Text: S.2736 — 115th Congress (2017-2018)All Information (Except Text)

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Public Law No: 115-409 (12/31/2018)

 
[115th Congress Public Law 409]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office]



[[Page 132 STAT. 5387]]

Public Law 115-409
115th Congress

                                 An Act


 
      To develop a long-term strategic vision and a comprehensive, 
 multifaceted, and principled United States policy for the Indo-Pacific 
  region, and for other purposes. <<NOTE: Dec. 31, 2018 -  [S. 2736]>> 

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled, <<NOTE: Asia Reassurance 
Initiative Act of 2018.>> 
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.

    (a) <<NOTE: 22 USC 2651 note.>>  Short Title.--This Act may be cited 
as the ``Asia Reassurance Initiative Act of 2018''.

    (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for this Act is as 
follows:

Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.
Sec. 2. Findings.

   TITLE I--UNITED STATES POLICY AND DIPLOMATIC STRATEGY IN THE INDO-
                             PACIFIC REGION

Sec. 101. Policy.
Sec. 102. Diplomatic strategy.

TITLE II--PROMOTING UNITED STATES SECURITY INTERESTS IN THE INDO-PACIFIC 
                                 REGION

Sec. 201. Authorization of appropriations.
Sec. 202. Treaty alliances in the Indo-Pacific region.
Sec. 203. United States-China relationship.
Sec. 204. United States-India strategic partnership.
Sec. 205. United States-ASEAN strategic partnership.
Sec. 206. United States-Republic of Korea-Japan trilateral security 
           partnership.
Sec. 207. Quadrilateral security dialogue.
Sec. 208. Enhanced security partnerships in Southeast Asia.
Sec. 209. Commitment to Taiwan.
Sec. 210. North Korea strategy.
Sec. 211. New Zealand.
Sec. 212. The Pacific Islands.
Sec. 213. Freedom of navigation and overflight; promotion of 
           international law.
Sec. 214. Combating terrorism in Southeast Asia.
Sec. 215. Cybersecurity cooperation.
Sec. 216. Nonproliferation and arms control in the Indo-Pacific region.

   TITLE III--PROMOTING UNITED STATES ECONOMIC INTERESTS IN THE INDO-
                             PACIFIC REGION

Sec. 301. Findings; sense of Congress.
Sec. 302. Trade negotiations, multilateral agreements, and regional 
           economic summits.
Sec. 303. United States-ASEAN economic partnership.
Sec. 304. Trade capacity building and trade facilitation.
Sec. 305. Intellectual property protection.
Sec. 306. Energy programs and initiatives.
Sec. 307. Lower Mekong initiative.
Sec. 308. Sense of Congress on economic growth and natural resource 
           conservation.
Sec. 309. Sense of Congress in support of women's economic rights.

[[Page 132 STAT. 5388]]

   TITLE IV--PROMOTING UNITED STATES VALUES IN THE INDO-PACIFIC REGION

Sec. 401. Findings.
Sec. 402. Trafficking-in-persons.
Sec. 403. Freedom of the press.
Sec. 404. Democracy, human rights, and labor personnel.
Sec. 405. Bilateral and regional dialogues; people-to-people engagement.
Sec. 406. Association of Southeast Asian Nations Human Rights Strategy.
Sec. 407. Freedom of information to North Korea.
Sec. 408. Sense of Congress on imposition of sanctions and suspension of 
           United States assistance.
Sec. 409. Authorization of appropriations.
Sec. 410. Indo-Pacific human rights defenders.
Sec. 411. Young leaders people-to-people initiatives.

SEC. 2. FINDINGS.

    Congress makes the following findings:
            (1) The Indo-Pacific region--
                    (A) represents nearly 50 percent of the global 
                population;
                    (B) is home to some of the most dynamic economies in 
                the world; and
                    (C) poses security challenges that threaten to 
                undermine United States national security interests, 
                regional peace, and global stability.
            (2) The core tenets of the United States-backed 
        international system are being challenged, including by--
                    (A) China's illegal construction and militarization 
                of artificial features in the South China Sea and 
                coercive economic practices;
                    (B) North Korea's acceleration of its nuclear and 
                ballistic missile capabilities; and
                    (C) the increased presence throughout Southeast Asia 
                of the Islamic State (referred to in this Act as 
                ``ISIS'') and other international terrorist 
                organizations that threaten the United States.
            (3) The economic order in the Indo-Pacific region continues 
        to transform, presenting opportunities and challenges to United 
        States economic interests.
            (4) The United States has a fundamental interest in 
        defending human rights and promoting the rule of law in the 
        Indo-Pacific region. Although many countries in the region have 
        improved the treatment of their citizens, several Indo-Pacific 
        governments continue to commit human rights abuses and place 
        restrictions on basic human rights and political and civil 
        liberties.
            (5) Without strong leadership from the United States, the 
        international system, fundamentally rooted in the rule of law, 
        may wither, to the detriment of United States, regional, and 
        global interests. It is imperative that the United States 
        continue to play a leading role in the Indo-Pacific region by--
                    (A) defending peace and security;
                    (B) advancing economic prosperity; and
                    (C) promoting respect for fundamental human rights.
            (6) In 2017, the Subcommittee on East Asia, the Pacific, and 
        International Cybersecurity Policy of the Committee on Foreign 
        Relations of the Senate held a series of hearings on United 
        States leadership in the Indo-Pacific region, in which--
                    (A) experts, including Representative Randy Forbes, 
                Ambassador Robert Gallucci, Ms. Tami Overby, Dr. Robert

[[Page 132 STAT. 5389]]

                Orr, Ambassador Derek Mitchell, Ambassador Robert King, 
                Mr. Murray Hiebert, and others detailed the security 
                challenges, economic opportunities, and imperatives of 
                promoting the rule of law, human rights, and democracy, 
                in the Indo-Pacific region; and
                    (B) Dr. Graham Allison, the Douglas Dillon Professor 
                of Government at the John F. Kennedy School of 
                Government at Harvard University, testified, ``As 
                realistic students of history, Chinese leaders recognize 
                that the role the United States has played since World 
                War II as the architect and underwriter of regional 
                stability and security has been essential to the rise of 
                Asia, including China itself. But they believe that as 
                the tide that brought the United States to Asia recedes, 
                America must leave with it. Much as Britain's role in 
                the Western Hemisphere faded at the beginning of the 
                twentieth century, so must America's role in Asia as the 
                region's historic superpower resumes its place.''.
            (7) The United States National Security Strategy (referred 
        to in this Act as the ``National Security Strategy''), which was 
        released in December 2017, states--
                    (A) ``A geopolitical competition between free and 
                repressive visions of world order is taking place in the 
                Indo-Pacific region. The region, which stretches from 
                the west coast of India to the western shores of the 
                United States, represents the most populous and 
                economically dynamic part of the world. The United 
                States interest in a free and open Indo-Pacific extends 
                back to the earliest days of our republic.''; and
                    (B) ``Our vision for the Indo-Pacific excludes no 
                nation. We will redouble our commitment to established 
                alliances and partnerships, while expanding and 
                deepening relationships with new partners that share 
                respect for sovereignty, fair and reciprocal trade, and 
                the rule of law. We will reinforce our commitment to 
                freedom of the seas and the peaceful resolution of 
                territorial and maritime disputes in accordance with 
                international law. We will work with allies and partners 
                to achieve complete, verifiable, and irreversible 
                denuclearization on the Korean Peninsula and preserve 
                the non-proliferation regime in Northeast Asia.''.

   TITLE I--UNITED STATES POLICY AND DIPLOMATIC STRATEGY IN THE INDO-
                             PACIFIC REGION

SEC. 101. <<NOTE: 22 USC 2656 note.>>  POLICY.

