Text: S.3336 — 115th Congress (2017-2018)All Information (Except Text)

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Introduced in Senate (08/01/2018)

 
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[S. 3336 Introduced in Senate (IS)]

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115th CONGRESS
  2d Session
                                S. 3336

    To strengthen the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, to combat 
   international cybercrime, and to impose additional sanctions with 
       respect to the Russian Federation, and for other purposes.


_______________________________________________________________________


                   IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES

                             August 1, 2018

  Mr. Graham (for himself, Mr. Menendez, Mr. Gardner, Mr. Cardin, Mr. 
McCain, and Mrs. Shaheen) introduced the following bill; which was read 
        twice and referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations

_______________________________________________________________________

                                 A BILL


 
    To strengthen the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, to combat 
   international cybercrime, and to impose additional sanctions with 
       respect to the Russian Federation, and for other purposes.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.

    (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``Defending American 
Security from Kremlin Aggression Act of 2018''.
    (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for this Act is as 
follows:

Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.
Sec. 2. Sense of Congress.
Sec. 3. Statement of policy on Crimea.
    TITLE I--MATTERS RELATING TO NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION

      Subtitle A--Opposition of the Senate to Withdrawal From NATO

Sec. 101. Opposition of the Senate to withdrawal from North Atlantic 
                            Treaty.
Sec. 102. Limitation on use of funds.
Sec. 103. Authorization for Senate Legal Counsel to represent Senate in 
                            opposition to withdrawal from the North 
                            Atlantic Treaty.
Sec. 104. Reporting requirement.
              Subtitle B--Strengthening the NATO Alliance

Sec. 111. Report on NATO alliance resilience and United States 
                            diplomatic posture.
Sec. 112. Expedited NATO excess defense articles transfer program.
Sec. 113. Appropriate congressional committees defined.
         TITLE II--MATTERS RELATING TO THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE

               Subtitle A--Public Diplomacy Modernization

Sec. 201. Avoiding duplication of programs and efforts.
Sec. 202. Improving research and evaluation of public diplomacy.
                       Subtitle B--Other Matters

Sec. 211. Department of State responsibilities with respect to 
                            cyberspace policy.
Sec. 212. Sense of Congress.
              TITLE III--CHEMICAL WEAPONS NONPROLIFERATION

Sec. 301. Short title.
Sec. 302. Findings.
Sec. 303. Statement of policy.
Sec. 304. Report on use of chemical weapons by the Russian Federation.
Sec. 305. Authorization of appropriations.
Sec. 306. Chemical Weapons Convention defined.
           TITLE IV--INTERNATIONAL CYBERCRIME PREVENTION ACT

Sec. 401. Short title.
Sec. 402. Predicate offenses.
Sec. 403. Forfeiture.
Sec. 404. Shutting down botnets.
Sec. 405. Aggravated damage to a critical infrastructure computer.
Sec. 406. Stopping trafficking in botnets; forfeiture.
                TITLE V--COMBATING ELECTION INTERFERENCE

Sec. 501. Prohibition on interference with voting systems.
Sec. 502. Inadmissibility of aliens seeking to interfere in United 
                            States elections.
       TITLE VI--SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

   Subtitle A--Expansion of Countering America's Adversaries Through 
                             Sanctions Act

Sec. 601. Imposition of additional sanctions with respect to the 
                            Russian Federation.
Sec. 602. Congressional review and continued applicability of sanctions 
                            under the Sergei Magnitsky Rule of Law 
                            Accountability Act of 2012.
            Subtitle B--Coordination With the European Union

Sec. 611. Sense of Congress on coordination with allies with respect to 
                            sanctions with respect to the Russian 
                            Federation.
Sec. 612. Office of Sanctions Coordination of the Department of State.
Sec. 613. Report on coordination of sanctions between the United States 
                            and European Union.
 Subtitle C--Reports Relating to Sanctions With Respect to the Russian 
                               Federation

Sec. 621. Definitions.
Sec. 622. Updated report on oligarchs and parastatal entities of the 
                            Russian Federation.
Sec. 623. Report on the personal net worth and assets of Vladimir 
                            Putin.
Sec. 624. Report on section 224 of the Countering America's Adversaries 
                            Through Sanctions Act.
Sec. 625. Report on section 225 of the Countering America's Adversaries 
                            Through Sanctions Act.
Sec. 626. Report on section 226 of the Countering America's Adversaries 
                            Through Sanctions Act.
Sec. 627. Report on section 228 of the Countering America's Adversaries 
                            Through Sanctions Act.
Sec. 628. Report on section 233 of the Countering America's Adversaries 
                            Through Sanctions Act.
Sec. 629. Report on section 234 of the Countering America's Adversaries 
                            Through Sanctions Act.
                     Subtitle D--General Provisions

Sec. 631. Exception relating to activities of the National Aeronautics 
                            and Space Administration.
Sec. 632. Rule of construction.
      TITLE VII--OTHER MATTERS RELATING TO THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Sec. 701. Determination on designation of the Russian Federation as a 
                            state sponsor of terrorism.
Sec. 702. Expansion of geographic targeting orders of Financial Crimes 
                            Enforcement Network.
Sec. 703. Extension of limitations on importation of uranium from 
                            Russian Federation.
Sec. 704. Establishment of a National Fusion Center to respond to 
                            threats from the Government of the Russian 
                            Federation.
Sec. 705. Countering Russian Influence Fund.
Sec. 706. Coordinating aid and assistance across Europe and Eurasia.
Sec. 707. Addressing abuse and misuse by the Russian Federation of 
                            INTERPOL red notices and red diffusions.
Sec. 708. Report on accountability for war crimes and crimes against 
                            humanity by the Russian Federation in 
                            Syria.
Sec. 709. Report on activities of the Russian Federation in Syria.
Sec. 710. Sense of Congress on responsibility of technology companies 
                            for state-sponsored disinformation.

SEC. 2. SENSE OF CONGRESS.

    It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) the President should immediately marshal and support a 
        whole-of-government response by Federal agencies to address the 
        threat posed by the Government of the Russian Federation and to 
        work to prevent interference by that Government and other 
        foreign state actors in United States institutions and 
        democratic processes;
            (2) the President should publicly call for the Government 
        of the Russian Federation to return Crimea to the control of 
        the Government of Ukraine, end its support for separatist 
        violence in eastern Ukraine, end its occupation of and support 
        for separatists on the territory of Georgia and Moldova, and 
        cease enabling the brutal regime of Bashar al-Assad in Syria to 
        commit war crimes;
            (3) the President should unequivocally condemn and counter 
        the ongoing interference in United States institutions and 
        democratic processes by the President of the Russian 
        Federation, Vladimir Putin, his government, and affiliates of 
        his government;
            (4) the conclusion of the United States intelligence 
        community and law enforcement agencies and other United States 
        Government officials that the Russian Federation has 
        perpetrated, and continues to perpetrate, such interference, is 
        correct;
            (5) the United States should continue to participate 
        actively as a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
        by--
                    (A) upholding the Organization's core principles of 
                collective defense, democratic rule of law, and 
                peaceful settlement of disputes;
                    (B) boosting coordination and deterrence capacity 
                among member countries; and
                    (C) supporting accession processes of prospective 
                member countries who meet the obligations of 
                membership;
            (6) Congress reiterates its strong support for the Russia 
        Sanctions Review Act of 2017 (22 U.S.C. 9511), which allows for 
        congressional review of an action to waive the application of 
        sanctions under the provisions of the Countering America's 
        Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (Public Law 115-44; 131 Stat. 
        886) relating to the Russian Federation or a licensing action 
        that significantly alters United States foreign policy with 
        regard to the Russian Federation; and
            (7) sanctions imposed with respect to the Russian 
        Federation have been most effective when developed and 
        coordinated in close consultation with the European Union.

SEC. 3. STATEMENT OF POLICY ON CRIMEA.

    It is the policy of the United States that--
            (1) the United States will never recognize the illegal 
        annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, similar to the 
        1940 Welles Declaration in which the United States refused to 
        recognized the Soviet annexation of the Baltic States;
            (2) Crimea is part of the sovereign territory of Ukraine;
            (3) Crimea is part of Ukraine and the United States rejects 
        attempts to change the status, demographics, or political 
        nature of Crimea;
            (4) the United States reaffirms its unwavering support for 
        democracy, human rights, and the rule of law for all 
        individuals in Crimea, including non-Russian ethnic groups and 
        religious minorities;
            (5) the United States condemns all human rights violations 
        against individuals in Crimea, and underscores the culpability 
        of the Government of the Russian Federation for such violations 
        while the territory of Crimea is under illegal Russian 
        occupation;
            (6) the United States, in coordination with the European 
        Union, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and members of 
        the international community, should prioritize efforts to 
        prevent the further consolidation of illegal occupying powers 
        in Crimea, reaffirm unified opposition to the actions of the 
        Russian Federation in Crimea, and secure the human rights of 
        individuals there; and
            (7) the United States welcomes the sanctions that have been 
        imposed and maintained as of the date of the enactment of this 
        Act by the United States and the European Union against persons 
        engaged in furthering the illegal occupation of Crimea by the 
        Russian Federation.

    TITLE I--MATTERS RELATING TO NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION

      Subtitle A--Opposition of the Senate to Withdrawal From NATO

SEC. 101. OPPOSITION OF THE SENATE TO WITHDRAWAL FROM NORTH ATLANTIC 
              TREATY.

    The Senate opposes any effort to withdraw the United States from 
the North Atlantic Treaty, done at Washington, DC, April 4, 1949.

SEC. 102. LIMITATION ON USE OF FUNDS.

    No funds authorized or appropriated by any Act may be used to 
support, directly or indirectly, any efforts on the part of any United 
States Government official to take steps to withdraw the United States 
from the North Atlantic Treaty, done at Washington, DC, April 4, 1949, 
until such time as the Senate passes, by an affirmative vote of two-
thirds of Members, a resolution advising and consenting to the 
withdrawal of the United States from the treaty.

SEC. 103. AUTHORIZATION FOR SENATE LEGAL COUNSEL TO REPRESENT SENATE IN 
              OPPOSITION TO WITHDRAWAL FROM THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY.

    The Senate Legal Counsel is authorized to represent the Senate in 
initiating or intervening in any judicial proceedings in any Federal 
court of competent jurisdiction, on behalf of the Senate, in order to 
oppose any withdrawal of the United States from the North Atlantic 
Treaty in the absence of the passage by the Senate of a resolution 
described in section 102.

SEC. 104. REPORTING REQUIREMENT.

    The Senate Legal Counsel shall report as soon as practicable to the 
Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate with respect to any 
judicial proceedings which the Senate Legal Counsel initiates or in 
which it intervenes pursuant to this title.

              Subtitle B--Strengthening the NATO Alliance

SEC. 111. REPORT ON NATO ALLIANCE RESILIENCE AND UNITED STATES 
              DIPLOMATIC POSTURE.

    (a) In General.--Not later than 90 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, and every 90 days thereafter, the Secretary of 
State, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, shall submit a 
report to the appropriate congressional committees providing an 
assessment of the threats and challenges facing the NATO alliance and 
United States diplomatic posture.
    (b) Elements.--The report required under subsection (a) shall 
include the following elements:
            (1) A review of current and emerging United States national 
        security interests in the NATO area of responsibility.
            (2) A review of current United States political and 
        diplomatic engagement and political-military coordination with 
        NATO and NATO member states.
            (3) Options for the realignment of United States engagement 
        with NATO to respond to new threats and challenges presented by 
        the Government of the Russian Federation to the NATO alliance, 
        as well as new opportunities presented by allies and partners.
            (4) The views of counterpart governments, including heads 
        of state, heads of government, political leaders, and military 
        commanders in the region.

SEC. 112. EXPEDITED NATO EXCESS DEFENSE ARTICLES TRANSFER PROGRAM.

