Text: S.2736 — 115th Congress (2017-2018)All Information (Except Text)

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[S. 2736 Enrolled Bill (ENR)]

        S.2736

                     One Hundred Fifteenth Congress

                                 of the

                        United States of America


                          AT THE SECOND SESSION

         Begun and held at the City of Washington on Wednesday,
           the third day of January, two thousand and eighteen


                                 An Act


 
      To develop a long-term strategic vision and a comprehensive, 
 multifaceted, and principled United States policy for the Indo-Pacific 
                     region, and for other purposes.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.
    (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``Asia Reassurance 
Initiative Act of 2018''.
    (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for this Act is as 
follows:

Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.
Sec. 2. Findings.

   TITLE I--UNITED STATES POLICY AND DIPLOMATIC STRATEGY IN THE INDO-
                             PACIFIC REGION

Sec. 101. Policy.
Sec. 102. Diplomatic strategy.

TITLE II--PROMOTING UNITED STATES SECURITY INTERESTS IN THE INDO-PACIFIC 
                                 REGION

Sec. 201. Authorization of appropriations.
Sec. 202. Treaty alliances in the Indo-Pacific region.
Sec. 203. United States-China relationship.
Sec. 204. United States-India strategic partnership.
Sec. 205. United States-ASEAN strategic partnership.
Sec. 206. United States-Republic of Korea-Japan trilateral security 
          partnership.
Sec. 207. Quadrilateral security dialogue.
Sec. 208. Enhanced security partnerships in Southeast Asia.
Sec. 209. Commitment to Taiwan.
Sec. 210. North Korea strategy.
Sec. 211. New Zealand.
Sec. 212. The Pacific Islands.
Sec. 213. Freedom of navigation and overflight; promotion of 
          international law.
Sec. 214. Combating terrorism in Southeast Asia.
Sec. 215. Cybersecurity cooperation.
Sec. 216. Nonproliferation and arms control in the Indo-Pacific region.

   TITLE III--PROMOTING UNITED STATES ECONOMIC INTERESTS IN THE INDO-
                             PACIFIC REGION

Sec. 301. Findings; sense of Congress.
Sec. 302. Trade negotiations, multilateral agreements, and regional 
          economic summits.
Sec. 303. United States-ASEAN economic partnership.
Sec. 304. Trade capacity building and trade facilitation.
Sec. 305. Intellectual property protection.
Sec. 306. Energy programs and initiatives.
Sec. 307. Lower Mekong initiative.
Sec. 308. Sense of Congress on economic growth and natural resource 
          conservation.
Sec. 309. Sense of Congress in support of women's economic rights.

   TITLE IV--PROMOTING UNITED STATES VALUES IN THE INDO-PACIFIC REGION

Sec. 401. Findings.
Sec. 402. Trafficking-in-persons.
Sec. 403. Freedom of the press.
Sec. 404. Democracy, human rights, and labor personnel.
Sec. 405. Bilateral and regional dialogues; people-to-people engagement.
Sec. 406. Association of Southeast Asian Nations Human Rights Strategy.
Sec. 407. Freedom of information to North Korea.
Sec. 408. Sense of Congress on imposition of sanctions and suspension of 
          United States assistance.
Sec. 409. Authorization of appropriations.
Sec. 410. Indo-Pacific human rights defenders.
Sec. 411. Young leaders people-to-people initiatives.
SEC. 2. FINDINGS.
    Congress makes the following findings:
        (1) The Indo-Pacific region--
            (A) represents nearly 50 percent of the global population;
            (B) is home to some of the most dynamic economies in the 
        world; and
            (C) poses security challenges that threaten to undermine 
        United States national security interests, regional peace, and 
        global stability.
        (2) The core tenets of the United States-backed international 
    system are being challenged, including by--
            (A) China's illegal construction and militarization of 
        artificial features in the South China Sea and coercive 
        economic practices;
            (B) North Korea's acceleration of its nuclear and ballistic 
        missile capabilities; and
            (C) the increased presence throughout Southeast Asia of the 
        Islamic State (referred to in this Act as ``ISIS'') and other 
        international terrorist organizations that threaten the United 
        States.
        (3) The economic order in the Indo-Pacific region continues to 
    transform, presenting opportunities and challenges to United States 
    economic interests.
        (4) The United States has a fundamental interest in defending 
    human rights and promoting the rule of law in the Indo-Pacific 
    region. Although many countries in the region have improved the 
    treatment of their citizens, several Indo-Pacific governments 
    continue to commit human rights abuses and place restrictions on 
    basic human rights and political and civil liberties.
        (5) Without strong leadership from the United States, the 
    international system, fundamentally rooted in the rule of law, may 
    wither, to the detriment of United States, regional, and global 
    interests. It is imperative that the United States continue to play 
    a leading role in the Indo-Pacific region by--
            (A) defending peace and security;
            (B) advancing economic prosperity; and
            (C) promoting respect for fundamental human rights.
        (6) In 2017, the Subcommittee on East Asia, the Pacific, and 
    International Cybersecurity Policy of the Committee on Foreign 
    Relations of the Senate held a series of hearings on United States 
    leadership in the Indo-Pacific region, in which--
            (A) experts, including Representative Randy Forbes, 
        Ambassador Robert Gallucci, Ms. Tami Overby, Dr. Robert Orr, 
        Ambassador Derek Mitchell, Ambassador Robert King, Mr. Murray 
        Hiebert, and others detailed the security challenges, economic 
        opportunities, and imperatives of promoting the rule of law, 
        human rights, and democracy, in the Indo-Pacific region; and
            (B) Dr. Graham Allison, the Douglas Dillon Professor of 
        Government at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at 
        Harvard University, testified, ``As realistic students of 
        history, Chinese leaders recognize that the role the United 
        States has played since World War II as the architect and 
        underwriter of regional stability and security has been 
        essential to the rise of Asia, including China itself. But they 
        believe that as the tide that brought the United States to Asia 
        recedes, America must leave with it. Much as Britain's role in 
        the Western Hemisphere faded at the beginning of the twentieth 
        century, so must America's role in Asia as the region's 
        historic superpower resumes its place.''.
        (7) The United States National Security Strategy (referred to 
    in this Act as the ``National Security Strategy''), which was 
    released in December 2017, states--
            (A) ``A geopolitical competition between free and 
        repressive visions of world order is taking place in the Indo-
        Pacific region. The region, which stretches from the west coast 
        of India to the western shores of the United States, represents 
        the most populous and economically dynamic part of the world. 
        The United States interest in a free and open Indo-Pacific 
        extends back to the earliest days of our republic.''; and
            (B) ``Our vision for the Indo-Pacific excludes no nation. 
        We will redouble our commitment to established alliances and 
        partnerships, while expanding and deepening relationships with 
        new partners that share respect for sovereignty, fair and 
        reciprocal trade, and the rule of law. We will reinforce our 
        commitment to freedom of the seas and the peaceful resolution 
        of territorial and maritime disputes in accordance with 
        international law. We will work with allies and partners to 
        achieve complete, verifiable, and irreversible denuclearization 
        on the Korean Peninsula and preserve the non-proliferation 
        regime in Northeast Asia.''.