    It is the policy of the United States to develop and commit to a 
long-term strategic vision and a comprehensive, multifaceted, and 
principled United States policy for the Indo-Pacific region that--
            (1) secures the vital national security interests of the 
        United States and our allies and partners;
            (2) promotes American prosperity and economic interests by 
        advancing economic growth and development of a rules-based Indo-
        Pacific economic community;

[[Page 132 STAT. 5390]]

            (3) advances American influence by reflecting the values of 
        the American people and universal human rights;
            (4) supports functional problem-solving regional 
        architecture; and
            (5) accords with and supports the rule of law and 
        international norms.
SEC. 102. <<NOTE: 22 USC 2656 note.>>  DIPLOMATIC STRATEGY.

    It is the diplomatic strategy of the United States--
            (1) to work with United States allies--
                    (A) to confront common challenges;
                    (B) to improve information sharing;
                    (C) to increase defense investment and trade;
                    (D) to ensure interoperability; and
                    (E) to strengthen shared capabilities;
            (2) to strengthen relationships with partners who--
                    (A) share mutual respect for the rule of law;
                    (B) agree with fair and reciprocal trade; and
                    (C) understand the importance of civil society, the 
                rule of law, the free and reliable flow of information, 
                and transparent governance;
            (3) to support functional problem-solving regional 
        architecture, including through the Association of Southeast 
        Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, and the East 
        Asia Summit;
            (4) to emphasize the commitment of the United States--
                    (A) to freedom of navigation under international 
                law;
                    (B) to promote peaceful resolutions of maritime and 
                territorial disputes; and
                    (C) to expand security and defense cooperation with 
                allies and partners, as appropriate;
            (5) to pursue diplomatic measures to achieve complete, 
        verifiable, and irreversible denuclearization of North Korea;
            (6) to improve civil society, strengthen the rule of law, 
        and advocate for transparent governance;
            (7) to develop and grow the economy through private sector 
        partnerships between the United States and Indo-Pacific 
        partners;
            (8) to pursue multilateral and bilateral trade agreements in 
        a free, fair, and reciprocal manner and build a network of 
        partners in the Indo-Pacific committed to free markets;
            (9) to work with and encourage Indo-Pacific countries--
                    (A) to pursue high-quality and transparent 
                infrastructure projects;
                    (B) to maintain unimpeded commerce, open sea lines 
                or air ways, and communication; and
                    (C) to seek the peaceful resolution of disputes; and
            (10) to sustain a strong military presence in the Indo-
        Pacific region and strengthen security relationships with allies 
        and partners throughout the region.

[[Page 132 STAT. 5391]]

TITLE II--PROMOTING UNITED STATES SECURITY INTERESTS IN THE INDO-PACIFIC 
                                 REGION

SEC. 201. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

    (a) Defined Term.--In this section, the term ``appropriate 
committees of Congress'' means--
            (1) the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate;
            (2) the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate;
            (3) the Committee on Finance of the Senate;
            (4) the Committee on Appropriations of the House of 
        Representatives;
            (5) the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of 
        Representatives; and
            (6) the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of 
        Representatives.

    (b) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated for the Department of State, the United States Agency for 
International Development, and, as appropriate, the Department of 
Defense, $1,500,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2019 through 2023, 
which shall be used--
            (1) to advance United States foreign policy interests and 
        objectives in the Indo-Pacific region in recognition of the 
        value of diplomatic initiatives and programs in the furtherance 
        of United States strategy;
            (2) to improve the defense capacity and resiliency of 
        partner nations to resist coercion and deter and defend against 
        security threats, including through foreign military financing 
        and international military education and training programs;
            (3) to conduct regular bilateral and multilateral 
        engagements, particularly with the United States' most highly-
        capable allies and partners, to meet strategic challenges, 
        including--
                    (A) certain destabilizing activities of the People's 
                Republic of China; and
                    (B) emerging threats, such as the nuclear and 
                ballistic missile programs of the Democratic People's 
                Republic of Korea;
            (4) to build new counterterrorism partnership programs in 
        Southeast Asia to combat the growing presence of ISIS and other 
        terrorist organizations that pose a significant threat to the 
        United States, its allies, and its citizens' interests abroad;
            (5) to help partner countries strengthen their democratic 
        systems, with a focus on good governance;
            (6) to ensure that the regulatory environments for trade, 
        infrastructure, and investment in partner countries are 
        transparent, open, and free of corruption;
            (7) to encourage responsible natural resource management in 
        partner countries, which is closely associated with economic 
        growth; and
            (8) to increase maritime domain awareness programs in South 
        Asia and Southeast Asia--
                    (A) by expanding the scope of naval and coast guard 
                training efforts with Southeast Asian countries;
                    (B) by expanding cooperation with democratic 
                partners in South Asia, including Bangladesh, Nepal, and 
                Sri Lanka;

[[Page 132 STAT. 5392]]

                    (C) through intelligence sharing and other 
                information-sharing efforts; and
                    (D) through multilateral engagements, including by 
                involving Japan, Australia, and India in such efforts.

    (c) Countering China's Influence to Undermine the International 
System.--Amounts appropriated pursuant to subsection (b) shall be made 
available for United States Government efforts to counter the strategic 
influence of the People's Republic of China, in accordance with the 
strategy required under section 7043(e)(3) of the Department of State, 
Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2014 
(division K of Public Law 113-76; 128 Stat. 536) and in consultation 
with the appropriate committees of Congress.
    (d) Burma.--None of the amounts appropriated pursuant to subsection 
(b) may be made available for International Military Education and 
Training and Foreign Military Financing Programs for the armed forces of 
the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (historically known as ``Burma'').
    (e) <<NOTE: Drugs and drug abuse.>>  Philippines.--
            (1) <<NOTE: Determination. Reports.>>  In general.--None of 
        the amounts appropriated pursuant to subsection (b) may be made 
        available for counternarcotics assistance for the Philippine 
        National Police unless the Secretary of State determines and 
        reports to the appropriate committees of Congress that the 
        Government of the Philippines has adopted and is implementing a 
        counternarcotics strategy that is consistent with international 
        human rights standards, including investigating and prosecuting 
        individuals who are credibly alleged to have ordered, committed, 
        or covered up extrajudicial killings and other gross violations 
        of human rights in the conduct of counternarcotics operations.
            (2) Exception.--The limitation under paragraph (1) shall not 
        apply to funds made available--
                    (A) for drug demand reduction, maritime programs, or 
                transnational interdiction programs; or
                    (B) <<NOTE: Consultation.>>  to support for the 
                development of such counternarcotics strategy, after 
                consultation with the appropriate committees of 
                Congress.

    (f) <<NOTE: Certification. Reports.>>  Cambodia.--None of the 
amounts authorized to be appropriated pursuant to subsection (b) may be 
made available for United States assistance programs that benefit the 
Government of Cambodia unless the Secretary of State certifies and 
reports to the appropriate congressional committees that the 
requirements under section 7043(b)(1) of division K of the Consolidated 
Appropriations Act, 2018 (Public Law 115-141) have been met.
SEC. 202. TREATY ALLIANCES IN THE INDO-PACIFIC REGION.

    (a) United States-Japan Alliance.--The United States Government--
            (1) is committed to the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and 
        Security between the United States and Japan, done at 
        Washington, January 19, 1960, and all related and subsequent 
        bilateral security agreements and arrangements concluded on or 
        before the date of the enactment of this Act;
            (2) recognizes the vital role of the alliance between the 
        United States and Japan in promoting peace and security in the 
        Indo-Pacific region; and

[[Page 132 STAT. 5393]]

            (3) calls for the strengthening and broadening of 
        diplomatic, economic, and security ties between the United 
        States and Japan.

