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[S. 442 Enrolled Bill (ENR)]

        S.442

                     One Hundred Fifteenth Congress

                                 of the

                        United States of America


                          AT THE FIRST SESSION

          Begun and held at the City of Washington on Tuesday,
          the third day of January, two thousand and seventeen


                                 An Act


 
    To authorize the programs of the National Aeronautics and Space 
                 Administration, and for other purposes.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.
    (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition Authorization Act of 
2017''.
    (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents of this Act is as 
follows:

Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.
Sec. 2. Definitions.

                TITLE I--AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS

Sec. 101. Fiscal year 2017.

             TITLE II--SUSTAINING NATIONAL SPACE COMMITMENTS

Sec. 201. Sense of Congress on sustaining national space commitments.
Sec. 202. Findings.

    TITLE III--MAXIMIZING UTILIZATION OF THE ISS AND LOW-EARTH ORBIT

Sec. 301. Operation of the ISS.
Sec. 302. Transportation to ISS.
Sec. 303. ISS transition plan.
Sec. 304. Space communications.
Sec. 305. Indemnification; NASA launch services and reentry services.

            TITLE IV--ADVANCING HUMAN DEEP SPACE EXPLORATION

   Subtitle A--Human Space Flight and Exploration Goals and Objectives

Sec. 411. Human space flight and exploration long-term goals.
Sec. 412. Key objectives.
Sec. 413. Vision for space exploration.
Sec. 414. Stepping stone approach to exploration.
Sec. 415. Update of exploration plan and programs.
Sec. 416. Repeals.
Sec. 417. Assured access to space.

         Subtitle B--Assuring Core Capabilities for Exploration

Sec. 421. Space Launch System, Orion, and Exploration Ground Systems.

                       Subtitle C--Journey to Mars

Sec. 431. Findings on human space exploration.
Sec. 432. Human exploration roadmap.
Sec. 433. Advanced space suit capability.
Sec. 434. Asteroid robotic redirect mission.
Sec. 435. Mars 2033 report.

                    Subtitle D--TREAT Astronauts Act

Sec. 441. Short title.
Sec. 442. Findings; sense of Congress.
Sec. 443. Medical monitoring and research relating to human space 
          flight.

                    TITLE V--ADVANCING SPACE SCIENCE

Sec. 501. Maintaining a balanced space science portfolio.
Sec. 502. Planetary science.
Sec. 503. James Webb Space Telescope.
Sec. 504. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope.
Sec. 505. Mars 2020 rover.
Sec. 506. Europa.
Sec. 507. Congressional declaration of policy and purpose.
Sec. 508. Extrasolar planet exploration strategy.
Sec. 509. Astrobiology strategy.
Sec. 510. Astrobiology public-private partnerships.
Sec. 511. Near-Earth objects.
Sec. 512. Near-Earth objects public-private partnerships.
Sec. 513. Assessment of science mission extensions.
Sec. 514. Stratospheric observatory for infrared astronomy.
Sec. 515. Radioisotope power systems.
Sec. 516. Assessment of Mars architecture.
Sec. 517. Collaboration.

                          TITLE VI--AERONAUTICS

Sec. 601. Sense of Congress on aeronautics.
Sec. 602. Transformative aeronautics research.
Sec. 603. Hypersonic research.
Sec. 604. Supersonic research.
Sec. 605. Rotorcraft research.

                       TITLE VII--SPACE TECHNOLOGY

Sec. 701. Space technology infusion.
Sec. 702. Space technology program.

                    TITLE VIII--MAXIMIZING EFFICIENCY

       Subtitle A--Agency Information Technology and Cybersecurity

Sec. 811. Information technology governance.
Sec. 812. Information technology strategic plan.
Sec. 813. Cybersecurity.
Sec. 814. Security management of foreign national access.
Sec. 815. Cybersecurity of web applications.

 Subtitle B--Collaboration Among Mission Directorates and Other Matters

Sec. 821. Collaboration among mission directorates.
Sec. 822. NASA launch capabilities collaboration.
Sec. 823. Detection and avoidance of counterfeit parts.
Sec. 824. Education and outreach.
Sec. 825. Leveraging commercial satellite servicing capabilities across 
          mission directorates.
Sec. 826. Flight opportunities.
Sec. 827. Sense of Congress on small class launch missions.
Sec. 828. Baseline and cost controls.
Sec. 829. Commercial technology transfer program.
Sec. 830. Avoiding organizational conflicts of interest in major 
          administration acquisition programs.
Sec. 831. Protection of Apollo landing sites.
Sec. 832. NASA lease of non-excess property.
Sec. 833. Termination liability.
Sec. 834. Independent reviews.
Sec. 835. NASA Advisory Council.
Sec. 836. Cost estimation.
Sec. 837. Facilities and infrastructure.
Sec. 838. Human space flight accident investigations.
Sec. 839. Orbital debris.
Sec. 840. Review of orbital debris removal concepts.
Sec. 841. Space Act Agreements.
SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.
    In this Act:
        (1) Administration.--The term ``Administration'' means the 
    National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
        (2) Administrator.--The term ``Administrator'' means the 
    Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
        (3) Appropriate committees of congress.--The term ``appropriate 
    committees of Congress'' means--
            (A) the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation 
        of the Senate; and
            (B) the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the 
        House of Representatives.
        (4) Cis-lunar space.--The term ``cis-lunar space'' means the 
    region of space from the Earth out to and including the region 
    around the surface of the Moon.
        (5) Deep space.--The term ``deep space'' means the region of 
    space beyond low-Earth orbit, to include cis-lunar space.
        (6) Government astronaut.--The term ``government astronaut'' 
    has the meaning given the term in section 50902 of title 51, United 
    States Code.
        (7) ISS.--The term ``ISS'' means the International Space 
    Station.
        (8) ISS management entity.--The term ``ISS management entity'' 
    means the organization with which the Administrator has a 
    cooperative agreement under section 504(a) of the National 
    Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 
    U.S.C. 18354(a)).
        (9) NASA.--The term ``NASA'' means the National Aeronautics and 
    Space Administration.
        (10) Orion.--The term ``Orion'' means the multipurpose crew 
    vehicle described under section 303 of the National Aeronautics and 
    Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18323).
        (11) Space launch system.--The term ``Space Launch System'' has 
    the meaning given the term in section 3 of the National Aeronautics 
    and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 
    18302).
        (12) United states government astronaut.--The term ``United 
    States government astronaut'' has the meaning given the term 
    ``government astronaut'' in section 50902 of title 51, United 
    States Code, except it does not include an individual who is an 
    international partner astronaut.

                TITLE I--AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS

    SEC. 101. FISCAL YEAR 2017.
    There are authorized to be appropriated to NASA for fiscal year 
2017, $19,508,000,000, as follows:
        (1) For Exploration, $4,330,000,000.
        (2) For Space Operations, $5,023,000,000.
        (3) For Science, $5,500,000,000.
        (4) For Aeronautics, $640,000,000.
        (5) For Space Technology, $686,000,000.
        (6) For Education, $115,000,000.
        (7) For Safety, Security, and Mission Services, $2,788,600,000.
        (8) For Construction and Environmental Compliance and 
    Restoration, $388,000,000.
        (9) For Inspector General, $37,400,000.

            TITLE II--SUSTAINING NATIONAL SPACE COMMITMENTS

    SEC. 201. SENSE OF CONGRESS ON SUSTAINING NATIONAL SPACE 
      COMMITMENTS.
    It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) honoring current national space commitments and building 
    upon investments in space across successive Administrations 
    demonstrates clear continuity of purpose by the United States, in 
    collaboration with its international, academic, and industry 
    partners, to extend humanity's reach into deep space, including 
    cis-lunar space, the Moon, the surface and moons of Mars, and 
    beyond;
        (2) NASA leaders can best leverage investments in the United 
    States space program by continuing to develop a balanced portfolio 
    for space exploration and space science, including continued 
    development of the Space Launch System, Orion, Commercial Crew 
    Program, space and planetary science missions such as the James 
    Webb Space Telescope, Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, and 
    Europa mission, and ongoing operations of the ISS and Commercial 
    Resupply Services Program;
        (3) a national, government-led space program that builds on 
    current science and exploration programs, advances human knowledge 
    and capabilities, and opens the frontier beyond Earth for 
    ourselves, commercial enterprise, and science, and with our 
    international partners, is of critical importance to our national 
    destiny and to a future guided by United States values and 
    freedoms;
        (4) continuity of purpose and effective execution of core NASA 
    programs are essential for efficient use of resources in pursuit of 
    timely and tangible accomplishments;
        (5) NASA could improve its efficiency and effectiveness by 
    working with industry to streamline existing programs and 
    requirements, procurement practices, institutional footprint, and 
    bureaucracy while preserving effective program oversight, 
    accountability, and safety;
        (6) it is imperative that the United States maintain and 
    enhance its leadership in space exploration and space science, and 
    continue to expand freedom and economic opportunities in space for 
    all Americans that are consistent with the Constitution of the 
    United States; and
        (7) NASA should be a multi-mission space agency, and should 
    have a balanced and robust set of core missions in space science, 
    space technology, aeronautics, human space flight and exploration, 
    and education.
    SEC. 202. FINDINGS.
    Congress makes the following findings:
        (1) Returns on the Nation's investments in science, technology, 
    and exploration accrue over decades-long timeframes, and a 
    disruption of such investments could prevent returns from being 
    fully realized.
        (2) Past challenges to the continuity of such investments, 
    particularly threats regarding the cancellation of authorized 
    programs with bipartisan and bicameral support, have disrupted 
    completion of major space systems thereby--
            (A) impeding planning and pursuit of national objectives in 
        space science and human space exploration;
            (B) placing such investments in space science and space 
        exploration at risk; and
            (C) degrading the aerospace industrial base.
        (3) The National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
    Authorization Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-155; 119 Stat. 2895), 
    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 
    2008 (Public Law 110-422; 122 Stat. 4779), and National Aeronautics 
    and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18301 
    et seq.) reflect a broad, bipartisan agreement on the path forward 
    for NASA's core missions in science, space technology, aeronautics, 
    human space flight and exploration, and education, that serves as 
    the foundation for the policy updates by this Act.
        (4) Sufficient investment and maximum utilization of the ISS 
    and ISS National Laboratory with our international and industry 
    partners is--
            (A) consistent with the goals and objectives of the United 
        States space program; and
            (B) imperative to continuing United States global 
        leadership in human space exploration, science, research, 
        technology development, and education opportunities that 
        contribute to development of the next generation of American 
        scientists, engineers, and leaders, and to creating the 
        opportunity for economic development of low-Earth orbit.
        (5) NASA has made measurable progress in the development and 
    testing of the Space Launch System and Orion exploration systems 
    with the near-term objectives of the initial integrated test flight 
    and launch in 2018, a human mission in 2021, and continued missions 
    with an annual cadence in cis-lunar space and eventually to the 
    surface of Mars.
        (6) The Commercial Crew Program has made measurable progress 
    toward reestablishing the capability to launch United States 
    government astronauts from United States soil into low-Earth orbit 
    by the end of 2018.
        (7) The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel, in its 2015 Annual 
    Report, urged continuity of purpose noting concerns over the 
    potential for cost overruns and schedule slips that could accompany 
    significant changes to core NASA programs.