   TITLE I--UNITED STATES POLICY AND DIPLOMATIC STRATEGY IN THE INDO-
                             PACIFIC REGION

    SEC. 101. POLICY.
    It is the policy of the United States to develop and commit to a 
long-term strategic vision and a comprehensive, multifaceted, and 
principled United States policy for the Indo-Pacific region that--
        (1) secures the vital national security interests of the United 
    States and our allies and partners;
        (2) promotes American prosperity and economic interests by 
    advancing economic growth and development of a rules-based Indo-
    Pacific economic community;
        (3) advances American influence by reflecting the values of the 
    American people and universal human rights;
        (4) supports functional problem-solving regional architecture; 
    and
        (5) accords with and supports the rule of law and international 
    norms.
    SEC. 102. DIPLOMATIC STRATEGY.
    It is the diplomatic strategy of the United States--
        (1) to work with United States allies--
            (A) to confront common challenges;
            (B) to improve information sharing;
            (C) to increase defense investment and trade;
            (D) to ensure interoperability; and
            (E) to strengthen shared capabilities;
        (2) to strengthen relationships with partners who--
            (A) share mutual respect for the rule of law;
            (B) agree with fair and reciprocal trade; and
            (C) understand the importance of civil society, the rule of 
        law, the free and reliable flow of information, and transparent 
        governance;
        (3) to support functional problem-solving regional 
    architecture, including through the Association of Southeast Asian 
    Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, and the East Asia 
    Summit;
        (4) to emphasize the commitment of the United States--
            (A) to freedom of navigation under international law;
            (B) to promote peaceful resolutions of maritime and 
        territorial disputes; and
            (C) to expand security and defense cooperation with allies 
        and partners, as appropriate;
        (5) to pursue diplomatic measures to achieve complete, 
    verifiable, and irreversible denuclearization of North Korea;
        (6) to improve civil society, strengthen the rule of law, and 
    advocate for transparent governance;
        (7) to develop and grow the economy through private sector 
    partnerships between the United States and Indo-Pacific partners;
        (8) to pursue multilateral and bilateral trade agreements in a 
    free, fair, and reciprocal manner and build a network of partners 
    in the Indo-Pacific committed to free markets;
        (9) to work with and encourage Indo-Pacific countries--
            (A) to pursue high-quality and transparent infrastructure 
        projects;
            (B) to maintain unimpeded commerce, open sea lines or air 
        ways, and communication; and
            (C) to seek the peaceful resolution of disputes; and
        (10) to sustain a strong military presence in the Indo-Pacific 
    region and strengthen security relationships with allies and 
    partners throughout the region.