    (b) United States-Republic of Korea Alliance.--The United States 
Government--
            (1) is committed to the Mutual Defense Treaty Between the 
        United States and the Republic of Korea, done at Washington 
        October 1, 1953, and all related and subsequent bilateral 
        security agreements and arrangements concluded on or before the 
        date of the enactment of this Act;
            (2) recognizes the vital role of the alliance between the 
        United States and South Korea in promoting peace and security in 
        the Indo-Pacific region; and
            (3) calls for the strengthening and broadening of 
        diplomatic, economic, and security ties between the United 
        States and the Republic of Korea.

    (c) United States-Australia Alliance.--The United States 
Government--
            (1) is committed to the Security Treaty Between Australia 
        and the United States of America, done at San Francisco 
        September 1, 1951, and all related and subsequent bilateral 
        security agreements and arrangements concluded on or before the 
        date of the enactment of this Act;
            (2) recognizes the vital role of the alliance between the 
        United States and Australia in promoting peace and security in 
        the Indo-Pacific region; and
            (3) calls for the strengthening and broadening of 
        diplomatic, economic, and security ties between the United 
        States and Australia.

    (d) United States-Philippines Alliance.--The United States 
Government is committed to the Mutual Defense Treaty between the 
Republic of the Philippines and the United States of America, done at 
Washington August 30, 1951, and all related and subsequent bilateral 
security agreements and arrangements concluded on or before the date of 
the enactment of this Act, including the Enhanced Defense Cooperation 
Agreement, done at Manila April 28, 2014.
    (e) Thailand.--The United States Government is committed to--
            (1) the Agreement Respecting Military Assistance Between the 
        Government of the United States of America and the Government of 
        Thailand, done at Bangkok October 17, 1950;
            (2) the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, done at 
        Manila September 8, 1954; and
            (3) all related and subsequent bilateral security agreements 
        and arrangements concluded on or before the date of the 
        enactment of this Act, including the Joint Vision Statement for 
        the Thai-United States Defense Alliance, issued in Bangkok 
        November 15, 2012.
SEC. 203. UNITED STATES-CHINA RELATIONSHIP.

    (a) In General.--The United States Government--
            (1) expresses grave concerns with Chinese actions that 
        seek--
                    (A) to further constrain space for civil society and 
                religion within China; and

[[Page 132 STAT. 5394]]

                    (B) to undermine a rules-based order in the Indo-
                Pacific region;
            (2) encourages China to play a constructive role in world 
        affairs by demonstrating consistent respect for the rule of law 
        and international norms;
            (3) seeks to build a positive, cooperative, and 
        comprehensive relationship with China--
                    (A) by expanding areas of cooperation; and
                    (B) by addressing areas of disagreement, including 
                over human rights, economic policies, and maritime 
                security; and
            (4) is committed to working with China on shared regional 
        and global challenges, especially--
                    (A) upholding and strengthening the rules-based 
                international system; and
                    (B) the denuclearization of North Korea.

    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the United 
States should--
            (1) welcome a decision by China to change course and pursue 
        a responsible results-oriented relationship with the United 
        States and engagement on global issues;
            (2) encourage China to play a constructive role in the Indo-
        Pacific region and globally; and
            (3) continue to call out Chinese actions that undermine the 
        rules-based international system.
SEC. 204. UNITED STATES-INDIA STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP.

    (a) In General.--The United States Government--
            (1) recognizes the vital role of the strategic partnership 
        between the United States and India in promoting peace and 
        security in the Indo-Pacific region;
            (2) calls for the strengthening and broadening of 
        diplomatic, economic, and security ties between the United 
        States and India; and
            (3) is committed to--
                    (A) the New Framework for the United States-India 
                Defense Relationship, done at Arlington, Virginia on 
                June 28, 2005;
                    (B) the United States-India Defense Technology and 
                Trade Initiative, launched in 2012;
                    (C) the Joint Strategic Vision for the Indo-Pacific 
                and Indian Ocean Region, announced on January 25, 2015;
                    (D) the United States-India Joint Statement on 
                Prosperity Through Partnership, issued on June 26, 2017; 
                and
                    (E) all related and subsequent bilateral and 
                security agreements and arrangements concluded as of the 
                date of the enactment of this Act.

    (b) India as Major Defense Partner.--Congress makes the following 
findings:
            (1) Section 1292(a)(1)(A) of the National Defense 
        Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 (Public Law 114-328; 130 
        Stat. 2559; 22 U.S.C. 2751 note) requires the recognition of 
        India as a major defense partner.
            (2) The designation of India as a major defense partner, 
        which is unique to India--

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                    (A) institutionalizes the progress made to 
                facilitate defense trade and technology sharing between 
                the United States and India;
                    (B) elevates defense trade and technology 
                cooperation between the United States and India to a 
                level commensurate with the closest allies and partners 
                of the United States;
                    (C) facilitates technology sharing between the 
                United States and India, including license-free access 
                to a wide range of dual-use technologies, after taking 
                into account national security concerns; and
                    (D) facilitates joint exercises, coordination on 
                defense strategy and policy, military exchanges, and 
                port calls in support of defense cooperation between the 
                United States and India.
SEC. 205. UNITED STATES-ASEAN STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP.

    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the United 
States should--
            (1) support and reaffirm the elevation of the United States-
        Association of Southeast Asian Nations (referred to in this 
        section as ``ASEAN'') relationship to a strategic partnership;
            (2) recommit to ASEAN centrality by helping build a strong, 
        stable, politically cohesive, economically integrated, and 
        socially responsible community of nations that has common rules, 
        norms, procedures, and standards which are consistent with 
        international law and the principles of a rules-based Indo-
        Pacific community;
            (3) urge ASEAN to continue its efforts to foster greater 
        integration among its members;
            (4) recognize the value of--
                    (A) ASEAN engagement with economic, political, and 
                security partners within Asia and elsewhere, including 
                Australia, Canada, the European Union, India, Japan, New 
                Zealand, Norway, the Republic of Korea, and Taiwan; and
                    (B) strategic economic initiatives, such as 
                activities under the United States-ASEAN Trade and 
                Investment Framework Arrangement and the United States-
                ASEAN Connect, which demonstrate a commitment to ASEAN 
                and the ASEAN Economic Community and build upon economic 
                relationships in the Indo-Pacific region;
            (5) support efforts by the nations comprising ASEAN--
                    (A) to address maritime and territorial disputes in 
                a constructive manner; and
                    (B) to pursue claims through peaceful, diplomatic, 
                and legitimate regional and international arbitration 
                mechanisms, consistent with international law, including 
                through the adoption of a code of conduct in the South 
                China Sea to further promote peace and stability in the 
                Indo-Pacific region;
            (6) support efforts by United States partners and allies in 
        ASEAN--
                    (A) to enhance maritime capability and maritime 
                domain awareness;
                    (B) to protect unhindered access to, and use of, 
                international waterways in the Asia-Pacific region that 
                are critical to ensuring the security and free flow of 
                commerce;

[[Page 132 STAT. 5396]]

                    (C) to counter piracy;
                    (D) to disrupt illicit maritime trafficking 
                activities such as the trafficking of persons, goods, 
                and drugs; and
                    (E) to enhance the maritime capabilities of 
                countries or regional organizations to respond to 
                emerging threats to maritime security in the Asia-
                Pacific region; and
            (7) urge ASEAN member states to develop a common approach to 
        reaffirm the decision of the Permanent Court of Arbitration's 
        ruling with respect to the case between the Republic of the 
        Philippines and the People's Republic of China.

