purchasing the advertisement, the name, 
                        address, and phone number of a contact person 
                        for such person, and a list of the chief 
                        executive officers or members of the executive 
                        committee or of the board of directors of such 
                        person.
            ``(3) Online platform.--For purposes of this subsection, 
        the term `online platform' means any public-facing website, web 
        application, or digital application (including a social 
        network, ad network, or search engine) which--
                    ``(A) sells qualified political advertisements; and
                    ``(B) has 50,000,000 or more unique monthly United 
                States visitors or users for a majority of months 
                during the preceding 12 months.
            ``(4) Qualified political advertisement.--
                    ``(A) In general.--For purposes of this subsection, 
                the term `qualified political advertisement' means any 
                advertisement (including search engine marketing, 
                display advertisements, video advertisements, native 
                advertisements, and sponsorships) that--
                            ``(i) is made by or on behalf of a 
                        candidate; or
                            ``(ii) communicates a message relating to 
                        any political matter of national importance, 
                        including--
                                    ``(I) a candidate;
                                    ``(II) any election to Federal 
                                office; or
                                    ``(III) a national legislative 
                                issue of public importance.
            ``(5) Time to maintain file.--The information required 
        under this subsection shall be made available as soon as 
        possible and shall be retained by the online platform for a 
        period of not less than 4 years.
            ``(6) Penalties.--For penalties for failure by online 
        platforms, and persons requesting to purchase a qualified 
        political advertisement on online platforms, to comply with the 
        requirements of this subsection, see section 309.''.
    (b) Rulemaking.--Not later than 90 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the Federal Election Commission shall establish 
rules--
            (1) requiring common data formats for the record required 
        to be maintained under section 304(j) of the Federal Election 
        Campaign Act of 1971 (as added by subsection (a)) so that all 
        online platforms submit and maintain data online in a common, 
        machine-readable and publicly accessible format; and
            (2) establishing search interface requirements relating to 
        such record, including searches by candidate name, issue, 
        purchaser, and date.
    (c) Reporting.--Not later than 2 years after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, and biannually thereafter, the Chairman of the 
Federal Election Commission shall submit a report to Congress on--
            (1) matters relating to compliance with and the enforcement 
        of the requirements of section 304(j) of the Federal Election 
        Campaign Act of 1971, as added by subsection (a);
            (2) recommendations for any modifications to such section 
        to assist in carrying out its purposes; and
            (3) identifying ways to bring transparency and 
        accountability to political advertisements distributed online 
        for free.

SEC. 239. PREVENTING CONTRIBUTIONS, EXPENDITURES, INDEPENDENT 
              EXPENDITURES, AND DISBURSEMENTS FOR ELECTIONEERING 
              COMMUNICATIONS BY FOREIGN NATIONALS IN THE FORM OF ONLINE 
              ADVERTISING.

    Section 319 of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 
30121) is amended by adding at the end the following new subsection:
    ``(c) Each television or radio broadcast station, provider of cable 
or satellite television, or online platform (as defined in section 
304(j)(3)) shall make reasonable efforts to ensure that communications 
described in section 318(a) and made available by such station, 
provider, or platform are not purchased by a foreign national, directly 
or indirectly.''.

         Subtitle E--Countering Foreign Propaganda Act of 2018

SEC. 241. SHORT TITLE.

    This subtitle may be cited as the ``Countering Foreign Propaganda 
Act of 2018''.

SEC. 242. DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS FOR UNITED STATES-BASED FOREIGN MEDIA 
              OUTLETS.

    Title VII of the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) 
is amended by adding at the end the following:

``SEC. 722. DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS FOR UNITED STATES-BASED FOREIGN 
              MEDIA OUTLETS.