   TITLE II--PROMOTING UNITED STATES SECURITY INTERESTS IN THE INDO-
                             PACIFIC REGION

    SEC. 201. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.
    (a) Defined Term.--In this section, the term ``appropriate 
committees of Congress'' means--
        (1) the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate;
        (2) the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate;
        (3) the Committee on Finance of the Senate;
        (4) the Committee on Appropriations of the House of 
    Representatives;
        (5) the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of 
    Representatives; and
        (6) the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of 
    Representatives.
    (b) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated for the Department of State, the United States Agency for 
International Development, and, as appropriate, the Department of 
Defense, $1,500,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2019 through 2023, 
which shall be used--
        (1) to advance United States foreign policy interests and 
    objectives in the Indo-Pacific region in recognition of the value 
    of diplomatic initiatives and programs in the furtherance of United 
    States strategy;
        (2) to improve the defense capacity and resiliency of partner 
    nations to resist coercion and deter and defend against security 
    threats, including through foreign military financing and 
    international military education and training programs;
        (3) to conduct regular bilateral and multilateral engagements, 
    particularly with the United States' most highly-capable allies and 
    partners, to meet strategic challenges, including--
            (A) certain destabilizing activities of the People's 
        Republic of China; and
            (B) emerging threats, such as the nuclear and ballistic 
        missile programs of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea;
        (4) to build new counterterrorism partnership programs in 
    Southeast Asia to combat the growing presence of ISIS and other 
    terrorist organizations that pose a significant threat to the 
    United States, its allies, and its citizens' interests abroad;
        (5) to help partner countries strengthen their democratic 
    systems, with a focus on good governance;
        (6) to ensure that the regulatory environments for trade, 
    infrastructure, and investment in partner countries are 
    transparent, open, and free of corruption;
        (7) to encourage responsible natural resource management in 
    partner countries, which is closely associated with economic 
    growth; and
        (8) to increase maritime domain awareness programs in South 
    Asia and Southeast Asia--
            (A) by expanding the scope of naval and coast guard 
        training efforts with Southeast Asian countries;
            (B) by expanding cooperation with democratic partners in 
        South Asia, including Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka;
            (C) through intelligence sharing and other information-
        sharing efforts; and
            (D) through multilateral engagements, including by 
        involving Japan, Australia, and India in such efforts.
    (c) Countering China's Influence to Undermine the International 
System.--Amounts appropriated pursuant to subsection (b) shall be made 
available for United States Government efforts to counter the strategic 
influence of the People's Republic of China, in accordance with the 
strategy required under section 7043(e)(3) of the Department of State, 
Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2014 
(division K of Public Law 113-76; 128 Stat. 536) and in consultation 
with the appropriate committees of Congress.
    (d) Burma.--None of the amounts appropriated pursuant to subsection 
(b) may be made available for International Military Education and 
Training and Foreign Military Financing Programs for the armed forces 
of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (historically known as 
``Burma'').
    (e) Philippines.--
        (1) In general.--None of the amounts appropriated pursuant to 
    subsection (b) may be made available for counternarcotics 
    assistance for the Philippine National Police unless the Secretary 
    of State determines and reports to the appropriate committees of 
    Congress that the Government of the Philippines has adopted and is 
    implementing a counternarcotics strategy that is consistent with 
    international human rights standards, including investigating and 
    prosecuting individuals who are credibly alleged to have ordered, 
    committed, or covered up extrajudicial killings and other gross 
    violations of human rights in the conduct of counternarcotics 
    operations.
        (2) Exception.--The limitation under paragraph (1) shall not 
    apply to funds made available--
            (A) for drug demand reduction, maritime programs, or 
        transnational interdiction programs; or
            (B) to support for the development of such counternarcotics 
        strategy, after consultation with the appropriate committees of 
        Congress.
    (f) Cambodia.--None of the amounts authorized to be appropriated 
pursuant to subsection (b) may be made available for United States 
assistance programs that benefit the Government of Cambodia unless the 
Secretary of State certifies and reports to the appropriate 
congressional committees that the requirements under section 7043(b)(1) 
of division K of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018 (Public Law 
115-141) have been met.
    SEC. 202. TREATY ALLIANCES IN THE INDO-PACIFIC REGION.
    (a) United States-Japan Alliance.--The United States Government--
        (1) is committed to the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and 
    Security between the United States and Japan, done at Washington, 
    January 19, 1960, and all related and subsequent bilateral security 
    agreements and arrangements concluded on or before the date of the 
    enactment of this Act;
        (2) recognizes the vital role of the alliance between the 
    United States and Japan in promoting peace and security in the 
    Indo-Pacific region; and
        (3) calls for the strengthening and broadening of diplomatic, 
    economic, and security ties between the United States and Japan.
    (b) United States-Republic of Korea Alliance.--The United States 
Government--
        (1) is committed to the Mutual Defense Treaty Between the 
    United States and the Republic of Korea, done at Washington October 
    1, 1953, and all related and subsequent bilateral security 
    agreements and arrangements concluded on or before the date of the 
    enactment of this Act;
        (2) recognizes the vital role of the alliance between the 
    United States and South Korea in promoting peace and security in 
    the Indo-Pacific region; and
        (3) calls for the strengthening and broadening of diplomatic, 
    economic, and security ties between the United States and the 
    Republic of Korea.
    (c) United States-Australia Alliance.--The United States 
Government--
        (1) is committed to the Security Treaty Between Australia and 
    the United States of America, done at San Francisco September 1, 
    1951, and all related and subsequent bilateral security agreements 
    and arrangements concluded on or before the date of the enactment 
    of this Act;
        (2) recognizes the vital role of the alliance between the 
    United States and Australia in promoting peace and security in the 
    Indo-Pacific region; and
        (3) calls for the strengthening and broadening of diplomatic, 
    economic, and security ties between the United States and 
    Australia.
    (d) United States-Philippines Alliance.--The United States 
Government is committed to the Mutual Defense Treaty between the 
Republic of the Philippines and the United States of America, done at 
Washington August 30, 1951, and all related and subsequent bilateral 
security agreements and arrangements concluded on or before the date of 
the enactment of this Act, including the Enhanced Defense Cooperation 
Agreement, done at Manila April 28, 2014.
    (e) Thailand.--The United States Government is committed to--
        (1) the Agreement Respecting Military Assistance Between the 
    Government of the United States of America and the Government of 
    Thailand, done at Bangkok October 17, 1950;
        (2) the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, done at 
    Manila September 8, 1954; and
        (3) all related and subsequent bilateral security agreements 
    and arrangements concluded on or before the date of the enactment 
    of this Act, including the Joint Vision Statement for the Thai-
    United States Defense Alliance, issued in Bangkok November 15, 
    2012.
    SEC. 203. UNITED STATES-CHINA RELATIONSHIP.
    (a) In General.--The United States Government--
        (1) expresses grave concerns with Chinese actions that seek--
            (A) to further constrain space for civil society and 
        religion within China; and
            (B) to undermine a rules-based order in the Indo-Pacific 
        region;
        (2) encourages China to play a constructive role in world 
    affairs by demonstrating consistent respect for the rule of law and 
    international norms;
        (3) seeks to build a positive, cooperative, and comprehensive 
    relationship with China--
            (A) by expanding areas of cooperation; and
            (B) by addressing areas of disagreement, including over 
        human rights, economic policies, and maritime security; and
        (4) is committed to working with China on shared regional and 
    global challenges, especially--
            (A) upholding and strengthening the rules-based 
        international system; and