    (a) Report.--Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment 
of this Act, the Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the 
Secretary of State, shall submit to the appropriate congressional 
committees a report with recommendations regarding the need for and 
suitability of transferring excess defense articles under this section 
to countries in the NATO alliance, with particular emphasis on the 
foreign policy benefits as it pertains to those member states currently 
purchasing defense articles or services from the Russian Federation.
    (b) Period for Review by Congress of Recommendations for EDA 
Transfer to NATO Members.--During the 30-calendar-day period following 
submission by the Secretary of Defense of the report required under 
subsection (a), the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and 
the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives shall, 
as appropriate, hold hearings and briefings and otherwise obtain 
information in order to fully review the recommendations included in 
the report.
    (c) Transfer Authority.--The President is authorized to transfer 
such excess defense articles in a fiscal year as the Secretary of 
Defense recommends pursuant to this section to countries for which 
receipt of such articles was justified pursuant to the annual 
congressional presentation documents for military assistance programs, 
or for which receipt of such articles was separately justified to 
Congress, for such fiscal year.
    (d) Limitations on Transfers.--The President may transfer excess 
defense articles under this section only if--
            (1) such articles are drawn from existing stocks of the 
        Department of Defense;
            (2) funds available to the Department of Defense for the 
        procurement of defense equipment are not expended in connection 
        with the transfer;
            (3) the President determines that the transfer of such 
        articles will not have an adverse impact on the military 
        readiness of the United States;
            (4) with respect to a proposed transfer of such articles on 
        a grant basis, the President determines that the transfer is 
        preferable to a transfer on a sales basis, after taking into 
        account the potential proceeds from, and likelihood of, such 
        sales, and the comparative foreign policy benefits that may 
        accrue to the United States as the result of a transfer on 
        either a grant or sales basis; and
            (5) the President determines that the transfer of such 
        articles will not have an adverse impact on the national 
        technology and industrial base and, particularly, will not 
        reduce the opportunities of entities in the national technology 
        and industrial base to sell new or used equipment to the 
        countries to which such articles are transferred.
    (e) Terms of Transfers.--
            (1) No cost to recipient country.--Excess defense articles 
        may be transferred under this section without cost to the 
        recipient country.
            (2) Priority.--Notwithstanding any other provision of law, 
        the delivery of excess defense articles under this section to 
        member countries of NATO that still purchase defense goods and 
        services from the Russian Federation and pledge to decrease 
        such purchases shall be given priority to the maximum extent 
        feasible over the delivery of such excess defense articles to 
        other countries.
            (3) Transportation and related costs.--
                    (A) In general.--Except as provided in subparagraph 
                (B), funds available to the Department of Defense may 
                not be expended for crating, packing, handling, and 
                transportation of excess defense articles transferred 
                under the authority of this section.
                    (B) Exception.--The President may provide for the 
                transportation of excess defense articles without 
                charge to a country for the costs of such 
                transportation if--
                            (i) it is determined that it is in the 
                        national interest of the United States to do 
                        so;
                            (ii) the recipient is a NATO member state 
                        currently purchasing defense goods and services 
                        from the Russian Federation that has pledged to 
                        reduce such purchases;
                            (iii) the total weight of the transfer does 
                        not exceed 50,000 pounds; and
                            (iv) such transportation is accomplished on 
                        a space available basis.

SEC. 113. APPROPRIATE CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEES DEFINED.

    In this title, the term ``appropriate congressional committees'' 
means--
            (1) the Committee on Foreign Relations, the Committee on 
        Armed Services, and the Committee on Appropriations of the 
        Senate; and
            (2) the Committee on Foreign Affairs, the Committee on 
        Armed Services, and the Committee on Appropriations of the 
        House of Representatives.

         TITLE II--MATTERS RELATING TO THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE

               Subtitle A--Public Diplomacy Modernization

SEC. 201. AVOIDING DUPLICATION OF PROGRAMS AND EFFORTS.

    The Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs of the 
Department of State shall--
            (1) identify opportunities for greater efficiency of 
        operations, including through improved coordination of efforts 
        across public diplomacy bureaus and offices of the Department; 
        and
            (2) maximize shared use of resources between, and within, 
        such public diplomacy bureaus and offices in cases in which 
        programs, facilities, or administrative functions are 
        duplicative or substantially overlapping.

SEC. 202. IMPROVING RESEARCH AND EVALUATION OF PUBLIC DIPLOMACY.

    (a) In General.--The Secretary of State shall--
            (1) conduct regular research and evaluation of public 
        diplomacy programs and activities of the Department, including 
        through the routine use of audience research, digital 
        analytics, and impact evaluations, to plan and execute such 
        programs and activities; and
            (2) make the findings of the research and evaluations 
        conducted under paragraph (1) available to Congress.
    (b) Director of Research and Evaluation.--
            (1) Appointment.--Not later than 90 days after the date of 
        the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall appoint a 
        Director of Research and Evaluation in the Office of Policy, 
        Planning, and Resources for the Under Secretary for Public 
        Diplomacy and Public Affairs.
            (2) Limitation on appointment.--The appointment of a 
        Director of Research and Evaluation pursuant to paragraph (1) 
        shall not result in an increase in the overall full-time 
        equivalent positions within the Department.
            (3) Responsibilities.--The Director of Research and 
        Evaluation shall--
                    (A) coordinate and oversee the research and 
                evaluation of public diplomacy programs of the 
                Department of State--
                            (i) to improve public diplomacy strategies 
                        and tactics; and
                            (ii) to ensure that programs are increasing 
                        the knowledge, understanding, and trust of the 
                        United States among relevant target audiences;
                    (B) report to the Director of Policy and Planning 
                in the Office of Policy, Planning, and Resources under 
                the Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public 
                Affairs of the Department;
                    (C) routinely organize and oversee audience 
                research, digital analytics, and impact evaluations 
                across all public diplomacy bureaus and offices of the 
                Department;
                    (D) support embassy public affairs sections;
                    (E) share appropriate public diplomacy research and 
                evaluation information within the Department and with 
                other Federal departments and agencies;
                    (F) regularly design and coordinate standardized 
                research questions, methodologies, and procedures to 
                ensure that public diplomacy activities across all 
                public diplomacy bureaus and offices are designed to 
                meet appropriate foreign policy objectives; and
                    (G) report biannually to the United States Advisory 
                Commission on Public Diplomacy, through the 
                Commission's Subcommittee on Research and Evaluation 
                established pursuant to subsection (f), regarding the 
                research and evaluation of all public diplomacy bureaus 
                and offices of the Department.
            (4) Guidance and training.--Not later than one year after 
        the appointment of the Director of Research and Evaluation 
        pursuant to paragraph (1), the Director shall create guidance 
        and training for all public diplomacy officers regarding the 
        reading and interpretation of public diplomacy program 
        evaluation findings to ensure that such findings and lessons 
        learned are implemented in the planning and evaluation of all 
        public diplomacy programs and activities throughout the 
        Department.
    (c) Prioritizing Research and Evaluation.--
            (1) In general.--The Director of Policy, Planning, and 
        Resources shall ensure that research and evaluation, as 
        coordinated and overseen by the Director of Research and 
        Evaluation, supports strategic planning and resource allocation 
        across all public diplomacy bureaus and offices of the 
        Department.
            (2) Allocation of resources.--Amounts allocated for the 
        purposes of research and evaluation of public diplomacy 
        programs and activities pursuant to subsection (a) shall be 
        made available to be disbursed at the direction of the Director 
        of Research and Evaluation among the research and evaluation 
        staff across all public diplomacy bureaus and offices of the 
        Department.
            (3) Sense of congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
                    (A) the Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and 
                Public Affairs of the Department of State should 
                coordinate the human and financial resources that 
                support the Department's public diplomacy and public 
                affairs programs and activities;
                    (B) proposals or plans related to resource 
                allocations for public diplomacy bureaus and offices 
                should be routed through the Office of the Under 
                Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs for 
                review and clearance; and
                    (C) the Department should allocate, for the 
                purposes of research and evaluation of public diplomacy 
                activities and programs pursuant to subsection (a)--
                            (i) 3 to 5 percent of program funds made 
                        available under the heading ``Educational and 
                        Cultural Exchange Programs''; and
                            (ii) 3 to 5 percent of program funds 
                        allocated for public diplomacy programs under 
                        the heading ``Diplomatic and Consular 
                        Programs''.
    (d) Limited Exemption.--Chapter 35 of title 44, United States Code 
(commonly known as the ``Paperwork Reduction Act'') shall not apply to 
collections of information directed at foreign individuals conducted 
by, or on behalf of, the Department of State for the purpose of 
audience research, monitoring, and evaluations, and in connection with 
the Department's activities conducted pursuant to the United States 
Information and Educational Exchange Act of 1948 (22 U.S.C. 1431 et 
seq.), the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961 (22 
U.S.C. 2451 et seq.), section 1287 of the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 (Public Law 114-328; 22 U.S.C. 
2656 note), or the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151 et 
seq.).
    (e) Limited Exemption to the Privacy Act.--The Department shall 
maintain, collect, use, and disseminate records (as such term is 
defined in section 552a(a)(4) of title 5, United States Code) for 
research and data analysis of public diplomacy efforts intended for 
foreign audiences. Such research and data analysis shall be reasonably 
tailored to meet the purposes of this subsection and shall be carried 
out with due regard for privacy and civil liberties guidance and 
oversight.
    (f) Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy.--
            (1) Subcommittee for research and evaluation.--The Advisory 
        Commission on Public Diplomacy shall establish a Subcommittee 
        for Research and Evaluation to monitor and advise on the 
        research and evaluation activities of the Department and the 
        Broadcasting Board of Governors.
            (2) Report.--The Subcommittee for Research and Evaluation 
        established pursuant to paragraph (1) shall submit an annual 
        report to Congress in conjunction with the Commission on Public 
        Diplomacy's Comprehensive Annual Report on the performance of 
        the Department and the Broadcasting Board of Governors in 
        carrying out research and evaluations of their respective 
        public diplomacy programming.
            (3) Repeal of sunset.--Section 1334 of the Foreign Affairs 
        Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998 (22 U.S.C. 6553) is hereby 
        repealed.
    (g) Definitions.--In this section:
            (1) Audience research.--The term ``audience research'' 
        means research conducted at the outset of a public diplomacy 
        program or campaign planning and design on specific audience 
        segments to understand the attitudes, interests, knowledge, and 
        behaviors of such audience segments.
            (2) Digital analytics.--The term ``digital analytics'' 
        means the analysis of qualitative and quantitative data, 
        accumulated in digital format, to indicate the outputs and 
        outcomes of a public diplomacy program or campaign.
            (3) Impact evaluation.--The term ``impact evaluation'' 
        means an assessment of the changes in the audience targeted by 
        a public diplomacy program or campaign that can be attributed 
        to such program or campaign.
            (4) Public diplomacy bureaus and offices.--The term 
        ``public diplomacy bureaus and offices'' means the Bureau of 
        Educational and Cultural Affairs, the Bureau of Public Affairs, 
        the Bureau of International Information Programs, the Office of 
        Policy, Planning, and Resources, the Global Engagement Center, 
        and the public diplomacy functions within the regional and 
        functional bureaus.

                       Subtitle B--Other Matters

SEC. 211. DEPARTMENT OF STATE RESPONSIBILITIES WITH RESPECT TO 
              CYBERSPACE POLICY.