    ``(a) Reports by Outlets to Commission.--Not later than 90 days 
after the date of the enactment of this section, and not less 
frequently than every 6 months thereafter, a United States-based 
foreign media outlet shall submit to the Commission a report that 
contains the following information:
            ``(1) The name of such outlet.
            ``(2) A description of the relationship of such outlet to 
        the foreign principal of such outlet, including a description 
        of the legal structure of such relationship and any funding 
        that such outlet receives from such principal.
    ``(b) Reports by Commission to Congress.--Not later than 60 days 
after the date of the enactment of this section, and not less 
frequently than every 6 months thereafter, the Commission shall 
transmit to Congress a report that summarizes the contents of the 
reports submitted by United States-based foreign media outlets under 
subsection (a) during the preceding 6-month period.
    ``(c) Public Availability.--The Commission shall make publicly 
available on the internet website of the Commission each report 
submitted by a United States-based foreign media outlet under 
subsection (a) not later than the earlier of--
            ``(1) the date that is 30 days after the outlet submits the 
        report to the Commission; or
            ``(2) the date on which the Commission transmits to 
        Congress under subsection (b) the report covering the 6-month 
        period during which the report of the outlet was submitted to 
        the Commission under subsection (a).
    ``(d) Definitions.--In this section:
            ``(1) Foreign principal.--The term `foreign principal' has 
        the meaning given such term in section 1(b)(1) of the Foreign 
        Agents Registration Act of 1938 (22 U.S.C. 611(b)(1)).
            ``(2) United states-based foreign media outlet.--The term 
        `United States-based foreign media outlet' means an entity 
        that--
                    ``(A) produces or distributes video programming 
                that is transmitted, or intended for transmission, by a 
                multichannel video programming distributor to consumers 
                in the United States; and
                    ``(B) would be an agent of a foreign principal (as 
                defined in paragraph (1)) for purposes of the Foreign 
                Agents Registration Act of 1938 (22 U.S.C. 611 et seq.) 
                but for section 1(d) of such Act (22 U.S.C. 611(d)).''.

TITLE III--ACTIONS TO COUNTER RUSSIAN AGGRESSION AGAINST UNITED STATES 
                                 ALLIES

        Subtitle A--Stand With UK Against Russia Violations Act

SEC. 301. SHORT TITLE.

    This subtitle may be cited as the ``Stand with UK against Russia 
Violations Act''.

SEC. 302. FINDINGS.

    Congress finds the following:
            (1) On March 4, 2018, Sergei V. Skripal, and his daughter, 
        Yulia Skripal, were found unconscious on a park bench in 
        Salisbury, England.
            (2) British Prime Minister Theresa May announced on March 
        12, 2018, that the poison used in the attack was Novichok, a 
        military-grade nerve agent developed by Soviet scientists for 
        use on North Atlantic Treaty Organization troops, and that 
        Russia was responsible for the attack.
            (3) On March 15, 2018, the United Kingdom, France, and 
        Germany issued a joint statement holding the Government of 
        Russia responsible for the poisoning and characterizing the 
        attack as ``an assault on UK sovereignty''.

SEC. 303. SENSE OF CONGRESS.

    It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) The attempts of the Government of Russia to commit 
        murders on British soil are unconscionable and violate 
        international law.
            (2) The United States stands in strong solidarity with the 
        British government and its people as they respond to this 
        violation.
            (3) Russian aggression must be met with strength and 
        resolve, including through sanctions to deter future Russian 
        attacks on dissidents, expatriates, and democratic activists.

SEC. 304. IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO RUSSIAN PERSONS 
              RESPONSIBLE FOR MARCH 12 ATTACK.

    (a) In General.--Not later than 60 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the President shall impose the sanctions 
described in subsection (c) with respect to any person that the 
President determines--
            (1) knowingly engaged in, provided material support to, 
        worked on behalf of, or acted as an agent or instrumentality 
        of, any person who perpetrated the attack against Sergei 
        Skripal and Yulia Skripal on March 4, 2018; or
            (2) is an officer, employee, or agent of the Government of 
        Russia and knowingly, on or after the date of the enactment of 
        this Act, materially assisted, worked on behalf of, or acted as 
        an agent or instrumentality of, the Government of Russia in 
        committing murder, attempted murder, or assault outside of 
        Russia against any expatriate, dissident, or foreign national.
    (b) Concurrent Report.--The President shall submit to Congress a 
report, concurrent with the imposition of any sanction under subsection 
(a), that lists each person determined to have engaged in the conduct 
resulting in such sanction.
    (c) Sanctions Described.--The sanctions described in this 
subsection are the sanctions described in section 224(b) of the 
Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (22 U.S.C. 
9524(b)).