    TITLE III--MAXIMIZING UTILIZATION OF THE ISS AND LOW-EARTH ORBIT

    SEC. 301. OPERATION OF THE ISS.
    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) after 15 years of continuous human presence in low-Earth 
    orbit, the ISS continues to overcome challenges and operate safely;
        (2) the ISS is a unique testbed for future space exploration 
    systems development, including long-duration space travel;
        (3) the expansion of partnerships, scientific research, and 
    commercial applications of the ISS is essential to ensuring the 
    greatest return on investments made by the United States and its 
    international space partners in the development, assembly, and 
    operations of that unique facility;
        (4) utilization of the ISS will sustain United States 
    leadership and progress in human space exploration by--
            (A) facilitating the commercialization and economic 
        development of low-Earth orbit;
            (B) serving as a testbed for technologies and a platform 
        for scientific research and development; and
            (C) serving as an orbital facility enabling research upon--
                (i) the health, well-being, and performance of humans 
            in space; and
                (ii) the development of in-space systems enabling human 
            space exploration beyond low-Earth orbit; and
        (5) the ISS provides a platform for fundamental, microgravity, 
    discovery-based space life and physical sciences research that is 
    critical for enabling space exploration, protecting humans in 
    space, increasing pathways for commercial space development that 
    depend on advances in basic research, and contributes to advancing 
    science, technology, engineering, and mathematics research.
    (b) Objectives.--The primary objectives of the ISS program shall 
be--
        (1) to achieve the long term goal and objectives under section 
    202 of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
    Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18312); and
        (2) to pursue a research program that advances knowledge and 
    provides other benefits to the Nation.
    (c) Continuation of the ISS.--Section 501 of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 
U.S.C. 18351) is amended to read as follows:
    ``SEC. 501. CONTINUATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION.
    ``(a) Policy of the United States.--It shall be the policy of the 
United States, in consultation with its international partners in the 
ISS program, to support full and complete utilization of the ISS 
through at least 2024.
    ``(b) NASA Action.--In furtherance of the policy set forth in 
subsection (a), NASA shall--
        ``(1) pursue international, commercial, and intragovernmental 
    means to maximize ISS logistics supply, maintenance, and 
    operational capabilities, reduce risks to ISS systems 
    sustainability, and offset and minimize United States operations 
    costs relating to the ISS;
        ``(2) utilize, to the extent practicable, the ISS for the 
    development of capabilities and technologies needed for the future 
    of human space exploration beyond low-Earth orbit; and
        ``(3) utilize, if practical and cost effective, the ISS for 
    Science Mission Directorate missions in low-Earth orbit.''.
    SEC. 302. TRANSPORTATION TO ISS.
    (a) Findings.--Congress finds that reliance on foreign carriers for 
United States crew transfer is unacceptable, and the Nation's human 
space flight program must acquire the capability to launch United 
States government astronauts on vehicles using United States rockets 
from United States soil as soon as is safe, reliable, and affordable to 
do so.
    (b) Sense of Congress on Commercial Crew Program and Commercial 
Resupply Services Program.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) once developed and certified to meet the Administration's 
    safety and reliability requirements, United States commercially 
    provided crew transportation systems can serve as the primary means 
    of transporting United States government astronauts and 
    international partner astronauts to and from the ISS and serving as 
    ISS crew rescue vehicles;
        (2) previous budgetary assumptions used by the Administration 
    in its planning for the Commercial Crew Program assumed 
    significantly higher funding levels than were authorized and 
    appropriated by Congress;
        (3) credibility in the Administration's budgetary estimates for 
    the Commercial Crew Program can be enhanced by an independently 
    developed cost estimate;
        (4) such credibility in budgetary estimates is an important 
    factor in understanding program risk;
        (5) United States access to low-Earth orbit is paramount to the 
    continued success of the ISS and ISS National Laboratory;
        (6) a stable and successful Commercial Resupply Services 
    Program and Commercial Crew Program are critical to ensuring timely 
    provisioning of the ISS and to reestablishing the capability to 
    launch United States government astronauts from United States soil 
    into orbit, ending reliance upon Russian transport of United States 
    government astronauts to the ISS which has not been possible since 
    the retirement of the Space Shuttle program in 2011;
        (7) NASA should build upon the success of the Commercial 
    Orbital Transportation Services Program and Commercial Resupply 
    Services Program that have allowed private sector companies to 
    partner with NASA to deliver cargo and scientific experiments to 
    the ISS since 2012;
        (8) the 21st Century Launch Complex Program has enabled 
    significant modernization and infrastructure improvements at launch 
    sites across the United States to support NASA's Commercial 
    Resupply Services Program and other civil and commercial space 
    flight missions; and
        (9) the 21st Century Launch Complex Program should be continued 
    in a manner that leverages State and private investments to achieve 
    the goals of that program.
    (c) Reaffirmation.--Congress reaffirms--
        (1) its commitment to the use of a commercially developed, 
    private sector launch and delivery system to the ISS for crew 
    missions as expressed in the National Aeronautics and Space 
    Administration Authorization Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-155; 119 
    Stat. 2895), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
    Authorization Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-422; 122 Stat. 4779), and 
    the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act 
    of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18301 et seq.); and
        (2) the requirement under section 50111(b)(1)(A) of title 51, 
    United States Code, that the Administration shall make use of 
    United States commercially provided ISS crew transfer and crew 
    rescue services to the maximum extent practicable.
    (d) Use of Non-United States Human Space Flight Transportation 
Capabilities.--Section 201(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18311(a)) is 
amended to read as follows:
    ``(a) Use of Non-United States Human Space Flight Transportation 
Services.--
        ``(1) In general.--The Federal Government may not acquire human 
    space flight transportation services from a foreign entity unless--
            ``(A) no United States Government-operated human space 
        flight capability is available;
            ``(B) no United States commercial provider is available; 
        and
            ``(C) it is a qualified foreign entity.
        ``(2) Definitions.--In this subsection:
            ``(A) Commercial provider.--The term `commercial provider' 
        means any person providing human space flight transportation 
        services, primary control of which is held by persons other 
        than the Federal Government, a State or local government, or a 
        foreign government.
            ``(B) Qualified foreign entity.--The term `qualified 
        foreign entity' means a foreign entity that is in compliance 
        with all applicable safety standards and is not prohibited from 
        providing space transportation services under other law.
            ``(C) United states commercial provider.--The term `United 
        States commercial provider' means a commercial provider, 
        organized under the laws of the United States or of a State, 
        that is more than 50 percent owned by United States nationals.
        ``(3) Arrangements with foreign entities.--Nothing in this 
    subsection shall prevent the Administrator from negotiating or 
    entering into human space flight transportation arrangements with 
    foreign entities to ensure safety of flight and continued ISS 
    operations.''.
    (e) Commercial Crew Program.--
        (1) Objective.--The objective of the Commercial Crew Program 
    shall be to assist in the development and certification of 
    commercially provided transportation that--
            (A) can carry United States government astronauts safely, 
        reliably, and affordably to and from the ISS;
            (B) can serve as a crew rescue vehicle; and
            (C) can accomplish subparagraphs (A) and (B) as soon as 
        practicable.
        (2) Primary consideration.--The objective described in 
    paragraph (1) shall be the primary consideration in the acquisition 
    strategy for the Commercial Crew Program.
        (3) Safety.--
            (A) In general.--The Administrator shall protect the safety 
        of government astronauts by ensuring that each commercially 
        provided transportation system under this subsection meets all 
        applicable human rating requirements in accordance with section 
        403(b)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
        Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18342(b)(1)).
            (B) Lessons learned.--Consistent with the findings and 
        recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board, 
        the Administration shall ensure that safety and the 
        minimization of the probability of loss of crew are the 
        critical priorities of the Commercial Crew Program.
        (4) Cost minimization.--The Administrator shall strive through 
    the competitive selection process to minimize the life cycle cost 
    to the Administration through the planned period of commercially 
    provided crew transportation services.
    (f) Commercial Cargo Program.--Section 401 of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 
U.S.C. 18341) is amended by striking ``Commercial Orbital 
Transportation Services'' and inserting ``Commercial Resupply 
Services''.
    (g) Competition.--It is the policy of the United States that, to 
foster the competitive development, operation, improvement, and 
commercial availability of space transportation services, and to 
minimize the life cycle cost to the Administration, the Administrator 
shall procure services for Federal Government access to and return from 
the ISS, whenever practicable, via fair and open competition for well-
defined, milestone-based, Federal Acquisition Regulation-based 
contracts under section 201(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18311(a)).
    (h) Transparency.--
        (1) Sense of congress.--It is the sense of Congress that cost 
    transparency and schedule transparency aid in effective program 
    management and risk assessment.
        (2) In general.--The Administrator shall, to the greatest 
    extent practicable and in a manner that does not add costs or 
    schedule delays to the program, ensure all Commercial Crew Program 
    and Commercial Resupply Services Program providers provide 
    evidence-based support for their costs and schedules.
    (i) ISS Cargo Resupply Services Lessons Learned.--Not later than 
120 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator 
shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report that--
        (1) identifies the lessons learned to date from previous and 
    existing Commercial Resupply Services contracts;
        (2) indicates whether changes are needed to the manner in which 
    the Administration procures and manages similar services prior to 
    the issuance of future Commercial Resupply Services procurement 
    opportunities; and
        (3) identifies any lessons learned from the Commercial Resupply 
    Services contracts that should be applied to the procurement and 
    management of commercially provided crew transfer services to and 
    from the ISS or to other future procurements.
    SEC. 303. ISS TRANSITION PLAN.
    (a) Findings.--Congress finds that--
        (1) NASA has been both the primary supplier and consumer of 
    human space flight capabilities and services of the ISS and in low-
    Earth orbit; and
        (2) according to the National Research Council report 
    ``Pathways to Exploration: Rationales and Approaches for a U.S. 
    Program of Human Space Exploration'' extending ISS beyond 2020 to 
    2024 or 2028 will have significant negative impacts on the schedule 
    of crewed missions to Mars, without significant increases in 
    funding.
    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) an orderly transition for United States human space flight 
    activities in low-Earth orbit from the current regime, that relies 
    heavily on NASA sponsorship, to a regime where NASA is one of many 
    customers of a low-Earth orbit commercial human space flight 
    enterprise may be necessary; and
        (2) decisions about the long-term future of the ISS impact the 
    ability to conduct future deep space exploration activities, and 
    that such decisions regarding the ISS should be considered in the 
    context of the human exploration roadmap under section 432 of this 
    Act.
    (c) Reports.--Section 50111 of title 51, United States Code, is 
amended by adding at the end the following:
    ``(c) ISS Transition Plan.--
        ``(1) In general.--The Administrator, in coordination with the 
    ISS management entity (as defined in section 2 of the National 
    Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition Authorization Act 
    of 2017), ISS partners, the scientific user community, and the 
    commercial space sector, shall develop a plan to transition in a 
    step-wise approach from the current regime that relies heavily on 
    NASA sponsorship to a regime where NASA could be one of many 
    customers of a low-Earth orbit non-governmental human space flight 
    enterprise.
        ``(2) Reports.--Not later than December 1, 2017, and biennially 
    thereafter until 2023, the Administrator shall submit to the 
    Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate 
    and the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
    Representatives a report that includes--
            ``(A) a description of the progress in achieving the 
        Administration's deep space human exploration objectives on ISS 
        and prospects for accomplishing future mission requirements, 
        space exploration objectives, and other research objectives on 
        future commercially supplied low-Earth orbit platforms or 
        migration of those objectives to cis-lunar space;
            ``(B) the steps NASA is taking and will take, including 
        demonstrations that could be conducted on the ISS, to stimulate 
        and facilitate commercial demand and supply of products and 
        services in low-Earth orbit;
            ``(C) an identification of barriers preventing the 
        commercialization of low-Earth orbit, including issues relating 
        to policy, regulations, commercial intellectual property, data, 
        and confidentiality, that could inhibit the use of the ISS as a 
        commercial incubator;
            ``(D) the criteria for defining the ISS as a research 
        success;
            ``(E) the criteria used to determine whether the ISS is 
        meeting the objective under section 301(b)(2) of the National 
        Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition Authorization 
        Act of 2017;
            ``(F) an assessment of whether the criteria under 
        subparagraphs (D) and (E) are consistent with the research 
        areas defined in, and recommendations and schedules under, the 
        current National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and 
        Medicine Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in 
        Space;
            ``(G) any necessary contributions that ISS extension would 
        make to enabling execution of the human exploration roadmap 
        under section 432 of the National Aeronautics and Space 
        Administration Transition Authorization Act of 2017;
            ``(H) the cost estimates for operating the ISS to achieve 
        the criteria required under subparagraphs (D) and (E) and the 
        contributions identified under subparagraph (G);
            ``(I) the cost estimates for extending operations of the 
        ISS to 2024, 2028, and 2030;
            ``(J) an evaluation of the feasible and preferred service 
        life of the ISS beyond the period described in section 503 of 
        the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization 
        Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18353), through at least 2028, as a 
        unique scientific, commercial, and space exploration-related 
        facility, including--
                ``(i) a general discussion of international partner 
            capabilities and prospects for extending the partnership;
                ``(ii) the cost associated with extending the service 
            life;
                ``(iii) an assessment on the technical limiting factors 
            of the service life of the ISS, including a list of 
            critical components and their expected service life and 
            availability; and
                ``(iv) such other information as may be necessary to 
            fully describe the justification for and feasibility of 
            extending the service life of the ISS, including the 
            potential scientific or technological benefits to the 
            Federal Government, public, or to academic or commercial 
            entities;
            ``(K) an identification of the necessary actions and an 
        estimate of the costs to deorbit the ISS once it has reached 
        the end of its service life;
            ``(L) the impact on deep space exploration capabilities, 
        including a crewed mission to Mars in the 2030s, if the 
        preferred service life of the ISS is extended beyond 2024 and 
        NASA maintains a flat budget profile; and
            ``(M) an evaluation of the functions, roles, and 
        responsibilities for management and operation of the ISS and a 
        determination of--
                ``(i) those functions, roles, and responsibilities the 
            Federal Government should retain during the lifecycle of 
            the ISS;
                ``(ii) those functions, roles, and responsibilities 
            that could be transferred to the commercial space sector;
                ``(iii) the metrics that would indicate the commercial 
            space sector's readiness and ability to assume the 
            functions, roles, and responsibilities described in clause 
            (ii); and
                ``(iv) any necessary changes to any agreements or other 
            documents and the law to enable the activities described in 
            subparagraphs (A) and (B).
        ``(3) Demonstrations.--If additional Government crew, power, 
    and transportation resources are available after meeting the 
    Administration's requirements for ISS activities defined in the 
    human exploration roadmap and related research, demonstrations 
    identified under paragraph (2) may--
            ``(A) test the capabilities needed to meet future mission 
        requirements, space exploration objectives, and other research 
        objectives described in paragraph (2)(A); and
            ``(B) demonstrate or test capabilities, including 
        commercial modules or deep space habitats, Environmental 
        Control and Life Support Systems, orbital satellite assembly, 
        exploration space suits, a node that enables a wide variety of 
        activity, including multiple commercial modules and airlocks, 
        additional docking or berthing ports for commercial crew and 
        cargo, opportunities for the commercial space sector to cost 
        share for transportation and other services on the ISS, other 
        commercial activities, or services obtained through alternate 
        acquisition approaches.''.
    SEC. 304. SPACE COMMUNICATIONS.
    (a) Plan.--The Administrator shall develop a plan, in consultation 
with relevant Federal agencies, to meet the Administration's projected 
space communication and navigation needs for low-Earth orbit and deep 
space operations in the 20-year period following the date of enactment 
of this Act.
    (b) Contents.--The plan shall include--
        (1) the lifecycle cost estimates and a 5-year funding profile;
        (2) the performance capabilities required to meet the 
    Administration's projected space communication and navigation 
    needs;
        (3) the measures the Administration will take to sustain the 
    existing space communications and navigation architecture;
        (4) an identification of the projected space communications and 
    navigation network and infrastructure needs;
        (5) a description of the necessary upgrades to meet the needs 
    identified in paragraph (4), including--
            (A) an estimate of the cost of the upgrades;
            (B) a schedule for implementing the upgrades; and
            (C) an assessment of whether and how any related missions 
        will be impacted if resources are not secured at the level 
        needed;
        (6) the cost estimates for the maintenance of existing space 
    communications network capabilities necessary to meet the needs 
    identified in paragraph (4);
        (7) the criteria for prioritizing resources for the upgrades 
    described in paragraph (5) and the maintenance described in 
    paragraph (6);
        (8) an estimate of any reimbursement amounts the Administration 
    may receive from other Federal agencies;
        (9) an identification of the projected Tracking and Data Relay 
    Satellite System needs in the 20-year period following the date of 
    enactment of this Act, including in support of relevant Federal 
    agencies, and cost and schedule estimates to maintain and upgrade 
    the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System to meet the projected 
    needs;
        (10) the measures the Administration is taking to meet space 
    communications needs after all Tracking and Data Relay Satellite 
    System third-generation communications satellites are operational; 
    and
        (11) the measures the Administration is taking to mitigate 
    threats to electromagnetic spectrum use.
    (c) Schedule.--Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Administrator shall submit the plan to the appropriate 
committees of Congress.
    SEC. 305. INDEMNIFICATION; NASA LAUNCH SERVICES AND REENTRY 
      SERVICES.
    (a) In General.--Subchapter III of chapter 201 of title 51, United 
States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following:
``Sec. 20148. Indemnification; NASA launch services and reentry 
     services
    ``(a) In General.--Under such regulations in conformity with this 
section as the Administrator shall prescribe taking into account the 
availability, cost, and terms of liability insurance, any contract 
between the Administration and a provider may provide that the United 
States will indemnify the provider against successful claims (including 
reasonable expenses of litigation or settlement) by third parties for 
death, bodily injury, or loss of or damage to property resulting from 
launch services and reentry services carried out under the contract 
that the contract defines as unusually hazardous or nuclear in nature, 
but only to the extent the total amount of successful claims related to 
the activities under the contract--
        ``(1) is more than the amount of insurance or demonstration of 
    financial responsibility described in subsection (c)(3); and
        ``(2) is not more than the amount specified in section 
    50915(a)(1)(B).
    ``(b) Terms of Indemnification.--A contract made under subsection 
(a) that provides indemnification shall provide for--
        ``(1) notice to the United States of any claim or suit against 
    the provider for death, bodily injury, or loss of or damage to 
    property; and
        ``(2) control of or assistance in the defense by the United 
    States, at its election, of that claim or suit and approval of any 
    settlement.
    ``(c) Liability Insurance of the Provider.--
        ``(1) In general.--The provider under subsection (a) shall 
    obtain liability insurance or demonstrate financial responsibility 
    in amounts to compensate for the maximum probable loss from claims 
    by--
            ``(A) a third party for death, bodily injury, or property 
        damage or loss resulting from a launch service or reentry 
        service carried out under the contract; and
            ``(B) the United States Government for damage or loss to 
        Government property resulting from a launch service or reentry 
        service carried out under the contract.
        ``(2) Maximum probable losses.--
            ``(A) In general.--The Administrator shall determine the 
        maximum probable losses under subparagraphs (A) and (B) of 
        paragraph (1) not later than 90 days after the date that the 
        provider requests such a determination and submits all 
        information the Administrator requires.
            ``(B) Revisions.--The Administrator may revise a 
        determination under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph if the 
        Administrator determines the revision is warranted based on new 
        information.
        ``(3) Amount of insurance.--For the total claims related to one 
    launch or reentry, a provider shall not be required to obtain 
    insurance or demonstrate financial responsibility of more than--
            ``(A)(i) $500,000,000 under paragraph (1)(A); or
                ``(ii) $100,000,000 under paragraph (1)(B); or
            ``(B) the maximum liability insurance available on the 
        world market at reasonable cost.
        ``(4) Coverage.--An insurance policy or demonstration of 
    financial responsibility under this subsection shall protect the 
    following, to the extent of their potential liability for 
    involvement in launch services or reentry services:
            ``(A) The Government.
            ``(B) Personnel of the Government.
            ``(C) Related entities of the Government.
            ``(D) Related entities of the provider.
            ``(E) Government astronauts.
    ``(d) No Indemnification Without Cross-waiver.--Notwithstanding 
subsection (a), the Administrator may not indemnify a provider under 
this section unless there is a cross-waiver between the Administration 
and the provider as described in subsection (e).
    ``(e) Cross-Waivers.--
        ``(1) In general.--The Administrator, on behalf of the United 
    States and its departments, agencies, and instrumentalities, shall 
    reciprocally waive claims with a provider under which each party to 
    the waiver agrees to be responsible, and agrees to ensure that its 
    related entities are responsible, for damage or loss to its 
    property, or for losses resulting from any injury or death 
    sustained by its employees or agents, as a result of activities 
    arising out of the performance of the contract.
        ``(2) Limitation.--The waiver made by the Government under 
    paragraph (1) shall apply only to the extent that the claims are 
    more than the amount of insurance or demonstration of financial 
    responsibility required under subsection (c)(1)(B).
    ``(f) Willful Misconduct.--Indemnification under subsection (a) may 
exclude claims resulting from the willful misconduct of the provider or 
its related entities.
    ``(g) Certification of Just and Reasonable Amount.--No payment may 
be made under subsection (a) unless the Administrator or the 
Administrator's designee certifies that the amount is just and 
reasonable.
    ``(h) Payments.--
        ``(1) In general.--Upon the approval by the Administrator, 
    payments under subsection (a) may be made from funds appropriated 
    for such payments.
        ``(2) Limitation.--The Administrator shall not approve payments 
    under paragraph (1), except to the extent provided in an 
    appropriation law or to the extent additional legislative authority 
    is enacted providing for such payments.
        ``(3) Additional appropriations.--If the Administrator requests 
    additional appropriations to make payments under this subsection, 
    then the request for those appropriations shall be made in 
    accordance with the procedures established under section 50915.
    ``(i) Rules of Construction.--
        ``(1) In general.--The authority to indemnify under this 
    section shall not create any rights in third persons that would not 
    otherwise exist by law.
        ``(2) Other authority.--Nothing in this section may be 
    construed as prohibiting the Administrator from indemnifying a 
    provider or any other NASA contractor under other law, including 
    under Public Law 85-804 (50 U.S.C. 1431 et seq.).
        ``(3) Anti-deficiency act.--Notwithstanding any other provision 
    of this section--
            ``(A) all obligations under this section are subject to the 
        availability of funds; and
            ``(B) nothing in this section may be construed to require 
        obligation or payment of funds in violation of sections 1341, 
        1342, 1349 through 1351, and 1511 through 1519 of title 31, 
        United States Code (commonly referred to as the `Anti-
        Deficiency Act').
    ``(j) Relationship to Other Laws.--The Administrator may not 
provide indemnification under this section for an activity that 
requires a license or permit under chapter 509.
    ``(k) Definitions.--In this section:
        ``(1) Government astronaut.--The term `government astronaut' 
    has the meaning given the term in section 50902.
        ``(2) Launch services.--The term `launch services' has the 
    meaning given the term in section 50902.
        ``(3) Provider.--The term `provider' means a person that 
    provides domestic launch services or domestic reentry services to 
    the Government.
        ``(4) Reentry services.--The term `reentry services' has the 
    meaning given the term in section 50902.
        ``(5) Related entity.--The term `related entity' means a 
    contractor or subcontractor.
        ``(6) Third party.--The term `third party' means a person 
    except--
            ``(A) the United States Government;
            ``(B) related entities of the Government involved in launch 
        services or reentry services;
            ``(C) a provider;
            ``(D) related entities of the provider involved in launch 
        services or reentry services; or
            ``(E) a government astronaut.''.
    (b) Conforming Amendment.--The table of contents for subchapter III 
of chapter 201 of title 51, United States Code, is amended by inserting 
after the item relating to section 20147 the following:

``20148. Indemnification; NASA launch services and reentry services.''.

            TITLE IV--ADVANCING HUMAN DEEP SPACE EXPLORATION
  Subtitle A--Human Space Flight and Exploration Goals and Objectives

    SEC. 411. HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT AND EXPLORATION LONG-TERM GOALS.
    Section 202(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18312(a)) is amended to read as 
follows:
    ``(a) Long-term Goals.--The long-term goals of the human space 
flight and exploration efforts of NASA shall be--
        ``(1) to expand permanent human presence beyond low-Earth orbit 
    and to do so, where practical, in a manner involving international, 
    academic, and industry partners;
        ``(2) crewed missions and progress toward achieving the goal in 
    paragraph (1) to enable the potential for subsequent human 
    exploration and the extension of human presence throughout the 
    solar system; and
        ``(3) to enable a capability to extend human presence, 
    including potential human habitation on another celestial body and 
    a thriving space economy in the 21st Century.''.
    SEC. 412. KEY OBJECTIVES.
    Section 202(b) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18312(b)) is amended--
        (1) in paragraph (3), by striking ``; and'' and inserting a 
    semicolon;
        (2) in paragraph (4), by striking the period at the end and 
    inserting ``; and''; and
        (3) by adding at the end the following:
        ``(5) to achieve human exploration of Mars and beyond through 
    the prioritization of those technologies and capabilities best 
    suited for such a mission in accordance with the stepping stone 
    approach to exploration under section 70504 of title 51, United 
    States Code.''.
    SEC. 413. VISION FOR SPACE EXPLORATION.
    Section 20302 of title 51, United States Code, is amended--
        (1) in subsection (a), by inserting ``in cis-lunar space or'' 
    after ``sustained human presence'';
        (2) by amending subsection (b) to read as follows:
    ``(b) Future Exploration of Mars.--The Administrator shall manage 
human space flight programs, including the Space Launch System and 
Orion, to enable humans to explore Mars and other destinations by 
defining a series of sustainable steps and conducting mission planning, 
research, and technology development on a timetable that is technically 
and fiscally possible, consistent with section 70504.''; and
        (3) by adding at the end the following:
    ``(c) Definitions.--In this section:
        ``(1) Orion.--The term `Orion' means the multipurpose crew 
    vehicle described under section 303 of the National Aeronautics and 
    Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18323).
        ``(2) Space launch system.--The term `Space Launch System' 
    means has the meaning given the term in section 3 of the National 
    Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 
    U.S.C. 18302).''.
    SEC. 414. STEPPING STONE APPROACH TO EXPLORATION.
    Section 70504 of title 51, United States Code, is amended to read 
as follows:
``Sec. 70504. Stepping stone approach to exploration
    ``(a) In General.--The Administration--
        ``(1) may conduct missions to intermediate destinations in 
    sustainable steps in accordance with section 20302(b) of this 
    title, and on a timetable determined by the availability of 
    funding, in order to achieve the objective of human exploration of 
    Mars specified in section 202(b)(5) of the National Aeronautics and 
    Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 
    18312(b)(5)); and
        ``(2) shall incorporate any such missions into the human 
    exploration roadmap under section 432 of the National Aeronautics 
    and Space Administration Transition Authorization Act of 2017.
    ``(b) Cost-effectiveness.--In order to maximize the cost-
effectiveness of the long-term space exploration and utilization 
activities of the United States, the Administrator shall take all 
necessary steps, including engaging international, academic, and 
industry partners, to ensure that activities in the Administration's 
human space exploration program balance how those activities might also 
help meet the requirements of future exploration and utilization 
activities leading to human habitation on the surface of Mars.
    ``(c) Completion.--Within budgetary considerations, once an 
exploration-related project enters its development phase, the 
Administrator shall seek, to the maximum extent practicable, to 
complete that project without undue delays.
    ``(d) International Participation.--In order to achieve the goal of 
successfully conducting a crewed mission to the surface of Mars, the 
President may invite the United States partners in the ISS program and 
other nations, as appropriate, to participate in an international 
initiative under the leadership of the United States.''.
    SEC. 415. UPDATE OF EXPLORATION PLAN AND PROGRAMS.
    Section 70502(2) of title 51, United States Code, is amended to 
read as follows:
        ``(2) implement an exploration research and technology 
    development program to enable human and robotic operations 
    consistent with section 20302(b) of this title;''.
    SEC. 416. REPEALS.
    (a)  Space Shuttle Capability Assurance.--Section 203 of the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 
(42 U.S.C. 18313) is amended--
        (1) by striking subsection (b);
        (2) in subsection (d), by striking ``subsection (c)'' and 
    inserting ``subsection (b)''; and
        (3) by redesignating subsections (c) and (d) as subsections (b) 
    and (c), respectively.
    (b) Shuttle Pricing Policy for Commercial and Foreign Users.--
Chapter 703 of title 51, United States Code, and the item relating to 
that chapter in the table of chapters for that title, are repealed.
    (c) Shuttle Privatization.--Section 50133 of title 51, United 
States Code, and the item relating to that section in the table of 
sections for chapter 501 of that title, are repealed.
    SEC. 417. ASSURED ACCESS TO SPACE.
    Section 70501 of title 51, United States Code, is amended--
        (1) by amending subsection (a) to read as follows:
    ``(a) Policy Statement.--In order to ensure continuous United 
States participation and leadership in the exploration and utilization 
of space and as an essential instrument of national security, it is the 
policy of the United States to maintain an uninterrupted capability for 
human space flight and operations--
        ``(1) in low-Earth orbit; and
        ``(2) beyond low-Earth orbit once the capabilities described in 
    section 421(f) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
    Transition Authorization Act of 2017 become available.''; and
        (2) in subsection (b), by striking ``Committee on Science and 
    Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
    Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate describing the 
    progress being made toward developing the Crew Exploration Vehicle 
    and the Crew Launch Vehicle'' and inserting ``Committee on 
    Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the 
    Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
    Representatives describing the progress being made toward 
    developing the Space Launch System and Orion''.

         Subtitle B--Assuring Core Capabilities for Exploration

    SEC. 421. SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEM, ORION, AND EXPLORATION GROUND 
      SYSTEMS.
    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
        (1) NASA has made steady progress in developing and testing the 
    Space Launch System and Orion exploration systems with the 
    successful Exploration Flight Test of Orion in December of 2014, 
    the final qualification test firing of the 5-segment Space Launch 
    System boosters in June 2016, and a full thrust, full duration test 
    firing of the RS-25 Space Launch System core stage engine in August 
    2016.
        (2) Through the 21st Century Launch Complex program and 
    Exploration Ground Systems programs, NASA has made significant 
    progress in transforming exploration ground systems infrastructure 
    to meet NASA's mission requirements for the Space Launch System and 
    Orion and to modernize NASA's launch complexes to the benefit of 
    the civil, defense, and commercial space sectors.
    (b) Space Launch System.--
        (1) Sense of congress.--It is the sense of Congress that use of 
    the Space Launch System and Orion, with contributions from 
    partnerships with the private sector, academia, and the 
    international community, is the most practical approach to reaching 
    the Moon, Mars, and beyond.
        (2) Reaffirmation.--Congress reaffirms the policy and minimum 
    capability requirements for the Space Launch System under section 
    302 of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
    Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18322).
    (c) Sense of Congress on Space Launch System, Orion, and 
Exploration Ground Systems.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) as the United States works to send humans on a series of 
    missions to Mars in the 2030s, the United States national space 
    program should continue to make progress on its commitment by fully 
    developing the Space Launch System, Orion, and related Exploration 
    Ground Systems;
        (2) using the Space Launch System and Orion for a wide range of 
    contemplated missions will facilitate the national defense, 
    science, and exploration objectives of the United States;
        (3) the United States should have continuity of purpose for the 
    Space Launch System and Orion in deep space exploration missions, 
    using them beginning with the uncrewed mission, EM-1, planned for 
    2018, followed by the crewed mission, EM-2, in cis-lunar space 
    planned for 2021, and for subsequent missions beginning with EM-3 
    extending into cis-lunar space and eventually to Mars;
        (4) the President's annual budget requests for the Space Launch 
    System and Orion development, test, and operational phases should 
    strive to accurately reflect the resource requirements of each of 
    those phases;
        (5) the fully integrated Space Launch System, including an 
    upper stage needed to go beyond low-Earth orbit, will safely enable 
    human space exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond; and
        (6) the Administrator should budget for and undertake a robust 
    ground test and uncrewed and crewed flight test and demonstration 
    program for the Space Launch System and Orion in order to promote 
    safety and reduce programmatic risk.
    (d) In General.--The Administrator shall continue the development 
of the fully integrated Space Launch System, including an upper stage 
needed to go beyond low-Earth orbit, in order to safely enable human 
space exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond over the course of the 
next century as required in section 302(c) of the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 
18322(c)).
    (e) Report.--
        (1) In general.--Not later than 60 days after the date of 
    enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the 
    appropriate committees of Congress a report addressing the ability 
    of Orion to meet the needs and the minimum capability requirements 
    described in section 303(b)(3) of the National Aeronautics and 
    Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 
    18323(b)(3)).
        (2) Contents.--The report shall detail--
            (A) those components and systems of Orion that ensure it is 
        in compliance with section 303(b)(3) of that Act (42 U.S.C. 
        18323(b)(3));
            (B) the expected date that Orion, integrated with a vehicle 
        other than the Space Launch System, could be available to 
        transport crew and cargo to the ISS;
            (C) any impacts to the deep space exploration missions 
        under subsection (f) of this section due to enabling Orion to 
        meet the minimum capability requirements described in section 
        303(b)(3) of that Act (42 U.S.C. 18323(b)(3)) and conducting 
        the mission described in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph; 
        and
            (D) the overall cost and schedule impacts associated with 
        enabling Orion to meet the minimum capability requirements 
        described in section 303(b)(3) of that Act (42 U.S.C. 
        18323(b)(3)) and conducting the mission described in 
        subparagraph (B) of this paragraph.
    (f) Exploration Missions.--The Administrator shall continue 
development of--
        (1) an uncrewed exploration mission to demonstrate the 
    capability of both the Space Launch System and Orion as an 
    integrated system by 2018;
        (2) subject to applicable human rating processes and 
    requirements, a crewed exploration mission to demonstrate the Space 
    Launch System, including the Core Stage and Exploration Upper 
    Stages, by 2021;
        (3) subsequent missions beginning with EM-3 at operational 
    flight rate sufficient to maintain safety and operational readiness 
    using the Space Launch System and Orion to extend into cis-lunar 
    space and eventually to Mars; and
        (4) a deep space habitat as a key element in a deep space 
    exploration architecture along with the Space Launch System and 
    Orion.
    (g) Other Uses.--The Administrator shall assess the utility of the 
Space Launch System for use by the science community and for other 
Federal Government launch needs, including consideration of overall 
cost and schedule savings from reduced transit times and increased 
science returns enabled by the unique capabilities of the Space Launch 
System.
    (h) Utilization Report.--
        (1) In general.--The Administrator, in consultation with the 
    Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence, 
    shall prepare a report that addresses the effort and budget 
    required to enable and utilize a cargo variant of the 130-ton Space 
    Launch System configuration described in section 302(c) of the 
    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 
    2010 (42 U.S.C. 18322(c)).
        (2) Contents.--In preparing the report, the Administrator 
    shall--
            (A) consider the technical requirements of the scientific 
        and national security communities related to a cargo variant of 
        the Space Launch System; and
            (B) directly assess the utility and estimated cost savings 
        obtained by using a cargo variant of the Space Launch System 
        for national security and space science missions.
        (3) Submission to congress.--Not later than 180 days after the 
    date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit the 
    report to the appropriate committees of Congress.