    (b) Report on Strategic Framework for Engagement With ASEAN.--
            (1) <<NOTE: Time periods. Consultation. Effective date.>>  
        In general.--Not later than 180 days after the date of the 
        enactment of this Act, and annually thereafter for the following 
        5 years, the Secretary of State, in consultation with other 
        Federal agencies, shall submit a report to the appropriate 
        congressional committees on a strategic framework to administer 
        programs, projects, and activities of the United States to 
        support diplomatic and economic engagement between the United 
        States and ASEAN member countries for the 10-year period 
        beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act.
            (2) Elements.--The report required under paragraph (1) shall 
        address the following elements of United States strategy:
                    (A) Promoting commercial engagement between the 
                United States and member countries of ASEAN.
                    (B) Helping member countries of ASEAN use 
                sustainable, efficient, and innovative technologies in 
                their respective energy sectors.
                    (C) Supporting economic conditions in member 
                countries of ASEAN that promote innovation, the creation 
                of new businesses, sustainable growth, and the education 
                of the region's future innovators, entrepreneurs, and 
                business leaders.
                    (D) Working with member countries of ASEAN to 
                improve the policy and regulatory environment for 
                growth, trade, innovation, and investment.
                    (E) Supporting the regional integration objectives 
                of member countries of ASEAN under the ASEAN Economic 
                Community.
                    (F) Partnership opportunities with the governments 
                of other countries friendly to the United States that 
                have committed to a high set of standards for investment 
                and development with ASEAN, as determined by the 
                Secretary of State.
SEC. 206. UNITED STATES-REPUBLIC OF KOREA-JAPAN TRILATERAL 
                        SECURITY PARTNERSHIP.

    It is the sense of Congress that the President should develop a 
strategy to deepen the trilateral security cooperation between the 
United States, South Korea, and Japan, including missile defense, 
intelligence-sharing, and other defense-related initiatives.
SEC. 207. QUADRILATERAL SECURITY DIALOGUE.

    It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) the security dialogue between the United States, 
        Australia, India, and Japan is vital to address pressing 
        security challenges in the Indo-Pacific region in order to 
        promote--
                    (A) a rules-based order;

[[Page 132 STAT. 5397]]

                    (B) respect for international law; and
                    (C) a free and open Indo-Pacific; and
            (2) such a dialogue is intended to augment, rather than to 
        replace, current mechanisms.
SEC. 208. ENHANCED SECURITY PARTNERSHIPS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA.

    (a) Indonesia.--The United States Government is committed to--
            (1) the United States-Indonesia Comprehensive Partnership, 
        done in Washington November 9, 2010;
            (2) the Joint Statement on Comprehensive Defense 
        Cooperation, done in Washington October 26, 2015; and
            (3) all related and subsequent bilateral and security 
        agreements and arrangements between the United States and 
        Indonesia concluded on or before the date of the enactment of 
        this Act.

    (b) Malaysia.--The United States Government is committed to--
            (1) the United States-Malaysia Comprehensive Partnership, 
        done at Putrajaya April 27, 2014;
            (2) the Joint Statement for Enhancing the Comprehensive 
        Partnership between the United States of America and Malaysia, 
        done in Washington September 13, 2017; and
            (3) all related and subsequent bilateral and security 
        agreements and arrangements between the United States and 
        Malaysia concluded on or before the date of the enactment of 
        this Act.

    (c) Singapore.--The United States Government is committed to--
            (1) the Strategic Framework Agreement Between the United 
        States of America and the Republic of Singapore for a Closer 
        Cooperation Partnership in Defense and Security, done at 
        Washington July 12, 2005;
            (2) the Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement, done at 
        Arlington, Virginia December 7, 2015; and
            (3) all related and subsequent bilateral and security 
        agreements and arrangements between the United States and 
        Singapore concluded on or before the date of the enactment of 
        this Act.

    (d) Vietnam.--The United States Government is committed to--
            (1) the United States-Vietnam Comprehensive Partnership, 
        done at Washington December 16, 2013;
            (2) the United StatesVietnam Joint Vision Statement on 
        Defense Relations, done at Hanoi on June 1, 2015;
            (3) the United StatesVietnam Joint Vision Statement, done at 
        Washington May 31, 2017; and
            (4) all related and subsequent bilateral and security 
        agreements and arrangements between the United States and 
        Vietnam concluded on or before the date of the enactment of this 
        Act.

    (e) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the United 
States should deepen diplomatic, economic, and security cooperation, 
especially in the areas of maritime security and counterterrorism, with 
Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam.

[[Page 132 STAT. 5398]]

SEC. 209. <<NOTE: 22 USC 3301 note.>>  COMMITMENT TO TAIWAN.

    (a) United States Commitment to Taiwan.--It is the policy of the 
United States--
            (1) to support the close economic, political, and security 
        relationship between Taiwan and the United States;
            (2) to faithfully enforce all existing United States 
        Government commitments to Taiwan, consistent with the Taiwan 
        Relations Act of 1979 (Public Law 96-8), the 3 joint 
        communiques, and the Six Assurances agreed to by President 
        Ronald Reagan in July 1982; and
            (3) to counter efforts to change the status quo and to 
        support peaceful resolution acceptable to both sides of the 
        Taiwan Strait.

    (b) Arms Sales to Taiwan.--The President should conduct regular 
transfers of defense articles to Taiwan that are tailored to meet the 
existing and likely future threats from the People's Republic of China, 
including supporting the efforts of Taiwan to develop and integrate 
asymmetric capabilities, as appropriate, including mobile, survivable, 
and cost-effective capabilities, into its military forces.
    (c) Travel.--The President should encourage the travel of highlevel 
United States officials to Taiwan, in accordance with the Taiwan Travel 
Act (Public Law 115-135).
SEC. 210. <<NOTE: 22 USC 9203 note.>>  NORTH KOREA STRATEGY.

    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
            (1) The Government of the Democratic People's Republic of 
        Korea has flagrantly defied the international community by 
        illicitly developing its nuclear and ballistic missile programs, 
        in violation of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1718 
        (2006), 1874 (2009), 2087 (2013), 2094 (2013), 2270 (2016), 2321 
        (2016), 2371 (2017), 2375 (2017), and 2397 (2017).
            (2) The Government of the Democratic People's Republic of 
        Korea engages in gross human rights abuses against its own 
        people and citizens of other countries, including the United 
        States, the Republic of Korea, and Japan.
            (3) The United States is committed to pursuing a peaceful 
        denuclearization of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea 
        through a policy of maximum pressure and engagement, in close 
        concert with its partners.