    (a) Office of Cyberspace and the Digital Economy.--Section 1 of the 
State Department Basic Authorities Act of 1956 (22 U.S.C. 2651a) is 
amended--
            (1) by redesignating subsection (g) as subsection (h); and
            (2) by inserting after subsection (f) the following:
    ``(g) Office of Cyberspace and the Digital Economy.--
            ``(1) In general.--There is established, within the 
        Department of State, an Office of Cyberspace and the Digital 
        Economy (referred to in this subsection as the `Office'). The 
        head of the Office shall have the rank and status of ambassador 
        and shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice 
        and consent of the Senate.
            ``(2) Duties.--
                    ``(A) In general.--The head of the Office shall 
                perform such duties and exercise such powers as the 
                Secretary of State shall prescribe, including 
                implementing the United States international cyberspace 
                policy strategy issued by the Department of State in 
                March 2016 pursuant to section 402 of the Cybersecurity 
                Act of 2015 (division N of Public Law 114-113; 129 
                Stat. 2978).
                    ``(B) Duties described.--The principal duties and 
                responsibilities of the head of the Office shall be--
                            ``(i) to serve as the principal cyber 
                        policy official within the senior management of 
                        the Department of State and as the advisor to 
                        the Secretary of State for cyber issues;
                            ``(ii) to lead the Department of State's 
                        diplomatic cyberspace efforts, including 
                        efforts relating to international 
                        cybersecurity, Internet access, Internet 
                        freedom, digital economy, cybercrime, 
                        deterrence and international responses to cyber 
                        threats, and other issues that the Secretary 
                        assigns to the Office;
                            ``(iii) to promote an open, interoperable, 
                        reliable, unfettered, and secure information 
                        and communications technology infrastructure 
                        globally;
                            ``(iv) to represent the Secretary of State 
                        in interagency efforts to develop and advance 
                        cyberspace policy described in subparagraph 
                        (A);
                            ``(v) to coordinate cyberspace efforts and 
                        other relevant functions, including countering 
                        terrorists' use of cyberspace, within the 
                        Department of State and with other components 
                        of the United States Government;
                            ``(vi) to act as a liaison to public and 
                        private sector entities on relevant cyberspace 
                        issues;
                            ``(vii) to lead United States Government 
                        efforts to establish a global deterrence 
                        framework;
                            ``(viii) to develop and execute adversary-
                        specific strategies to influence adversary 
                        decisionmaking through the imposition of costs 
                        and deterrence strategies;
                            ``(ix) to advise the Secretary and 
                        coordinate with foreign governments on external 
                        responses to national security level cyber 
                        incidents, including coordination on diplomatic 
                        response efforts to support allies threatened 
                        by malicious cyber activity, in conjunction 
                        with members of the North Atlantic Treaty 
                        Organization and other like-minded countries;
                            ``(x) to promote the adoption of national 
                        processes and programs that enable threat 
                        detection, prevention, and response to 
                        malicious cyber activity emanating from the 
                        territory of a foreign country, including as 
                        such activity relates to the United States 
                        European allies, as appropriate;
                            ``(xi) to promote the building of foreign 
                        capacity to protect the global network with the 
                        goal of enabling like-minded participation in 
                        deterrence frameworks;
                            ``(xii) to promote the maintenance of an 
                        open and interoperable Internet governed by the 
                        multi-stakeholder model, instead of by 
                        centralized government control;
                            ``(xiii) to promote an international 
                        regulatory environment for technology 
                        investments and the Internet that benefits 
                        United States economic and national security 
                        interests;
                            ``(xiv) to promote cross border flow of 
                        data and combat international initiatives 
                        seeking to impose unreasonable requirements on 
                        United States businesses;
                            ``(xv) to promote international policies to 
                        protect the integrity of United States and 
                        international telecommunications infrastructure 
                        from foreign-based, cyber-enabled threats;
                            ``(xvi) to serve as the interagency 
                        coordinator for the United States Government on 
                        engagement with foreign governments on 
                        cyberspace and digital economy issues described 
                        in the Defending American Security from Kremlin 
                        Aggression Act of 2018;
                            ``(xvii) to promote international policies 
                        to secure radio frequency spectrum for United 
                        States businesses and national security needs;
                            ``(xviii) to promote and protect the 
                        exercise of human rights, including freedom of 
                        speech and religion, through the Internet;
                            ``(xix) to build capacity of United States 
                        diplomatic officials to engage on cyber issues;
                            ``(xx) to encourage the development and 
                        adoption by foreign countries of 
                        internationally recognized standards, policies, 
                        and best practices; and
                            ``(xxi) to promote and advance 
                        international policies that protect 
                        individuals' private data.
            ``(3) Qualifications.--The head of the Office should be an 
        individual of demonstrated competency in the fields of--
                    ``(A) cybersecurity and other relevant cyber 
                issues; and
                    ``(B) international diplomacy.
            ``(4) Organizational placement.--
                    ``(A) Initial placement.--During the 4-year period 
                beginning on the date of the enactment of the Defending 
                American Security from Kremlin Aggression Act of 2018, 
                the head of the Office shall report to the Under 
                Secretary for Political Affairs or to an official 
                holding a higher position than the Under Secretary for 
                Political Affairs in the Department of State.
                    ``(B) Subsequent placement.--After the conclusion 
                of the 4-year period referred to in subparagraph (A), 
                the head of the Office shall report to--
                            ``(i) an appropriate Under Secretary; or
                            ``(ii) an official holding a higher 
                        position than Under Secretary.
            ``(5) Rule of construction.--Nothing in this subsection may 
        be construed to preclude--
                    ``(A) the Office from being elevated to a Bureau 
                within the Department of State; or
                    ``(B) the head of the Office from being elevated to 
                an Assistant Secretary, if such an Assistant Secretary 
                position does not increase the number of Assistant 
                Secretary positions at the Department above the number 
                authorized under subsection (c)(1).''.
    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the Office 
of Cyberspace and the Digital Economy established under section 1(g) of 
the State Department Basic Authorities Act of 1956, as added by 
subsection (a)--
            (1) should be a Bureau of the Department of State headed by 
        an Assistant Secretary, subject to the rule of construction 
        specified in paragraph (5)(B) of such section 1(g); and
            (2) should coordinate with other bureaus of the Department 
        of State and use all tools at the disposal of the Office to 
        combat activities taken by the Russian Federation, or on behalf 
        of the Russian Federation, to undermine the cybersecurity and 
        democratic values of the United States and other nations.
    (c) United Nations.--The Permanent Representative of the United 
States to the United Nations should use the voice, vote, and influence 
of the United States to oppose any measure that is inconsistent with 
the United States international cyberspace policy strategy issued by 
the Department of State in March 2016 pursuant to section 402 of the 
Cybersecurity Act of 2015 (division N of Public Law 114-113; 129 Stat. 
2978).

SEC. 212. SENSE OF CONGRESS.

    It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) the Broadcasting Board of Governors and its grantee 
        networks have a critical mission to inform, engage, and connect 
        people around the world in support of freedom and democracy; 
        and
            (2) those networks must adhere to professional journalistic 
        standards and integrity and not engage in disinformation 
        activities.

              TITLE III--CHEMICAL WEAPONS NONPROLIFERATION

SEC. 301. SHORT TITLE.

    This title may be cited as the ``Chemical Weapons Nonproliferation 
Act of 2018''.

SEC. 302. FINDINGS.

    Congress makes the following findings:
            (1) The international norm against the use of chemical 
        weapons has severely eroded since 2012. At least 4 actors 
        between 2012 and the date of the enactment of this Act have 
        used chemical weapons: Syria, North Korea, the Russian 
        Federation, and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in 
        Iraq and Syria.
            (2) On March 4, 2018, the Government of the Russian 
        Federation knowingly used novichok, a lethal chemical agent, in 
        an attempt to kill former Russian military intelligence officer 
        Sergei Skripal and his daughter Yulia, in Salisbury, United 
        Kingdom.
            (3) On June 27, 2018, the Organisation for the Prohibition 
        of Chemical Weapons (in this title referred to as the 
        ``OPCW''), during its Fourth Special Session of the Conference 
        of the States Parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention, voted 
        favorably in adopting a decision to ``put in place arrangements 
        to identify the perpetrators of the use of chemical weapons in 
        the Syrian Arab Republic by identifying and reporting on all 
        information potentially relevant to the origin of those 
        chemical weapons in those instances in which the OPCW Fact-
        Finding Mission in Syria determines or has determined that use 
        or likely use occurred, and cases for which the OPCW-UN Joint 
        Investigative Mechanism has not issued a report; and decide[d] 
        also that the Secretariat shall provide regular reports on its 
        investigations to the Council and to the United Nations 
        Secretary-General for their consideration''.
            (4) The Government of the Russian Federation attempted to 
        impede the adoption of the identification mechanism in the 
        Fourth Special Session of the Conference of the States Parties 
        to the Chemical Weapons Convention, and has repeatedly worked 
        to degrade the OPCW's ability to identify chemical weapons 
        users.
            (5) The Government of the Russian Federation has shown 
        itself to be unwilling or incapable of compelling the President 
        of Syria, Bashar al-Assad, an ally of the Russian Federation, 
        to stop using chemical weapons against the civilian population 
        in Syria.
            (6) The United States remains steadfast in its commitment 
        to its key ally the United Kingdom, its commitment to the 
        mutual defense of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and 
        its commitment to the Chemical Weapons Convention.
            (7) Thirty-four countries, including the United States, 
        have joined the International Partnership against Impunity for 
        the use of Chemical Weapons, which represents a political 
        commitment by participating countries to hold to account 
        persons responsible for the use of chemical weapons.

SEC. 303. STATEMENT OF POLICY.

    It shall be the policy of the United States--
            (1) to protect and defend the interests of the United 
        States, allies of the United States, and the international 
        community at large from the continuing threat of chemical 
        weapons and their proliferation;
            (2) to maintain a steadfast commitment to the Chemical 
        Weapons Convention and the OPCW;
            (3) to promote and strengthen the investigative and 
        identification mechanisms of the OPCW through the provision of 
        additional resources and technical equipment to better allow 
        the OPCW to detect, identify, and attribute chemical weapons 
        attacks;
            (4) to pressure the Government of the Russian Federation to 
        halt its efforts to degrade the international efforts of the 
        United Nations and the OPCW to investigate chemical weapons 
        attacks and to designate perpetrators of such attacks by--
                    (A) highlighting within international fora, 
                including the United Nations General Assembly and the 
                OPCW, the repeated efforts of the Government of the 
                Russian Federation to degrade international efforts to 
                investigate chemical weapons attacks; and
                    (B) consulting with allies and partners of the 
                United States with respect to methods for strengthening 
                the investigative mechanisms of the OPCW;
            (5) to examine additional avenues for investigating, 
        identifying, and holding accountable chemical weapons users if 
        the Government of the Russian Federation continues in its 
        attempts to block or hinder investigations of the OPCW; and
            (6) to punish the Government of the Russian Federation for, 
        and deter that Government from, any chemical weapons production 
        and use through the imposition of sanctions, diplomatic 
        isolation, and the use of the mechanisms specified in the 
        Chemical Weapons Convention for violations of the Convention.

SEC. 304. REPORT ON USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS BY THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION.

    Not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, 
and annually thereafter, the Legal Adviser of the Department of State 
shall submit to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and 
the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives a 
report that includes an assessment of--
            (1) whether the certification of the noncompliance of the 
        Russian Federation with the Chemical Weapons Convention in the 
        report of the Department of State entitled ``Adherence to and 
        Compliance with Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Disarmament 
        Agreements and Commitments'', submitted to Congress pursuant to 
        section 403 of the Arms Control and Disarmament Act (22 U.S.C. 
        2593a), and dated April 2018, is a legal determination of the 
        use of chemical weapons by the Government of the Russian 
        Federation;
            (2) whether the mandatory sanctions required by the 
        Chemical and Biological Weapons and Warfare Elimination Act of 
        1991 (22 U.S.C. 5601 et seq.) have been imposed with respect to 
        the Russian Federation; and
            (3) whether the Government of the Russian Federation has 
        taken any steps to avoid additional sanctions required by that 
        Act within the 3-month period specified in section 307(b)(1) of 
        that Act (22 U.S.C. 5605(b)(1)) after a determination of the 
        use of chemical weapons under section 306(a)(1) of that Act (22 
        U.S.C. 5604(a)(1)).

SEC. 305. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

    (a) In General.--There are authorized to be appropriated to the 
Secretary of State $30,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2019 through 
2023, to be provided to the OPCW as a voluntary contribution pursuant 
to section 301(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 
2221(a)) for the purpose of strengthening the OPCW's investigative and 
identification mechanisms for chemical weapons attacks.
    (b) Availability of Funds.--Amounts authorized to be appropriated 
pursuant to subsection (a) shall remain available until expended.

SEC. 306. CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION DEFINED.

    In this title, the term ``Chemical Weapons Convention'' means the 
Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, 
Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, done 
at Geneva September 3, 1992, and entered into force April 29, 1997.

           TITLE IV--INTERNATIONAL CYBERCRIME PREVENTION ACT

SEC. 401. SHORT TITLE.

    This title may be cited as the ``International Cybercrime 
Prevention Act''.

SEC. 402. PREDICATE OFFENSES.

    Part I of title 18, United States Code, is amended--
            (1) in section 1956(c)(7)(D)--
                    (A) by striking ``or section 2339D'' and inserting 
                ``section 2339D''; and
                    (B) by striking ``of this title, section 46502'' 
                and inserting ``, or section 2512 (relating to the 
                manufacture, distribution, possession, and advertising 
                of wire, oral, or electronic communication intercepting 
                devices) of this title, section 46502''; and
            (2) in section 1961(1), by inserting ``section 1030 
        (relating to fraud and related activity in connection with 
        computers) if the act indictable under section 1030 is 
        felonious,'' before ``section 1084''.

SEC. 403. FORFEITURE.