                      Subtitle C--Journey to Mars

    SEC. 431. FINDINGS ON HUMAN SPACE EXPLORATION.
    Congress makes the following findings:
        (1) In accordance with section 204 of the National Aeronautics 
    and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (124 Stat. 
    2813), the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and 
    Medicine, through its Committee on Human Spaceflight, conducted a 
    review of the goals, core capabilities, and direction of human 
    space flight, and published the findings and recommendations in a 
    2014 report entitled, ``Pathways to Exploration: Rationales and 
    Approaches for a U.S. Program of Human Space Exploration''.
        (2) The Committee on Human Spaceflight included leaders from 
    the aerospace, scientific, security, and policy communities.
        (3) With input from the public, the Committee on Human 
    Spaceflight concluded that many practical and aspirational 
    rationales for human space flight together constitute a compelling 
    case for continued national investment and pursuit of human space 
    exploration toward the horizon goal of Mars.
        (4) According to the Committee on Human Spaceflight, the 
    rationales include economic benefits, national security, national 
    prestige, inspiring students and other citizens, scientific 
    discovery, human survival, and a sense of shared destiny.
        (5) The Committee on Human Spaceflight affirmed that Mars is 
    the appropriate long-term goal for the human space flight program.
        (6) The Committee on Human Spaceflight recommended that NASA 
    define a series of sustainable steps and conduct mission planning 
    and technology development as needed to achieve the long-term goal 
    of placing humans on the surface of Mars.
        (7) Expanding human presence beyond low-Earth orbit and 
    advancing toward human missions to Mars requires early planning and 
    timely decisions to be made in the near-term on the necessary 
    courses of action for commitments to achieve short-term and long-
    term goals and objectives.
        (8) In addition to the 2014 report described in paragraph (1), 
    there are several independently developed reports or concepts that 
    describe potential Mars architectures or concepts and identify Mars 
    as the long-term goal for human space exploration, including NASA's 
    ``The Global Exploration Roadmap'' of 2013, ``NASA's Journey to 
    Mars-Pioneering Next Steps in Space Exploration'' of 2015, NASA Jet 
    Propulsion Laboratory's ``Minimal Architecture for Human Journeys 
    to Mars'' of 2015, and Explore Mars' ``The Humans to Mars Report 
    2016''.
    SEC. 432. HUMAN EXPLORATION ROADMAP.
    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) expanding human presence beyond low-Earth orbit and 
    advancing toward human missions to Mars in the 2030s requires early 
    strategic planning and timely decisions to be made in the near-term 
    on the necessary courses of action for commitments to achieve 
    short-term and long-term goals and objectives;
        (2) for strong and sustained United States leadership, a need 
    exists to advance a human exploration roadmap, addressing 
    exploration objectives in collaboration with international, 
    academic, and industry partners;
        (3) an approach that incrementally advances toward a long-term 
    goal is one in which nearer-term developments and implementation 
    would influence future development and implementation; and
        (4) a human exploration roadmap should begin with low-Earth 
    orbit, then address in greater detail progress beyond low-Earth 
    orbit to cis-lunar space, and then address future missions aimed at 
    human arrival and activities near and then on the surface of Mars.
    (b) Human Exploration Roadmap.--
        (1) In general.--The Administrator shall develop a human 
    exploration roadmap, including a critical decision plan, to expand 
    human presence beyond low-Earth orbit to the surface of Mars and 
    beyond, considering potential interim destinations such as cis-
    lunar space and the moons of Mars.
        (2) Scope.--The human exploration roadmap shall include--
            (A) an integrated set of exploration, science, and other 
        goals and objectives of a United States human space exploration 
        program to achieve the long-term goal of human missions near or 
        on the surface of Mars in the 2030s;
            (B) opportunities for international, academic, and industry 
        partnerships for exploration-related systems, services, 
        research, and technology if those opportunities provide cost-
        savings, accelerate program schedules, or otherwise benefit the 
        goals and objectives developed under subparagraph (A);
            (C) sets and sequences of precursor missions in cis-lunar 
        space and other missions or activities necessary--
                (i) to demonstrate the proficiency of the capabilities 
            and technologies identified under subparagraph (D); and
                (ii) to meet the goals and objectives developed under 
            subparagraph (A), including anticipated timelines and 
            missions for the Space Launch System and Orion;
            (D) an identification of the specific capabilities and 
        technologies, including the Space Launch System, Orion, a deep 
        space habitat, and other capabilities, that facilitate the 
        goals and objectives developed under subparagraph (A);
            (E) a description of how cis-lunar elements, objectives, 
        and activities advance the human exploration of Mars;
            (F) an assessment of potential human health and other 
        risks, including radiation exposure;
            (G) mitigation plans, whenever possible, to address the 
        risks identified in subparagraph (F);
            (H) a description of those technologies already under 
        development across the Federal Government or by other entities 
        that facilitate the goals and objectives developed under 
        subparagraph (A);
            (I) a specific process for the evolution of the 
        capabilities of the fully integrated Orion with the Space 
        Launch System and a description of how these systems facilitate 
        the goals and objectives developed under subparagraph (A) and 
        demonstrate the capabilities and technologies described in 
        subparagraph (D);
            (J) a description of the capabilities and technologies that 
        need to be demonstrated or research data that could be gained 
        through the utilization of the ISS and the status of the 
        development of such capabilities and technologies;
            (K) a framework for international cooperation in the 
        development of all capabilities and technologies identified 
        under this section, including an assessment of the risks posed 
        by relying on international partners for capabilities and 
        technologies on the critical path of development;
            (L) a process for partnering with nongovernmental entities 
        using Space Act Agreements or other acquisition instruments for 
        future human space exploration; and
            (M) include information on the phasing of planned 
        intermediate destinations, Mars mission risk areas and 
        potential risk mitigation approaches, technology requirements 
        and phasing of required technology development activities, the 
        management strategy to be followed, related ISS activities, 
        planned international collaborative activities, potential 
        commercial contributions, and other activities relevant to the 
        achievement of the goal established in this section.
        (3) Considerations.--In developing the human exploration 
    roadmap, the Administrator shall consider--
            (A) using key exploration capabilities, namely the Space 
        Launch System and Orion;
            (B) using existing commercially available technologies and 
        capabilities or those technologies and capabilities being 
        developed by industry for commercial purposes;
            (C) establishing an organizational approach to ensure 
        collaboration and coordination among NASA's Mission 
        Directorates under section 821, when appropriate, including to 
        collect and return to Earth a sample from the Martian surface;
            (D) building upon the initial uncrewed mission, EM-1, and 
        first crewed mission, EM-2, of the Space Launch System and 
        Orion to establish a sustainable cadence of missions extending 
        human exploration missions into cis-lunar space, including 
        anticipated timelines and milestones;
            (E) developing the robotic and precursor missions and 
        activities that will demonstrate, test, and develop key 
        technologies and capabilities essential for achieving human 
        missions to Mars, including long-duration human operations 
        beyond low-Earth orbit, space suits, solar electric propulsion, 
        deep space habitats, environmental control life support 
        systems, Mars lander and ascent vehicle, entry, descent, 
        landing, ascent, Mars surface systems, and in-situ resource 
        utilization;
            (F) demonstrating and testing 1 or more habitat modules in 
        cis-lunar space to prepare for Mars missions;
            (G) using public-private, firm fixed-price partnerships, 
        where practicable;
            (H) collaborating with international, academic, and 
        industry partners, when appropriate;
            (I) any risks to human health and sensitive onboard 
        technologies, including radiation exposure;
            (J) any risks identified through research outcomes under 
        the NASA Human Research Program's Behavioral Health Element; 
        and
            (K) the recommendations and ideas of several independently 
        developed reports or concepts that describe potential Mars 
        architectures or concepts and identify Mars as the long-term 
        goal for human space exploration, including the reports 
        described under section 431.
        (4) Critical decision plan on human space exploration.--As part 
    of the human exploration roadmap, the Administrator shall include a 
    critical decision plan--
            (A) identifying and defining key decisions guiding human 
        space exploration priorities and plans that need to be made 
        before June 30, 2020, including decisions that may guide human 
        space exploration capability development, precursor missions, 
        long-term missions, and activities;
            (B) defining decisions needed to maximize efficiencies and 
        resources for reaching the near, intermediate, and long-term 
        goals and objectives of human space exploration; and
            (C) identifying and defining timelines and milestones for a 
        sustainable cadence of missions beginning with EM-3 for the 
        Space Launch System and Orion to extend human exploration from 
        cis-lunar space to the surface of Mars.
        (5) Reports.--
            (A) Initial human exploration roadmap.--The Administrator 
        shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress--
                (i) an initial human exploration roadmap, including a 
            critical decision plan, before December 1, 2017; and
                (ii) an updated human exploration roadmap periodically 
            as the Administrator considers necessary but not less than 
            biennially.
            (B) Contents.--Each human exploration roadmap under this 
        paragraph shall include a description of--
                (i) the achievements and goals accomplished in the 
            process of developing such capabilities and technologies 
            during the 2-year period prior to the submission of the 
            human exploration roadmap; and
                (ii) the expected goals and achievements in the 
            following 2- year period.
            (C) Submission with budget.--Each human exploration roadmap 
        under this section shall be included in the budget for that 
        fiscal year transmitted to Congress under section 1105(a) of 
        title 31, United States Code.
    SEC. 433. ADVANCED SPACE SUIT CAPABILITY.
    Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the 
Administrator shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a 
detailed plan for achieving an advanced space suit capability that 
aligns with the crew needs for exploration enabled by the Space Launch 
System and Orion, including an evaluation of the merit of delivering 
the planned suit system for use on the ISS.
    SEC. 434. ASTEROID ROBOTIC REDIRECT MISSION.
    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
        (1) NASA initially estimated that the Asteroid Robotic Redirect 
    Mission would launch in December 2020 and cost no more than 
    $1,250,000,000, excluding launch and operations.
        (2) On July 15, 2016, NASA conducted its Key Decision Point-B 
    review of the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission or approval for 
    Phase B in mission formulation.
        (3) During the Key Decision Point-B review, NASA estimated that 
    costs have grown to $1,400,000,000 excluding launch and operations 
    for a launch in December 2021 and the agency must evaluate whether 
    to accept the increase or reduce the Asteroid Robotic Redirect 
    Mission's scope to stay within the cost cap set by the 
    Administrator.
        (4) In April 2015, the NASA Advisory Council--
            (A) issued a finding that--
                (i) high-performance solar electric propulsion will 
            likely be an important part of an architecture to send 
            humans to Mars; and
                (ii) maneuvering a large test mass is not necessary to 
            provide a valid in-space test of a new solar electric 
            propulsion stage;
            (B) determined that a solar electric propulsion mission 
        will contribute more directly to the goal of sending humans to 
        Mars if the mission is focused entirely on development and 
        validation of the solar electric propulsion stage; and
            (C) determined that other possible motivations for 
        acquiring and maneuvering a boulder, such as asteroid science 
        and planetary defense, do not have value commensurate with 
        their probable cost.
        (5) The Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission is competing for 
    resources with other critical exploration development programs, 
    including the Space Launch System, Orion, commercial crew, and a 
    habitation module.
        (6) In 2014, the NASA Advisory Council recommended that NASA 
    conduct an independent cost and technical assessment of the 
    Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission.
        (7) In 2015, the NASA Advisory Council recommended that NASA 
    preserve the following key objectives if the program needed to be 
    descoped:
            (A) Development of high power solar electric propulsion.
            (B) Ability to maneuver in a low gravity environment in 
        deep space.
        (8) In January 2015 and July 2015, the NASA Advisory Council 
    expressed its concern to NASA about the potential for growing costs 
    for the program and highlighted that choices would need to be made 
    about the program's content.
    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) the technological and scientific goals of the Asteroid 
    Robotic Redirect Mission have not been demonstrated to Congress to 
    be commensurate with the cost; and
        (2) alternative missions may provide a more cost effective and 
    scientifically beneficial means to demonstrate the technologies 
    needed for a human mission to Mars that would otherwise be 
    demonstrated by the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission.
    (c) Evaluation and Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date 
of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall--
        (1) conduct an evaluation of--
            (A) alternative approaches to the Asteroid Robotic Redirect 
        Mission for demonstrating the technologies and capabilities 
        needed for a human mission to Mars that would otherwise be 
        demonstrated by the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission;
            (B) the scientific and technical benefits of the 
        alternative approaches under subparagraph (A) to future human 
        space exploration compared to scientific and technical benefits 
        of the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission;
            (C) the commercial benefits of the alternative approaches 
        identified in subparagraph (A), including the impact on the 
        development of domestic solar electric propulsion technology to 
        bolster United States competitiveness in the global 
        marketplace; and
            (D) a comparison of the estimated costs of the alternative 
        approaches identified in subparagraph (A); and
        (2) submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report 
    on the evaluation under paragraph (1), including any 
    recommendations.
    SEC. 435. MARS 2033 REPORT.
    (a) In General.--Not later than 120 days after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall contract with an 
independent, non-governmental systems engineering and technical 
assistance organization to study a Mars human space flight mission to 
be launched in 2033.
    (b) Contents.--The study shall include--
        (1) a technical development, test, fielding, and operations 
    plan using the Space Launch System, Orion, and other systems to 
    successfully launch such a Mars human space flight mission by 2033;
        (2) an annual budget profile, including cost estimates, for the 
    technical development, test, fielding, and operations plan to carry 
    out a Mars human space flight mission by 2033; and
        (3) a comparison of the annual budget profile to the 5-year 
    budget profile contained in the President's budget request for 
    fiscal year 2017 under section 1105 of title 31, United States 
    Code.
    (c) Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the appropriate committees 
of Congress a report on the study, including findings and 
recommendations regarding the Mars 2033 human space flight mission 
described in subsection (a).
    (d) Assessment.--Not later than 60 days after the date the report 
is submitted under subsection (c), the Administrator shall submit to 
the appropriate committees of Congress an assessment by the NASA 
Advisory Council of whether the proposal for a Mars human space flight 
mission to be launched in 2033 is in the strategic interests of the 
United States in space exploration.