    (b) Policy of the United States With Respect to Sanctions Against 
the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.--
            (1) Statement of policy.--It is the policy of the United 
        States to continue to impose sanctions with respect to 
        activities of the Government of the Democratic People's Republic 
        of Korea, persons acting for or on behalf of such government, or 
        other persons in accordance with Executive Order No. 13551 (50 
        U.S.C. 1701 note; relating to blocking property of certain 
        persons with respect to North Korea), Executive Order No. 13687 
        (50 U.S.C. 1701 note; relating to imposing additional 
        sanctions), Executive Order No. 13694 (50 U.S.C. 1701 note; 
        relating to blocking the property of certain persons engaging in 
        significant malicious cyberenabled activities), Executive Order 
        No. 13722 (50 U.S.C. 1701 note; relating to blocking the 
        property of the Government of North Korea and the Workers' Party 
        of Korea, and prohibiting certain transactions with respect to 
        North Korea), and Executive Order No. 13810 (82 Fed. Reg. 44705;

[[Page 132 STAT. 5399]]

        relating to imposing additional sanctions with respect to North 
        Korea), as such Executive orders are in effect on the day before 
        the date of the enactment of this Act, until the Democratic 
        People's Republic of Korea is no longer engaged in the illicit 
        activities described in such Executive orders, including actions 
        in violation of the United Nations Security Council resolutions 
        referred to in subsection (a)(1).
            (2) <<NOTE: Consultation.>>  Report.--Not later than 30 days 
        after terminating any sanction with respect to the activities of 
        the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, a 
        person acting for or on behalf of such government, or any other 
        person provided for in an Executive order listed in subsection 
        (a), the Secretary of State, in consultation with the Secretary 
        of the Treasury, shall submit a report to the appropriate 
        congressional committees justifying the termination of the 
        sanction and explaining the relationship between such 
        termination and the cessation of any illicit activity that 
        violates any of the United Nations Security Council resolutions 
        referred to in subsection (a)(1) by such Government or 
        person. <<NOTE: Termination date.>>  The reporting requirement 
        under this paragraph shall terminate on the date that is 5 years 
        after the date of the enactment of this Act.
            (3) Rule of construction.--Nothing in this subsection shall 
        be construed to limit the authority of the President pursuant to 
        the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 
        et seq.).

    (c) Policy of the United States With Respect to Negotiation on the 
Democratic People's Republic of Korea's Nuclear and Ballistic Missile 
Programs.--It is the policy of the United States that the objective of 
negotiations with respect to the nuclear and ballistic missile programs 
of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea be the complete, 
verifiable, and irreversible dismantlement of such programs.
    (d) Report on a Strategy to Address the Threats Posed by, and the 
Capabilities of, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.--
            (1) <<NOTE: Consultation.>>  In general.--Not later than 90 
        days after the date of the enactment of this Act, and every 180 
        days thereafter for the following 5 years, the Secretary of 
        State, or a designee of the Secretary, in consultation with the 
        Secretary of the Treasury, shall submit a report to the 
        appropriate congressional committees that describes actions 
        taken by the United States to address the threats posed by, and 
        the capabilities of, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
            (2) <<NOTE: Summaries. Assessments.>>  Elements.--Each 
        report required under paragraph (1) shall include--
                    (A) a summary of ongoing efforts by the United 
                States to identify strategies and policies, including an 
                assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of such 
                strategies and policies--
                          (i) to achieve peaceful denuclearization of 
                      the Democratic People's Republic of Korea; and
                          (ii) to eliminate the threat posed by the 
                      ballistic missile program of the Democratic 
                      People's Republic of Korea;
                    (B) an assessment of--
                          (i) potential road maps toward peaceful 
                      denuclearization of the Democratic People's 
                      Republic

[[Page 132 STAT. 5400]]

                      of Korea and the elimination of the nuclear and 
                      ballistic missile threats posed by the Democratic 
                      People's Republic of Korea; and
                          (ii) specific actions that the Democratic 
                      People's Republic of Korea would need to take for 
                      each such roadmap to become viable;
                    (C) a summary of the United States strategy to 
                increase international coordination and cooperation, 
                whether unilaterally, bilaterally, or multilaterally, 
                including sanctions enforcement and interdiction, to 
                address the threat posed by the nuclear and ballistic 
                missile programs of the Democratic People's Republic of 
                Korea, which shall include--
                          (i) a description of the actions taken by the 
                      Secretary of State, or designees of the Secretary, 
                      to consult with governments around the world, with 
                      the purpose of inducing such governments to fully 
                      implement the United Nations Security Council 
                      resolutions referred to in subsection (a)(1);
                          (ii) a description of the actions taken by 
                      such governments to fully implement United Nations 
                      Security Council resolutions related to the 
                      Democratic People's Republic of Korea;
                          (iii) <<NOTE: Lists.>>  a list of countries 
                      with governments that the Secretary has determined 
                      are noncooperative with respect to implementing 
                      the United Nations Security Council resolutions 
                      referred to in subsection (a)(1); and
                          (iv) <<NOTE: Plan.>>  a plan of action to 
                      engage, and increase cooperation with respect to 
                      the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, with 
                      the governments of the countries on the list 
                      described in clause (iii);
                    (D) an assessment of the adequacy of the national 
                export control regimes of countries that are members of 
                the United Nations, and multilateral export control 
                regimes, that are necessary to enforce sanctions imposed 
                with respect to the Democratic People's Republic of 
                Korea pursuant to the United Nations Security Council 
                resolutions referred to in subsection (a)(1); and
                    (E) <<NOTE: Plan.>>  an action plan to encourage and 
                assist countries in adopting and using authorities 
                necessary to enforce export controls required by United 
                Nations Security Council resolutions.
            (3) Form of report.--Each report required under this 
        subsection shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may 
        include a classified annex.

    (e) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) representatives of the United States shall use the voice 
        and vote of the United States in all international 
        organizations, as appropriate, to advocate for the expulsion of 
        the Democratic People's Republic of Korea from such 
        organizations, until such time as the Democratic People's 
        Republic of Korea meets its commitments under the United Nations 
        Security Council resolutions referred to in subsection (a)(1); 
        and
            (2) the Secretary of State should work to induce countries 
        to meet their commitments under the United Nations Security 
        Council resolutions referred to in subsection (a)(1), including

[[Page 132 STAT. 5401]]

        by considering appropriate adjustments to the diplomatic posture 
        and foreign assistance of the United States with governments 
        that the Secretary has determined are noncooperative with 
        respect to implementing the United Nations Security Council 
        resolutions referred to in subsection (a)(1).
SEC. 211. NEW ZEALAND.

    The United States Government is committed to--
            (1) the Wellington Declaration, signed on November 5, 2010, 
        which reaffirmed close ties and outlined future practical 
        cooperation between the United States and New Zealand;
            (2) the Washington Declaration, signed on June 19, 2012, 
        which strengthened the defense relationship by providing a 
        framework and strategic guidance for security cooperation and 
        defense dialogues; and
            (3) all related and subsequent bilateral and security 
        agreements and arrangements between the United States and New 
        Zealand concluded on or before the date of enactment of this 
        Act.
SEC. 212. THE PACIFIC ISLANDS.

    (a) In General.--It is the sense of Congress that the United States 
should--
            (1) support strong United States engagement with the nations 
        of the South Pacific, including Fiji, Kiribati, the Marshall 
        Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Papua 
        New Guinea, Samoa, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and 
        Vanuatu;
            (2) deepen its cooperation with the nations of the South 
        Pacific in areas of mutual interest, including--
                    (A) fisheries and marine resource conservation;
                    (B) environmental challenges and resilience;
                    (C) global health;
                    (D) development and trade; and
                    (E) people-to-people ties; and
            (3) continue to provide assistance to the Pacific Islands, 
        as appropriate, to support the rule of law, good governance, and 
        economic development.

    (b) United States-Compacts of Free Association.--It is the sense of 
Congress that the Compacts of Free Association entered between the 
United States and the Freely Associated States (Republic of Marshall 
Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of 
Palau)--
            (1) enhance the strategic posture of the United States in 
        the Western Pacific;
            (2) reinforce United States regional commitment;
            (3) preempt potential adversaries from establishing 
        positional advantage; and
            (4) further self-governance, economic development, and self-
        sufficiency of the Freely Associated States.
SEC. 213. <<NOTE: 22 USC 1971 note prec.>>  FREEDOM OF NAVIGATION 
                        AND OVERFLIGHT; PROMOTION OF INTERNATIONAL 
                        LAW.