    (a) In General.--Section 2513 of title 18, United States Code, is 
amended to read as follows:
``Sec. 2513. Confiscation of wire, oral, or electronic communication 
              intercepting devices and other property
    ``(a) Criminal Forfeiture.--
            ``(1) In general.--The court, in imposing a sentence on any 
        person convicted of a violation of section 2511 or 2512, or 
        convicted of conspiracy to violate section 2511 or 2512, shall 
        order, in addition to any other sentence imposed and 
        irrespective of any provision of State law, that such person 
        forfeit to the United States--
                    ``(A) such person's interest in any property, real 
                or personal, that was used or intended to be used to 
                commit or to facilitate the commission of such 
                violation; and
                    ``(B) any property, real or personal, constituting 
                or derived from any gross proceeds, or any property 
                traceable to such property, that such person obtained 
                or retained directly or indirectly as a result of such 
                violation.
            ``(2) Forfeiture procedures.--Pursuant to section 2461(c) 
        of title 28, the provisions of section 413 of the Controlled 
        Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 853), other than subsection (d) 
        thereof, shall apply to criminal forfeitures under this 
        subsection.
    ``(b) Civil Forfeiture.--
            ``(1) In general.--The following shall be subject to 
        forfeiture to the United States in accordance with provisions 
        of chapter 46 and no property right shall exist in them:
                    ``(A) Any property, real or personal, used or 
                intended to be used, in any manner, to commit, or 
                facilitate the commission of a violation of section 
                2511 or 2512, or a conspiracy to violate section 2511 
                or 2512.
                    ``(B) Any property, real or personal, constituting, 
                or traceable to the gross proceeds taken, obtained, or 
                retained in connection with or as a result of a 
                violation of section 2511 or 2512, or a conspiracy to 
                violate section 2511 or 2512.
            ``(2) Forfeiture procedures.--Seizures and forfeitures 
        under this subsection shall be governed by the provisions of 
        chapter 46, relating to civil forfeitures, except that such 
        duties as are imposed on the Secretary of the Treasury under 
        the customs laws described in section 981(d) shall be performed 
        by such officers, agents, and other persons as may be 
        designated for that purpose by the Secretary of Homeland 
        Security or the Attorney General.''.
    (b) Technical and Conforming Amendment.--The table of sections for 
chapter 119 is amended by striking the item relating to section 2513 
and inserting the following:

``2513. Confiscation of wire, oral, or electronic communication 
                            intercepting devices and other property.''.

SEC. 404. SHUTTING DOWN BOTNETS.

    (a) Amendment.--Section 1345 of title 18, United States Code, is 
amended--
            (1) in the heading, by inserting ``and abuse'' after 
        ``fraud'';
            (2) in subsection (a)--
                    (A) in paragraph (1)--
                            (i) in subparagraph (B), by striking ``or'' 
                        at the end;
                            (ii) in subparagraph (C), by inserting 
                        ``or'' after the semicolon; and
                            (iii) by inserting after subparagraph (C) 
                        the following:
                    ``(D) violating or about to violate section 
                1030(a)(5) of this title where such conduct has caused 
                or would cause damage (as defined in section 1030) 
                without authorization to 100 or more protected 
                computers (as defined in section 1030) during any 1-
                year period, including by--
                            ``(i) impairing the availability or 
                        integrity of the protected computers without 
                        authorization; or
                            ``(ii) installing or maintaining control 
                        over malicious software on the protected 
                        computers that, without authorization, has 
                        caused or would cause damage to the protected 
                        computers;''; and
                    (B) in paragraph (2), in the matter preceding 
                subparagraph (A), by inserting ``, a violation 
                described in subsection (a)(1)(D),'' before ``or a 
                Federal''; and
            (3) by adding at the end the following:
    ``(c) A restraining order, prohibition, or other action described 
in subsection (b), if issued in circumstances described in subsection 
(a)(1)(D), may, upon application of the Attorney General--
            ``(1) specify that no cause of action shall lie in any 
        court against a person for complying with the restraining 
        order, prohibition, or other action; and
            ``(2) provide that the United States shall pay to such 
        person a fee for reimbursement for such costs as are reasonably 
        necessary and which have been directly incurred in complying 
        with the restraining order, prohibition, or other action.''.
    (b) Technical and Conforming Amendment.--The table of sections for 
chapter 63 of title 18, United States Code, is amended by striking the 
item relating to section 1345 and inserting the following:

``1345. Injunctions against fraud and abuse.''.

SEC. 405. AGGRAVATED DAMAGE TO A CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE COMPUTER.

    (a) In General.--Chapter 47 of title 18, United States Code, is 
amended by inserting after section 1030 the following:
``Sec. 1030A. Aggravated damage to a critical infrastructure computer
    ``(a) Offense.--It shall be unlawful, during and in relation to a 
felony violation of section 1030, to knowingly cause or attempt to 
cause damage to a critical infrastructure computer, if such damage 
results in (or, in the case of an attempted offense, would, if 
completed, have resulted in) the substantial impairment--
            ``(1) of the operation of the critical infrastructure 
        computer; or
            ``(2) of the critical infrastructure associated with such 
        computer.
    ``(b) Penalty.--Any person who violates subsection (a) shall, in 
addition to the term of punishment provided for the felony violation of 
section 1030, be fined under this title, imprisoned for not more than 
20 years, or both.
    ``(c) Consecutive Sentence.--Notwithstanding any other provision of 
law--
            ``(1) a court shall not place any person convicted of a 
        violation of this section on probation;
            ``(2) except as provided in paragraph (4), no term of 
        imprisonment imposed on a person under this section shall run 
        concurrently with any term of imprisonment imposed on the 
        person under any other provision of law, including any term of 
        imprisonment imposed for the felony violation of section 1030;
            ``(3) in determining any term of imprisonment to be imposed 
        for the felony violation of section 1030, a court shall not in 
        any way reduce the term to be imposed for such violation to 
        compensate for, or otherwise take into account, any separate 
        term of imprisonment imposed or to be imposed for a violation 
        of this section; and
            ``(4) a term of imprisonment imposed on a person for a 
        violation of this section may, in the discretion of the court, 
        run concurrently, in whole or in part, only with another term 
        of imprisonment that is imposed by the court at the same time 
        on that person for an additional violation of this section, if 
        such discretion shall be exercised in accordance with any 
        applicable guidelines and policy statements issued by the 
        United States Sentencing Commission pursuant to section 994 of 
        title 28.
    ``(d) Definitions.--In this section--
            ``(1) the terms `computer' and `damage' have the meanings 
        given the terms in section 1030; and
            ``(2) the term `critical infrastructure' means systems and 
        assets, whether physical or virtual, so vital to the United 
        States that the incapacity or destruction of such systems and 
        assets would have catastrophic regional or national effects on 
        public health or safety, economic security, or national 
        security, including voter registration databases, voting 
        machines, and other communications systems that manage the 
        election process or report and display results on behalf of 
        State and local governments.''.
    (b) Table of Sections.--The table of sections for chapter 47 of 
title 18, United States Code, is amended by inserting after the item 
relating to section 1030 the following:

``1030A. Aggravated damage to a critical infrastructure computer.''.

SEC. 406. STOPPING TRAFFICKING IN BOTNETS; FORFEITURE.

    Section 1030 of title 18, United States Code, is amended--
            (1) in subsection (a)--
                    (A) in paragraph (7), by adding ``or'' at the end; 
                and
                    (B) by inserting after paragraph (7) the following:
            ``(8) intentionally traffics in the means of access to a 
        protected computer, if--
                    ``(A) the trafficker knows or has reason to know 
                the protected computer has been damaged in a manner 
                prohibited by this section; and
                    ``(B) the promise or agreement to pay for the means 
                of access is made by, or on behalf of, a person the 
                trafficker knows or has reason to know intends to use 
                the means of access to--
                            ``(i) damage a protected computer in a 
                        manner prohibited by this section; or
                            ``(ii) violate section 1037 or 1343;'';
            (2) in subsection (c)(3)--
                    (A) in subparagraph (A), by striking ``(a)(4) or 
                (a)(7)'' and inserting ``(a)(4), (a)(7), or (a)(8)''; 
                and
                    (B) in subparagraph (B), by striking ``(a)(4), or 
                (a)(7)'' and inserting ``(a)(4), (a)(7), or (a)(8)'';
            (3) in subsection (e)--
                    (A) in paragraph (11), by striking ``and'' at the 
                end;
                    (B) in paragraph (12), by striking the period at 
                the end and inserting ``; and''; and
                    (C) by adding at the end the following:
            ``(13) the term `traffic', except as provided in subsection 
        (a)(6), means transfer, or otherwise dispose of, to another as 
        consideration for the receipt of, or as consideration for a 
        promise or agreement to pay, anything of pecuniary value.'';
            (4) in subsection (g), in the first sentence, by inserting 
        ``, except for a violation of subsection (a)(8),'' after ``of 
        this section''; and
            (5) by striking subsections (i) and (j) and inserting the 
        following:
    ``(i) Criminal Forfeiture.--
            ``(1) The court, in imposing sentence on any person 
        convicted of a violation of this section, or convicted of 
        conspiracy to violate this section, shall order, in addition to 
        any other sentence imposed and irrespective of any provision of 
        State law, that such person forfeit to the United States--
                    ``(A) such person's interest in any property, real 
                or personal, that was used or intended to be used to 
                commit or to facilitate the commission of such 
                violation; and
                    ``(B) any property, real or personal, constituting 
                or derived from any gross proceeds, or any property 
                traceable to such property, that such person obtained, 
                directly or indirectly, as a result of such violation.
            ``(2) The criminal forfeiture of property under this 
        subsection, including any seizure and disposition of the 
        property, and any related judicial or administrative 
        proceeding, shall be governed by the provisions of section 413 
        of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 853), except 
        subsection (d) of that section.
    ``(j) Civil Forfeiture of Property Used in the Commission of an 
Offense.--
            ``(1) Any personal property, including any Internet domain 
        name or Internet Protocol address, that was used or intended to 
        be used to commit or to facilitate the commission of any 
        violation of this section, or a conspiracy to violate this 
        section shall be subject to forfeiture to the United States, 
        and no property right shall exist in such property.
            ``(2) Seizures and forfeitures under this subsection shall 
        be governed by the provisions of chapter 46 relating to civil 
        forfeitures, except that such duties as are imposed on the 
        Secretary of the Treasury under the customs laws described in 
        section 981(d) shall be performed by such officers, agents, and 
        other persons as may be designated for that purpose by the 
        Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General.''.

                TITLE V--COMBATING ELECTION INTERFERENCE

SEC. 501. PROHIBITION ON INTERFERENCE WITH VOTING SYSTEMS.

    Section 1030(e) of title 18, United States Code, is amended--
            (1) in paragraph (2)--
                    (A) in subparagraph (A), by striking ``or'' at the 
                end;
                    (B) in subparagraph (B), by adding ``or'' at the 
                end; and
                    (C) by adding at the end the following:
                    ``(C) that--
                            ``(i) is part of a voting system; and
                            ``(ii)(I) is used for the management, 
                        support, or administration of a Federal 
                        election; or
                            ``(II) has moved in or otherwise affects 
                        interstate or foreign commerce;'';
            (2) in paragraph (11), by striking ``and'' at the end;
            (3) in paragraph (12), by striking the period and inserting 
        a semicolon; and
            (4) by adding at the end the following:
            ``(13) the term `Federal election' means any election (as 
        defined in section 301(1) of the Federal Election Campaign Act 
        of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30101(1))) for Federal office (as defined in 
        section 301(3) of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 
        U.S.C. 30101(3))); and
            ``(14) the term `voting system' has the meaning given the 
        term in section 301(b) of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 
        U.S.C. 21081(b)).''.

SEC. 502. INADMISSIBILITY OF ALIENS SEEKING TO INTERFERE IN UNITED 
              STATES ELECTIONS.

    (a) Defined Term.--Section 101(a) of the Immigration and 
Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)) is amended by adding at the end the 
following:
            ``(53) The term `improper interference in a United States 
        election' means conduct by an alien that--
                    ``(A)(i) violates Federal criminal, voting rights, 
                or campaign finance law; or
                    ``(ii) is under the direction of a foreign 
                government; and
                    ``(B) interferes with a general or primary Federal, 
                State, or local election or caucus, including--
                            ``(i) the campaign of a candidate; and
                            ``(ii) a ballot measure, including--
                                    ``(I) an amendment;
                                    ``(II) a bond issue;
                                    ``(III) an initiative;
                                    ``(IV) a recall;
                                    ``(V) a referral; and
                                    ``(VI) a referendum.''.
    (b) Improper Interference in United States Elections.--Section 
212(a)(3) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(3)) 
is amended by adding at the end the following:
                    ``(H) Improper interference in a united states 
                election.--Any alien who is seeking admission to the 
                United States to engage in improper interference in a 
                United States election, or who has engaged in improper 
                interference in a United States election, is 
                inadmissible.''.

       TITLE VI--SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

   Subtitle A--Expansion of Countering America's Adversaries Through 
                             Sanctions Act

SEC. 601. IMPOSITION OF ADDITIONAL SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO THE 
              RUSSIAN FEDERATION.