            (B) the denuclearization of North Korea.
    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the United 
States should--
        (1) welcome a decision by China to change course and pursue a 
    responsible results-oriented relationship with the United States 
    and engagement on global issues;
        (2) encourage China to play a constructive role in the Indo-
    Pacific region and globally; and
        (3) continue to call out Chinese actions that undermine the 
    rules-based international system.
    SEC. 204. UNITED STATES-INDIA STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP.
    (a) In General.--The United States Government--
        (1) recognizes the vital role of the strategic partnership 
    between the United States and India in promoting peace and security 
    in the Indo-Pacific region;
        (2) calls for the strengthening and broadening of diplomatic, 
    economic, and security ties between the United States and India; 
    and
        (3) is committed to--
            (A) the New Framework for the United States-India Defense 
        Relationship, done at Arlington, Virginia on June 28, 2005;
            (B) the United States-India Defense Technology and Trade 
        Initiative, launched in 2012;
            (C) the Joint Strategic Vision for the Indo-Pacific and 
        Indian Ocean Region, announced on January 25, 2015;
            (D) the United States-India Joint Statement on Prosperity 
        Through Partnership, issued on June 26, 2017; and
            (E) all related and subsequent bilateral and security 
        agreements and arrangements concluded as of the date of the 
        enactment of this Act.
    (b) India as Major Defense Partner.--Congress makes the following 
findings:
        (1) Section 1292(a)(1)(A) of the National Defense Authorization 
    Act for Fiscal Year 2017 (Public Law 114-328; 130 Stat. 2559; 22 
    U.S.C. 2751 note) requires the recognition of India as a major 
    defense partner.
        (2) The designation of India as a major defense partner, which 
    is unique to India--
            (A) institutionalizes the progress made to facilitate 
        defense trade and technology sharing between the United States 
        and India;
            (B) elevates defense trade and technology cooperation 
        between the United States and India to a level commensurate 
        with the closest allies and partners of the United States;
            (C) facilitates technology sharing between the United 
        States and India, including license-free access to a wide range 
        of dual-use technologies, after taking into account national 
        security concerns; and
            (D) facilitates joint exercises, coordination on defense 
        strategy and policy, military exchanges, and port calls in 
        support of defense cooperation between the United States and 
        India.
    SEC. 205. UNITED STATES-ASEAN STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP.
    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the United 
States should--
        (1) support and reaffirm the elevation of the United States-
    Association of Southeast Asian Nations (referred to in this section 
    as ``ASEAN'') relationship to a strategic partnership;
        (2) recommit to ASEAN centrality by helping build a strong, 
    stable, politically cohesive, economically integrated, and socially 
    responsible community of nations that has common rules, norms, 
    procedures, and standards which are consistent with international 
    law and the principles of a rules-based Indo-Pacific community;
        (3) urge ASEAN to continue its efforts to foster greater 
    integration among its members;
        (4) recognize the value of--
            (A) ASEAN engagement with economic, political, and security 
        partners within Asia and elsewhere, including Australia, 
        Canada, the European Union, India, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, 
        the Republic of Korea, and Taiwan; and
            (B) strategic economic initiatives, such as activities 
        under the United States-ASEAN Trade and Investment Framework 
        Arrangement and the United States-ASEAN Connect, which 
        demonstrate a commitment to ASEAN and the ASEAN Economic 
        Community and build upon economic relationships in the Indo-
        Pacific region;
        (5) support efforts by the nations comprising ASEAN--
            (A) to address maritime and territorial disputes in a 
        constructive manner; and
            (B) to pursue claims through peaceful, diplomatic, and 
        legitimate regional and international arbitration mechanisms, 
        consistent with international law, including through the 
        adoption of a code of conduct in the South China Sea to further 
        promote peace and stability in the Indo-Pacific region;
        (6) support efforts by United States partners and allies in 
    ASEAN--
            (A) to enhance maritime capability and maritime domain 
        awareness;
            (B) to protect unhindered access to, and use of, 
        international waterways in the Asia-Pacific region that are 
        critical to ensuring the security and free flow of commerce;
            (C) to counter piracy;
            (D) to disrupt illicit maritime trafficking activities such 
        as the trafficking of persons, goods, and drugs; and
            (E) to enhance the maritime capabilities of countries or 
        regional organizations to respond to emerging threats to 
        maritime security in the Asia-Pacific region; and
        (7) urge ASEAN member states to develop a common approach to 
    reaffirm the decision of the Permanent Court of Arbitration's 
    ruling with respect to the case between the Republic of the 
    Philippines and the People's Republic of China.
    (b) Report on Strategic Framework for Engagement With ASEAN.--
        (1) In general.--Not later than 180 days after the date of the 
    enactment of this Act, and annually thereafter for the following 5 
    years, the Secretary of State, in consultation with other Federal 
    agencies, shall submit a report to the appropriate congressional 
    committees on a strategic framework to administer programs, 
    projects, and activities of the United States to support diplomatic 
    and economic engagement between the United States and ASEAN member 
    countries for the 10-year period beginning on the date of the 
    enactment of this Act.
        (2) Elements.--The report required under paragraph (1) shall 
    address the following elements of United States strategy:
            (A) Promoting commercial engagement between the United 
        States and member countries of ASEAN.
            (B) Helping member countries of ASEAN use sustainable, 
        efficient, and innovative technologies in their respective 
        energy sectors.
            (C) Supporting economic conditions in member countries of 
        ASEAN that promote innovation, the creation of new businesses, 
        sustainable growth, and the education of the region's future 
        innovators, entrepreneurs, and business leaders.
            (D) Working with member countries of ASEAN to improve the 
        policy and regulatory environment for growth, trade, 
        innovation, and investment.
            (E) Supporting the regional integration objectives of 
        member countries of ASEAN under the ASEAN Economic Community.
            (F) Partnership opportunities with the governments of other 
        countries friendly to the United States that have committed to 
        a high set of standards for investment and development with 
        ASEAN, as determined by the Secretary of State.
    SEC. 206. UNITED STATES-REPUBLIC OF KOREA-JAPAN TRILATERAL SECURITY 
      PARTNERSHIP.
    It is the sense of Congress that the President should develop a 
strategy to deepen the trilateral security cooperation between the 
United States, South Korea, and Japan, including missile defense, 
intelligence-sharing, and other defense-related initiatives.
    SEC. 207. QUADRILATERAL SECURITY DIALOGUE.
    It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) the security dialogue between the United States, Australia, 
    India, and Japan is vital to address pressing security challenges 
    in the Indo-Pacific region in order to promote--
            (A) a rules-based order;
            (B) respect for international law; and
            (C) a free and open Indo-Pacific; and
        (2) such a dialogue is intended to augment, rather than to 
    replace, current mechanisms.
    SEC. 208. ENHANCED SECURITY PARTNERSHIPS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA.
    (a) Indonesia.--The United States Government is committed to--
        (1) the United States-Indonesia Comprehensive Partnership, done 
    in Washington November 9, 2010;
        (2) the Joint Statement on Comprehensive Defense Cooperation, 
    done in Washington October 26, 2015; and
        (3) all related and subsequent bilateral and security 
    agreements and arrangements between the United States and Indonesia 
    concluded on or before the date of the enactment of this Act.
    (b) Malaysia.--The United States Government is committed to--
        (1) the United States-Malaysia Comprehensive Partnership, done 
    at Putrajaya April 27, 2014;
        (2) the Joint Statement for Enhancing the Comprehensive 
    Partnership between the United States of America and Malaysia, done 
    in Washington September 13, 2017; and
        (3) all related and subsequent bilateral and security 
    agreements and arrangements between the United States and Malaysia 
    concluded on or before the date of the enactment of this Act.
    (c) Singapore.--The United States Government is committed to--
        (1) the Strategic Framework Agreement Between the United States 