    (a) Freedom of Navigation.--It is the policy of the United States--

[[Page 132 STAT. 5402]]

            (1) to conduct, as part of its global Freedom of Navigation 
        Program, regular freedom of navigation, and overflight 
        operations in the Indo-Pacific region, in accordance with 
        applicable international law; and
            (2) to promote genuine multilateral negotiations to 
        peacefully resolve maritime disputes in the South China Sea, in 
        accordance with applicable international law.

    (b) Joint Indo-Pacific Diplomatic Strategy.--It is the sense of 
Congress that the President should develop a diplomatic strategy that 
includes working with United States allies and partners to conduct joint 
maritime training and freedom of navigation operations in the Indo-
Pacific region, including the East China Sea and the South China Sea, in 
support of a rules-based international system benefitting all countries.
SEC. 214. COMBATING TERRORISM IN SOUTHEAST ASIA.

    (a) Definitions.--In this section:
            (1) Appropriate committees of congress.--The term 
        ``appropriate committees of Congress'' means--
                    (A) the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate;
                    (B) the Committee on Foreign Relations of the 
                Senate;
                    (C) the Committee on Armed Services of the House of 
                Representatives; and
                    (D) the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of 
                Representatives.
            (2) ISIS.--The term ``ISIS'' means the Islamic State of Iraq 
        and Syria.

    (b) <<NOTE: Consultation. Assessment.>>  Report.--Not later than 180 
days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Director of 
National Intelligence, in consultation with the Secretary of State, the 
Secretary of Defense, and other appropriate Federal officials, shall 
submit a report to the appropriate committees of Congress that contains 
an assessment of the current and future capabilities and activities of 
ISIS-linked, al-Qaeda-linked, and other violent extremist groups in 
Southeast Asia that pose a significant threat to the United States, its 
allies, and its citizens interests abroad.

    (c) Elements.--The report required under subsection (b) shall 
include--
            (1) the current number of ISIS-linked, al-Qaeda-linked, and 
        other violent extremist group-affiliated fighters in Southeast 
        Asia;
            (2) <<NOTE: Estimate.>>  an estimate of the number of ISIS-
        linked, al-Qaeda-linked, and other violent extremist group-
        affiliated fighters expected to return to Southeast Asia from 
        fighting in the Middle East;
            (3) <<NOTE: Analysis.>>  an analysis of the amounts and 
        sources of ISIS-linked, al Qaeda-linked, and other various 
        extremist group affiliated-fighters in Southeast Asia;
            (4) the current resources available to combat the threat of 
        ISIS-linked, al-Qaeda-linked, and other violent extremist group-
        affiliated fighters in Southeast Asia, and the additional 
        resources required to combat such threat;
            (5) <<NOTE: Assessment.>>  a detailed assessment of the 
        capabilities of ISIS-linked, al-Qaeda-linked, and other violent 
        extremist group-affiliated fighters to operate effectively in 
        the Indo-Pacific region, including the Philippines, Indonesia, 
        and Malaysia;

[[Page 132 STAT. 5403]]

            (6) a description of the capabilities and resources of 
        governments in Southeast Asia to counter violent extremist 
        groups; and
            (7) <<NOTE: Lists.>>  a list of additional United States 
        resources and capabilities that the Department of Defense and 
        the Department of State recommend providing to governments in 
        Southeast Asia to combat violent extremist groups.
SEC. 215. CYBERSECURITY COOPERATION.

    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that there 
should be robust cybersecurity cooperation between the United States and 
nations in the Indo-Pacific region--
            (1) to effectively respond to cybersecurity threats, 
        including state-sponsored threats;
            (2) to share best practices to combat such threats;
            (3) to strengthen resilience against cyberattacks, 
        misinformation, and propaganda; and
            (4) to strengthen the resilience of critical infrastructure.

    (b) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated $100,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2019 through 2023 
to enhance cooperation between the United States and Indo-Pacific 
nations for the purposes of combatting cybersecurity threats.
SEC. 216. NONPROLIFERATION AND ARMS CONTROL IN THE INDO-PACIFIC 
                        REGION.

    (a) In General.--The United States Government--
            (1) recognizes that the spread of nuclear and other weapons 
        of mass destruction, and their means of delivery, constitutes a 
        threat to international peace and security;
            (2) seeks to peacefully address the unique challenge posed 
        to regional and global stability by the illicit use, and the 
        proliferation to and from North Korea, of sensitive nuclear and 
        missile technologies, and other weapons of mass destruction;
            (3) notes efforts by China and Russia--
                    (A) to expand and modernize their respective nuclear 
                arsenals, including through significant research and 
                development resources in hypersonic glide vehicles and 
                other advanced technologies; and
                    (B) to pursue sales of commercial nuclear 
                technologies; and
            (4) recognizes the legitimate pursuit by many countries in 
        the Indo-Pacific region of nuclear energy for a variety of 
        peaceful applications.

    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the United 
States Government should undertake all reasonable and appropriate 
efforts to pursue effective arms control and nonproliferation policies 
in the Indo-Pacific region to limit the further spread of weapons of 
mass destruction and their means of delivery.

[[Page 132 STAT. 5404]]

   TITLE III--PROMOTING UNITED STATES ECONOMIC INTERESTS IN THE INDO-
                             PACIFIC REGION

SEC. 301. FINDINGS; SENSE OF CONGRESS.

    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
            (1) According to the United States Chamber of Commerce, by 
        2030--
                    (A) 66 percent of the global middle class population 
                will be living in Asia; and
                    (B) 59 percent of middle class consumption will take 
                place in Asia.
            (2) According to the Asian Development Bank--
                    (A) Asian countries have signed 140 bilateral or 
                regional trade agreements; and
                    (B) 75 more trade agreements with Asian countries 
                are under negotiation or concluded and awaiting entry 
                into force.
            (3) Free trade agreements between the United States and 3 
        nations in the Indo-Pacific region (Australia, Singapore, and 
        the Republic of Korea) have entered into force.
            (4) The member states of the Association of Southeast Asian 
        Nations (referred to in this section as ``ASEAN''), as a group--
                    (A) represent the fifth largest economy in the 
                world; and
                    (B) have a combined gross domestic product of 
                $2,400,000,000,000.
            (5) The economy comprised of ASEAN member states grew by 66 
        percent between 2006 and 2015, and the total value of bilateral 
        trade between the United States and ASEAN member states has 
        increased by 78 percent since 2004.
            (6) In 2015, the trade surplus of goods sold by companies in 
        ASEAN member states to consumers in the United States was 
        $77,000,000,000, while the United States 2015 trade surplus of 
        services provided to consumers in ASEAN member states was 
        $8,000,000,000.
            (7) According to US-ASEAN Business Council, goods and 
        services exported from the United States to ASEAN member states 
        support 550,000 jobs in the United States.
            (8) According to the Business Roundtable--
                    (A) the United States, Australia, Brunei, Canada, 
                Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, 
                Singapore and Vietnam were responsible for a combined 40 
                percent of global gross domestic product in 2017; and
                    (B) United States bilateral trade with the other 
                nations referred to in subparagraph (A) supports 
                15,600,000 jobs in the United States.
            (9) According to the United States National Security 
        Strategy--
                    (A) ASEAN and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation 
                ``remain centerpieces of the Indo-Pacific's regional 
                architecture and platforms for promoting an order based 
                on freedom''; and

[[Page 132 STAT. 5405]]

                    (B) the United States will ``work with partners to 
                build a network of states dedicated to free markets and 
                protected from forces that would subvert their 
                sovereignty.''.

    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that trade 
between the United States and the nations in the Indo-Pacific region is 
vitally important to the United States economy, United States exports, 
and jobs in the United States.
SEC. 302. INDO-PACIFIC TRADE NEGOTIATIONS, MULTILATERAL 
                        AGREEMENTS, AND REGIONAL ECONOMIC SUMMITS.