    (a) In General.--Part 2 of subtitle A of title II of the Countering 
America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (22 U.S.C. 9521 et seq.) is 
amended--
            (1) by redesignating sections 235, 236, 237, and 238 as 
        sections 239A, 239B, 239D, and 239E, respectively; and
            (2) by inserting after section 234 the following:

``SEC. 235. SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO TRANSACTIONS WITH CERTAIN RUSSIAN 
              POLITICAL FIGURES AND OLIGARCHS.

    ``On and after the date that is 180 days after the date of the 
enactment of the Defending American Security from Kremlin Aggression 
Act of 2018, the President shall impose the sanctions described in 
section 224(b) with respect to--
            ``(1) political figures, oligarchs, and other persons that 
        facilitate illicit and corrupt activities, directly or 
        indirectly, on behalf of the President of the Russian 
        Federation, Vladimir Putin, and persons acting for or on behalf 
        of such political figures, oligarchs, and persons;
            ``(2) Russian parastatal entities that facilitate illicit 
        and corrupt activities, directly or indirectly, on behalf of 
        the President of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin;
            ``(3) family members of persons described in paragraph (1) 
        or (2) that derive significant benefits from such illicit and 
        corrupt activities; and
            ``(4) persons, including financial institutions, engaging 
        in significant transactions with persons described in paragraph 
        (1), (2), or (3).

``SEC. 236. SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO TRANSACTIONS RELATED TO 
              INVESTMENTS IN ENERGY PROJECTS SUPPORTED BY RUSSIAN 
              STATE-OWNED OR PARASTATAL ENTITIES OUTSIDE OF THE RUSSIAN 
              FEDERATION.

    ``On and after the date that is 180 days after the date of the 
enactment of the Defending American Security from Kremlin Aggression 
Act of 2018, the President shall impose five or more of the sanctions 
described in section 239A with respect to a person if the Secretary of 
the Treasury determines that the person knowingly, on or after such 
date of enactment, invests in an energy project outside of the Russian 
Federation--
            ``(1) that is supported by a Russian parastatal entity or 
        an entity owned or controlled by the Government of the Russian 
        Federation; and
            ``(2) the total value of which exceeds or is reasonably 
        expected to exceed $250,000,000.

``SEC. 237. SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO SUPPORT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF 
              CRUDE OIL RESOURCES IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION.

    ``(a) In General.--The President shall impose five or more of the 
sanctions described in section 239A with respect to a person if the 
President determines that the person knowingly, on or after the date of 
the enactment of the Defending American Security from Kremlin 
Aggression Act of 2018, sells, leases, or provides to the Russian 
Federation goods, services, technology, financing, or support described 
in subsection (b)--
            ``(1) any of which has a fair market value of $1,000,000 or 
        more; or
            ``(2) that, during a 12-month period, have an aggregate 
        fair market value of $5,000,000 or more.
    ``(b) Goods, Services, Technology, Financing, or Support 
Described.--Goods, services, technology, financing, or support 
described in this subsection are goods, services, technology, financing 
or support that could directly and significantly contribute to the 
Russian Federation's--
            ``(1) ability to develop crude oil resources located in the 
        Russian Federation; or
            ``(2) production of crude oil resources in the Russian 
        Federation, including any direct and significant assistance 
        with respect to the construction, modernization, or repair of 
        infrastructure that would facilitate the development of crude 
        oil resources located in the Russian Federation.
    ``(c) Applicability.--The requirement to impose sanctions under 
subsection (a) shall not apply with respect to the maintenance of 
projects that are ongoing as of the date of the enactment of the 
Defending American Security from Kremlin Aggression Act of 2018.
    ``(d) Requirement To Issue Guidance.--Not later than 90 days after 
the date of enactment of the Defending American Security from Kremlin 
Aggression Act of 2018, the Secretary of State, in consultation with 
the Secretary of the Treasury and the Secretary of Energy, shall issue 
regulations--
            ``(1) clarifying how the exception under subsection (c) 
        will be applied; and
            ``(2) listing specific goods, services, technology, 
        financing, and support covered by subsection (b).

``SEC. 238. PROHIBITION ON AND SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO TRANSACTIONS 
              RELATING TO NEW SOVEREIGN DEBT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION.

    ``(a) In General.--Not later than 90 days after the date of the 
enactment of the Defending American Security from Kremlin Aggression 
Act of 2018, the President shall--
            ``(1) prescribe regulations prohibiting United States 
        persons from engaging in transactions with, providing financing 
        for, or in any other way dealing in Russian sovereign debt 
        issued on or after the date that is 180 days after such date of 
        enactment; and
            ``(2) exercise all powers granted to the President by the 
        International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et 
        seq.) to the extent necessary to block and prohibit all 
        transactions in all property and interests in property of one 
        or more of the Russian financial institutions specified in 
        subsection (b) if such property and interests in property are 
        in the United States, come within the United States, or are or 
        come within the possession or control of a United States 
        person.
    ``(b) Russian Financial Institutions Specified.--The Russian 
financial institutions specified in this subsection are the following:
            ``(1) Vnesheconombank.
            ``(2) Sberbank.
            ``(3) VTB Bank.
            ``(4) Gazprombank.
            ``(5) Bank of Moscow.
            ``(6) Rosselkhozbank.
            ``(7) Promsvyazbank.
            ``(8) Vnesheconombank.
    ``(c) Russian Sovereign Debt Defined.--In this section, the term 
`Russian sovereign debt' means--
            ``(1) bonds issued by the Central Bank, the National Wealth 
        Fund, or the Federal Treasury of the Russian Federation, or 
        agents or affiliates of any of those entities, with a maturity 
        of more than 14 days;
            ``(2) foreign exchange swap agreements with the Central 
        Bank, the National Wealth Fund, or the Federal Treasury of the 
        Russian Federation with a duration of more than 14 days; and
            ``(3) any other financial instrument, the duration or 
        maturity of which is more than 14 days, that--
                    ``(A) the President determines represents the 
                sovereign debt of the Government of the Russian 
                Federation; or
                    ``(B) is issued by a Russian financial institution 
                specified in subsection (b).

``SEC. 239. SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO TRANSACTIONS WITH THE CYBER 
              SECTOR OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION.

    ``On and after the date that is 60 days after the date of the 
enactment of the Defending American Security from Kremlin Aggression 
Act of 2018, the President shall impose five or more of the sanctions 
described in section 239A with respect to any person, including any 
financial institution, that the President determines--
            ``(1) engages in significant transactions with any person 
        in the Russian Federation that has the capacity or ability to 
        support or facilitate malicious cyber activities; or
            ``(2) is owned or controlled by, or acts or purports to act 
        for or on behalf of, directly or indirectly, a person that 
        engages in significant transactions described in paragraph 
        (1).''.
    (b) Sanctions Described.--Section 239A(a) of the Countering 
America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act, as redesignated by 
subsection (a)(1), is amended in the matter preceding paragraph (1) by 
striking ``or 233(a)'' each place it appears and inserting ``233(a), 
236, 237, or 239''.
    (c) Termination.--Section 239B(c) of the Countering America's 
Adversaries Through Sanctions Act, as redesignated by subsection 
(a)(1), is amended by striking ``or 234'' and inserting ``234, 235, 
236, 237, 238, or 239''.
    (d) Implementation and Penalties.--Part 2 of subtitle A of title II 
of the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (22 
U.S.C. 9521 et seq.) is amended by inserting after section 239A, as 
redesignated by subsection (a)(1), the following:

``SEC. 239C. IMPLEMENTATION AND PENALTIES.

    ``(a) Implementation.--The President may exercise all authorities 
provided to the President under sections 203 and 205 of the 
International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1702 and 1704) 
to carry out this part.
    ``(b) Penalties.--A person that violates, attempts to violate, 
conspires to violate, or causes a violation of this part or any 
regulation, license, or order issued to carry out this part shall be 
subject to the penalties set forth in subsections (b) and (c) of 
section 206 of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 
U.S.C. 1705) to the same extent as a person that commits an unlawful 
act described in subsection (a) of that section.''.
    (e) Clerical Amendment.--The table of contents for the Countering 
America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act is amended by striking the 
items relating to sections 235 through 238 and inserting the following:

``Sec. 235. Sanctions with respect to transactions with certain Russian 
                            political figures and oligarchs.
``Sec. 236. Sanctions with respect to transactions related to 
                            investments in energy projects supported by 
                            Russian state-owned or parastatal entities 
                            outside of the Russian Federation.
``Sec. 237. Sanctions with respect to support for the development of 
                            crude oil resources in the Russian 
                            Federation.
``Sec. 238. Prohibition on and sanctions with respect to transactions 
                            relating to new sovereign debt of the 
                            Russian Federation.
``Sec. 239. Sanctions with respect to transactions with the cyber 
                            sector of the Russian Federation.
``Sec. 239A. Sanctions described.
``Sec. 239B. Exceptions, waiver, and termination.
``Sec. 239C. Implementation and penalties.
``Sec. 239D. Exception relating to activities of the National 
                            Aeronautics and Space Administration.
``Sec. 239E. Rule of construction.''.
    (f) Conforming Amendments.--Part 2 of subtitle A of title II of the 
Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (22 U.S.C. 9521 
et seq.), as amended by this section, is further amended--
            (1) in section 231, by striking subsection (e); and
            (2) by striking ``section 235'' each place it appears and 
        inserting ``section 239A''.
    (g) Guidance.--The President shall, in a prompt and timely way, 
publish guidance on the implementation of this subtitle and the 
amendments made by this subtitle and any regulations prescribed 
pursuant to this subtitle or any such amendment.

SEC. 602. CONGRESSIONAL REVIEW AND CONTINUED APPLICABILITY OF SANCTIONS 
              UNDER THE SERGEI MAGNITSKY RULE OF LAW ACCOUNTABILITY ACT 
              OF 2012.

    Section 216(a)(2)(B)(i) of the Russia Sanctions Review Act of 2017 
(22 U.S.C. 9511(a)(2)(B)(i)) is amended--
            (1) in subclause (II), by striking ``; or'' and inserting a 
        semicolon;
            (2) in subclause (III), by striking ``; and'' and inserting 
        ``; or''; and
            (3) by adding at the end the following:
                                    ``(IV) the Sergei Magnitsky Rule of 
                                Law Accountability Act of 2012 (title 
                                IV of Public Law 112-208; 22 U.S.C. 
                                5811 note); and''.

            Subtitle B--Coordination With the European Union

SEC. 611. SENSE OF CONGRESS ON COORDINATION WITH ALLIES WITH RESPECT TO 
              SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION.

    It is the sense of Congress that the President should--
            (1) continue to uphold and seek unity with European and 
        other key partners with respect to sanctions implemented with 
        respect to the Russian Federation, which have been effective 
        and instrumental in countering the aggression of the Russian 
        Federation;
            (2) engage to the fullest extent possible with governments 
        that are partners of the United States with regard to closing 
        loopholes, including the allowance of extended prepayment for 
        the delivery of goods and commodities and other loopholes, in 
        multilateral and unilateral restrictive measures against the 
        Russian Federation, with the aim of maximizing alignment of 
        those measures; and
            (3) increase efforts to vigorously enforce compliance with 
        sanctions in place as of the date of the enactment of this Act 
        with respect to the Russian Federation in response to the 
        crises in Ukraine and Syria, cyber intrusions and attacks, and 
        human rights violators in the Russian Federation.

SEC. 612. OFFICE OF SANCTIONS COORDINATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE.

    (a) In General.--Section 1 of the State Department Basic 
Authorities Act of 1956 (22 U.S.C. 2651a), as amended by section 211, 
is further amended--
            (1) by redesignating subsection (h) as subsection (i); and
            (2) by inserting after subsection (g) the following:
    ``(h) Office of Sanctions Coordination.--
            ``(1) In general.--There is established, within the 
        Department of State, an Office of Sanctions Coordination 
        (referred to in this subsection as the `Office').
            ``(2) Head.--The head of the Office shall--
                    ``(A) have the rank and status of ambassador;
                    ``(B) be appointed by the President, by and with 
                the advice and consent of the Senate; and
                    ``(C) report to the Under Secretary for Political 
                Affairs.
            ``(3) Duties.--The head of the Office shall--
                    ``(A) serve as the principal advisor to the senior 
                management of the Department and the Secretary 
                regarding the role of the Department in the development 
                and implementation of sanctions policy, including 
                sanctions with respect to the Russian Federation, Iran, 
                North Korea, and other countries;
                    ``(B) represent the United States in diplomatic and 
                multilateral fora on sanctions matters;
                    ``(C) consult and closely coordinate with the 
                European Union to ensure the maximum effectiveness of 
                sanctions imposed by the United States and the European 
                Union with respect to the Russian Federation;
                    ``(D) advise the Secretary directly and provide 
                input with respect to all activities, policies, and 
                programs of all bureaus and offices of the Department 
                relating to the implementation of sanctions policy; and
                    ``(E) serve as the principal liaison of the 
                Department to other Federal agencies involved in the 
                design and implementation of sanctions policy.
            ``(4) Rule of construction.--Nothing in this subsection may 
        be construed to preclude--
                    ``(A) the Office from being elevated to a Bureau 
                within the Department; or
                    ``(B) the head of the Office from being elevated to 
                level of an Assistant Secretary.''.
    (b) Report Required.--Not later than 60 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the President shall submit to the appropriate 
congressional committees a report detailing the efforts of the Office 
of Sanctions Coordination established under the amendments made by 
subsection (a) to coordinate sanctions policy with the European Union.