    of America and the Republic of Singapore for a Closer Cooperation 
    Partnership in Defense and Security, done at Washington July 12, 
    2005;
        (2) the Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement, done at 
    Arlington, Virginia December 7, 2015; and
        (3) all related and subsequent bilateral and security 
    agreements and arrangements between the United States and Singapore 
    concluded on or before the date of the enactment of this Act.
    (d) Vietnam.--The United States Government is committed to--
        (1) the United States-Vietnam Comprehensive Partnership, done 
    at Washington December 16, 2013;
        (2) the United StatesVietnam Joint Vision Statement on Defense 
    Relations, done at Hanoi on June 1, 2015;
        (3) the United StatesVietnam Joint Vision Statement, done at 
    Washington May 31, 2017; and
        (4) all related and subsequent bilateral and security 
    agreements and arrangements between the United States and Vietnam 
    concluded on or before the date of the enactment of this Act.
    (e) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the United 
States should deepen diplomatic, economic, and security cooperation, 
especially in the areas of maritime security and counterterrorism, with 
Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam.
    SEC. 209. COMMITMENT TO TAIWAN.
    (a) United States Commitment to Taiwan.--It is the policy of the 
United States--
        (1) to support the close economic, political, and security 
    relationship between Taiwan and the United States;
        (2) to faithfully enforce all existing United States Government 
    commitments to Taiwan, consistent with the Taiwan Relations Act of 
    1979 (Public Law 96-8), the 3 joint communiques, and the Six 
    Assurances agreed to by President Ronald Reagan in July 1982; and
        (3) to counter efforts to change the status quo and to support 
    peaceful resolution acceptable to both sides of the Taiwan Strait.
    (b) Arms Sales to Taiwan.--The President should conduct regular 
transfers of defense articles to Taiwan that are tailored to meet the 
existing and likely future threats from the People's Republic of China, 
including supporting the efforts of Taiwan to develop and integrate 
asymmetric capabilities, as appropriate, including mobile, survivable, 
and cost-effective capabilities, into its military forces.
    (c) Travel.--The President should encourage the travel of highlevel 
United States officials to Taiwan, in accordance with the Taiwan Travel 
Act (Public Law 115-135).
    SEC. 210. NORTH KOREA STRATEGY.
    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
        (1) The Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea 
    has flagrantly defied the international community by illicitly 
    developing its nuclear and ballistic missile programs, in violation 
    of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1718 (2006), 1874 
    (2009), 2087 (2013), 2094 (2013), 2270 (2016), 2321 (2016), 2371 
    (2017), 2375 (2017), and 2397 (2017).
        (2) The Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea 
    engages in gross human rights abuses against its own people and 
    citizens of other countries, including the United States, the 
    Republic of Korea, and Japan.
        (3) The United States is committed to pursuing a peaceful 
    denuclearization of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea 
    through a policy of maximum pressure and engagement, in close 
    concert with its partners.
    (b) Policy of the United States With Respect to Sanctions Against 
the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.--
        (1) Statement of policy.--It is the policy of the United States 
    to continue to impose sanctions with respect to activities of the 
    Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, persons 
    acting for or on behalf of such government, or other persons in 
    accordance with Executive Order No. 13551 (50 U.S.C. 1701 note; 
    relating to blocking property of certain persons with respect to 
    North Korea), Executive Order No. 13687 (50 U.S.C. 1701 note; 
    relating to imposing additional sanctions), Executive Order No. 
    13694 (50 U.S.C. 1701 note; relating to blocking the property of 
    certain persons engaging in significant malicious cyberenabled 
    activities), Executive Order No. 13722 (50 U.S.C. 1701 note; 
    relating to blocking the property of the Government of North Korea 
    and the Workers' Party of Korea, and prohibiting certain 
    transactions with respect to North Korea), and Executive Order No. 
    13810 (82 Fed. Reg. 44705; relating to imposing additional 
    sanctions with respect to North Korea), as such Executive orders 
    are in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this 
    Act, until the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is no longer 
    engaged in the illicit activities described in such Executive 
    orders, including actions in violation of the United Nations 
    Security Council resolutions referred to in subsection (a)(1).
        (2) Report.--Not later than 30 days after terminating any 
    sanction with respect to the activities of the Government of the 
    Democratic People's Republic of Korea, a person acting for or on 
    behalf of such government, or any other person provided for in an 
    Executive order listed in subsection (a), the Secretary of State, 
    in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury, shall submit a 
    report to the appropriate congressional committees justifying the 
    termination of the sanction and explaining the relationship between 
    such termination and the cessation of any illicit activity that 
    violates any of the United Nations Security Council resolutions 
    referred to in subsection (a)(1) by such Government or person. The 
    reporting requirement under this paragraph shall terminate on the 
    date that is 5 years after the date of the enactment of this Act.
        (3) Rule of construction.--Nothing in this subsection shall be 
    construed to limit the authority of the President pursuant to the 
    International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et 
    seq.).
    (c) Policy of the United States With Respect to Negotiation on the 
Democratic People's Republic of Korea's Nuclear and Ballistic Missile 
Programs.--It is the policy of the United States that the objective of 
negotiations with respect to the nuclear and ballistic missile programs 
of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea be the complete, 
verifiable, and irreversible dismantlement of such programs.
    (d) Report on a Strategy to Address the Threats Posed by, and the 
Capabilities of, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.--
        (1) In general.--Not later than 90 days after the date of the 
    enactment of this Act, and every 180 days thereafter for the 
    following 5 years, the Secretary of State, or a designee of the 
    Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury, 
    shall submit a report to the appropriate congressional committees 
    that describes actions taken by the United States to address the 
    threats posed by, and the capabilities of, the Democratic People's 
    Republic of Korea.
        (2) Elements.--Each report required under paragraph (1) shall 
    include--
            (A) a summary of ongoing efforts by the United States to 
        identify strategies and policies, including an assessment of 
        the strengths and weaknesses of such strategies and policies--
                (i) to achieve peaceful denuclearization of the 
            Democratic People's Republic of Korea; and
                (ii) to eliminate the threat posed by the ballistic 
            missile program of the Democratic People's Republic of 
            Korea;
            (B) an assessment of--
                (i) potential road maps toward peaceful 
            denuclearization of the Democratic People's Republic of 
            Korea and the elimination of the nuclear and ballistic 
            missile threats posed by the Democratic People's Republic 
            of Korea; and
                (ii) specific actions that the Democratic People's 
            Republic of Korea would need to take for each such roadmap 
            to become viable;
            (C) a summary of the United States strategy to increase 
        international coordination and cooperation, whether 
        unilaterally, bilaterally, or multilaterally, including 
        sanctions enforcement and interdiction, to address the threat 
        posed by the nuclear and ballistic missile programs of the 
        Democratic People's Republic of Korea, which shall include--
                (i) a description of the actions taken by the Secretary 
            of State, or designees of the Secretary, to consult with 
            governments around the world, with the purpose of inducing 
            such governments to fully implement the United Nations 
            Security Council resolutions referred to in subsection 
            (a)(1);
                (ii) a description of the actions taken by such 
            governments to fully implement United Nations Security 
            Council resolutions related to the Democratic People's 
            Republic of Korea;
                (iii) a list of countries with governments that the 
            Secretary has determined are noncooperative with respect to 
            implementing the United Nations Security Council 
            resolutions referred to in subsection (a)(1); and
                (iv) a plan of action to engage, and increase 
            cooperation with respect to the Democratic People's 
            Republic of Korea, with the governments of the countries on 
            the list described in clause (iii);
            (D) an assessment of the adequacy of the national export 
