Text: H.R.672 — 115th Congress (2017-2018)All Information (Except Text)
Public Law No: 115-434 (01/14/2019)
[115th Congress Public Law 434]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office]
COMBATING EUROPEAN ANTI-SEMITISM ACT OF 2017
[[Page 132 STAT. 5526]]
Public Law 115-434
To require continued and enhanced annual reporting to Congress in the
Annual Report on International Religious Freedom on anti-Semitic
incidents in Europe, the safety and security of European Jewish
communities, and the efforts of the United States to partner with
European governments, the European Union, and civil society groups, to
combat anti-Semitism, and for other purposes. <<NOTE: Jan. 14,
2019 - [H.R. 672]>>
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
United States of America in Congress assembled, <<NOTE: Combating
European Anti-Semitism Act of 2017. 22 USC 6401 note.>>
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.
This Act may be cited as the ``Combating European Anti-Semitism Act
SEC. 2. <<NOTE: 22 USC 6412 note.>> FINDINGS.
Congress finds the following:
(1) During the past decade, there has been a steady increase
in anti-Semitic incidents in Europe, resulting in European Jews
being the targets of physical and verbal harassment and even
lethal terrorist attacks, all of which has eroded personal and
communal security and the quality of daily Jewish life.
(2) According to reporting by the European Union Agency for
Fundamental Rights (FRA), between 2005 and 2014, anti-Semitic
incidents increased in France from 508 to 851; in Germany from
60 to 173; in Belgium from 58 to 130; in Italy from 49 to 86;
and in the United Kingdom from 459 to 1,168.
(3) Anti-Zionism has at times devolved into anti-Semitic
attacks, prompting condemnation from many European leaders,
including French Prime Minister Manuel Valls, British Prime
Minister David Cameron, and German Chancellor Angela Merkel.
(4) Since 2010, the Department of State has adhered to the
working definition of Anti-Semitism by the European Monitoring
Center on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC). Some contemporary
examples of anti-Semitism include the following:
(A) Calling for, aiding, or justifying the killing
or harming of Jews (often in the name of a radical
ideology or an extremist view of religion).
(B) Making mendacious, dehumanizing, demonizing, or
stereotypical allegations about Jews as such, or the
power of Jews as a collective, especially, but not
exclusively, the myth about a world Jewish conspiracy or
of Jews controlling the media, economy, government, or
other societal institutions.
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(C) Accusing Jews as a people of being responsible
for real or imagined wrongdoing committed by a single
Jewish person or group, the State of Israel, or even for
acts committed by non-Jews.
(D) Accusing the Jews as a people, or Israel as a
state, of inventing or exaggerating the Holocaust.
(E) Accusing Jewish citizens of being more loyal to
Israel, or to the alleged priorities of Jews worldwide,
than to the interest of their own countries.
(5) On October 16, 2004, the President signed into law the
Global Anti-Semitism Review Act of 2004. This law provides the
legal foundation for a reporting requirement provided by the
Department of State annually on anti-Semitism around the world.
(6) In November 2015, the House of Representatives passed H.
Res. 354 by a vote of 418-0, urging the Secretary of State to
continue robust United States reporting on anti-Semitism by the
Department of State and the Special Envoy to Combat and Monitor
(7) In 2016, the International Holocaust Remembrance
Alliance (IHRA), comprised of 31 member countries, adopted a
working definition of anti-Semitism which stated: ``Anti-
Semitism is a certain perception of Jews, which may be expressed
as hatred toward Jews. Rhetorical and physical manifestations of
anti-Semitism are directed toward Jewish or non-Jewish
individuals and/or their property, toward Jewish community
institutions and religious facilities.''.
(8) The IHRA further clarified that manifestations of anti-
Semitism might also target the State of Israel, conceived of as
a Jewish collectivity. Anti-Semitism frequently charges Jews
with conspiring to harm humanity, and it is often used to blame
Jews for ``why things go wrong''. It is expressed in speech,
writing, visual forms, and action, and employs sinister
stereotypes and negative character traits.
SEC. 3. SENSE OF CONGRESS.
It is the sense of Congress that--
(1) it is in the national interest of the United States to
combat anti-Semitism at home and abroad;
(2) anti-Semitism is a challenge to the basic principles of
tolerance, pluralism, and democracy, and the shared values that
bind Americans and Europeans together;
(3) there is an urgent need to ensure the safety and
security of European Jewish communities, including synagogues,
schools, cemeteries, and other institutions;
(4) the United States should continue to emphasize the
importance of combating anti-Semitism in multilateral bodies,
including the United Nations, European Union institutions, and
the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe;
(5) the Department of State should continue to thoroughly
document acts of anti-Semitism and anti-Semitic incitement that
occur around the world, and should continue to encourage other
countries to do the same, and share their findings; and
(6) the Department of State should continue to work to
encourage adoption by national government institutions and
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multilateral institutions of a working definition of anti-
Semitism similar to the one adopted in the International
Holocaust Remembrance Alliance context.
SEC. 4. ANNUAL REPORTING ON THE STATE OF ANTI-SEMITISM IN EUROPE.
Paragraph (1) of section 102(b) of the International Religious
Freedom Act of 1998 (22 U.S.C. 6412) is amended by adding at the end the
following new subparagraph:
``(G) Anti-semitism in europe.--In addition to the
information required under clause (vii) of subparagraph
(A), with respect to each European country in which
verbal or physical threats or attacks are particularly
significant against Jewish persons, places of worship,
schools, cemeteries, and other religious institutions, a
``(i) the security challenges and needs of
European Jewish communities and European law
enforcement agencies in such countries to better
protect such communities;
``(ii) to the extent practicable, the efforts
of the United States Government over the reporting
period to partner with European law enforcement
agencies and civil society groups regarding the
sharing of information and best practices to
combat anti-Semitic incidents in Europe;
``(iii) European educational programming and
public awareness initiatives that aim to
collaborate on educational curricula and campaigns
that impart shared values of pluralism and
tolerance, and showcase the positive contributions
of Jews in culture, scholarship, science, and art,
with special attention to those segments of the
population that exhibit a high degree of anti-
Semitic animus; and
``(iv) efforts by European governments to
adopt and apply a working definition of anti-
Approved January 14, 2019.
LEGISLATIVE HISTORY--H.R. 672:
Vol. 163 (2017):
May 17, considered and passed House.
Vol. 164 (2018):
Dec. 22, considered and passed