                    Subtitle D--TREAT Astronauts Act

    SEC. 441. SHORT TITLE.
    This subtitle may be cited as the ``To Research, Evaluate, Assess, 
and Treat Astronauts Act'' or the ``TREAT Astronauts Act''.
    SEC. 442. FINDINGS; SENSE OF CONGRESS.
    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
        (1) Human space exploration can pose significant challenges and 
    is full of substantial risk, which has ultimately claimed the lives 
    of 24 NASA astronauts serving in the line of duty.
        (2) As United States government astronauts participate in long-
    duration and exploration space flight missions they may experience 
    increased health risks, such as vision impairment, bone 
    demineralization, and behavioral health and performance risks, and 
    may be exposed to galactic cosmic radiation. Exposure to high 
    levels of radiation and microgravity can result in acute and long-
    term health consequences that can increase the risk of cancer and 
    tissue degeneration and have potential effects on the 
    musculoskeletal system, central nervous system, cardiovascular 
    system, immune function, and vision.
        (3) To advance the goal of long-duration and exploration space 
    flight missions, United States government astronaut Scott Kelly 
    participated in a 1-year twins study in space while his identical 
    twin brother, former United States government astronaut Mark Kelly, 
    acted as a human control specimen on Earth, providing an 
    understanding of the physical, behavioral, microbiological, and 
    molecular reaction of the human body to an extended period of time 
    in space.
        (4) Since the Administration currently provides medical 
    monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment for United States government 
    astronauts during their active employment, given the unknown long-
    term health consequences of long-duration space exploration, the 
    Administration has requested statutory authority from Congress to 
    provide medical monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment to former 
    United States government astronauts for psychological and medical 
    conditions associated with human space flight.
    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) the United States should continue to seek the unknown and 
    lead the world in space exploration and scientific discovery as the 
    Administration prepares for long-duration and exploration space 
    flight in deep space and an eventual mission to Mars;
        (2) data relating to the health of astronauts will become 
    increasingly valuable to improving our understanding of many 
    diseases humans face on Earth;
        (3) the Administration should provide the type of monitoring, 
    diagnosis, and treatment described in subsection (a) only for 
    conditions the Administration considers unique to the training or 
    exposure to the space flight environment of United States 
    government astronauts and should not require any former United 
    States Government astronauts to participate in the Administration's 
    monitoring;
        (4) such monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment should not 
    replace a former United States government astronaut's private 
    health insurance;
        (5) expanded data acquired from such monitoring, diagnosis, and 
    treatment should be used to tailor treatment, inform the 
    requirements for new space flight medical hardware, and develop 
    controls in order to prevent disease occurrence in the astronaut 
    corps; and
        (6) the 340-day space mission of Scott Kelly aboard the ISS--
            (A) was pivotal for the goal of the United States for 
        humans to explore deep space and Mars as the mission generated 
        new insight into how the human body adjusts to weightlessness, 
        isolation, radiation, and the stress of long-duration space 
        flight; and
            (B) will help support the physical and mental well-being of 
        astronauts during longer space exploration missions in the 
        future.
    SEC. 443. MEDICAL MONITORING AND RESEARCH RELATING TO HUMAN SPACE 
      FLIGHT.
    (a) In General.--Subchapter III of chapter 201 of title 51, United 
States Code, as amended by section 305 of this Act, is further amended 
by adding at the end the following:
``Sec. 20149. Medical monitoring and research relating to human space 
     flight
    ``(a) In General.--Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the 
Administrator may provide for--
        ``(1) the medical monitoring and diagnosis of a former United 
    States government astronaut or a former payload specialist for 
    conditions that the Administrator considers potentially associated 
    with human space flight; and
        ``(2) the treatment of a former United States government 
    astronaut or a former payload specialist for conditions that the 
    Administrator considers associated with human space flight, 
    including scientific and medical tests for psychological and 
    medical conditions.
    ``(b) Requirements.--
        ``(1) No cost sharing.--The medical monitoring, diagnosis, or 
    treatment described in subsection (a) shall be provided without any 
    deductible, copayment, or other cost sharing obligation.
        ``(2) Access to local services.--The medical monitoring, 
    diagnosis, and treatment described in subsection (a) may be 
    provided by a local health care provider if it is unadvisable due 
    to the health of the applicable former United States government 
    astronaut or former payload specialist for that former United 
    States government astronaut or former payload specialist to travel 
    to the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, as determined by the 
    Administrator.
        ``(3) Secondary payment.--Payment or reimbursement for the 
    medical monitoring, diagnosis, or treatment described in subsection 
    (a) shall be secondary to any obligation of the United States 
    Government or any third party under any other provision of law or 
    contractual agreement to pay for or provide such medical 
    monitoring, diagnosis, or treatment. Any costs for items and 
    services that may be provided by the Administrator for medical 
    monitoring, diagnosis, or treatment under subsection (a) that are 
    not paid for or provided under such other provision of law or 
    contractual agreement, due to the application of deductibles, 
    copayments, coinsurance, other cost sharing, or otherwise, are 
    reimbursable by the Administrator on behalf of the former United 
    States government astronaut or former payload specialist involved 
    to the extent such items or services are authorized to be provided 
    by the Administrator for such medical monitoring, diagnosis, or 
    treatment under subsection (a).
        ``(4) Conditional payment.--The Administrator may provide for 
    conditional payments for or provide medical monitoring, diagnosis, 
    or treatment described in subsection (a) that is obligated to be 
    paid for or provided by the United States or any third party under 
    any other provision of law or contractual agreement to pay for or 
    provide such medical monitoring, diagnosis, or treatment if--
            ``(A) payment for (or the provision of) such medical 
        monitoring, diagnosis, or treatment services has not been made 
        (or provided) or cannot reasonably be expected to be made (or 
        provided) promptly by the United States or such third party, 
        respectively; and
            ``(B) such payment (or such provision of services) by the 
        Administrator is conditioned on reimbursement by the United 
        States or such third party, respectively, for such medical 
        monitoring, diagnosis, or treatment.
    ``(c) Exclusions.--The Administrator may not--
        ``(1) provide for medical monitoring or diagnosis of a former 
    United States government astronaut or former payload specialist 
    under subsection (a) for any psychological or medical condition 
    that is not potentially associated with human space flight;
        ``(2) provide for treatment of a former United States 
    government astronaut or former payload specialist under subsection 
    (a) for any psychological or medical condition that is not 
    associated with human space flight; or
        ``(3) require a former United States government astronaut or 
    former payload specialist to participate in the medical monitoring, 
    diagnosis, or treatment authorized under subsection (a).
    ``(d) Privacy.--Consistent with applicable provisions of Federal 
law relating to privacy, the Administrator shall protect the privacy of 
all medical records generated under subsection (a) and accessible to 
the Administration.
    ``(e) Regulations.--The Administrator shall promulgate such 
regulations as are necessary to carry out this section.
    ``(f) Definition of United States Government Astronaut.--In this 
section, the term `United States government astronaut' has the meaning 
given the term `government astronaut' in section 50902, except it does 
not include an individual who is an international partner astronaut.
    ``(g) Data Use and Disclosure.--The Administrator may use or 
disclose data acquired in the course of medical monitoring, diagnosis, 
or treatment of a former United States government astronaut or a former 
payload specialist under subsection (a), in accordance with subsection 
(d). Former United States government astronaut or former payload 
specialist participation in medical monitoring, diagnosis, or treatment 
under subsection (a) shall constitute consent for the Administrator to 
use or disclose such data.''.
    (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for chapter 201 of 
title 51, United States Code, as amended by section 305 of this Act, is 
further amended by inserting after the item relating to section 20148 
the following:

``20149. Medical monitoring and research relating to human space 
          flight.''.

    (c) Annual Reports.--
        (1) In general.--Each fiscal year, not later than the date of 
    submission of the President's annual budget request for that fiscal 
    year under section 1105 of title 31, United States Code, the 
    Administrator shall publish a report, in accordance with applicable 
    Federal privacy laws, on the activities of the Administration under 
    section 20149 of title 51, United States Code.
        (2) Contents.--Each report under paragraph (1) shall include a 
    detailed cost accounting of the Administration's activities under 
    section 20149 of title 51, United States Code, and a 5-year budget 
    estimate.
        (3) Submission to congress.--The Administrator shall submit to 
    the appropriate committees of Congress each report under paragraph 
    (1) not later than the date of submission of the President's annual 
    budget request for that fiscal year under section 1105 of title 31, 
    United States Code.
    (d) Cost Estimate.--
        (1) Requirement.--Not later than 90 days after the date of 
    enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall enter into an 
    arrangement with an independent external organization to undertake 
    an independent cost estimate of the cost to the Administration and 
    the Federal Government to implement and administer the activities 
    of the Administration under section 20149 of title 51, United 
    States Code. The independent external organization may not be a 
    NASA entity, such as the Office of Safety and Mission Assurance.
        (2) Submittal to congress.--Not later than 1 year after the 
    date of the enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit 
    to the appropriate committees of Congress the independent cost 
    estimate under paragraph (1).
    (e) Privacy Study.--
        (1) Study.--The Administrator shall carry out a study on any 
    potential privacy or legal issues related to the possible sharing 
    beyond the Federal Government of data acquired under the activities 
    of the Administration under section 20149 of title 51, United 
    States Code.
        (2) Report.--Not later than 270 days after the date of 
    enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the 
    appropriate committees of Congress a report containing the results 
    of the study carried out under paragraph (1).
    (f) Inspector General Audit.--The Inspector General of NASA shall 
periodically audit or review, as the Inspector General considers 
necessary to prevent waste, fraud, and abuse, the activities of the 
Administration under section 20149 of title 51, United States Code.

                    TITLE V--ADVANCING SPACE SCIENCE

    SEC. 501. MAINTAINING A BALANCED SPACE SCIENCE PORTFOLIO.
    (a) Sense of Congress on Science Portfolio.--Congress reaffirms the 
sense of Congress that--
        (1) a balanced and adequately funded set of activities, 
    consisting of research and analysis grant programs, technology 
    development, suborbital research activities, and small, medium, and 
    large space missions, contributes to a robust and productive 
    science program and serves as a catalyst for innovation and 
    discovery; and
        (2) the Administrator should set science priorities by 
    following the guidance provided by the scientific community through 
    the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's 
    decadal surveys.
    (b) Policy.--It is the policy of the United States to ensure, to 
the extent practicable, a steady cadence of large, medium, and small 
science missions.
    SEC. 502. PLANETARY SCIENCE.
    (a) Findings.--Congress finds that--
        (1) Administration support for planetary science is critical to 
    enabling greater understanding of the solar system and the origin 
    of the Earth;
        (2) the United States leads the world in planetary science and 
    can augment its success in that area with appropriate 
    international, academic, and industry partnerships;
        (3) a mix of small, medium, and large planetary science 
    missions is required to sustain a steady cadence of planetary 
    exploration; and
        (4) robotic planetary exploration is a key component of 
    preparing for future human exploration.
    (b) Mission Priorities.--
        (1) In general.--In accordance with the priorities established 
    in the most recent Planetary Science Decadal Survey, the 
    Administrator shall ensure, to the greatest extent practicable, the 
    completion of a balanced set of Discovery, New Frontiers, and 
    Flagship missions at the cadence recommended by the most recent 
    Planetary Science Decadal Survey.
        (2) Mission priority adjustments.--Consistent with the set of 
    missions described in paragraph (1), and while maintaining the 
    continuity of scientific data and steady development of 
    capabilities and technologies, the Administrator may seek, if 
    necessary, adjustments to mission priorities, schedule, and scope 
    in light of changing budget projections.
    SEC. 503. JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE.
    It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) the James Webb Space Telescope will--
            (A) significantly advance our understanding of star and 
        planet formation, and improve our knowledge of the early 
        universe; and
            (B) support United States leadership in astrophysics;
        (2) consistent with annual Government Accountability Office 
    reviews of the James Webb Space Telescope program, the 
    Administrator should continue robust surveillance of the 
    performance of the James Webb Space Telescope project and continue 
    to improve the reliability of cost estimates and contractor 
    performance data and other major space flight projects in order to 
    enhance NASA's ability to successfully deliver the James Webb Space 
    Telescope on-time and within budget;
        (3) the on-time and on-budget delivery of the James Webb Space 
    Telescope is a high congressional priority; and
        (4) the Administrator should ensure that integrated testing is 
    appropriately timed and sufficiently comprehensive to enable 
    potential issues to be identified and addressed early enough to be 
    handled within the James Webb Space Telescope's development 
    schedule and prior to its launch.
    SEC. 504. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY TELESCOPE.
    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (referred to in 
    this section as ``WFIRST'') mission has the potential to enable 
    scientific discoveries that will transform our understanding of the 
    universe; and
        (2) the Administrator, to the extent practicable, should make 
    progress on the technologies and capabilities needed to position 
    the Administration to meet the objectives, as outlined in the 2010 
    National Academies' Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey, in a 
    way that maximizes the scientific productivity of meeting those 
    objectives for the resources invested.
    (b) Continuity of Development.--The Administrator shall ensure that 
the concept definition and pre-formulation activities of the WFIRST 
mission continue while the James Webb Space Telescope is being 
completed.
    SEC. 505. MARS 2020 ROVER.
    It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) the Mars 2020 mission, to develop a Mars rover and to 
    enable the return of samples to Earth, should remain a priority for 
    NASA; and
        (2) the Mars 2020 mission--
            (A) should significantly increase our understanding of 
        Mars;
            (B) should help determine whether life previously existed 
        on that planet; and
            (C) should provide opportunities to gather knowledge and 
        demonstrate technologies that address the challenges of future 
        human expeditions to Mars.
    SEC. 506. EUROPA.
    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
        (1) Studies of Europa, Jupiter's moon, indicate that Europa may 
    provide a habitable environment, as it contains key ingredients 
    known to support life.
        (2) In 2012, using the Hubble Space Telescope, NASA scientists 
    observed water vapor around the south polar region of Europa, which 
    provides potential evidence of water plumes in that region.
        (3) For decades, the Europa mission has consistently ranked as 
    a high priority mission for the scientific community.
        (4) The Europa mission was ranked as the top priority mission 
    in the previous Planetary Science Decadal Survey and ranked as the 
    second-highest priority in the current Planetary Science Decadal 
    Survey.
    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) the Europa mission could provide another avenue in which to 
    capitalize on our Nation's current investment in the Space Launch 
    System that would significantly reduce the transit time for such a 
    deep space mission; and
        (2) a scientific, robotic exploration mission to Europa, as 
    prioritized in both Planetary Science Decadal Surveys, should be 
    supported.
    SEC. 507. CONGRESSIONAL DECLARATION OF POLICY AND PURPOSE.
    Section 20102(d) of title 51, United States Code, is amended by 
adding at the end the following:
        ``(10) The search for life's origin, evolution, distribution, 
    and future in the universe.''.
    SEC. 508. EXTRASOLAR PLANET EXPLORATION STRATEGY.
    (a) Strategy.--
        (1) In general.--The Administrator shall enter into an 
    arrangement with the National Academies to develop a science 
    strategy for the study and exploration of extrasolar planets, 
    including the use of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, the 
    James Webb Space Telescope, a potential Wide-Field Infrared Survey 
    Telescope mission, or any other telescope, spacecraft, or 
    instrument, as appropriate.
        (2) Requirements.--The strategy shall--
            (A) outline key scientific questions;
            (B) identify the most promising research in the field;
            (C) indicate the extent to which the mission priorities in 
        existing decadal surveys address the key extrasolar planet 
        research and exploration goals;
            (D) identify opportunities for coordination with 
        international partners, commercial partners, and not-for-profit 
        partners; and
            (E) make recommendations regarding the activities under 
        subparagraphs (A) through (D), as appropriate.
    (b) Use of Strategy.--The Administrator shall use the strategy--
        (1) to inform roadmaps, strategic plans, and other activities 
    of the Administration as they relate to extrasolar planet research 
    and exploration; and
        (2) to provide a foundation for future activities and 
    initiatives related to extrasolar planet research and exploration.
    (c) Report to Congress.--Not later than 18 months after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the National Academies shall submit to the 
Administrator and to the appropriate committees of Congress a report 
containing the strategy developed under subsection (a).
    SEC. 509. ASTROBIOLOGY STRATEGY.
    (a) Strategy.--
        (1) In general.--The Administrator shall enter into an 
    arrangement with the National Academies to develop a science 
    strategy for astrobiology that would outline key scientific 
    questions, identify the most promising research in the field, and 
    indicate the extent to which the mission priorities in existing 
    decadal surveys address the search for life's origin, evolution, 
    distribution, and future in the Universe.
        (2) Recommendations.--The strategy shall include 
    recommendations for coordination with international partners.
    (b) Use of Strategy.--The Administrator shall use the strategy 
developed under subsection (a) in planning and funding research and 
other activities and initiatives in the field of astrobiology.
    (c) Report to Congress.--Not later than 18 months after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the National Academies shall submit to the 
Administrator and to the appropriate committees of Congress a report 
containing the strategy developed under subsection (a).
    SEC. 510. ASTROBIOLOGY PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS.
    Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, 
the Administrator shall submit to the appropriate committees of 
Congress a report describing how the Administration can expand 
collaborative partnerships to study life's origin, evolution, 
distribution, and future in the universe.
    SEC. 511. NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS.
    Section 321 of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Authorization Act of 2005 (51 U.S.C. note prec. 71101) is amended by 
adding at the end the following:
    ``(e) Program Report.--The Director of the Office of Science and 
Technology Policy and the Administrator shall submit to the Committee 
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the 
Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
Representatives, not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of 
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition 
Authorization Act of 2017, an initial report that provides--
        ``(1) recommendations for carrying out the Survey program and 
    an associated proposed budget;
        ``(2) an analysis of possible options that the Administration 
    could employ to divert an object on a likely collision course with 
    Earth; and
        ``(3) a description of the status of efforts to coordinate and 
    cooperate with other countries to discover hazardous asteroids and 
    comets, plan a mitigation strategy, and implement that strategy in 
    the event of the discovery of an object on a likely collision 
    course with Earth.
    ``(f) Annual Reports.--After the initial report under subsection 
(e), the Administrator shall annually transmit to the Committee on 
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee 
on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives a 
report that includes--
        ``(1) a summary of all activities carried out under subsection 
    (d) since the date of enactment of the National Aeronautics and 
    Space Administration Transition Authorization Act of 2017, 
    including the progress toward achieving 90 percent completion of 
    the survey described in subsection (d); and
        ``(2) a summary of expenditures for all activities carried out 
    under subsection (d) since the date of enactment of the National 
    Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition Authorization Act 
    of 2017.
    ``(g) Assessment.--The Administrator, in collaboration with other 
relevant Federal agencies, shall carry out a technical and scientific 
assessment of the capabilities and resources--
        ``(1) to accelerate the survey described in subsection (d); and
        ``(2) to expand the Administration's Near-Earth Object Program 
    to include the detection, tracking, cataloguing, and 
    characterization of potentially hazardous near-Earth objects less 
    than 140 meters in diameter.
    ``(h) Transmittal.--Not later than 270 days after the date of 
enactment of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Transition Authorization Act of 2017, the Administrator shall transmit 
the results of the assessment under subsection (g) to the Committee on 
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee 
on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives.''.
    SEC. 512. NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS.
    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the 
Administration should seek to leverage the capabilities of the private 
sector and philanthropic organizations to the maximum extent 
practicable in carrying out the Near-Earth Object Survey Program in 
order to meet the goal of that program under section 321(d)(1) of the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2005 
(51 U.S.C. note prec. 71101(d)(1)).
    (b) Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the appropriate committees 
of Congress a report describing how the Administration can expand 
collaborative partnerships to detect, track, catalogue, and categorize 
near-Earth objects.
    SEC. 513. ASSESSMENT OF SCIENCE MISSION EXTENSIONS.
    Section 30504 of title 51, United States Code, is amended to read 
as follows:
``Sec. 30504. Assessment of science mission extensions
    ``(a) Assessments.--
        ``(1) In general.--The Administrator shall carry out triennial 
    reviews within each of the Science divisions to assess the cost and 
    benefits of extending the date of the termination of data 
    collection for those missions that exceed their planned missions' 
    lifetime.
        ``(2) Considerations.--In conducting an assessment under 
    paragraph (1), the Administrator shall consider whether and how 
    extending missions impacts the start of future missions.
    ``(b) Consultation and Consideration of Potential Benefits of 
Instruments on Missions.--When deciding whether to extend a mission 
that has an operational component, the Administrator shall--
        ``(1) consult with any affected Federal agency; and
        ``(2) take into account the potential benefits of instruments 
    on missions that are beyond their planned mission lifetime.
    ``(c) Reports.--The Administrator shall submit to the Committee on 
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee 
on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives, at 
the same time as the submission to Congress of the Administration's 
annual budget request for each fiscal year, a report detailing any 
assessment under subsection (a) that was carried out during the 
previous year.''.
    SEC. 514. STRATOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY FOR INFRARED ASTRONOMY.
    The Administrator may not terminate science operations of the 
Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy before December 31, 
2017.
    SEC. 515. RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS.
    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) exploration of the outer reaches of the solar system is 
    enabled by radioisotope power systems;
        (2) establishing continuity in the production of the material 
    needed for radioisotope power systems is essential to maintaining 
    the availability of such systems for future deep space exploration 
    missions; and
        (3) Federal agencies supporting the Administration through the 
    production of such material should do so in a cost effective manner 
    so as not to impose excessive reimbursement requirements on the 
    Administration.
    (b) Analysis of Requirements and Risks.--The Director of the Office 
of Science and Technology Policy and the Administrator, in consultation 
with the heads of other Federal agencies, shall conduct an analysis 
of--
        (1) the requirements of the Administration for radioisotope 
    power system material that is needed to carry out planned, high 
    priority robotic missions in the solar system and other surface 
    exploration activities beyond low-Earth orbit; and
        (2) the risks to missions of the Administration in meeting 
    those requirements, or any additional requirements, due to a lack 
    of adequate radioisotope power system material.
    (c) Contents of Analysis.--The analysis conducted under subsection 
(b) shall--
        (1) detail the Administration's current projected mission 
    requirements and associated timeframes for radioisotope power 
    system material;
        (2) explain the assumptions used to determine the 
    Administration's requirements for the material, including--
            (A) the planned use of advanced thermal conversion 
        technology such as advanced thermocouples and Stirling 
        generators and converters; and
            (B) the risks and implications of, and contingencies for, 
        any delays or unanticipated technical challenges affecting or 
        related to the Administration's mission plans for the 
        anticipated use of advanced thermal conversion technology;
        (3) assess the risk to the Administration's programs of any 
    potential delays in achieving the schedule and milestones for 
    planned domestic production of radioisotope power system material;
        (4) outline a process for meeting any additional Administration 
    requirements for the material;
        (5) estimate the incremental costs required to increase the 
    amount of material produced each year, if such an increase is 
    needed to support additional Administration requirements for the 
    material;
        (6) detail how the Administration and other Federal agencies 
    will manage, operate, and fund production facilities and the design 
    and development of all radioisotope power systems used by the 
    Administration and other Federal agencies as necessary;
        (7) specify the steps the Administration will take, in 
    consultation with the Department of Energy, to preserve the 
    infrastructure and workforce necessary for production of 
    radioisotope power systems and ensure that its reimbursements to 
    the Department of Energy associated with such preservation are 
    equitable and justified; and
        (8) detail how the Administration has implemented or rejected 
    the recommendations from the National Research Council's 2009 
    report titled ``Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for 
    Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration.''
    (d) Report to Congress.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit the results of 
the analysis to the appropriate committees of Congress.
    SEC. 516. ASSESSMENT OF MARS ARCHITECTURE.
    (a) Assessment.--The Administrator shall enter into an arrangement 
with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to 
assess--
        (1) the Administration's Mars exploration architecture and its 
    responsiveness to the strategies, priorities, and guidelines put 
    forward by the National Academies' planetary science decadal 
    surveys and other relevant National Academies Mars-related reports;
        (2) the long-term goals of the Administration's Mars 
    Exploration Program and such program's ability to optimize the 
    science return, given the current fiscal posture of the program;
        (3) the Mars exploration architecture's relationship to Mars-
    related activities to be undertaken by foreign agencies and 
    organizations; and
        (4) the extent to which the Mars exploration architecture 
    represents a reasonably balanced mission portfolio.
    (b) Report to Congress.--Not later than 18 months after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit the results of 
the assessment to the appropriate committees of Congress.
    SEC. 517. COLLABORATION.
    The Administration shall continue to develop first-of-a-kind 
instruments that, once proved, can be transitioned to other agencies 
for operations. Whenever responsibilities for the development of 
sensors or for measurements are transferred to the Administration from 
another agency, the Administration shall seek, to the extent possible, 
to be reimbursed for the assumption of such responsibilities.