        control regimes of countries that are members of the United 
        Nations, and multilateral export control regimes, that are 
        necessary to enforce sanctions imposed with respect to the 
        Democratic People's Republic of Korea pursuant to the United 
        Nations Security Council resolutions referred to in subsection 
        (a)(1); and
            (E) an action plan to encourage and assist countries in 
        adopting and using authorities necessary to enforce export 
        controls required by United Nations Security Council 
        resolutions.
        (3) Form of report.--Each report required under this subsection 
    shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a 
    classified annex.
    (e) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) representatives of the United States shall use the voice 
    and vote of the United States in all international organizations, 
    as appropriate, to advocate for the expulsion of the Democratic 
    People's Republic of Korea from such organizations, until such time 
    as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea meets its commitments 
    under the United Nations Security Council resolutions referred to 
    in subsection (a)(1); and
        (2) the Secretary of State should work to induce countries to 
    meet their commitments under the United Nations Security Council 
    resolutions referred to in subsection (a)(1), including by 
    considering appropriate adjustments to the diplomatic posture and 
    foreign assistance of the United States with governments that the 
    Secretary has determined are noncooperative with respect to 
    implementing the United Nations Security Council resolutions 
    referred to in subsection (a)(1).
    SEC. 211. NEW ZEALAND.
    The United States Government is committed to--
        (1) the Wellington Declaration, signed on November 5, 2010, 
    which reaffirmed close ties and outlined future practical 
    cooperation between the United States and New Zealand;
        (2) the Washington Declaration, signed on June 19, 2012, which 
    strengthened the defense relationship by providing a framework and 
    strategic guidance for security cooperation and defense dialogues; 
    and
        (3) all related and subsequent bilateral and security 
    agreements and arrangements between the United States and New 
    Zealand concluded on or before the date of enactment of this Act.
    SEC. 212. THE PACIFIC ISLANDS.
    (a) In General.--It is the sense of Congress that the United States 
should--
        (1) support strong United States engagement with the nations of 
    the South Pacific, including Fiji, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, 
    the Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea, 
    Samoa, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu;
        (2) deepen its cooperation with the nations of the South 
    Pacific in areas of mutual interest, including--
            (A) fisheries and marine resource conservation;
            (B) environmental challenges and resilience;
            (C) global health;
            (D) development and trade; and
            (E) people-to-people ties; and
        (3) continue to provide assistance to the Pacific Islands, as 
    appropriate, to support the rule of law, good governance, and 
    economic development.
    (b) United States-Compacts of Free Association.--It is the sense of 
Congress that the Compacts of Free Association entered between the 
United States and the Freely Associated States (Republic of Marshall 
Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of 
Palau)--
        (1) enhance the strategic posture of the United States in the 
    Western Pacific;
        (2) reinforce United States regional commitment;
        (3) preempt potential adversaries from establishing positional 
    advantage; and
        (4) further self-governance, economic development, and self-
    sufficiency of the Freely Associated States.
    SEC. 213. FREEDOM OF NAVIGATION AND OVERFLIGHT; PROMOTION OF 
      INTERNATIONAL LAW.
    (a) Freedom of Navigation.--It is the policy of the United States--
        (1) to conduct, as part of its global Freedom of Navigation 
    Program, regular freedom of navigation, and overflight operations 
    in the Indo-Pacific region, in accordance with applicable 
    international law; and
        (2) to promote genuine multilateral negotiations to peacefully 
    resolve maritime disputes in the South China Sea, in accordance 
    with applicable international law.
    (b) Joint Indo-Pacific Diplomatic Strategy.--It is the sense of 
Congress that the President should develop a diplomatic strategy that 
includes working with United States allies and partners to conduct 
joint maritime training and freedom of navigation operations in the 
Indo-Pacific region, including the East China Sea and the South China 
Sea, in support of a rules-based international system benefitting all 
countries.
    SEC. 214. COMBATING TERRORISM IN SOUTHEAST ASIA.
    (a) Definitions.--In this section:
        (1) Appropriate committees of congress.--The term ``appropriate 
    committees of Congress'' means--
            (A) the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate;
            (B) the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate;
            (C) the Committee on Armed Services of the House of 
        Representatives; and
            (D) the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of 
        Representatives.
        (2) ISIS.--The term ``ISIS'' means the Islamic State of Iraq 
    and Syria.
    (b) Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the Director of National Intelligence, in 
consultation with the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, and 
other appropriate Federal officials, shall submit a report to the 
appropriate committees of Congress that contains an assessment of the 
current and future capabilities and activities of ISIS-linked, al-
Qaeda-linked, and other violent extremist groups in Southeast Asia that 
pose a significant threat to the United States, its allies, and its 
citizens interests abroad.
    (c) Elements.--The report required under subsection (b) shall 
include--
        (1) the current number of ISIS-linked, al-Qaeda-linked, and 
    other violent extremist group-affiliated fighters in Southeast 
    Asia;
        (2) an estimate of the number of ISIS-linked, al-Qaeda-linked, 
    and other violent extremist group-affiliated fighters expected to 
    return to Southeast Asia from fighting in the Middle East;
        (3) an analysis of the amounts and sources of ISIS-linked, al 
    Qaeda-linked, and other various extremist group affiliated-fighters 
    in Southeast Asia;
        (4) the current resources available to combat the threat of 
    ISIS-linked, al-Qaeda-linked, and other violent extremist group-
    affiliated fighters in Southeast Asia, and the additional resources 
    required to combat such threat;
        (5) a detailed assessment of the capabilities of ISIS-linked, 
    al-Qaeda-linked, and other violent extremist group-affiliated 
    fighters to operate effectively in the Indo-Pacific region, 
    including the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia;
        (6) a description of the capabilities and resources of 
    governments in Southeast Asia to counter violent extremist groups; 
    and
        (7) a list of additional United States resources and 
    capabilities that the Department of Defense and the Department of 
    State recommend providing to governments in Southeast Asia to 
    combat violent extremist groups.
    SEC. 215. CYBERSECURITY COOPERATION.
    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that there 
should be robust cybersecurity cooperation between the United States 
and nations in the Indo-Pacific region--
        (1) to effectively respond to cybersecurity threats, including 
    state-sponsored threats;
        (2) to share best practices to combat such threats;
        (3) to strengthen resilience against cyberattacks, 
    misinformation, and propaganda; and
        (4) to strengthen the resilience of critical infrastructure.
    (b) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated $100,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2019 through 
2023 to enhance cooperation between the United States and Indo-Pacific 
nations for the purposes of combatting cybersecurity threats.
    SEC. 216. NONPROLIFERATION AND ARMS CONTROL IN THE INDO-PACIFIC 
      REGION.
    (a) In General.--The United States Government--
        (1) recognizes that the spread of nuclear and other weapons of 
    mass destruction, and their means of delivery, constitutes a threat 
    to international peace and security;
        (2) seeks to peacefully address the unique challenge posed to 
    regional and global stability by the illicit use, and the 
    proliferation to and from North Korea, of sensitive nuclear and 
    missile technologies, and other weapons of mass destruction;
        (3) notes efforts by China and Russia--
            (A) to expand and modernize their respective nuclear 
        arsenals, including through significant research and 
        development resources in hypersonic glide vehicles and other 
        advanced technologies; and
            (B) to pursue sales of commercial nuclear technologies; and
        (4) recognizes the legitimate pursuit by many countries in the 
    Indo-Pacific region of nuclear energy for a variety of peaceful 
    applications.
    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the United 
States Government should undertake all reasonable and appropriate 
efforts to pursue effective arms control and nonproliferation policies 
in the Indo-Pacific region to limit the further spread of weapons of 
mass destruction and their means of delivery.