SEC. 305. PROHIBITION ON TRANSACTIONS RELATING TO NEW RUSSIAN SOVEREIGN 
              DEBT.

    (a) In General.--Not later than 90 days after the date of the 
imposition of a sanction pursuant to section 304(a)(2), the President 
shall--
            (1) issue regulations prohibiting United States persons 
        from engaging in transactions with, providing financing for, or 
        in any other way dealing in Russian sovereign debt that is 
        issued on or after the date that is 180 days after such date of 
        imposition of sanctions; and
            (2) exercise all powers granted to the President by the 
        International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 13 
        et seq.) to the extent necessary to block and prohibit all 
        transactions in all property and interests in property of one 
        or more of the financial institutions listed in subsection (c) 
        if such property and interests in property are in the United 
        States, come within the United States, or are or come within 
        the possession or control of a United States person.
    (b) Russian Sovereign Debt Defined.--For purposes of this section, 
the term ``Russian sovereign debt'' means--
            (1) bonds issued by the Russian Central Bank, the Russian 
        National Wealth Fund, the Russian Federal Treasury, or agents 
        or affiliates of any such institution, with a maturity of more 
        than 14 days;
            (2) new foreign exchange swap agreements with the Russian 
        Central Bank, the Russian National Wealth Fund, or the Russian 
        Federal Treasury, the duration of which agreement is longer 
        than 14 days; and
            (3) any other financial instrument, the duration or 
        maturity of which is more than 14 days, that--
                    (A) the President determines represents the 
                sovereign debt of Russia; or
                    (B) is issued by a bank listed in subsection (c).
    (c) Russian Financial Institutions.--The financial institutions 
listed in this subsection are the following:
            (1) Sberbank.
            (2) VTB Bank.
            (3) Gazprombank.
            (4) Bank of Moscow.
            (5) Rosselkhozbank.
            (6) Promsvyazbank.
            (7) Vnesheconombank.
    (d) Requirement To Promptly Publish Guidance.--The President shall 
concurrently publish guidance on the implementation of the regulations 
issued pursuant to subsection (a).

SEC. 306. IMPLEMENTATION; PENALTIES; TERMINATION.

    (a) Implementation.--The President may exercise all authorities 
provided to the President under sections 203 and 205 of the 
International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1702 and 1704) 
to carry out this subtitle.
    (b) Penalties.--A person that violates, attempts to violate, 
conspires to violate, or causes a violation of section 304 or 305, or 
any regulation, license, or order issued to carry out such sections, 
shall be subject to the penalties set forth in subsections (b) and (c) 
of section 206 of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 
U.S.C. 1705) to the same extent as a person that commits an unlawful 
act described in subsection (a) of that section.
    (c) Termination.--
            (1) In general.--The President may terminate the 
        application of a sanction under section 304 or section 
        305(a)(2) if the President submits to Congress a determination 
        that officers, employees, and agents of the Government of 
        Russia no longer engage in the conduct described in section 
        304(a)(2).
            (2) Waiver.--The President may, on or after the date on 
        which the President submits the determination described in 
        paragraph (1), waive the prohibition imposed pursuant to 
        section 305(a)(1) with respect to Russian sovereign debt (as 
        defined in such section) issued on or after such date if the 
        President concurrently submits to Congress a notification that 
        includes a justification of the basis for waiving such 
        prohibition.

SEC. 307. ENHANCED MILITARY ACTIVITIES TO DETER RUSSIAN AGGRESSION.

    (a) NATO Exercises.--The Secretary of Defense, in consultation with 
appropriate officials of other countries in the North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization (NATO), shall seek opportunities to conduct more NATO 
naval exercises in the Baltic and Black Seas, as well as in the 
northern Atlantic Ocean, to defend the seas around Europe and deter 
Russian aggression in those regions.
    (b) Joint Research Projects.--The Secretary of Defense, in 
coordination with the Secretary of State, may conduct joint research 
projects with NATO allies pursuant to the authorities under chapter 138 
of title 10, United States Code, including projects through NATO 
Centers of Excellence, to--
            (1) improve NATO reconnaissance capabilities to track 
        Russian military exercises;
            (2) enhance NATO anti-submarine warfare capabilities 
        against Russia;
            (3) increase the numbers of modern sensors placed on NATO 
        aircraft, submarines, and surface ships; or
            (4) enhance NATO capabilities to detect and deter Russian 
        information operations.