    Congress supports--
            (1) multilateral, bilateral, or regional trade agreements 
        with partners that--
                    (A) comply with trade obligations and respect, 
                promote, and strictly adhere to the rule of law; and
                    (B) increase United States employment and expand the 
                economy;
            (2) formal economic dialogues that include concrete, 
        verifiable, and measured outcomes;
            (3) negotiations under the auspices of the World Trade 
        Organization, including negotiations to enter into appropriate 
        plurilateral and sectoral agreements;
            (4) full implementation of the World Trade Organization's 
        Trade Facilitation Agreement by Indo-Pacific countries; and
            (5) the proactive, strategic, and continuing high-level use 
        of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia 
        Summit, and the Group of 20 to pursue United States economic 
        objectives in the Indo-Pacific region.
SEC. 303. UNITED STATES-ASEAN ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP.

    The President should seek to develop to negotiate a comprehensive 
economic engagement framework with the Association of Southeast Asian 
Nations.
SEC. 304. TRADE CAPACITY BUILDING AND TRADE FACILITATION.

    (a) In General.--The President is encouraged to produce a robust and 
comprehensive trade capacity building and trade facilitation strategy, 
including leveling the playing field for American companies competing in 
the Indo-Pacific region.
    (b) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated such amounts as may be necessary to carry out subsection 
(a).
SEC. 305. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PROTECTION.

    (a) In General.--The President should takes steps to strengthen the 
enforcement of United States intellectual property laws as a top 
priority, including taking all appropriate action to deter and punish 
commercial cyber-enabled theft of intellectual property.
    (b) <<NOTE: President.>>  Annual Report.--Not later than 180 days 
after the date of the enactment of this Act, and annually thereafter for 
the following 5 years, the President shall submit a report to Congress 
that--
            (1) <<NOTE: China.>>  describes the efforts of the United 
        States Government to combat intellectual property violations and 
        commercial cyber-enabled theft in the Indo-Pacific region, 
        particularly the People's Republic of China; and

[[Page 132 STAT. 5406]]

            (2) <<NOTE: Assessment.>>  includes a country-by-country 
        assessment of priority areas for United States engagement and 
        capacity building assistance.

    (c) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to the United States Trade Representative such amounts as 
may be necessary to sponsor bilateral and multilateral activities 
designed to build capacity in the identified priority areas described in 
the annual report required under subsection (b).
SEC. 306. ENERGY PROGRAMS AND INITIATIVES.

    (a) Indo-Pacific Energy Strategy.--
            (1) <<NOTE: Deadlines. President.>>  Strategy.--Not later 
        than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, and 
        annually thereafter for the following 5 years, the President 
        shall establish a comprehensive, integrated, multiyear strategy 
        to encourage the efforts of Indo-Pacific countries to implement 
        national power strategies and cooperation with United States 
        energy companies and the Department of Energy national 
        laboratories to develop an appropriate mix of power solutions to 
        provide access to sufficient, reliable, and affordable power in 
        order to reduce poverty, drive economic growth and job creation, 
        and to increase energy security in the Indo-Pacific region.
            (2) Authorization of appropriations.--There are authorized 
        to be appropriated $1,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2019 
        through 2023 to carry out paragraph (1).

    (b) Reliable Energy Partnerships.--It is the sense of Congress that 
the United States should explore opportunities to partner with the 
private sector and multilateral institutions, such as the World Bank and 
the Asian Development Bank, to promote universal access to reliable 
electricity in the Indo-Pacific region, including Myanmar (historically 
known as ``Burma'').
SEC. 307. <<NOTE: Cooperation.>>  LOWER MEKONG INITIATIVE.

    (a) In General.--The Secretary of State, in cooperation with the 
Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, 
should increase regional engagement in the areas of environment, health, 
education, and infrastructure development with the Lower Mekong 
countries, including--
            (1) assisting in the development of programs that focus on 
        forecasting environmental challenges and resilience;
            (2) assisting with transnational cooperation on sustainable 
        uses of forest and water resources with the goal of preserving 
        the biodiversity of the Mekong Basin and access to safe drinking 
        water;
            (3) assisting with education enrollment and broadband 
        internet connectivity, particularly English training and 
        connectivity in rural communities; and
            (4) improving global health in the Lower Mekong countries, 
        including--
                    (A) reducing the HIV/AIDS infection rate; and
                    (B) helping regional partners to track and treat 
                malaria and tuberculosis.

    (b) Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment 
of this Act, and annually thereafter through 2023, the Secretary of 
State, in cooperation with the Administrator of the United States Agency 
for International Development, shall submit a report to Congress that 
includes--

[[Page 132 STAT. 5407]]

            (1) <<NOTE: Lists. Evaluation.>>  a list and evaluation of 
        Lower Mekong Initiative activities since its inception in 2009;
            (2) <<NOTE: Strategy.>>  a strategy for any increased 
        regional engagement and measures of success for the activities 
        described in paragraph (1); and
            (3) an accounting of funds used to execute Lower Mekong 
        Initiative activities.
SEC. 308. SENSE OF CONGRESS ON ECONOMIC GROWTH AND NATURAL 
                        RESOURCE CONSERVATION.

    It is the sense of Congress that the President should encourage the 
governments of countries in the Indo-Pacific region and United States 
private sector interests with operations and investments in the region 
to deploy agriculture practices that--
            (1) conserve natural resources; and
            (2) preserve culturally and ecological valuable lands and 
        water bodies.
SEC. 309. SENSE OF CONGRESS IN SUPPORT OF WOMEN'S ECONOMIC RIGHTS.

    It is the sense of the Congress that the United States should--
            (1) support activities that secure private property rights 
        and land tenure for women in developing countries in Asia, 
        including--
                    (A) establishing legal frameworks to give women 
                equal rights to own, register, use, profit from, and 
                inherit land and property;
                    (B) improving legal literacy to enable women to 
                exercise the rights described in subparagraph (A); and
                    (C) increasing the capacity of law enforcement and 
                community leaders to enforce such rights;
            (2) work with Asian civil society, governments, and 
        multilateral organizations to increase the capability of 
        disadvantaged women and girls in Asia--
                    (A) to realize their rights;
                    (B) to determine their life outcomes;
                    (C) to assume leadership roles; and
                    (D) to influence decision-making in their 
                households, communities, and societies; and
            (3) seek to expand access to appropriate financial products 
        and services for women-owned micro, small, and medium-sized 
        enterprises in Asia.

   TITLE IV--PROMOTING UNITED STATES VALUES IN THE INDO-PACIFIC REGION

SEC. 401. FINDINGS.

    Congress makes the following findings:
            (1) The promotion of human rights and respect for democratic 
        values in the Indo-Pacific region is in the United States' 
        national security interest.
            (2) Continued support for human rights, democratic values, 
        and good governance is critical to a successful United States 
        diplomatic strategy in the Indo-Pacific.
            (3) Strong support for human rights and democracy in the 
        Indo-Pacific region is critical to efforts to reduce poverty,

[[Page 132 STAT. 5408]]

        build rule of law, combat corruption, reduce the allure of 
        extremism, and promote economic growth.
            (4) There are serious concerns with the rule of law and 
        civil liberties in Cambodia, China, North Korea, Laos, Thailand, 
        and Vietnam, which have all been identified by Freedom House as 
        ``Not Free''.
            (5) There have been unacceptable human rights developments 
        in--
                    (A) Burma (Myanmar), which has been identified by 
                Freedom House as ``Partly Free'', and the Department of 
                State has declared that the violence against the 
                Rohingya constitutes ethnic cleansing;
                    (B) the Philippines, which has been identified by 
                Freedom House as ``Partly Free'', and where there are 
                continued disturbing reports of extra-judicial killings; 
                and
                    (C) China, where forced disappearances, extralegal 
                detentions, invasive and omnipresent surveillance, and 
                lack of due process in judicial proceedings remain 
                troublesome.
            (6) according to the National Security Strategy, the United 
        States--
                    (A) will ``support, with our words and actions, 
                those who live under oppressive regimes and who seek 
                freedom, individual dignity, and the rule of law'';
                    (B) ``may use diplomacy, sanctions, and other tools 
                to isolate states and leaders who threaten our interests 
                and whose actions run contrary to our values''; and
                    (C) ``will support efforts to advance women's 
                equality, protect the rights of women and girls, and 
                promote women and youth empowerment programs''.
SEC. 402. TRAFFICKING-IN-PERSONS.