SEC. 613. REPORT ON COORDINATION OF SANCTIONS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES 
              AND EUROPEAN UNION.

    (a) In General.--Not later than 180 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, and every 180 days thereafter, the President 
shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report that 
includes the following:
            (1) A description of each instance, during the period 
        specified in subsection (b)--
                    (A) in which the United States has imposed 
                sanctions with respect to a person for activity related 
                to the Russian Federation, but in which the European 
                Union has not imposed corresponding sanctions; and
                    (B) in which the European Union has imposed 
                sanctions with respect to a person for activity related 
                to the Russian Federation, but in which the United 
                States has not imposed corresponding sanctions.
            (2) An explanation for the reason for each discrepancy 
        between sanctions imposed by the European Union and sanctions 
        imposed by the United States described in subparagraphs (A) and 
        (B) of paragraph (1).
    (b) Period Specified.--The period specified in this subsection is--
            (1) in the case of the first report submitted under 
        subsection (a), the period beginning on the date of the 
        enactment of this Act and ending on the date the report is 
        submitted; and
            (2) in the case of a subsequent such report, the 180-day 
        period preceding the submission of the report.
    (c) Form of Report.--The report required by subsection (a) shall be 
submitted in unclassified form but may include a classified annex.
    (d) Appropriate Congressional Committees Defined.--In this section, 
the term ``appropriate congressional committees'' means--
            (1) the Committee on Foreign Relations, the Committee on 
        Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, and the Committee on 
        Finance of the Senate; and
            (2) the Committee on Foreign Affairs, the Committee on 
        Financial Services, and the Committee on Ways and Means of the 
        House of Representatives.

 Subtitle C--Reports Relating to Sanctions With Respect to the Russian 
                               Federation

SEC. 621. DEFINITIONS.

    In this subtitle:
            (1) Appropriate congressional committees.--The term 
        ``appropriate congressional committees'' means--
                    (A) the Committee on Foreign Relations, the 
                Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, and 
                the Committee on Finance of the Senate; and
                    (B) the Committee on Foreign Affairs, the Committee 
                on Financial Services, and the Committee on Ways and 
                Means of the House of Representatives.
            (2) Senior foreign political figure.--The term ``senior 
        foreign political figure'' has the meaning given that term in 
        section 1010.605 of title 31, Code of Federal Regulations (or 
        any corresponding similar regulation or ruling).

SEC. 622. UPDATED REPORT ON OLIGARCHS AND PARASTATAL ENTITIES OF THE 
              RUSSIAN FEDERATION.

    Section 241 of the Countering America's Adversaries Through 
Sanctions Act (Public Law 115-44; 131 Stat. 922) is amended--
            (1) by redesignating subsections (b) and (c) as subsections 
        (c) and (d), respectively;
            (2) by inserting after subsection (a) the following:
    ``(b) Updated Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
the enactment of the Defending American Security from Kremlin 
Aggression Act of 2018, the Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation 
with the Director of National Intelligence and the Secretary of State, 
shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees an updated 
report on oligarchs and parastatal entities of the Russian Federation 
that builds on the report submitted under subsection (a) on January 29, 
2018, and that includes the matters described in paragraphs (1) through 
(5) of subsection (a).''; and
            (3) in subsection (c), as redesignated by paragraph (1), by 
        striking ``The report required under subsection (a)'' and 
        inserting ``The reports required by subsections (a) and (b)''.

SEC. 623. REPORT ON THE PERSONAL NET WORTH AND ASSETS OF VLADIMIR 
              PUTIN.

    (a) In General.--Not later than 180 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the Director of National Intelligence shall 
submit to the appropriate congressional committees a detailed report on 
the personal net worth and assets of the President of the Russian 
Federation, Vladimir Putin, including--
            (1) the estimated net worth and known sources of income of 
        Vladimir Putin and his family members, including assets, 
        investments, bank accounts, other business interests, and 
        relevant beneficial ownership information; and
            (2) an identification of the most significant senior 
        foreign political figures and oligarchs in the Russian 
        Federation, as determined by their closeness to Vladimir Putin.
    (b) Form of Report.--The report required under subsection (a) shall 
be submitted in an unclassified form but may include a classified 
annex.

SEC. 624. REPORT ON SECTION 224 OF THE COUNTERING AMERICA'S ADVERSARIES 
              THROUGH SANCTIONS ACT.

    (a) In General.--Not later than 60 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the President shall submit to the appropriate 
congressional committees a report that describes the persons that the 
President has determined under section 224(a)(1)(A) of the Countering 
America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (22 U.S.C. 9524(a)(1)(A)) 
knowingly engaged, on or after August 2, 2017, and before the date of 
the report, in significant activities undermining cybersecurity against 
any person, including a democratic institution or government on behalf 
of the Government of the Russian Federation.
    (b) Elements.--The report required by subsection (a) shall contain 
the following:
            (1) A list of the persons described in subsection (a).
            (2) A description of diplomatic efforts to work with 
        governments and democratic institutions in other countries the 
        cybersecurity of which the President determines has been 
        undermined by the Government of the Russian Federation.
    (c) Updates.--Not later than 90 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, and every 90 days thereafter, the President 
shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees an update to 
the report required by subsection (a).

SEC. 625. REPORT ON SECTION 225 OF THE COUNTERING AMERICA'S ADVERSARIES 
              THROUGH SANCTIONS ACT.

    (a) In General.--Not later than 60 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the President shall submit to the appropriate 
congressional committees a report that describes the foreign persons 
that the President has determined under section 4(b)(1) of the Ukraine 
Freedom Support Act of 2014 (22 U.S.C. 8923(b)(1)), as amended by 
section 225 of the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions 
Act (Public Law 115-44; 131 Stat. 910), have knowingly, on or after 
August 2, 2017, and before the date of the report, made a significant 
investment in a special Russian crude oil project.
    (b) Updates.--Not later than 90 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, and every 90 days thereafter, the President 
shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees an update to 
the report required by subsection (a).

SEC. 626. REPORT ON SECTION 226 OF THE COUNTERING AMERICA'S ADVERSARIES 
              THROUGH SANCTIONS ACT.

    (a) In General.--Not later than 60 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the President shall submit to the appropriate 
congressional committees a report that describes the foreign financial 
institutions that the President has determined under section 5(a) of 
the Ukraine Freedom Support Act of 2014 (22 U.S.C. 8924(a)), as amended 
by section 226 of the Countering America's Adversaries Through 
Sanctions Act (Public Law 115-44; 131 Stat. 910), have knowingly 
engaged, on or after August 2, 2017, and before the date of the report, 
in significant transactions involving significant investments in a 
special Russian crude oil project described in section 4(b)(1) of the 
Ukraine Freedom Support Act of 2014.
    (b) Updates.--Not later than 90 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, and every 90 days thereafter, the President 
shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees an update to 
the report required by subsection (a).

SEC. 627. REPORT ON SECTION 228 OF THE COUNTERING AMERICA'S ADVERSARIES 
              THROUGH SANCTIONS ACT.

    (a) In General.--Not later than 60 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the President shall submit to the appropriate 
congressional committees a report that describes the foreign persons 
that the President has determined under subsection (a) of section 10 of 
the Support for the Sovereignty, Integrity, Democracy, and Economic 
Stability of Ukraine Act of 2014 (22 U.S.C. 8909), as added by section 
228 of the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act 
(Public Law 115-44; 131 Stat. 911), have, on or after August 2, 2017, 
and before the date of the report--
            (1) materially violated, attempted to violate, conspired to 
        violate, or caused a violation of any license, order, 
        regulation, or prohibition contained in or issued pursuant to 
        any covered Executive order (as defined in subsection (f) of 
        such section 10), the Support for the Sovereignty, Integrity, 
        Democracy, and Economic Stability of Ukraine Act of 2014 (22 
        U.S.C. 8901 et seq.), or the Ukraine Freedom Support Act of 
        2014 (22 U.S.C. 8921 et seq.); or
            (2) facilitated a significant transaction or transactions, 
        including deceptive or structured transactions, for or on 
        behalf of--
                    (A) any person subject to sanctions imposed by the 
                United States with respect to the Russian Federation; 
                or
                    (B) any child, spouse, parent, or sibling of an 
                individual described in subparagraph (A).
    (b) Updates.--Not later than 90 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, and every 90 days thereafter, the President 
shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees an update to 
the report required by subsection (a).

SEC. 628. REPORT ON SECTION 233 OF THE COUNTERING AMERICA'S ADVERSARIES 
              THROUGH SANCTIONS ACT.

    (a) In General.--Not later than 60 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the President shall submit to the appropriate 
congressional committees a report that describes the foreign persons 
that the President has determined under section 233 of the Countering 
America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (22 U.S.C. 9527) have made, 
on or after August 2, 2017, and before the date of the report, an 
investment of $10,000,000 or more (or any combination of investments of 
not less than $1,000,000 each, which in the aggregate equals or exceeds 
$10,000,000 in any 12-month period), or facilitates such an investment, 
if the investment directly and significantly contributes to the ability 
of the Russian Federation to privatize state-owned assets in a manner 
that unjustly benefits--
            (1) officials of the Government of the Russian Federation; 
        or
            (2) close associates or family members of those officials.
    (b) Updates.--Not later than 90 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, and every 90 days thereafter, the President 
shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees an update to 
the report required by subsection (a).

SEC. 629. REPORT ON SECTION 234 OF THE COUNTERING AMERICA'S ADVERSARIES 
              THROUGH SANCTIONS ACT.

    (a) In General.--Not later than 60 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the President shall submit to the appropriate 
congressional committees a report that describes the foreign persons 
that the President has determined under section 234 of the Countering 
America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (22 U.S.C. 9528) have 
knowingly, on or after August 2, 2017, and before the date of the 
report, exported, transferred, or otherwise provided to Syria 
significant financial, material, or technological support that 
contributes materially to the ability of the Government of Syria to--
            (1) acquire or develop chemical, biological, or nuclear 
        weapons or related technologies;
            (2) acquire or develop ballistic or cruise missile 
        capabilities;
            (3) acquire or develop destabilizing numbers and types of 
        advanced conventional weapons;
            (4) acquire significant defense articles, defense services, 
        or defense information (as such terms are defined under the 
        Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.)); or
            (5) acquire items designated by the President for purposes 
        of the United States Munitions List under section 38(a)(1) of 
        the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778(a)(1)).
    (b) Updates.--Not later than 90 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, and every 90 days thereafter, the President 
shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees an update to 
the report required by subsection (a).

                     Subtitle D--General Provisions

SEC. 631. EXCEPTION RELATING TO ACTIVITIES OF THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS 
              AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION.

    (a) In General.--This title and the amendments made by this title 
shall not apply with respect to activities of the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration.
    (b) Rule of Construction.--Nothing in this title or the amendments 
made by this title shall be construed to authorize the imposition of 
any sanction or other condition, limitation, restriction, or 
prohibition, that directly or indirectly impedes the supply by any 
entity of the Russian Federation of any product or service, or the 
procurement of such product or service by any contractor or 
subcontractor of the United States or any other entity, relating to or 
in connection with any space launch conducted for--
            (1) the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; or
            (2) any other non-Department of Defense customer.

SEC. 632. RULE OF CONSTRUCTION.

    Nothing in this title or the amendments made by this title shall be 
construed--
            (1) to supersede the limitations or exceptions on the use 
        of rocket engines for national security purposes under section 
        1608 of the Carl Levin and Howard P. ``Buck'' McKeon National 
        Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2015 (Public Law 113-
        291; 128 Stat. 3626; 10 U.S.C. 2271 note), as amended by 
        section 1607 of the National Defense Authorization Act for 
        Fiscal Year 2016 (Public Law 114-92; 129 Stat. 1100) and 
        section 1602 of the National Defense Authorization Act for 
        Fiscal Year 2017 (Public Law 114-328; 130 Stat. 2582); or
            (2) to prohibit a contractor or subcontractor of the 
        Department of Defense from acquiring components referred to in 
        such section 1608.