   TITLE III--PROMOTING UNITED STATES ECONOMIC INTERESTS IN THE INDO-
                             PACIFIC REGION

    SEC. 301. FINDINGS; SENSE OF CONGRESS.
    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
        (1) According to the United States Chamber of Commerce, by 
    2030--
            (A) 66 percent of the global middle class population will 
        be living in Asia; and
            (B) 59 percent of middle class consumption will take place 
        in Asia.
        (2) According to the Asian Development Bank--
            (A) Asian countries have signed 140 bilateral or regional 
        trade agreements; and
            (B) 75 more trade agreements with Asian countries are under 
        negotiation or concluded and awaiting entry into force.
        (3) Free trade agreements between the United States and 3 
    nations in the Indo-Pacific region (Australia, Singapore, and the 
    Republic of Korea) have entered into force.
        (4) The member states of the Association of Southeast Asian 
    Nations (referred to in this section as ``ASEAN''), as a group--
            (A) represent the fifth largest economy in the world; and
            (B) have a combined gross domestic product of 
        $2,400,000,000,000.
        (5) The economy comprised of ASEAN member states grew by 66 
    percent between 2006 and 2015, and the total value of bilateral 
    trade between the United States and ASEAN member states has 
    increased by 78 percent since 2004.
        (6) In 2015, the trade surplus of goods sold by companies in 
    ASEAN member states to consumers in the United States was 
    $77,000,000,000, while the United States 2015 trade surplus of 
    services provided to consumers in ASEAN member states was 
    $8,000,000,000.
        (7) According to US-ASEAN Business Council, goods and services 
    exported from the United States to ASEAN member states support 
    550,000 jobs in the United States.
        (8) According to the Business Roundtable--
            (A) the United States, Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, 
        Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore and 
        Vietnam were responsible for a combined 40 percent of global 
        gross domestic product in 2017; and
            (B) United States bilateral trade with the other nations 
        referred to in subparagraph (A) supports 15,600,000 jobs in the 
        United States.
        (9) According to the United States National Security Strategy--
            (A) ASEAN and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation ``remain 
        centerpieces of the Indo-Pacific's regional architecture and 
        platforms for promoting an order based on freedom''; and
            (B) the United States will ``work with partners to build a 
        network of states dedicated to free markets and protected from 
        forces that would subvert their sovereignty.''.
    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that trade 
between the United States and the nations in the Indo-Pacific region is 
vitally important to the United States economy, United States exports, 
and jobs in the United States.
    SEC. 302. INDO-PACIFIC TRADE NEGOTIATIONS, MULTILATERAL AGREEMENTS, 
      AND REGIONAL ECONOMIC SUMMITS.
    Congress supports--
        (1) multilateral, bilateral, or regional trade agreements with 
    partners that--
            (A) comply with trade obligations and respect, promote, and 
        strictly adhere to the rule of law; and
            (B) increase United States employment and expand the 
        economy;
        (2) formal economic dialogues that include concrete, 
    verifiable, and measured outcomes;
        (3) negotiations under the auspices of the World Trade 
    Organization, including negotiations to enter into appropriate 
    plurilateral and sectoral agreements;
        (4) full implementation of the World Trade Organization's Trade 
    Facilitation Agreement by Indo-Pacific countries; and
        (5) the proactive, strategic, and continuing high-level use of 
    the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit, 
    and the Group of 20 to pursue United States economic objectives in 
    the Indo-Pacific region.
    SEC. 303. UNITED STATES-ASEAN ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP.
    The President should seek to develop to negotiate a comprehensive 
economic engagement framework with the Association of Southeast Asian 
Nations.
    SEC. 304. TRADE CAPACITY BUILDING AND TRADE FACILITATION.
    (a) In General.--The President is encouraged to produce a robust 
and comprehensive trade capacity building and trade facilitation 
strategy, including leveling the playing field for American companies 
competing in the Indo-Pacific region.
    (b) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated such amounts as may be necessary to carry out subsection 
(a).
    SEC. 305. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PROTECTION.
    (a) In General.--The President should takes steps to strengthen the 
enforcement of United States intellectual property laws as a top 
priority, including taking all appropriate action to deter and punish 
commercial cyber-enabled theft of intellectual property.
    (b) Annual Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, and annually thereafter for the following 5 
years, the President shall submit a report to Congress that--
        (1) describes the efforts of the United States Government to 
    combat intellectual property violations and commercial cyber-
    enabled theft in the Indo-Pacific region, particularly the People's 
    Republic of China; and
        (2) includes a country-by-country assessment of priority areas 
    for United States engagement and capacity building assistance.
    (c) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to the United States Trade Representative such amounts as 
may be necessary to sponsor bilateral and multilateral activities 
designed to build capacity in the identified priority areas described 
in the annual report required under subsection (b).
    SEC. 306. ENERGY PROGRAMS AND INITIATIVES.
    (a) Indo-Pacific Energy Strategy.--
        (1) Strategy.--Not later than 180 days after the date of the 
    enactment of this Act, and annually thereafter for the following 5 
    years, the President shall establish a comprehensive, integrated, 
    multiyear strategy to encourage the efforts of Indo-Pacific 
    countries to implement national power strategies and cooperation 
    with United States energy companies and the Department of Energy 
    national laboratories to develop an appropriate mix of power 
    solutions to provide access to sufficient, reliable, and affordable 
    power in order to reduce poverty, drive economic growth and job 
    creation, and to increase energy security in the Indo-Pacific 
    region.
        (2) Authorization of appropriations.--There are authorized to 
    be appropriated $1,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2019 
    through 2023 to carry out paragraph (1).
    (b) Reliable Energy Partnerships.--It is the sense of Congress that 
the United States should explore opportunities to partner with the 
private sector and multilateral institutions, such as the World Bank 
and the Asian Development Bank, to promote universal access to reliable 
electricity in the Indo-Pacific region, including Myanmar (historically 
known as ``Burma'').
    SEC. 307. LOWER MEKONG INITIATIVE.
    (a) In General.--The Secretary of State, in cooperation with the 
Administrator of the United States Agency for International 
Development, should increase regional engagement in the areas of 
environment, health, education, and infrastructure development with the 
Lower Mekong countries, including--
        (1) assisting in the development of programs that focus on 
    forecasting environmental challenges and resilience;
        (2) assisting with transnational cooperation on sustainable 
    uses of forest and water resources with the goal of preserving the 
    biodiversity of the Mekong Basin and access to safe drinking water;
        (3) assisting with education enrollment and broadband internet 
    connectivity, particularly English training and connectivity in 
    rural communities; and
        (4) improving global health in the Lower Mekong countries, 
    including--
            (A) reducing the HIV/AIDS infection rate; and
            (B) helping regional partners to track and treat malaria 
        and tuberculosis.
    (b) Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, and annually thereafter through 2023, the 
Secretary of State, in cooperation with the Administrator of the United 
States Agency for International Development, shall submit a report to 
Congress that includes--
        (1) a list and evaluation of Lower Mekong Initiative activities 
    since its inception in 2009;
        (2) a strategy for any increased regional engagement and 
    measures of success for the activities described in paragraph (1); 
    and
        (3) an accounting of funds used to execute Lower Mekong 
    Initiative activities.
    SEC. 308. SENSE OF CONGRESS ON ECONOMIC GROWTH AND NATURAL RESOURCE 
      CONSERVATION.
    It is the sense of Congress that the President should encourage the 
governments of countries in the Indo-Pacific region and United States 
private sector interests with operations and investments in the region 
to deploy agriculture practices that--
        (1) conserve natural resources; and
        (2) preserve culturally and ecological valuable lands and water 
    bodies.
    SEC. 309. SENSE OF CONGRESS IN SUPPORT OF WOMEN'S ECONOMIC RIGHTS.
    It is the sense of the Congress that the United States should--
        (1) support activities that secure private property rights and 
    land tenure for women in developing countries in Asia, including--
            (A) establishing legal frameworks to give women equal 
        rights to own, register, use, profit from, and inherit land and 
        property;
            (B) improving legal literacy to enable women to exercise 
        the rights described in subparagraph (A); and
            (C) increasing the capacity of law enforcement and 
        community leaders to enforce such rights;
        (2) work with Asian civil society, governments, and 
    multilateral organizations to increase the capability of 
    disadvantaged women and girls in Asia--
            (A) to realize their rights;
            (B) to determine their life outcomes;
            (C) to assume leadership roles; and
            (D) to influence decision-making in their households, 
        communities, and societies; and
        (3) seek to expand access to appropriate financial products and 
    services for women-owned micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises 
    in Asia.