    The President is encouraged to pursue additional efforts to combat 
trafficking in persons and human slavery in the Indo-Pacific region.
SEC. 403. FREEDOM OF THE PRESS.

    It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) United States Government officials should lead by 
        example--
                    (A) by continuing to advocate for freedom of the 
                press in the Indo-Pacific region; and
                    (B) by engaging with the press corps at every 
                appropriate opportunity; and
            (2) the United States should advocate and support a 
        Ministerial to Advance Press Freedom in the Indo-Pacific to 
        convene government and civil society, including journalists, to 
        discuss and address the challenges facing press freedom in the 
        Indo-Pacific region.
SEC. 404. DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS, AND LABOR PERSONNEL.

    It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) United States embassies and consulates in the Indo-
        Pacific region should have personnel, as appropriate, who are 
        dedicated to reporting on and advancing United States democracy, 
        human rights, labor, anti-corruption, and good governance policy 
        interests; and
            (2) appropriate resources should be made available to carry 
        out such activities.

[[Page 132 STAT. 5409]]

SEC. 405. BILATERAL AND REGIONAL DIALOGUES; PEOPLE-TO-PEOPLE 
                        ENGAGEMENT.

    The Secretary of State should, as appropriate--
            (1) establish high-level bilateral and regional dialogues 
        with nations in the Indo-Pacific region regarding human rights 
        and religious freedom violations;
            (2) establish or support robust, people-to-people exchange 
        programs in the Indo-Pacific region, particularly programs 
        engaging young leaders; and
            (3) establish educational exchanges and capacity-building 
        programs emphasizing civil society development.
SEC. 406. ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS 
                        STRATEGY.

    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the United 
States should continue to work with ASEAN to improve the capacity of 
ASEAN to address human rights, democracy, and good governance issues in 
Southeast Asia.
    (b) <<NOTE: Deadline. Consultation.>>  Strategy.--Not later than 90 
days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of 
State, after consultation with the Administrator of the United States 
Agency for International Development, shall submit a strategy to the 
appropriate congressional committees to increase cooperation with ASEAN 
to promote human rights, democracy, and good governance in Southeast 
Asia.

    (c) <<NOTE: Assessments.>>  Contents.--The strategy submitted under 
subsection (b) should include--
            (1) an assessment of the types of United States Government 
        resources available to support increased cooperation; and
            (2) an assessment to identify entities within ASEAN that the 
        United States could potentially support or partner with to 
        promote human rights, democracy, and good governance in 
        Southeast Asia.
SEC. 407. FREEDOM OF INFORMATION TO NORTH KOREA.

    The President is encouraged to continue efforts to enhance freedom 
of information access with regard to North Korea.
SEC. 408. SENSE OF CONGRESS ON IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS AND 
                        SUSPENSION OF UNITED STATES ASSISTANCE.

    (a) Sanctions.--It is the sense of Congress that the President 
should impose targeted financial penalties and visa ban sanctions, in 
accordance with applicable law and other relevant authorities, on any 
individual or entity that--
            (1) violates human rights or religious freedoms; or
            (2) engages in censorship activities.

    (b) Suspension of Foreign Assistance.--It is the sense of Congress 
that the President should, in accordance with applicable law, terminate, 
suspend, or otherwise alter United States economic assistance to any 
country that has engaged in serious violations of human rights or 
religious freedoms.
SEC. 409. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

    (a) Promotion of Democracy in the Indo-Pacific Region.--
            (1) In general.--There is authorized to be appropriated 
        $210,000,000, for each of the fiscal years 2019 through 2023, to 
        promote democracy, strengthen civil society, human rights, rule 
        of law, transparency, and accountability in the Indo-Pacific

[[Page 132 STAT. 5410]]

        region, including for universities, civil society, and 
        multilateral institutions that are focusing on education 
        awareness, training, and capacity building.
            (2) Democracy in china.--Amounts appropriated pursuant to 
        paragraph (1) shall be made available for United States 
        Government efforts, led by the Assistant Secretary of State for 
        Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, to promote democracy, the 
        rule of law, and human rights in the People's Republic of China.
            (3) Tibet.--Amounts appropriated pursuant to paragraph (1) 
        shall be made available for nongovernmental organizations to 
        support activities preserving cultural traditions and promoting 
        sustainable development, education, and environmental 
        conservation in Tibetan communities in the Tibet Autonomous 
        Region and in other Tibetan communities in China, India, and 
        Nepal.
SEC. 410. INDO-PACIFIC HUMAN RIGHTS DEFENDERS.

    (a) Defined Term.--In this section, the term ``human rights 
defenders'' means individuals, working alone or in groups, who 
nonviolently advocate for the promotion and protection of universally 
recognized human rights and fundamental freedoms if the advocacy of such 
issues may result in the risk of safety or life.
    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that human 
rights defenders in the Indo-Pacific region have been facing increased 
difficulties with the rise of unprecedented crackdowns and conflicts.
    (c) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated $1,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2019 through 2023 
to provide critical assistance to human rights defenders through the 
Department of State's Human Rights Defenders Fund.
    (d) <<NOTE: Cooperation.>>  Report.--Not later than 180 days after 
the date of the enactment of this Act, and annually thereafter through 
2023, the Secretary of State, in cooperation with the Administrator of 
the United States Agency for International Development, shall submit a 
report to Congress that includes--
            (1) <<NOTE: Lists. Evaluation.>>  a list and evaluation of 
        the Human Rights Defenders Fund activities since its inception;
            (2) <<NOTE: Strategy.>>  a strategy for any increased 
        regional engagement and measures of success for the activities 
        described in paragraph (1); and
            (3) an accounting of funds used to execute the Human Rights 
        Defender Fund activities.
SEC. 411. <<NOTE: Appropriations authorization.>>  YOUNG LEADERS 
                        PEOPLE-TO-PEOPLE INITIATIVES.

    There are authorized to be appropriated $25,000,000 for each of the 
fiscal years 2019 through 2023 to support Indo-Pacific young leaders 
initiatives, including the Young Southeast Asian Leaders Initiative, the 
ASEAN Youth Volunteers Program, and other people-to-people exchange 
programs that focus on building the capacity of democracy, human rights, 
and good governance activists in the Indo-Pacific region.

[[Page 132 STAT. 5411]]

SEC. 412. <<NOTE: 22 USC 656 note.>>  SAVINGS PROVISION.

    Nothing in this Act may be construed as authorizing the use of 
military force.

    Approved December 31, 2018.

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY--S. 2736:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, Vol. 164 (2018):
            Dec. 4, considered and passed Senate.
            Dec. 12, considered and passed House, amended.
            Dec. 19, Senate concurred in House amendment.
DAILY COMPILATION OF PRESIDENTIAL DOCUMENTS (2018):
            Dec. 31, Presidential statement.

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