      TITLE VII--OTHER MATTERS RELATING TO THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

SEC. 701. DETERMINATION ON DESIGNATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AS A 
              STATE SPONSOR OF TERRORISM.

    (a) Determination.--
            (1) In general.--Not later than 90 days after the date of 
        the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of State shall submit 
        to the appropriate congressional committees a determination of 
        whether the Russian Federation meets the criteria for 
        designation as a state sponsor of terrorism.
            (2) Form.--The determination required by paragraph (1) 
        shall be submitted in unclassified form but may include a 
        classified annex, if appropriate.
    (b) Definitions.--In this section:
            (1) Appropriate congressional committees.--The term 
        ``appropriate congressional committees'' means the Committee on 
        Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign 
        Affairs of the House of Representatives.
            (2) State sponsor of terrorism.--The term ``state sponsor 
        of terrorism'' means a country the government of which the 
        Secretary of State has determined is a government that has 
        repeatedly provided support for acts of international 
        terrorism, for purposes of--
                    (A) section 1754(c)(1)(A)(i) of the Export Control 
                Reform Act of 2018;
                    (B) section 620A of the Foreign Assistance Act of 
                1961 (22 U.S.C. 2371);
                    (C) section 40(d) of the Arms Export Control Act 
                (22 U.S.C. 2780(d)); or
                    (D) any other provision of law.

SEC. 702. EXPANSION OF GEOGRAPHIC TARGETING ORDERS OF FINANCIAL CRIMES 
              ENFORCEMENT NETWORK.

    (a) In General.--Section 5326 of title 31, United States Code, is 
amended by adding at the end the following:
    ``(e) Reporting by Title Insurance Companies.--
            ``(1) In general.--The Secretary shall issue an order under 
        subsection (a) requiring a domestic title insurance company to 
        obtain, maintain, and report to the Secretary information on 
        the beneficial owners of entities that purchase residential 
        real estate in high-value transactions in which the domestic 
        title insurance company is involved.
            ``(2) Definitions.--In this subsection:
                    ``(A) Beneficial owner.--The term `beneficial 
                owner', with respect to an entity, means an individual 
                who, directly or indirectly, owns 25 percent or more of 
                the equity interests in the entity.
                    ``(B) Domestic title insurance company.--The term 
                `domestic title insurance company' has the meaning 
                given that term in regulations prescribed by the 
                Secretary.
                    ``(C) High-value transaction.--The term `high-
                value', with respect to a real estate transaction, has 
                the meaning given that term in regulations prescribed 
                by the Secretary based on the real estate market in 
                which the transaction takes place.''.
    (b) Regulations.--Not later than 90 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe 
regulations to carry out the amendment made by subsection (a).
    (c) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to the Secretary such sums as may be necessary to carry 
out the amendment made by subsection (a).

SEC. 703. EXTENSION OF LIMITATIONS ON IMPORTATION OF URANIUM FROM 
              RUSSIAN FEDERATION.

    Section 3112A(c) of the USEC Privatization Act (42 U.S.C. 2297h-
10a(c)) is amended--
            (1) in paragraph (2)(A)--
                    (A) in clause (vi), by striking ``; and'' and 
                inserting a semicolon;
                    (B) in clause (vii), by striking the period and 
                inserting ``; and''; and
                    (C) by adding at the end the following:
                            ``(viii) in calendar year 2021, 463,620 
                        kilograms;
                            ``(ix) in calendar year 2022, 456,930 
                        kilograms;
                            ``(x) in calendar year 2023, 449,810 
                        kilograms;
                            ``(xi) in calendar year 2024, 435,933 
                        kilograms;
                            ``(xii) in calendar year 2025, 421,659 
                        kilograms;
                            ``(xiii) in calendar year 2026, 421,659 
                        kilograms;
                            ``(xiv) in calendar year 2027, 394,072 
                        kilograms;
                            ``(xv) in calendar year 2028, 386,951 
                        kilograms;
                            ``(xvi) in calendar year 2029, 386,951 
                        kilograms; and
                            ``(xvii) in calendar year 2030, 375,791 
                        kilograms.'';
            (2) in paragraph (3)--
                    (A) in subparagraph (A), by striking the semicolon 
                and inserting ``; or'';
                    (B) in subparagraph (B), by striking ``; or'' and 
                inserting a period; and
                    (C) by striking subparagraph (C);
            (3) in paragraph (5)(A), by striking ``reference data'' and 
        all that follows through ``2019'' and inserting the following: 
        ``lower scenario data in the document of the World Nuclear 
        Association entitled `Nuclear Fuel Report: Global Scenarios for 
        Demand and Supply Availability 2017-2035'. In each of calendar 
        years 2022, 2025, and 2028''; and
            (4) in paragraph (9), by striking ``December 31, 2020'' and 
        inserting ``December 31, 2030''.

SEC. 704. ESTABLISHMENT OF A NATIONAL FUSION CENTER TO RESPOND TO 
              THREATS FROM THE GOVERNMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION.

    (a) Establishment.--There is established a National Fusion Center 
to Respond to Hybrid Threats, which shall focus primarily on such 
threats from the Government of the Russian Federation, and shall be 
chaired by senior United States Government officials from participating 
agencies (in this section referred to as the ``Center'').
    (b) Mission.--The primary missions of the Center are as follows:
            (1) To serve as the primary organization in the United 
        States Government to coordinate analysis and policy 
        implementation across the United States Government in 
        responding to hybrid threats posed by the Government of the 
        Russian Federation to the national security, sovereignty, 
        democracy, and economic activity of the United States and 
        United States allies, including the following activities:
                    (A) Execution of disinformation, misinformation, 
                and propaganda campaigns through traditional and social 
                media platforms.
                    (B) Formation, infiltration, or manipulation of 
                cultural, religious, educational, and political 
                organizations or parties.
                    (C) Covert transfer of illicit money through shell 
                corporations and financial institutions to facilitate 
                corruption, crime, and malign influence activities, 
                including through political parties and interest 
                groups.
                    (D) Coercive tactics and gray zone activities, 
                including through para-military and para-police and 
                security services and militias.
                    (E) Cyber and other non-traditional threats, 
                including against public infrastructure, government 
                institutions, or political organizations or actors.
                    (F) Use of energy resources or infrastructure to 
                influence or constrain sovereign states and political 
                actors.
            (2) To synchronize the efforts of the Department of State, 
        the Department of the Treasury, the Department of Defense, the 
        Department of Homeland Security, the intelligence community, 
        other relevant civilian United States Government agencies, and 
        United States military combatant commands with respect to 
        countering efforts by the Government of the Russian Federation 
        to undermine the national security, political sovereignty, 
        democratic institutions, and economic activity of the United 
        States and its United States allies, including by--
                    (A) ensuring that each such element is aware of and 
                coordinating on such efforts; and
                    (B) overseeing the development and implementation 
                of comprehensive and integrated policy responses to 
                such efforts.
            (3) In coordination with the head of the Global Engagement 
        Center established by section 1287 of the National Defense 
        Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 (Public Law 114-328; 22 
        U.S.C. 2656 note), to examine current and emerging efforts by 
        malign state actors to use propaganda and disinformation 
        operations, including--
                    (A) traditional media platforms such as television, 
                radio, and print; and
                    (B) social media platforms and other Internet 
                communication tools.
            (4) To identify and close gaps across the departments and 
        agencies of the Federal Government with respect to expertise, 
        readiness, and planning to address the threats posed by the 
        Government of the Russian Federation.
    (c) Reporting Requirement.--
            (1) In general.--The Director of the Center shall submit to 
        the appropriate congressional committees every 180 days a 
        report on threats posed by the Russian Federation to the 
        national security, sovereignty, and economic activity of the 
        United States and its allies.
            (2) Matters included.--Each report under paragraph (1) 
        shall include, with respect to the period covered by the 
        report, a discussion of the following:
                    (A) The nature, extent, and execution of the 
                threats described in such paragraph.
                    (B) The ability of the United States Government to 
                identify and defend against such threats.
                    (C) The progress of the Center in achieving its 
                missions, including through coordination with other 
                governments and multilateral organizations.
                    (D) Recommendations the Director determines 
                necessary for legislative actions to improve the 
                ability of the Center to achieve its missions.
            (3) Form.--Each report under paragraph (1) shall be 
        submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified 
        annex.
    (d) Intelligence Community Defined.--In this section, the term 
``intelligence community'' means an element of the intelligence 
community specified or designated under section 3(4) of the National 
Security Act of 1947.
    (e) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section.

SEC. 705. COUNTERING RUSSIAN INFLUENCE FUND.

    (a) Authorization of Appropriations.--There is authorized to be 
appropriated for the Countering Russian Influence Fund described in 
section 7070(d) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and 
Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2017 (division J of Public Law 
115-31; 131 Stat. 706), $250,000,000 for fiscal years 2020 and 2021.
    (b) Use of Funds.--Amounts in the Countering Russian Influence Fund 
shall be used in countries of Europe and Eurasia the Secretary of State 
has determined are vulnerable to malign influence by the Russian 
Federation to effectively implement, subject to the availability of 
funds, the following goals:
            (1) To assist in protecting critical infrastructure and 
        electoral mechanisms from cyberattacks.
            (2) To combat corruption, improve the rule of law, and 
        otherwise strengthen independent judiciaries and prosecutors 
        general offices.
            (3) To respond to the humanitarian crises and instability 
        caused or aggravated by the invasions and occupations of 
        Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine by the Russian Federation.
            (4) To improve participatory legislative processes and 
        legal education, political transparency and competition, and 
        compliance with international obligations.
            (5) To build the capacity of civil society, media, and 
        other nongovernmental organizations countering the influence 
        and propaganda of the Russian Federation to combat corruption, 
        prioritize access to truthful information, and operate freely 
        in all regions.
            (6) To assist the Secretary of State in executing the 
        functions specified in section 1239(b) of the National Defense 
        Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91; 10 
        U.S.C. 113 note) for the purposes of recognizing, 
        understanding, exposing, and countering propaganda and 
        disinformation efforts by foreign governments, in coordination 
        with the relevant regional Assistant Secretary or Assistant 
        Secretaries of the Department of State.
    (c) Revision of Activities for Which Amounts May Be Used.--The 
Secretary of State may modify a goal described in subsection (b) if, 
not later than 15 days before revising such goal, the Secretary 
notifies the appropriate congressional committees of the revision.
    (d) Implementation.--
            (1) In general.--The Secretary of State shall, acting 
        through the Coordinator of United States Assistance to Europe 
        and Eurasia (authorized pursuant to section 601 of the Support 
        for East European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 (22 U.S.C. 5461) 
        and section 102 of the Freedom for Russia and Emerging Eurasian 
        Democracies and Open Markets Support Act of 1992 (22 U.S.C. 
        5812)), and in consultation with the Administrator for the 
        United States Agency for International Development, the 
        Director of the Global Engagement Center of the Department of 
        State, the Secretary of Defense, EUCOM, the Chairman of the 
        Broadcasting Board of Governors, and the heads of other 
        relevant Federal agencies, coordinate and carry out activities 
        to achieve the goals described in subsection (b).
            (2) Method.--Activities to achieve the goals described in 
        subsection (b) shall be carried out through--
                    (A) initiatives of the United States Government;
                    (B) Federal grant programs such as the Information 
                Access Fund;
                    (C) nongovernmental or international organizations; 
                or
                    (D) support exchanges with countries facing state-
                sponsored disinformation and pressure campaigns, 
                particularly in Europe and Eurasia, provided that a 
                portion of the funds are made available through a 
                process whereby the Bureau of Educational and Cultural 
                Affairs of the Department of State solicits proposals 
                from posts located in affected countries to counter 
                state-sponsored disinformation and hybrid threats, 
                promote democracy, and support exchanges with countries 
                facing state-sponsored disinformation and pressure 
                campaigns.
            (3) Report on implementation.--
                    (A) In general.--Not later than April 1 of each 
                year, the Secretary of State, acting through the 
                Coordinator of United States Assistance to Europe and 
                Eurasia, shall submit to the appropriate congressional 
                committees a report on the programs and activities 
                carried out to achieve the goals described in 
                subsection (b) during the preceding fiscal year.
                    (B) Elements.--Each report required by subparagraph 
                (A) shall include, with respect to each program or 
                activity described in that subparagraph--
                            (i) the amount of funding for the program 
                        or activity;
                            (ii) the goal described in subsection (b) 
                        to which the program or activity relates; and
                            (iii) an assessment of whether or not the 
                        goal was met.
    (e) Coordination With Global Partners.--
            (1) In general.--In order to maximize impact, eliminate 
        duplication, and speed the achievement of the goals described 
        in subsection (b), the Secretary of State shall ensure 
        coordination with--
                    (A) the European Union and its institutions;
                    (B) the governments of countries that are members 
                of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or the 
                European Union; and
                    (C) international organizations and quasi-
                governmental funding entities that carry out programs 
                and activities that seek to accomplish the goals 
                described in subsection (b).
    (f) Rule of Construction.--Nothing in this section shall be 
construed to apply to or limit United States foreign assistance not 
provided using amounts available in the Countering Russian Influence 
Fund.
    (g) Expansion of Pilot Program.--
            (1) In general.--The Secretary of State shall expand the 
        pilot program required under section 254(g) of the Countering 
        America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (22 U.S.C. 9543(g)) 
        to hire additional personnel within the Bureau for Democracy, 
        Human Rights, and Labor to develop and implement programs 
        focused on combating corruption, improving rule of law, and 
        building capacity of civil society, political parties, and 
        independent media.
            (2) Report on ensuring adequate staffing for governance 
        activities.--Not later than 90 days afer the date of the 
        enactment of this Act, the Secretary of State shall submit to 
        the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on 
        Appropriations of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign 
        Affairs and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of 
        Representatives a report on implementation of the pilot program 
        required under section 254(g) of the Countering Russian 
        Influence in Europe and Eurasia Act of 2017 (22 U.S.C. 
        9543(g)).