                         TITLE VI--AERONAUTICS

    SEC. 601. SENSE OF CONGRESS ON AERONAUTICS.
    It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) a robust aeronautics research portfolio will help maintain 
    the United States status as a leader in aviation, enhance the 
    competitiveness of the United States in the world economy, and 
    improve the quality of life of all citizens;
        (2) aeronautics research is essential to the Administration's 
    mission, continues to be an important core element of the 
    Administration's mission, and should be supported;
        (3) the Administrator should coordinate and consult with 
    relevant Federal agencies and the private sector to minimize 
    duplication of efforts and leverage resources; and
        (4) carrying aeronautics research to a level of maturity that 
    allows the Administration's research results to be transferred to 
    the users, whether private or public sector, is critical to their 
    eventual adoption.
    SEC. 602. TRANSFORMATIVE AERONAUTICS RESEARCH.
    It is the sense of Congress that the Administrator should look 
strategically into the future and ensure that the Administration's 
Center personnel are at the leading edge of aeronautics research by 
encouraging investigations into the early-stage advancement of new 
processes, novel concepts, and innovative technologies that have the 
potential to meet national aeronautics needs.
    SEC. 603. HYPERSONIC RESEARCH.
    (a) Roadmap for Hypersonic Research.--Not later than 1 year after 
the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator, in consultation 
with the heads of other relevant Federal agencies, shall develop and 
submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a research and 
development roadmap for hypersonic aircraft research.
    (b) Objective.--The objective of the roadmap is to explore 
hypersonic science and technology using air-breathing propulsion 
concepts, through a mix of theoretical work, basic and applied 
research, and development of flight research demonstration vehicles.
    (c) Contents.--The roadmap shall recommend appropriate Federal 
agency contributions, coordination efforts, and technology milestones.
    SEC. 604. SUPERSONIC RESEARCH.
    (a) Findings.--Congress finds that--
        (1) the ability to fly commercial aircraft over land at 
    supersonic speeds without adverse impacts on the environment or on 
    local communities could open new global markets and enable new 
    transportation capabilities; and
        (2) continuing the Administration's research program is 
    necessary to assess the impact in a relevant environment of 
    commercial supersonic flight operations and provide the basis for 
    establishing appropriate sonic boom standards for such flight 
    operations.
    (b) Roadmap for Supersonic Research.--
        (1) In general.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
    enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall develop and submit 
    to the appropriate committees of Congress a roadmap that allows for 
    flexible funding profiles for supersonic aeronautics research and 
    development.
        (2) Objective.--The objective of the roadmap is to develop and 
    demonstrate, in a relevant environment, airframe and propulsion 
    technologies to minimize the environmental impact, including noise, 
    of supersonic overland flight in an efficient and economical 
    manner.
        (3) Contents.--The roadmap shall include--
            (A) the baseline research as embodied by the 
        Administration's existing research on supersonic flight;
            (B) a list of specific technological, environmental, and 
        other challenges that must be overcome to minimize the 
        environmental impact, including noise, of supersonic overland 
        flight;
            (C) a research plan to address the challenges under 
        subparagraph (B), including a project timeline for 
        accomplishing relevant research goals;
            (D) a plan for coordination with stakeholders, including 
        relevant government agencies and industry; and
            (E) a plan for how the Administration will ensure that 
        sonic boom research is coordinated as appropriate with relevant 
        Federal agencies.
    SEC. 605. ROTORCRAFT RESEARCH.
    (a) Roadmap for Rotorcraft Research.--Not later than 1 year after 
the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator, in consultation 
with the heads of other relevant Federal agencies, shall prepare and 
submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a roadmap for research 
relating to rotorcraft and other runway-independent air vehicles.
    (b) Objective.--The objective of the roadmap is to develop and 
demonstrate improved safety, noise, and environmental impact in a 
relevant environment.
    (c) Contents.--The roadmap shall include specific goals for the 
research, a timeline for implementation, metrics for success, and 
guidelines for collaboration and coordination with industry and other 
Federal agencies.

                      TITLE VII--SPACE TECHNOLOGY

    SEC. 701. SPACE TECHNOLOGY INFUSION.
    (a) Sense of Congress on Space Technology.--It is the sense of 
Congress that space technology is critical--
        (1) to developing technologies and capabilities that will make 
    the Administration's core missions more affordable and more 
    reliable;
        (2) to enabling a new class of Administration missions beyond 
    low-Earth orbit; and
        (3) to improving technological capabilities and promote 
    innovation for the Administration and the Nation.
    (b) Sense of Congress on Propulsion Technology.--It is the sense of 
Congress that advancing propulsion technology would improve the 
efficiency of trips to Mars and could shorten travel time to Mars, 
reduce astronaut health risks, and reduce radiation exposure, 
consumables, and mass of materials required for the journey.
    (c) Policy.--It is the policy of the United States that the 
Administrator shall develop technologies to support the 
Administration's core missions, as described in section 2(3) of the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 
(42 U.S.C. 18301(3)), and support sustained investments in early stage 
innovation, fundamental research, and technologies to expand the 
boundaries of the national aerospace enterprise.
    (d) Propulsion Technologies.--A goal of propulsion technologies 
developed under subsection (c) shall be to significantly reduce human 
travel time to Mars.
    SEC. 702. SPACE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM.
    (a) Space Technology Program Authorized.--The Administrator shall 
conduct a space technology program (referred to in this section as the 
``Program'') to research and develop advanced space technologies that 
could deliver innovative solutions across the Administration's space 
exploration and science missions.
    (b) Considerations.--In conducting the Program, the Administrator 
shall consider--
        (1) the recommendations of the National Academies' review of 
    the Administration's Space Technology roadmaps and priorities; and
        (2) the applicable enabling aspects of the stepping stone 
    approach to exploration under section 70504 of title 51, United 
    States Code.
    (c) Requirements.--In conducting the Program, the Administrator 
shall--
        (1) to the extent practicable, use a competitive process to 
    select research and development projects;
        (2) to the extent practicable and appropriate, use small 
    satellites and the Administration's suborbital and ground-based 
    platforms to demonstrate space technology concepts and 
    developments; and
        (3) as appropriate, partner with other Federal agencies, 
    universities, private industry, and foreign countries.
    (d) Small Business Programs.--The Administrator shall organize and 
manage the Administration's Small Business Innovation Research Program 
and Small Business Technology Transfer Program within the Program.
    (e) Nonduplication Certification.--The Administrator shall submit a 
budget for each fiscal year, as transmitted to Congress under section 
1105(a) of title 31, United States Code, that avoids duplication of 
projects, programs, or missions conducted by Program with other 
projects, programs, or missions conducted by another office or 
directorate of the Administration.
    (f) Collaboration, Coordination, and Alignment.--
        (1) In general.--The Administrator shall--
            (A) ensure that the Administration's projects, programs, 
        and activities in support of technology research and 
        development of advanced space technologies are fully 
        coordinated and aligned;
            (B) ensure that the results the projects, programs, and 
        activities under subparagraph (A) are shared and leveraged 
        within the Administration; and
            (C) ensure that the organizational responsibility for 
        research and development activities in support of human space 
        exploration not initiated as of the date of enactment of this 
        Act is established on the basis of a sound rationale.
        (2) Sense of congress.--It is the sense of Congress that 
    projects, programs, and missions being conducted by the Human 
    Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate in support of 
    research and development of advanced space technologies and systems 
    focusing on human space exploration should continue in that 
    Directorate.
    (g) Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Administrator shall provide to the appropriate committees 
of Congress a report--
        (1) comparing the Administration's space technology investments 
    with the high-priority technology areas identified by the National 
    Academies in the National Research Council's report on the 
    Administration's Space Technology Roadmaps; and
        (2) including--
            (A) identification of how the Administration will address 
        any gaps between the agency's investments and the recommended 
        technology areas, including a projection of funding 
        requirements; and
            (B) identification of the rationale described in subsection 
        (f)(1)(C).
    (h) Annual Report.--The Administrator shall include in the 
Administration's annual budget request for each fiscal year the 
rationale for assigning organizational responsibility for, in the year 
prior to the budget fiscal year, each initiated project, program, and 
mission focused on research and development of advanced technologies 
for human space exploration.

                   TITLE VIII--MAXIMIZING EFFICIENCY
      Subtitle A--Agency Information Technology and Cybersecurity