SEC. 308. UNITED STATES PERSON DEFINED.

    In this subtitle, the term ``United States person'' means--
            (1) a United States citizen or an alien lawfully admitted 
        for permanent residence to the United States; and
            (2) an entity organized under the laws of the United States 
        or of any jurisdiction within the United States, including a 
        foreign branch of such an entity.

   Subtitle B--Imposition of Sanctions on Certain Russian Parastatal 
                                Entities

SEC. 311. IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS ON CERTAIN RUSSIAN PARASTATAL 
              ENTITIES.

    (a) In General.--Not later than 30 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the President shall impose the sanctions 
described in subsection (c) with respect to not less than five entities 
and including any individuals associated with such entities, that--
            (1) are identified as Russian parastatal entities in the 
        report required by section 241(a)(2) of the Countering 
        America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (Public Law 115-44; 
        131 Stat. 922) and submitted to Congress on January 29, 2018; 
        and
            (2) are not currently subject to sanctions imposed by the 
        United States.
    (b) Criteria.--In determining those entities and individuals 
described in subsection (a) with respect to which sanctions described 
in subsection (c) are to be imposed, the President shall take into 
account the extent to which such entities and individuals meet the 
criteria described in subparagraphs (A) through (C) of section 
241(a)(2) of the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions 
Act.
    (c) Sanctions Described.--The sanctions described in this 
subsection are the following:
            (1) Asset blocking.--The exercise of all powers granted to 
        the President by the International Emergency Economic Powers 
        Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) to the extent necessary to block 
        and prohibit all transactions in all property and interests in 
        property of a person determined by the President to be subject 
        to subsection (b) if such property and interests in property 
        are in the United States, come within the United States, or are 
        or come within the possession or control of a United States 
        person.
            (2) Exclusion from the united states and revocation of visa 
        or other documentation.--In the case of an alien determined by 
        the President to be subject to subsection (a) denial of a visa 
        to, and exclusion from the United States of, the alien, and 
        revocation in accordance with section 221(i) of the Immigration 
        and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1201(i)), of any visa or other 
        documentation of the alien.
    (d) Definition.--In subsection (c), the term ``United States 
person'' means--
            (1) a United States citizen or an alien lawfully admitted 
        for permanent residence to the United States; or
            (2) an entity organized under the laws of the United States 
        or of any jurisdiction within the United States, including a 
        foreign branch of such an entity.

       Subtitle C--Punishing Continued Occupation of Ukraine Act

SEC. 321. SHORT TITLE.

    This subtitle may be cited as the ``Punishing Continued Occupation 
of Ukraine Act''.

SEC. 322. FINDINGS.

    Congress finds the following:
            (1) On February 27, 2014, the Russian Federation unlawfully 
        invaded Ukraine's Crimea region and shortly thereafter 
        intervened and occupied parts of Ukraine.
            (2) Russia continues to flout the Minsk Agreement and 
        subsequent clarifications to address the ongoing conflict in 
        eastern Ukraine, signed in Minsk, Belarus, on February 11, 
        2015, by the leaders of Ukraine, Russia, France, and Germany, 
        and the Minsk Protocol, which was agreed to on September 5, 
        2014, by directly and indirectly commanding separatist forces 
        in Ukraine.
            (3) Sanctions to date have failed to alter Russian 
        President Vladimir Putin's calculation regarding Crimea and 
        eastern Ukraine.
            (4) Russia relies on sovereign debt to finance the 
        government. If denied access to these funds, Russia would be 
        forced to cut spending, increase taxes, draw down its foreign 
        exchange reserves, or seek alternative sources of financing, 
        increasing the economic pressures facing the economy.

SEC. 323. PROHIBITION AGAINST UNITED STATES RECOGNITION OF RUSSIA'S 
              ANNEXATION OF CRIMEA.