  TITLE IV--PROMOTING UNITED STATES VALUES IN THE INDO-PACIFIC REGION

    SEC. 401. FINDINGS.
    Congress makes the following findings:
        (1) The promotion of human rights and respect for democratic 
    values in the Indo-Pacific region is in the United States' national 
    security interest.
        (2) Continued support for human rights, democratic values, and 
    good governance is critical to a successful United States 
    diplomatic strategy in the Indo-Pacific.
        (3) Strong support for human rights and democracy in the Indo-
    Pacific region is critical to efforts to reduce poverty, build rule 
    of law, combat corruption, reduce the allure of extremism, and 
    promote economic growth.
        (4) There are serious concerns with the rule of law and civil 
    liberties in Cambodia, China, North Korea, Laos, Thailand, and 
    Vietnam, which have all been identified by Freedom House as ``Not 
    Free''.
        (5) There have been unacceptable human rights developments in--
            (A) Burma (Myanmar), which has been identified by Freedom 
        House as ``Partly Free'', and the Department of State has 
        declared that the violence against the Rohingya constitutes 
        ethnic cleansing;
            (B) the Philippines, which has been identified by Freedom 
        House as ``Partly Free'', and where there are continued 
        disturbing reports of extra-judicial killings; and
            (C) China, where forced disappearances, extralegal 
        detentions, invasive and omnipresent surveillance, and lack of 
        due process in judicial proceedings remain troublesome.
        (6) according to the National Security Strategy, the United 
    States--
            (A) will ``support, with our words and actions, those who 
        live under oppressive regimes and who seek freedom, individual 
        dignity, and the rule of law'';
            (B) ``may use diplomacy, sanctions, and other tools to 
        isolate states and leaders who threaten our interests and whose 
        actions run contrary to our values''; and
            (C) ``will support efforts to advance women's equality, 
        protect the rights of women and girls, and promote women and 
        youth empowerment programs''.
    SEC. 402. TRAFFICKING-IN-PERSONS.
    The President is encouraged to pursue additional efforts to combat 
trafficking in persons and human slavery in the Indo-Pacific region.
    SEC. 403. FREEDOM OF THE PRESS.
    It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) United States Government officials should lead by example--
            (A) by continuing to advocate for freedom of the press in 
        the Indo-Pacific region; and
            (B) by engaging with the press corps at every appropriate 
        opportunity; and
        (2) the United States should advocate and support a Ministerial 
    to Advance Press Freedom in the Indo-Pacific to convene government 
    and civil society, including journalists, to discuss and address 
    the challenges facing press freedom in the Indo-Pacific region.
    SEC. 404. DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS, AND LABOR PERSONNEL.
    It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) United States embassies and consulates in the Indo-Pacific 
    region should have personnel, as appropriate, who are dedicated to 
    reporting on and advancing United States democracy, human rights, 
    labor, anti-corruption, and good governance policy interests; and
        (2) appropriate resources should be made available to carry out 
    such activities.
    SEC. 405. BILATERAL AND REGIONAL DIALOGUES; PEOPLE-TO-PEOPLE 
      ENGAGEMENT.
    The Secretary of State should, as appropriate--
        (1) establish high-level bilateral and regional dialogues with 
    nations in the Indo-Pacific region regarding human rights and 
    religious freedom violations;
        (2) establish or support robust, people-to-people exchange 
    programs in the Indo-Pacific region, particularly programs engaging 
    young leaders; and
        (3) establish educational exchanges and capacity-building 
    programs emphasizing civil society development.
    SEC. 406. ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS 
      STRATEGY.
    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the United 
States should continue to work with ASEAN to improve the capacity of 
ASEAN to address human rights, democracy, and good governance issues in 
Southeast Asia.
    (b) Strategy.--Not later than 90 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the Secretary of State, after consultation with 
the Administrator of the United States Agency for International 
Development, shall submit a strategy to the appropriate congressional 
committees to increase cooperation with ASEAN to promote human rights, 
democracy, and good governance in Southeast Asia.
    (c) Contents.--The strategy submitted under subsection (b) should 
include--
        (1) an assessment of the types of United States Government 
    resources available to support increased cooperation; and
        (2) an assessment to identify entities within ASEAN that the 
    United States could potentially support or partner with to promote 
    human rights, democracy, and good governance in Southeast Asia.
    SEC. 407. FREEDOM OF INFORMATION TO NORTH KOREA.
    The President is encouraged to continue efforts to enhance freedom 
of information access with regard to North Korea.
    SEC. 408. SENSE OF CONGRESS ON IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS AND 
      SUSPENSION OF UNITED STATES ASSISTANCE.
    (a) Sanctions.--It is the sense of Congress that the President 
should impose targeted financial penalties and visa ban sanctions, in 
accordance with applicable law and other relevant authorities, on any 
individual or entity that--
        (1) violates human rights or religious freedoms; or
        (2) engages in censorship activities.
    (b) Suspension of Foreign Assistance.--It is the sense of Congress 
that the President should, in accordance with applicable law, 
terminate, suspend, or otherwise alter United States economic 
assistance to any country that has engaged in serious violations of 
human rights or religious freedoms.
    SEC. 409. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.
    (a) Promotion of Democracy in the Indo-Pacific Region.--
        (1) In general.--There is authorized to be appropriated 
    $210,000,000, for each of the fiscal years 2019 through 2023, to 
    promote democracy, strengthen civil society, human rights, rule of 
    law, transparency, and accountability in the Indo-Pacific region, 
    including for universities, civil society, and multilateral 
    institutions that are focusing on education awareness, training, 
    and capacity building.
        (2) Democracy in china.--Amounts appropriated pursuant to 
    paragraph (1) shall be made available for United States Government 
    efforts, led by the Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, 
    Human Rights, and Labor, to promote democracy, the rule of law, and 
    human rights in the People's Republic of China.
        (3) Tibet.--Amounts appropriated pursuant to paragraph (1) 
    shall be made available for nongovernmental organizations to 
    support activities preserving cultural traditions and promoting 
    sustainable development, education, and environmental conservation 
    in Tibetan communities in the Tibet Autonomous Region and in other 
    Tibetan communities in China, India, and Nepal.
    SEC. 410. INDO-PACIFIC HUMAN RIGHTS DEFENDERS.
    (a) Defined Term.--In this section, the term ``human rights 
defenders'' means individuals, working alone or in groups, who 
nonviolently advocate for the promotion and protection of universally 
recognized human rights and fundamental freedoms if the advocacy of 
such issues may result in the risk of safety or life.
    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that human 
rights defenders in the Indo-Pacific region have been facing increased 
difficulties with the rise of unprecedented crackdowns and conflicts.
    (c) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated $1,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2019 through 2023 
to provide critical assistance to human rights defenders through the 
Department of State's Human Rights Defenders Fund.
    (d) Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, and annually thereafter through 2023, the 
Secretary of State, in cooperation with the Administrator of the United 
States Agency for International Development, shall submit a report to 
Congress that includes--
        (1) a list and evaluation of the Human Rights Defenders Fund 
    activities since its inception;
        (2) a strategy for any increased regional engagement and 
    measures of success for the activities described in paragraph (1); 
    and
        (3) an accounting of funds used to execute the Human Rights 
    Defender Fund activities.
    SEC. 411. YOUNG LEADERS PEOPLE-TO-PEOPLE INITIATIVES.
    There are authorized to be appropriated $25,000,000 for each of the 
fiscal years 2019 through 2023 to support Indo-Pacific young leaders 
initiatives, including the Young Southeast Asian Leaders Initiative, 
the ASEAN Youth Volunteers Program, and other people-to-people exchange 
programs that focus on building the capacity of democracy, human 
rights, and good governance activists in the Indo-Pacific region.
    SEC. 412. SAVINGS PROVISION.
    Nothing in this Act may be construed as authorizing the use of 
military force.

                               Speaker of the House of Representatives.

                            Vice President of the United States and    
                                               President of the Senate.