SEC. 706. COORDINATING AID AND ASSISTANCE ACROSS EUROPE AND EURASIA.

    It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) the Government of the Russian Federation has applied, 
        and continues to apply traditional uses of force, intelligence 
        operations, cyber attacks, and influence campaigns, including 
        through the use of corruption, disinformation, and cultural and 
        social influence, which represent clear and present threats to 
        the countries of Europe and Eurasia;
            (2) in response, governments in Europe and Eurasia should 
        redouble efforts to build resilience within their institutions, 
        political systems, and civil societies;
            (3) the United States Government supports the democratic 
        and rule of law-based institutions that the Government of the 
        Russian Federation seeks to undermine, including the North 
        Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organization for Security and 
        Cooperation in Europe, and the European Union;
            (4) the United States Government should continue to work 
        with and strengthen such institutions, including the European 
        Union, as a partner against aggression by the Government of the 
        Russian Federation through the coordination of aid programs, 
        development assistance, and other efforts to counter malign 
        Russian influence;
            (5) the United States Government should continue to work 
        with the individual countries of Europe and Eurasia to bolster 
        efforts to counter malign Russian influence in all its forms; 
        and
            (6) the United States Government should increase assistance 
        and diplomatic efforts in Europe, including in European Union 
        and NATO countries, to address threats to fundamental human 
        rights and backsliding in rule of law protections, operating 
        space for independent media and civil society, and other 
        democratic institutions, whose strength is critical to 
        defending against malign Russian influence over the long term.

SEC. 707. ADDRESSING ABUSE AND MISUSE BY THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION OF 
              INTERPOL RED NOTICES AND RED DIFFUSIONS.

    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
            (1) The International Criminal Police Organization (in this 
        section referred to as ``INTERPOL'') works to prevent and fight 
        crime through enhanced cooperation and innovation on police and 
        security matters, including counterterrorism, cybercrime, 
        counternarcotics, and transnational organized crime.
            (2) United States membership and participation in INTERPOL 
        advanced the national security and law enforcement interests of 
        the United States related to combating terrorism, cybercrime, 
        narcotics, and transnational organized crime.
            (3) Article 2 of INTERPOL's Constitution states that the 
        organization aims ``[t]o ensure and promote the widest possible 
        mutual assistance between all criminal police authorities [. . 
        .] in the spirit of the `Universal Declaration of Human 
        Rights'''.
            (4) Article 3 of INTERPOL's Constitution states that ``[i]t 
        is strictly forbidden for the Organization to undertake any 
        intervention or activities of a political, military, religious 
        or racial character''.
            (5) Some INTERPOL member countries have used the INTERPOL's 
        processes, including the red notice and red diffusions 
        mechanisms, for activities of a political character.
    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the 
Government of the Russian Federation has abused and misused INTERPOL's 
red notice and red diffusion mechanisms for overtly political purposes 
and activities such as intimidating, harassing, and persecuting 
political opponents.
    (c) Censure of Russian Activity.--The Attorney General, in 
coordination with the Secretary of Homeland Secretary, shall use the 
voice and influence of the United States at INTERPOL to censure and 
sanction the abuse of INTERPOL mechanisms by the Government of the 
Russian Federation, including the suspension of the ability of the 
Government of the Russian Federation to use INTERPOL's red notice and 
red diffusion mechanisms.
    (d) No Denial of Services.--No United States person or foreign 
person that is the subject of a red notice or red diffusion requested 
by the Government of the Russian Federation shall be denied access to 
any United States Government services or programs because the person is 
the subject of such red notice or red diffusion, including requesting 
asylum, requesting a visa, or participating in a visa waiver program or 
the Transportation Security Administration's Trusted Traveler Program.

SEC. 708. REPORT ON ACCOUNTABILITY FOR WAR CRIMES AND CRIMES AGAINST 
              HUMANITY BY THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN SYRIA.

    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
            (1) In March 2016, Amnesty International issued a report 
        stating, ``Syrian and Russian forces have been deliberately 
        attacking health facilities in flagrant violation of 
        international humanitarian law. But what is truly egregious is 
        that wiping out hospitals appears to have become part of their 
        military strategy.''.
            (2) On September 21, 2017, Department of State Spokesperson 
        Heather Nauert said, ``The United States is concerned by 
        reports of airstrikes in Idlib province and northern Hama 
        province on September 19 and 20 that killed at least three 
        medical personnel and damaged a number of medical facilities, 
        emergency equipment, and civil defense centers. These attacks 
        fit an all-too-familiar pattern in which medical facilities and 
        personnel--and the civilians they serve--are victims of strikes 
        by the Syrian regime and its Russian allies.''.
            (3) In February 2018, Syrian and Russian airstrikes in 
        rebel-held areas killed 230 civilians and hit at least 9 
        medical facilities. In a statement on February 10, 2018, the 
        office of Zeid Ra'ad al-Hussein, the United Nations High 
        Commissioner for Human Rights, said the airstrikes ``may, 
        depending on the circumstances, all constitute war crimes''.
            (4) On March 6, 2018, the United Nations Independent 
        International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic 
        noted, ``[I]n one particularly harmful attack on 13 November, 
        the Russian Air Force carried out airstrikes on a densely 
        populated civilian area in Atareb (Aleppo), killing at least 84 
        people and injuring another 150. Using unguided weapons, the 
        attack struck a market, police station, shops, and a 
        restaurant, and may amount to a war crime.''.
    (b) Report Required.--The Secretary of State shall submit to the 
appropriate congressional committees a report on alleged war crimes and 
crimes against humanity attributable to the Government of the Russian 
Federation or paramilitary forces or contractors responsive to the 
direction of that Government during the operations of that Government 
in Syria--
            (1) not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment 
        of this Act; and
            (2) not later than 180 days after the date on which the 
        Secretary of State determines that the violence in Syria has 
        ceased.
    (c) Elements.--Each report required by subsection (b) shall include 
the following:
            (1) A description of alleged war crimes and crimes against 
        humanity described in subsection (b), including--
                    (A) any such alleged crimes that may violate the 
                principle of medical neutrality and, if possible, an 
                identification of the individual or individuals who 
                engaged in or organized such crimes; and
                    (B) if possible, a description of the conventional 
                and unconventional weapons used for such alleged crimes 
                and the origins of such weapons.
            (2) An assessment of whether such alleged crimes constitute 
        war crimes or crimes against humanity, including genocide.
            (3) A description and assessment by the Office of Global 
        Criminal Justice of the Department of State, the United States 
        Agency for International Development, the Department of 
        Justice, and other appropriate Federal agencies, of programs 
        that the United States Government has undertaken to ensure 
        accountability for such alleged crimes, including programs--
                    (A) to train investigators within and outside of 
                Syria on how to document, investigate, develop findings 
                with respect to, and identify and locate alleged 
                perpetrators of, such alleged crimes, including--
                            (i) the number of United States Government 
                        or contractor personnel currently designated to 
                        work full-time on such training; and
                            (ii) an identification of the authorities 
                        and appropriations being used to support such 
                        training; and
                    (B) to document, collect, preserve, and protect 
                evidence of such alleged crimes, including support for 
                Syrian, foreign, and international nongovernmental 
                organizations, and other entities, including the 
                International, Impartial and Independent Mechanism to 
                Assist in the Investigation and Prosecution of Persons 
                Responsible for the Most Serious Crimes under 
                International Law Committed in the Syrian Arab Republic 
                since March 2011 and the Independent International 
                Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic of 
                the United Nations.
    (d) Protection of Witnesses and Evidence.--In preparing the report 
required by subsection (b), the Secretary shall take due care to ensure 
that the identities of witnesses and physical evidence are not publicly 
disclosed in a manner that might place such witnesses at risk of harm 
or encourage the destruction of such evidence by the Government of the 
Russian Federation or the Government of Syria, violent extremist 
groups, anti-government forces, or any other combatants or participants 
in the conflict in Syria.
    (e) Form.--Each report required by subsection (b) may be submitted 
in unclassified or classified form, but shall include a publicly 
available annex.
    (f) Appropriate Congressional Committees Defined.--In this section, 
the term ``appropriate congressional committees'' means--
            (1) the Committee on Foreign Relations, the Committee on 
        Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, and the Committee on 
        Finance of the Senate; and
            (2) the Committee on Foreign Affairs, the Committee on 
        Financial Services, and the Committee on Ways and Means of the 
        House of Representatives.

SEC. 709. REPORT ON ACTIVITIES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN SYRIA.

    (a) In General.--Not later than 90 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the Director of National Intelligence, in 
coordination with the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense, 
shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees and leadership 
a report that includes--
            (1) an assessment of the willingness and capacity of the 
        Government of the Russian Federation to ensure the removal of 
        Iranian forces, Iran-aligned and Iran-directed militias and 
        paramilitaries, and other armed group responsive to the 
        direction of Iran, from the territory of Syria;
            (2) a list of policies, actions, or activities that the 
        Government of the Russian Federation would take if that 
        Government were willing to ensure the removal of the forces, 
        militias, paramilitaries, and other armed groups described in 
        paragraph (1) from the territory of Syria;
            (3) a list of policies, actions, or activities that the 
        Government of the Russian Federation would take to ensure the 
        removal of the forces, militias, paramilitaries, and other 
        armed groups described in paragraph (1) from the territory of 
        Syria if that Government were capable of doing so;
            (4) an assessment of whether any of the policies, actions, 
        or activities described in paragraph (2) or (3) are being taken 
        by the Government of the Russian Federation;
            (5) an assessment of the specific commitments made by 
        officials of the Government of the Russian Federation to 
        officials of the Government of Israel with respect to the Golan 
        Heights and the presence of the forces, militias, 
        paramilitaries, and other armed groups described in paragraph 
        (1) in the territory of Syria;
            (6) an assessment of weapons, technologies, and knowledge 
        directly or indirectly transferred by the Government of the 
        Russian Federation to the regime of Bashar al-Assad, Lebanese 
        Hezbollah, Iran, or Iran-aligned forces in Syria that threaten 
        the security and qualitative military edge of Israel; and
            (7) an assessment of whether the presence of Russian forces 
        and Russian contractors in Syria limits the options of the 
        Government of Israel in taking steps to ensure its security 
        from threats emanating from the territory of Syria.
    (b) Form.--The report required by subsection (a) shall be submitted 
in an unclassified form but may include a classified annex.
    (c) Appropriate Congressional Committees and Leadership Defined.--
In this section, the term ``appropriate congressional committees and 
leadership'' means--
            (1) the Committee on Foreign Relations, the Committee on 
        Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, and the majority and 
        minority leaders of the Senate; and
            (2) the Committee on Foreign Affairs, the Committee on 
        Financial Services, the Committee on Ways and Means, and the 
        Speaker, the majority leader, and the minority leader of the 
        House of Representatives.

SEC. 710. SENSE OF CONGRESS ON RESPONSIBILITY OF TECHNOLOGY COMPANIES 
              FOR STATE-SPONSORED DISINFORMATION.

    It is the sense of Congress that technology companies, particularly 
social media companies, share responsibility for ensuring that their 
platforms are free of disinformation sponsored by the Government of the 
Russian Federation and other foreign governments.
                                 <all>