    (a) Statement of Policy.--It is the policy of the United States not 
to recognize the de jure or de facto sovereignty of the Russian 
Federation over Crimea, its airspace, or its territorial waters.
    (b) Prohibition.--In accordance with subsection (a), no Federal 
department or agency may take any action or extend any assistance that 
recognizes or implies recognition of the de jure or de facto 
sovereignty of the Russian Federation over Crimea, its airspace, or its 
territorial waters.
    (c) Waiver.--The President may waive the prohibition under 
subsection (a) or (b) if the President determines that it is vital to 
the national security interests of the United States to do so.

SEC. 324. IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN RUSSIAN 
              FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS.

    (a) Findings.--Congress finds the following:
            (1) On February 27, 2014, the Russian Federation unlawfully 
        invaded Crimea and shortly thereafter intervened and occupied 
        parts of Ukraine.
            (2) Russia continues to flout the Minsk Accords, signed on 
        September 5, 2014, by directly and indirectly supporting 
        separatist forces in Ukraine.
            (3) Sanctions to date have failed to alter Russian 
        President Vladimir Putin's calculation regarding Ukraine and 
        the Crimea.
            (4) The Putin regime relies on several large financial 
        institutions to implement its policies and keep the regime 
        afloat.
    (b) In General.--Not later than 60 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, and every 180 days thereafter for 5 years, the 
President shall determine whether the Russian Federation is in 
compliance with the Minsk Accords.
    (c) Imposition of Sanctions.--
            (1) In general.--If the President, pursuant to subsection 
        (b), determines that Russia is not in compliance with the Minsk 
        Accords, the President shall impose the sanctions described in 
        subsection (d) with respect to not less than three Russian 
        financial institutions that are substantially affiliated with 
        the Putin regime, including from among those institutions 
        described in subsection (e).
            (2) Requirement.--One of the financial institutions to be 
        sanctioned pursuant to this subsection shall include 
        Vnesheconombank.
    (d) Sanctions Described.--The sanctions described in this 
subsection are the exercise of all powers granted to the President by 
the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et 
seq.) to the extent necessary to block and prohibit all transactions in 
all property and interests in property of a financial institution 
determined by the President to be subject to subsection (b)(1) if such 
property and interests in property are in the United States, come 
within the United States, or are or come within the possession or 
control of a United States person.
    (e) Russian Financial Institutions Described.--The financial 
institutions described in this subsection are the following:
            (1) Sberbank.
            (2) VTB Bank.
            (3) Gazprombank.
            (4) Bank of Moscow.
            (5) Rosselkhozbank.
            (6) Promsvyazbank.
    (f) Implementation; Penalties.--
            (1) Implementation.--The President may exercise all 
        authorities provided to the President under sections 203 and 
        205 of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 
        U.S.C. 1702 and 1704) to carry out subsection (c).
            (2) Penalties.--A person that violates, attempts to 
        violate, conspires to violate, or causes a violation of 
        subsection (c) or any regulation, license, or order issued to 
        carry out subsection (b) shall be subject to the penalties set 
        forth in subsections (b) and (c) of section 206 of the 
        International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1705) to 
        the same extent as a person that commits an unlawful act 
        described in subsection (a) of that section.
    (g) Termination.--The President may terminate the application of 
sanctions under subsection (c) with respect to a Russian financial 
institution if the President submits to Congress a notice of and 
justification for the termination.
    (h) Definitions.--In this section:
            (1) Person.--The term ``person'' means an individual or 
        entity.
            (2) United states person.--The term ``United States 
        person'' means--
                    (A) a United States citizen or an alien lawfully 
                admitted for permanent residence to the United States; 
                or
                    (B) an entity organized under the laws of the 
                United States or of any jurisdiction within the United 
                States, including a foreign branch of such an entity.

          Subtitle D--General Provisions To Bolster Alliances

SEC. 331. STRATEGY FOR OFFENSIVE USE OF CYBER CAPABILITIES.