    SEC. 811. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY GOVERNANCE.
    (a) In General.--The Administrator shall, in a manner that reflects 
the unique nature of NASA's mission and expertise--
        (1) ensure the NASA Chief Information Officer, Mission 
    Directorates, and Centers have appropriate roles in the management, 
    governance, and oversight processes related to information 
    technology operations and investments and information security 
    programs for the protection of NASA systems;
        (2) ensure the NASA Chief Information Officer has the 
    appropriate resources and insight to oversee NASA information 
    technology and information security operations and investments;
        (3) provide an information technology program management 
    framework to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of 
    information technology investments, including relying on metrics 
    for identifying and reducing potential duplication, waste, and 
    cost;
        (4) improve the operational linkage between the NASA Chief 
    Information Officer and each NASA mission directorate, center, and 
    mission support office to ensure both agency and mission needs are 
    considered in agency-wide information technology and information 
    security management and oversight;
        (5) review the portfolio of information technology investments 
    and spending, including information technology-related investments 
    included as part of activities within NASA mission directorates 
    that may not be considered information technology, to ensure 
    investments are recognized and reported appropriately based on 
    guidance from the Office of Management and Budget;
        (6) consider appropriate revisions to the charters of 
    information technology boards and councils that inform information 
    technology investment and operation decisions; and
        (7) consider whether the NASA Chief Information Officer should 
    have a seat on any boards or councils described in paragraph (6).
    (b) GAO Study.--
        (1) Study.--The Comptroller General of the United States shall 
    conduct a study of the effectiveness of the Administration's 
    Information Technology Governance in ensuring information 
    technology resources are aligned with agency missions and are cost 
    effective and secure.
        (2) Contents.--The study shall include an assessment of--
            (A) the resources available for overseeing Administration-
        wide information technology operations, investments, and 
        security measures and the NASA Chief Information Officer's 
        visibility and involvement into information technology 
        oversight and access to those resources;
            (B) the effectiveness and challenges of the 
        Administration's information technology structure, decision 
        making processes and authorities, including impacts on its 
        ability to implement information security; and
            (C) the impact of NASA Chief Information Officer approval 
        authority over information technology investments that exceed a 
        defined monetary threshold, including any potential impacts of 
        such authority on the Administration's missions, flights 
        programs and projects, research activities, and Center 
        operations.
        (3) Report.--Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment 
    of this Act, the Comptroller General shall submit to the 
    appropriate committees of Congress a report detailing the results 
    of the study under paragraph (1), including any recommendations.
    SEC. 812. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STRATEGIC PLAN.
    (a) In General.--Subject to subsection (b), the Administrator shall 
develop an information technology strategic plan to guide NASA 
information technology management and strategic objectives.
    (b) Requirements.--In developing the strategic plan, the 
Administrator shall ensure that the strategic plan addresses--
        (1) the deadline under section 306(a) of title 5, United States 
    Code; and
        (2) the requirements under section 3506 of title 44, United 
    States Code.
    (c) Contents.--The strategic plan shall address, in a manner that 
reflects the unique nature of NASA's mission and expertise--
        (1) near and long-term goals and objectives for leveraging 
    information technology;
        (2) a plan for how NASA will submit to Congress of a list of 
    information technology projects, including completion dates and 
    risk level in accordance with guidance from the Office of 
    Management and Budget;
        (3) an implementation overview for an agency-wide approach to 
    information technology investments and operations, including 
    reducing barriers to cross-center collaboration;
        (4) coordination by the NASA Chief Information Officer with 
    centers and mission directorates to ensure that information 
    technology policies are effectively and efficiently implemented 
    across the agency;
        (5) a plan to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of 
    information technology investments, including a description of how 
    unnecessarily duplicative, wasteful, legacy, or outdated 
    information technology across NASA will be identified and 
    eliminated, and a schedule for the identification and elimination 
    of such information technology;
        (6) a plan for improving the information security of agency 
    information and agency information systems, including improving 
    security control assessments and role-based security training of 
    employees; and
        (7) submission by NASA to Congress of information regarding 
    high risk projects and cybersecurity risks.
    (d) Congressional Oversight.--The Administrator shall submit to the 
appropriate committees of Congress the strategic plan under subsection 
(a) and any updates thereto.
    SEC. 813. CYBERSECURITY.
    (a) Finding.--Congress finds that the security of NASA information 
and information systems is vital to the success of the mission of the 
agency.
    (b) Information Security Plan.--
        (1) In general.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
    enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall implement the 
    information security plan developed under paragraph (2) and take 
    such further actions as the Administrator considers necessary to 
    improve the information security system in accordance with this 
    section.
        (2) Information security plan.--Subject to paragraphs (3) and 
    (4), the Administrator shall develop an agency-wide information 
    security plan to enhance information security for NASA information 
    and information infrastructure.
        (3) Requirements.--In developing the plan under paragraph (2), 
    the Administrator shall ensure that the plan--
            (A) reflects the unique nature of NASA's mission and 
        expertise;
            (B) is informed by policies, standards, guidelines, and 
        directives on information security required for Federal 
        agencies;
            (C) is consistent with the standards and guidelines under 
        section 11331 of title 40, United States Code; and
            (D) meets applicable National Institute of Standards and 
        Technology information security standards and guidelines.
        (4) Contents.--The plan shall address--
            (A) an overview of the requirements of the information 
        security system;
            (B) an agency-wide risk management framework for 
        information security;
            (C) a description of the information security system 
        management controls and common controls that are necessary to 
        ensure compliance with information security-related 
        requirements;
            (D) an identification and assignment of roles, 
        responsibilities, and management commitment for information 
        security at the agency;
            (E) coordination among organizational entities, including 
        between each center, facility, mission directorate, and mission 
        support office, and among agency entities responsible for 
        different aspects of information security;
            (F) the need to protect the information security of 
        mission-critical systems and activities and high-impact and 
        moderate-impact information systems; and
            (G) a schedule of frequent reviews and updates, as 
        necessary, of the plan.
    SEC. 814. SECURITY MANAGEMENT OF FOREIGN NATIONAL ACCESS.
    The Administrator shall notify the appropriate committees of 
Congress when the agency has implemented the information technology 
security recommendations from the National Academy of Public 
Administration on foreign national access management, based on reports 
from January 2014 and March 2016.
    SEC. 815. CYBERSECURITY OF WEB APPLICATIONS.
    Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, 
the Administrator shall, in a manner that reflects the unique nature of 
NASA's mission and expertise--
        (1) develop a plan, including such actions and milestones as 
    are necessary, to fully remediate security vulnerabilities of NASA 
    web applications within a timely fashion after discovery; and
        (2) provide an update on its plan to implement the 
    recommendation from the NASA Inspector General in the audit report 
    dated July 10, 2014, (IG-14-023) to remove from the Internet or 
    otherwise secure all NASA web applications in development or 
    testing mode.

 Subtitle B--Collaboration Among Mission Directorates and Other Matters

    SEC. 821. COLLABORATION AMONG MISSION DIRECTORATES.
    The Administrator shall encourage an interdisciplinary approach 
among all NASA mission directorates and divisions, whenever 
appropriate, for projects or missions--
        (1) to improve coordination, and encourage collaboration and 
    early planning on scope;
        (2) to determine areas of overlap or alignment;
        (3) to find ways to leverage across divisional perspectives to 
    maximize outcomes; and
        (4) to be more efficient with resources and funds.
    SEC. 822. NASA LAUNCH CAPABILITIES COLLABORATION.
    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
        (1) The Launch Services Program is responsible for the 
    acquisition, management, and technical oversight of commercial 
    launch services for NASA's science and robotic missions.
        (2) The Commercial Crew Program is responsible for the 
    acquisition, management, and technical oversight of commercial crew 
    transportation systems.
        (3) The Launch Services Program and Commercial Crew Program 
    have worked together to gain exceptional technical insight into the 
    contracted launch service providers that are common to both 
    programs.
        (4) The Launch Services Program has a long history of oversight 
    of 12 different launch vehicles and over 80 launches.
        (5) Co-location of the Launch Services Program and Commercial 
    Crew Program has enabled the Commercial Crew Program to efficiently 
    obtain the launch vehicle technical expertise of and provide 
    engineering and analytical support to the Commercial Crew Program.
    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) the Launch Services Program and Commercial Crew Program 
    each benefit from communication and coordination of launch 
    manifests, technical information, and common launch vehicle insight 
    between the programs; and
        (2) such communication and coordination is enabled by the co-
    location of the programs.
    (c) In General.--The Administrator shall pursue a strategy for 
acquisition of crewed transportation services and non-crewed launch 
services that continues to enhance communication, collaboration, and 
coordination between the Launch Services Program and the Commercial 
Crew Program.
    SEC. 823. DETECTION AND AVOIDANCE OF COUNTERFEIT PARTS.
    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
        (1) A 2012 investigation by the Committee on Armed Services of 
    the Senate of counterfeit electronic parts in the Department of 
    Defense supply chain from 2009 through 2010 uncovered 1,800 cases 
    and over 1,000,000 counterfeit parts and exposed the threat such 
    counterfeit parts pose to service members and national security.
        (2) Since 2010, the Comptroller General of the United States 
    has identified in 3 separate reports the risks and challenges 
    associated with counterfeit parts and counterfeit prevention at 
    both the Department of Defense and NASA, including inconsistent 
    definitions of counterfeit parts, poorly targeted quality control 
    practices, and potential barriers to improvements to these 
    practices.
    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the 
presence of counterfeit electronic parts in the NASA supply chain poses 
a danger to United States government astronauts, crew, and other 
personnel and a risk to the agency overall.
    (c) Regulations.--
        (1) In general.--Not later than 270 days after the date of 
    enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall revise the NASA 
    Supplement to the Federal Acquisition Regulation to improve the 
    detection and avoidance of counterfeit electronic parts in the 
    supply chain.
        (2) Contractor responsibilities.--In revising the regulations 
    under paragraph (1), the Administrator shall--
            (A) require each covered contractor--
                (i) to detect and avoid the use or inclusion of any 
            counterfeit parts in electronic parts or products that 
            contain electronic parts;
                (ii) to take such corrective actions as the 
            Administrator considers necessary to remedy the use or 
            inclusion described in clause (i); and
                (iii) including a subcontractor, to notify the 
            applicable NASA contracting officer not later than 30 
            calendar days after the date the covered contractor becomes 
            aware, or has reason to suspect, that any end item, 
            component, part or material contained in supplies purchased 
            by NASA, or purchased by a covered contractor or 
            subcontractor for delivery to, or on behalf of, NASA, 
            contains a counterfeit electronic part or suspect 
            counterfeit electronic part; and
            (B) prohibit the cost of counterfeit electronic parts, 
        suspect counterfeit electronic parts, and any corrective action 
        described under subparagraph (A)(ii) from being included as 
        allowable costs under agency contracts, unless--
                (i)(I) the covered contractor has an operational system 
            to detect and avoid counterfeit electronic parts and 
            suspect counterfeit electronic parts that has been reviewed 
            and approved by NASA or the Department of Defense; and

                    (II) the covered contractor has provided the notice 
                under subparagraph (A)(iii); or

                (ii) the counterfeit electronic parts or suspect 
            counterfeit electronic parts were provided to the covered 
            contractor as Government property in accordance with part 
            45 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation.
        (3) Suppliers of electronic parts.--In revising the regulations 
    under paragraph (1), the Administrator shall--
            (A) require NASA and covered contractors, including 
        subcontractors, at all tiers--
                (i) to obtain electronic parts that are in production 
            or currently available in stock from--

                    (I) the original manufacturers of the parts or 
                their authorized dealers; or
                    (II) suppliers who obtain such parts exclusively 
                from the original manufacturers of the parts or their 
                authorized dealers; and