    (a) Strategy Required.--The President shall develop a written 
strategy for the offensive use of cyber capabilities by departments and 
agencies of the Federal Government.
    (b) Elements.--The strategy developed under subsection (a) shall 
include, at minimum--
            (1) a description of enhancements that are needed to 
        improve the offensive cyber capabilities of the United States 
        and partner nations, including NATO member states; and
            (2) a statement of principles concerning the appropriate 
        deployment of offensive cyber capabilities.
    (c) Submission to Congress.--
            (1) In general.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
        the enactment of this Act, the President shall submit to the 
        congressional defense committees (as that term is defined in 
        section 101(a)(16) of title 10, United States Code) the 
        strategy developed under subsection (a).
            (2) Form of submission.--The strategy submitted under 
        paragraph (1) may be submitted in classified form.

SEC. 332. MATTERS RELATING TO NATO.

    (a) In General.--The Secretary of State shall seek to work with the 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to carry out the following 
actions:
            (1) Elevating anti-corruption as an element of NATO's 
        Readiness Action Plan.
            (2) Tasking the NATO Assistant Secretary General for 
        Intelligence and Warning with monitoring Russian influence in 
        NATO member states.
            (3) Prioritizing the combating of Russian influence under 
        the NATO-European Union framework.
    (b) EU-US Summit.--The Secretary of State, in coordination with the 
Secretary of the Treasury, is authorized to host a summit between the 
United States and the European Union on preventing undeclared, cross-
border money flows invested in strategic areas or economic sectors of 
European countries.

SEC. 333. COUNTERING RUSSIAN INFLUENCE AND CORRUPTION FUND.

    (a) Establishment.--The President is authorized to establish in the 
Department of the Treasury a fund to be known as the Countering Russian 
Influence and Corruption Fund (in this section referred to as the 
``Fund'').
    (b) Initial Amounts in Fund.--The Fund shall consist of the 
following:
            (1) The unobligated balances, as of the date of the 
        enactment of this Act, of any amounts appropriated to carry out 
        section 7070(d) of division C of the Consolidated 
        Appropriations Act, 2017 (Public Law 115-31).
            (2) The unobligated balances, as of the date of the 
        enactment of this Act, of any amounts otherwise available to 
        the Secretary of State to carry out the purposes described in 
        subsection (c).
    (c) Purposes of Fund.--Amounts in the Fund for any fiscal year are 
authorized to be made available to the Secretary of State for bilateral 
assistance for countries in Europe, Eurasia, and Central Asia to 
counter the following activities in such countries carried out by the 
Russian Federation:
            (1) Support for disinformation and propaganda.
            (2) Interference in foreign elections.
            (3) Efforts to undermine financial transparency and 
        governance.
            (4) Support for activities described in paragraphs (1) and 
        (2) of section 64(c) of the State Department Basic Authorities 
        Act of 1956 (as added by section 204 of this Act).
            (5) Support for and strengthening of foreign programs 
        focused on investigative journalism and independence of the 
        media environment to expose Russian corruption.
    (d) Civil Society and Other Organizations.--Amounts in the Fund for 
any fiscal year may be made available to carry out the purposes of the 
Fund under subsection (c) through civil society and other organizations 
that seek to mitigate the expansion of Russian influence and 
aggression, including through public awareness campaigns and exchange 
activities.
    (e) Report.--The Secretary of State shall submit to Congress a 
report for each fiscal year for which activities are undertaken 
pursuant to this section.

 TITLE IV--COMBATING PUTIN'S REPRESSION (CPR) FOR RUSSIAN CIVIL SOCIETY

SEC. 401. SHORT TITLE.

    This title may be cited as the ``CPR for Russian Civil Society 
Act''.

SEC. 402. STRENGTHENING DIALOGUE WITH THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE.