                (ii) to obtain electronic parts that are not in 
            production or currently available in stock from suppliers 
            that meet qualification requirements established under 
            subparagraph (C);
            (B) establish documented requirements consistent with 
        published industry standards or Government contract 
        requirements for--
                (i) notification of the agency; and
                (ii) inspection, testing, and authentication of 
            electronic parts that NASA or a covered contractor, 
            including a subcontractor, obtains from any source other 
            than a source described in subparagraph (A);
            (C) establish qualification requirements, consistent with 
        the requirements of section 2319 of title 10, United States 
        Code, pursuant to which NASA may identify suppliers that have 
        appropriate policies and procedures in place to detect and 
        avoid counterfeit electronic parts and suspect counterfeit 
        electronic parts; and
            (D) authorize a covered contractor, including a 
        subcontractor, to identify and use additional suppliers beyond 
        those identified under subparagraph (C) if--
                (i) the standards and processes for identifying such 
            suppliers comply with established industry standards;
                (ii) the covered contractor assumes responsibility for 
            the authenticity of parts provided by such suppliers under 
            paragraph (2); and
                (iii) the selection of such suppliers is subject to 
            review and audit by NASA.
    (d) Definitions.--In this section:
        (1) Covered contractor.--The term ``covered contractor'' means 
    a contractor that supplies an electronic part, or a product that 
    contains an electronic part, to NASA.
        (2) Electronic part.--The term ``electronic part'' means a 
    discrete electronic component, including a microcircuit, 
    transistor, capacitor, resistor, or diode, that is intended for use 
    in a safety or mission critical application.
    SEC. 824. EDUCATION AND OUTREACH.
    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) United States competitiveness in the 21st century requires 
    engaging the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics 
    (referred to in this section as ``STEM'') talent in all States;
        (2) the Administration is uniquely positioned to educate and 
    inspire students and the broader public on STEM subjects and 
    careers;
        (3) the Administration's Education and Communication Offices, 
    Mission Directorates, and Centers have been effective in delivering 
    educational content because of the strong engagement of 
    Administration scientists and engineers in the Administration's 
    education and outreach activities;
        (4) the Administration's education and outreach programs, 
    including the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive 
    Research (EPSCoR) and the Space Grant College and Fellowship 
    Program, reflect the Administration's successful commitment to 
    growing and diversifying the national science and engineering 
    workforce; and
        (5) in order to grow and diversify the Nation's engineering 
    workforce, it is vital for the Administration to bolster programs, 
    such as High Schools United with NASA to Create Hardware (HUNCH) 
    program, that conduct outreach activities to underserved rural 
    communities, vocational schools, and tribal colleges and 
    universities and encourage new participation in the STEM workforce.
    (b) Continuation of Education and Outreach Activities and 
Programs.--
        (1) In general.--The Administrator shall continue engagement 
    with the public and education opportunities for students via all 
    the Administration's mission directorates to the maximum extent 
    practicable.
        (2) Report.--Not later than 60 days after the date of enactment 
    of this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the appropriate 
    committees of Congress a report on the Administration's near-term 
    outreach plans for advancing space law education.
    SEC. 825. LEVERAGING COMMERCIAL SATELLITE SERVICING CAPABILITIES 
      ACROSS MISSION DIRECTORATES.
    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
        (1) Refueling and relocating aging satellites to extend their 
    operational lifetimes is a capacity that NASA will substantially 
    benefit from and is important for lowering the costs of ongoing 
    scientific, national security, and commercial satellite operations.
        (2) The technologies involved in satellite servicing, such as 
    dexterous robotic arms, propellant transfer systems, and solar 
    electric propulsion, are all critical capabilities to support a 
    human exploration mission to Mars.
    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) satellite servicing is a vital capability that will bolster 
    the capacity and affordability of NASA's ongoing scientific and 
    human exploration operations while simultaneously enhancing the 
    ability of domestic companies to compete in the global marketplace; 
    and
        (2) future NASA satellites and spacecraft across mission 
    directorates should be constructed in a manner that allows for 
    servicing in order to maximize operational longevity and 
    affordability.
    (c) Leveraging of Capabilities.--The Administrator shall--
        (1) identify orbital assets in both the Science Mission 
    Directorate and the Human Exploration and Operations Mission 
    Directorate that could benefit from satellite servicing-related 
    technologies; and
        (2) work across all NASA mission directorates to evaluate 
    opportunities for the private sector to perform such services or 
    advance technical capabilities by leveraging the technologies and 
    techniques developed by NASA programs and other industry programs.
    SEC. 826. FLIGHT OPPORTUNITIES.
    (a) Development of Payloads.--
        (1) In general.--In order to conduct necessary research, the 
    Administrator shall continue and, as the Administrator considers 
    appropriate, expand the development of technology payloads for--
            (A) scientific research; and
            (B) investigating new or improved capabilities.
        (2) Funds.--For the purpose of carrying out paragraph (1), the 
    Administrator shall make funds available for--
            (A) flight testing;
            (B) payload development; and
            (C) hardware related to subparagraphs (A) and (B).
    (b) Reaffirmation of Policy.--Congress reaffirms that the 
Administrator should provide flight opportunities for payloads to 
microgravity environments and suborbital altitudes as authorized by 
section 907 of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18405).
    SEC. 827. SENSE OF CONGRESS ON SMALL CLASS LAUNCH MISSIONS.
    It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) Venture Class Launch Services contracts awarded under the 
    Launch Services Program will expand opportunities for future 
    dedicated launches of CubeSats and other small satellites and small 
    orbital science missions; and
        (2) principal investigator-led small orbital science missions, 
    including CubeSat class, Small Explorer (SMEX) class, and Venture 
    class, offer valuable opportunities to advance science at low cost, 
    train the next generation of scientists and engineers, and enable 
    participants to acquire skills in systems engineering and systems 
    integration that are critical to maintaining the Nation's 
    leadership in space and to enhancing United States innovation and 
    competitiveness abroad.
    SEC. 828. BASELINE AND COST CONTROLS.
    Section 30104(a)(1) of title 51, United States Code, is amended by 
striking ``Procedural Requirements 7120.5c, dated March 22, 2005'' and 
inserting ``Procedural Requirements 7120.5E, dated August 14, 2012''.
    SEC. 829. COMMERCIAL TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM.
    Section 50116(a) of title 51, United States Code, is amended by 
inserting ``, while protecting national security'' after ``research 
community''.
    SEC. 830. AVOIDING ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST IN MAJOR 
      ADMINISTRATION ACQUISITION PROGRAMS.
    (a) Revised Regulations Required.--Not later than 270 days after 
the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall revise the 
Administration Supplement to the Federal Acquisition Regulation to 
provide uniform guidance and recommend revised requirements for 
organizational conflicts of interest by contractors in major 
acquisition programs in order to address the elements identified in 
subsection (b).
    (b) Elements.--The revised regulations under subsection (a) shall, 
at a minimum--
        (1) address organizational conflicts of interest that could 
    potentially arise as a result of--
            (A) lead system integrator contracts on major acquisition 
        programs and contracts that follow lead system integrator 
        contracts on such programs, particularly contracts for 
        production;
            (B) the ownership of business units performing systems 
        engineering and technical assistance functions, professional 
        services, or management support services in relation to major 
        acquisition programs by contractors who simultaneously own 
        business units competing to perform as either the prime 
        contractor or the supplier of a major subsystem or component 
        for such programs;
            (C) the award of major subsystem contracts by a prime 
        contractor for a major acquisition program to business units or 
        other affiliates of the same parent corporate entity, and 
        particularly the award of subcontracts for software integration 
        or the development of a proprietary software system 
        architecture; or
            (D) the performance by, or assistance of, contractors in 
        technical evaluations on major acquisition programs;
        (2) require the Administration to request advice on systems 
    architecture and systems engineering matters with respect to major 
    acquisition programs from objective sources independent of the 
    prime contractor;
        (3) require that a contract for the performance of systems 
    engineering and technical assistance functions for a major 
    acquisition program contains a provision prohibiting the contractor 
    or any affiliate of the contractor from participating as a prime 
    contractor or a major subcontractor in the development of a system 
    under the program; and
        (4) establish such limited exceptions to the requirement in 
    paragraphs (2) and (3) as the Administrator considers necessary to 
    ensure that the Administration has continued access to advice on 
    systems architecture and systems engineering matters from highly 
    qualified contractors with domain experience and expertise, while 
    ensuring that such advice comes from sources that are objective and 
    unbiased.
    SEC. 831. PROTECTION OF APOLLO LANDING SITES.
    (a) Assessment.--The Director of the Office of Science and 
Technology Policy, in consultation with relevant Federal agencies and 
stakeholders, shall assess the issues relating to protecting and 
preserving historically important Apollo Program lunar landing sites 
and Apollo program artifacts residing on the lunar surface, including 
those pertaining to Apollo 11 and Apollo 17.
    (b) Contents.--In conducting the assessment, the Director shall 
include--
        (1) a determination of what risks to the protection and 
    preservation of those sites and artifacts exist or may exist in the 
    future;
        (2) a determination of what measures are required to ensure 
    such protection and preservation;
        (3) a determination of the extent to which additional domestic 
    legislation or international treaties or agreements will be 
    required; and
        (4) specific recommendations for protecting and preserving 
    those lunar landing sites and artifacts.
    (c) Report.--Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Director shall submit to the appropriate committees of 
Congress the results of the assessment.
    SEC. 832. NASA LEASE OF NON-EXCESS PROPERTY.
    Section 20145(g) of title 51, United States Code, is amended by 
striking ``10 years after December 26, 2007'' and inserting ``December 
31, 2018''.
    SEC. 833. TERMINATION LIABILITY.
    It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) the ISS, the Space Launch System, and the Orion will enable 
    the Nation to continue operations in low-Earth orbit and to send 
    its astronauts to deep space;
        (2) the James Webb Space Telescope will revolutionize our 
    understanding of star and planet formation and how galaxies 
    evolved, and will advance the search for the origins of our 
    universe;
        (3) as a result of their unique capabilities and their critical 
    contribution to the future of space exploration, these systems have 
    been designated by Congress and the Administration as priority 
    investments;
        (4) contractors are currently holding program funding, 
    estimated to be in the hundreds of millions of dollars, to cover 
    the potential termination liability should the Government choose to 
    terminate a program for convenience;
        (5) as a result, hundreds of millions of taxpayer dollars are 
    unavailable for meaningful work on these programs;
        (6) according to the Government Accountability Office, the 
    Administration procures most of its goods and services through 
    contracts, and it terminates very few of them;
        (7) in fiscal year 2010, the Administration terminated 28 of 
    16,343 active contracts and orders, a termination rate of about 
    0.17 percent; and
        (8) the Administration should vigorously pursue a policy on 
    termination liability that maximizes the utilization of its 
    appropriated funds to make maximum progress in meeting established 
    technical goals and schedule milestones on these high-priority 
    programs.
    SEC. 834. INDEPENDENT REVIEWS.
    Not later than 270 days after the date of enactment of this Act, 
the Administrator shall submit to the appropriate committees of 
Congress a report describing--
        (1) the Administration's procedures for conducting independent 
    reviews of projects and programs at lifecycle milestones;
        (2) how the Administration ensures the independence of the 
    individuals who conduct those reviews prior to their assignment;
        (3) the internal and external entities independent of project 
    and program management that conduct reviews of projects and 
    programs at life cycle milestones; and
        (4) how the Administration ensures the independence of such 
    entities and their members.
    SEC. 835. NASA ADVISORY COUNCIL.
    (a) Assessment.--The Administrator shall enter into an arrangement 
with the National Academy of Public Administration to assess the 
effectiveness of the NASA Advisory Council and to make recommendations 
to Congress for any change to--
        (1) the functions of the Council;
        (2) the appointment of members to the Council;
        (3) the qualifications for members of the Council;
        (4) the duration of terms of office for members of the Council;
        (5) the frequency of meetings of the Council;
        (6) the structure of leadership and Committees of the Council; 
    and
        (7) the levels of professional staffing for the Council.
    (b) Considerations.--In carrying out the assessment under 
subsection (a), the National Academy of Public Administration shall--
        (1) consider the impacts of broadening the Council's role to 
    include providing consultation and advice to Congress under section 
    20113(g) of title 51, United States Code;
        (2) consider the past activities of the Council and the 
    activities of other analogous Federal advisory bodies; and
        (3) any other issues that the National Academy of Public 
    Administration determines could potentially impact the 
    effectiveness of the Council.
    (c) Report.--The National Academy of Public Administration shall 
submit to the appropriate committees of Congress the results of the 
assessment, including any recommendations.
    (d) Consultation and Advice.--
        (1) In general.--Section 20113(g) of title 51, United States 
    Code, is amended by inserting ``and Congress'' after ``advice to 
    the Administration''.
        (2) Sunset.--Effective September 30, 2017, section 20113(g) of 
    title 51, United States Code, is amended by striking ``and 
    Congress''.
    SEC. 836. COST ESTIMATION.
    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) realistic cost estimating is critically important to the 
    ultimate success of major space development projects; and
        (2) the Administration has devoted significant efforts over the 
    past 5 years to improving its cost estimating capabilities, but it 
    is important that the Administration continue its efforts to 
    develop and implement guidance in establishing realistic cost 
    estimates.
    (b) Guidance and Criteria.--The Administrator shall provide to its 
acquisition programs and projects, in a manner consistent with the 
Administration's Space Flight Program and Project Management 
Requirements--
        (1) guidance on when to use an Independent Cost Estimate and 
    Independent Cost Assessment; and
        (2) criteria to use to make a determination under paragraph 
    (1).
    SEC. 837. FACILITIES AND INFRASTRUCTURE.
    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) the Administration must address, mitigate, and reverse, 
    where possible, the deterioration of its facilities and 
    infrastructure, as their condition is hampering the effectiveness 
    and efficiency of research performed by both the Administration and 
    industry participants making use of Administration facilities, thus 
    harming the competitiveness of the United States aerospace 
    industry;
        (2) the Administration has a role in providing laboratory 
    capabilities to industry participants that are not economically 
    viable as commercial entities and thus are not available elsewhere;
        (3) to ensure continued access to reliable and efficient world-
    class facilities by researchers, the Administration should 
    establish strategic partnerships with other Federal agencies, State 
    agencies, FAA-licensed spaceports, institutions of higher 
    education, and industry, as appropriate; and
        (4) decisions on whether to dispose of, maintain, or modernize 
    existing facilities must be made in the context of meeting 
    Administration and other needs, including those required to meet 
    the activities supporting the human exploration roadmap under 
    section 432 of this Act, considering other national laboratory 
    needs as the Administrator deems appropriate.
    (b) Policy.--It is the policy of the United States that the 
Administration maintain reliable and efficient facilities and 
infrastructure and that decisions on whether to dispose of, maintain, 
or modernize existing facilities or infrastructure be made in the 
context of meeting future Administration needs.
    (c) Plan.--
        (1) In general.--The Administrator shall develop a facilities 
    and infrastructure plan.
        (2) Goal.--The goal of the plan is to position the 
    Administration to have the facilities and infrastructure, including 
    laboratories, tools, and approaches, necessary to meet future 
    Administration and other Federal agencies' laboratory needs.
        (3) Contents.--The plan shall identify--
            (A) current Administration and other Federal agency 
        laboratory needs;
            (B) future Administration research and development and 
        testing needs;
            (C) a strategy for identifying facilities and 
        infrastructure that are candidates for disposal, that is 
        consistent with the national strategic direction set forth in--
                (i) the National Space Policy;
                (ii) the National Aeronautics Research, Development, 
            Test, and Evaluation Infrastructure Plan;
                (iii) the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
            Authorization Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-155; 119 Stat. 
            2895), National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
            Authorization Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-422; 122 Stat. 
            4779), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
            Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18301 et seq.); and
                (iv) the human exploration roadmap under section 432 of 
            this Act;
            (D) a strategy for the maintenance, repair, upgrading, and 
        modernization of Administration facilities and infrastructure, 
        including laboratories and equipment;
            (E) criteria for--
                (i) prioritizing deferred maintenance tasks;
                (ii) maintaining, repairing, upgrading, or modernizing 
            Administration facilities and infrastructure; and
                (iii) implementing processes, plans, and policies for 
            guiding the Administration's Centers on whether to 
            maintain, repair, upgrade, or modernize a facility or 
            infrastructure and for determining the type of instrument 
            to be used;
            (F) an assessment of modifications needed to maximize usage 
        of facilities that offer unique and highly specialized benefits 
        to the aerospace industry and the American public; and
            (G) implementation steps, including a timeline, milestones, 
        and an estimate of resources required for carrying out the 
        plan.
    (d) Requirement To Establish Policy.--
        (1) In general.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
    enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall establish and make 
    publicly available a policy that guides the Administration's use of 
    existing authorities to out-grant, lease, excess to the General 
    Services Administration, sell, decommission, demolish, or otherwise 
    transfer property, facilities, or infrastructure.
        (2) Criteria.--The policy shall include criteria for the use of 
    authorities, best practices, standardized procedures, and 
    guidelines for how to appropriately manage property, facilities, 
    and infrastructure.
    (e) Submission to Congress.--Not later than 1 year after the date 
of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the 
appropriate committees of Congress the plan developed under subsection 
(c).
    SEC. 838. HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT ACCIDENT INVESTIGATIONS.
    Section 70702 of title 51, United States Code, is amended--
        (1) by amending subsection (a)(3) to read as follows:
        ``(3) any other orbital or suborbital space vehicle carrying 
    humans that is--
            ``(A) owned by the Federal Government; or
            ``(B) being used pursuant to a contract or Space Act 
        Agreement with the Federal Government for carrying a government 
        astronaut or a researcher funded by the Federal Government; 
        or''; and
        (2) by adding at the end the following:
    ``(c) Definitions.--In this section:
        ``(1) Government astronaut.--The term `government astronaut' 
    has the meaning given the term in section 50902.
        ``(2) Space act agreement.--The term `Space Act Agreement' 
    means an agreement entered into by the Administration pursuant to 
    its other transactions authority under section 20113(e).''.
    SEC. 839. ORBITAL DEBRIS.
    (a) Findings.--Congress finds that--
        (1) orbital debris poses serious risks to the operational space 
    capabilities of the United States;
        (2) an international commitment and integrated strategic plan 
    are needed to mitigate the growth of orbital debris wherever 
    possible; and
        (3) the delay in the Office of Science and Technology Policy's 
    submission of a report on the status of international coordination 
    and development of orbital debris mitigation strategies is 
    inconsistent with such risks.
    (b) Reports.--
        (1) Coordination.--Not later than 90 days after the date of 
    enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the 
    appropriate committees of Congress a report on the status of 
    efforts to coordinate with foreign countries within the Inter-
    Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee to mitigate the effects 
    and growth of orbital debris under section 1202(b)(1) of the 
    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 
    2010 (42 U.S.C. 18441(b)(1)).
        (2) Mitigation strategy.--Not later than 90 days after the date 
    of enactment of this Act, the Director of the Office of Science and 
    Technology Policy shall submit to the appropriate committees of 
    Congress a report on the status of the orbital debris mitigation 
    strategy required under section 1202(b)(2) of the National 
    Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 
    U.S.C. 18441(b)(2)).
    SEC. 840. REVIEW OF ORBITAL DEBRIS REMOVAL CONCEPTS.
    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
        (1) orbital debris in low-Earth orbit poses significant risks 
    to spacecraft;
        (2) such orbital debris may increase due to collisions between 
    existing debris objects; and
        (3) understanding options to address and remove orbital debris 
    is important for ensuring safe and effective spacecraft operations 
    in low-Earth orbit.
    (b) Review.--
        (1) In general.--Not later than 270 days after the date of 
    enactment of this Act, the Administrator--
            (A) in collaboration with the heads of other relevant 
        Federal agencies, shall solicit and review concepts and options 
        for removing orbital debris from low-Earth orbit; and
            (B) shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress 
        a report on the solicitation and review under subparagraph (A), 
        including recommendations on the best options for decreasing 
        the risks associated with orbital debris.
        (2) Requirements.--The solicitation and review under paragraph 
    (1) shall address the requirements for and feasibility of 
    developing and implementing each of the options.
    SEC. 841. SPACE ACT AGREEMENTS.
    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that, when used 
appropriately, Space Act Agreements can provide significant value in 
furtherance of NASA's mission.
    (b) Funded Space Act Agreements.--To the extent appropriate, the 
Administrator shall seek to maximize the value of contributions 
provided by other parties under a funded Space Act Agreement in order 
to advance NASA's mission.
    (c) Non-exclusivity.--
        (1) In general.--The Administrator shall, to the greatest 
    extent practicable, issue each Space Act Agreement--
            (A) except as provided in paragraph (2), on a nonexclusive 
        basis;
            (B) in a manner that ensures all non-government parties 
        have equal access to NASA resources; and
            (C) exercising reasonable care not to reveal unique or 
        proprietary information.
        (2) Exclusivity.--If the Administrator determines an exclusive 
    arrangement is necessary, the Administrator shall, to the greatest 
    extent practicable, issue the Space Act Agreement--
            (A) utilizing a competitive selection process when 
        exclusive arrangements are necessary; and
            (B) pursuant to public announcements when exclusive 
        arrangements are necessary.
    (d) Transparency.--The Administrator shall publicly disclose on the 
Administration's website and make available in a searchable format each 
Space Act Agreement, including an estimate of committed NASA resources 
and the expected benefits to agency objectives for each agreement, with 
appropriate redactions for proprietary, sensitive, or classified 
information, not later than 60 days after such agreement is signed by 
the parties.
    (e) Annual Reports.--
        (1) Requirement.--Not later than 90 days after the end of each 
    fiscal year, the Administrator shall submit to the appropriate 
    committees of Congress a report on the use of Space Act Agreement 
    authority by the Administration during the previous fiscal year.
        (2) Contents.--The report shall include for each Space Act 
    Agreement in effect at the time of the report--
            (A) an indication of whether the agreement is a 
        reimbursable, non-reimbursable, or funded Space Act Agreement;
            (B) a description of--
                (i) the subject and terms;
                (ii) the parties;
                (iii) the responsible--

                    (I) Mission Directorate;
                    (II) Center; or
                    (III) headquarters element;

                (iv) the value;
                (v) the extent of the cost sharing among Federal 
            Government and non-Federal sources;
                (vi) the time period or schedule; and
                (vii) all milestones; and
            (C) an indication of whether the agreement was renewed 
        during the previous fiscal year.
        (3) Anticipated agreements.--The report shall include a list of 
    all anticipated reimbursable, non-reimbursable, and funded Space 
    Act Agreements for the upcoming fiscal year.
        (4) Cumulative program benefits.--The report shall include, 
    with respect to each Space Act Agreement covered by the report, a 
    summary of--
            (A) the technology areas in which research projects were 
        conducted under that agreement;
            (B) the extent to which the use of that agreement--
                (i) has contributed to a broadening of the technology 
            and industrial base available for meeting Administration 
            needs; and
                (ii) has fostered within the technology and industrial 
            base new relationships and practices that support the 
            United States; and
            (C) the total amount of value received by the Federal 
        Government during the fiscal year under that agreement.

                               Speaker of the House of Representatives.

                            Vice President of the United States and    
                                               President of the Senate.