    (a) Improved Visa Screening Procedures for Russian Visitors.--Not 
later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the 
Secretary of State, in coordination with the Secretary of Homeland 
Security, shall conduct a study on how to streamline and simplify visa 
procedures for Russian students and persons involved in professional 
and cultural exchanges in order to reduce the overall visa processing 
period and facilitate people-to-people exchanges. Such study shall 
examine average visa wait times for successful visa applicants from 
Russia and overall rejection rates of Russian nationals applying for 
visas.
    (b) Enhanced Screening for Putin Allies.--In conjunction with the 
study undertaken pursuant to subsection (a), the Secretary of State, in 
coordination with the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Secretary 
of the Treasury, shall develop enhanced visa screening procedures for 
the following individuals:
            (1) Persons identified as ``the most significant senior 
        foreign political figures and oligarchs in the Russian 
        Federation'', as listed in a classified annex to a report 
        issued on January 29, 2018, pursuant to section 241(a)(1) of 
        the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act, but 
        who are not already included in the list of specially 
        designated nationals and blocked persons maintained by the 
        Office of Foreign Assets Control of the Department of the 
        Treasury.
            (2) Persons who are not otherwise included in the specially 
        designated nationals list but who promote Russian President 
        Vladimir Putin's policies of repression, as determined by the 
        Secretary of State.
            (3) Persons who benefit from or act as agents of Russian 
        persons on the specially designated nationals list.
    (c) Improved Tracking of Exchange Programs.--Not later than 90 days 
after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of State 
shall submit to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate a 
report on current cultural exchange and educational programs with 
Russia. Such report shall include the following:
            (1) A list of existing programs funded by the United States 
        Government dedicated to United States-Russia cultural and 
        educational exchange and research, including funding levels for 
        each program.
            (2) Information relating to funding of the programs 
        specified in paragraph (1), including overall history of such 
        funding since 1991, relative to funding for other regions with 
        such exchange and research programs.
    (d) Strategic Stability.--
            (1) Report.--Not later than 90 days after the date of the 
        enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Defense, in concurrence 
        with the Secretary of State, shall submit to Congress a report 
        on efforts to strengthen strategic stability with Russia.
            (2) Annual meetings.--The Secretary of Defense, in 
        concurrence with the Secretary of State, shall host an annual 
        bilateral meeting, through 2023, with Russian counterparts in 
        order to discuss relevant issues of common interest, including 
        maintaining strategic stability and open lines for crisis 
        communications.

SEC. 403. SUPPORT RUSSIAN CIVIL SOCIETY.

    (a) Fight Putin's Censorship.--Not later than 90 days after the 
date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of State shall convene 
a meeting of senior leaders of United States technology companies that 
sell, license, or otherwise facilitate the installation of tools that 
allow the Government of Russia to censor, harass, or suppress the 
activities of civil society activists. Such meeting shall focus on 
developing a common code of conduct to restrain United States companies 
aiding and abetting the Government of Russia's efforts to suppress 
Russian civil society, fundamental freedoms in Russia, and efforts to 
expose corruption on the part of the Government of Russia.
    (b) International Broadcasting Operations Fund.--
            (1) In general.--In addition to amounts otherwise 
        authorized to be appropriated for the Broadcasting Board of 
        Governors' International Broadcasting Operations Fund, there is 
        authorized to be appropriated $10,000,000 to expand Russian 
        language programming and to provide for the dissemination of 
        accurate and independent information to the Russian people 
        through online media, radio, television, cellular telephone, 
        short message service, and other communications. The 
        Broadcasting Board of Governors shall identify those countries 
        that serve as Russian vacation destinations and further target 
        United States international broadcasting and programming 
        activities towards such countries.
            (2) Use of amounts.--To achieve the objectives described in 
        paragraph (1), amounts in the International Broadcasting 
        Operations Fund referred to in such subparagraph may be used to 
        develop--
                    (A) additional transmission capability for Radio 
                Free Europe/Radio Liberty, including through additional 
                shortwave and medium wave transmissions, satellite, and 
                Internet mechanisms;
                    (B) additional proxy server capability and anti-
                censorship technologies to counter efforts by the 
                Government of Russia to censor political and civil 
                society activities, such as blocking of the Telegram 
                app, and investigations into corruption on the part of 
                the Government of Russia;
                    (C) technologies to counter efforts to block SMS 
                text message exchange over cellular phone networks; and
                    (D) additional digital programs and operations for 
                Voice of America in Russia.
            (3) Conforming amendment to expanded broadcasting in 
        countries of the former soviet union.--Paragraph (1) of section 
        8(e) of the Ukraine Freedom Support Act of 2014 (22 U.S.C. 
        8927(e); Public Law 118-272) is amended by striking ``2018'' 
        and inserting ``2020''.
                                 <all>