Text: S.442 — 115th Congress (2017-2018)All Bill Information (Except Text)

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Public Law No: 115-10 (03/21/2017)

 
[115th Congress Public Law 10]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office]



[[Page 17]]

 NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRANSITION AUTHORIZATION 
                               ACT OF 2017

[[Page 131 STAT. 18]]

Public Law 115-10
115th Congress

                                 An Act


 
    To authorize the programs of the National Aeronautics and Space 
  Administration, and for other purposes. <<NOTE: Mar. 21, 2017 -  [S. 
                                 442]>> 

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled, <<NOTE: National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition Authorization Act of 
2017. 51 USC 10101 note.>> 
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.

    (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition Authorization Act of 
2017''.
    (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents of this Act is as 
follows:

Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.
Sec. 2. Definitions.

                TITLE I--AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS

Sec. 101. Fiscal year 2017.

             TITLE II--SUSTAINING NATIONAL SPACE COMMITMENTS

Sec. 201. Sense of Congress on sustaining national space commitments.
Sec. 202. Findings.

    TITLE III--MAXIMIZING UTILIZATION OF THE ISS AND LOW-EARTH ORBIT

Sec. 301. Operation of the ISS.
Sec. 302. Transportation to ISS.
Sec. 303. ISS transition plan.
Sec. 304. Space communications.
Sec. 305. Indemnification; NASA launch services and reentry services.

            TITLE IV--ADVANCING HUMAN DEEP SPACE EXPLORATION

   Subtitle A--Human Space Flight and Exploration Goals and Objectives

Sec. 411. Human space flight and exploration long-term goals.
Sec. 412. Key objectives.
Sec. 413. Vision for space exploration.
Sec. 414. Stepping stone approach to exploration.
Sec. 415. Update of exploration plan and programs.
Sec. 416. Repeals.
Sec. 417. Assured access to space.

         Subtitle B--Assuring Core Capabilities for Exploration

Sec. 421. Space Launch System, Orion, and Exploration Ground Systems.

                       Subtitle C--Journey to Mars

Sec. 431. Findings on human space exploration.
Sec. 432. Human exploration roadmap.
Sec. 433. Advanced space suit capability.
Sec. 434. Asteroid robotic redirect mission.
Sec. 435. Mars 2033 report.

                    Subtitle D--TREAT Astronauts Act

Sec. 441. Short title.

[[Page 131 STAT. 19]]

Sec. 442. Findings; sense of Congress.
Sec. 443. Medical monitoring and research relating to human space 
           flight.

                    TITLE V--ADVANCING SPACE SCIENCE

Sec. 501. Maintaining a balanced space science portfolio.
Sec. 502. Planetary science.
Sec. 503. James Webb Space Telescope.
Sec. 504. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope.
Sec. 505. Mars 2020 rover.
Sec. 506. Europa.
Sec. 507. Congressional declaration of policy and purpose.
Sec. 508. Extrasolar planet exploration strategy.
Sec. 509. Astrobiology strategy.
Sec. 510. Astrobiology public-private partnerships.
Sec. 511. Near-Earth objects.
Sec. 512. Near-Earth objects public-private partnerships.
Sec. 513. Assessment of science mission extensions.
Sec. 514. Stratospheric observatory for infrared astronomy.
Sec. 515. Radioisotope power systems.
Sec. 516. Assessment of Mars architecture.
Sec. 517. Collaboration.

                          TITLE VI--AERONAUTICS

Sec. 601. Sense of Congress on aeronautics.
Sec. 602. Transformative aeronautics research.
Sec. 603. Hypersonic research.
Sec. 604. Supersonic research.
Sec. 605. Rotorcraft research.

                       TITLE VII--SPACE TECHNOLOGY

Sec. 701. Space technology infusion.
Sec. 702. Space technology program.

                    TITLE VIII--MAXIMIZING EFFICIENCY

       Subtitle A--Agency Information Technology and Cybersecurity

Sec. 811. Information technology governance.
Sec. 812. Information technology strategic plan.
Sec. 813. Cybersecurity.
Sec. 814. Security management of foreign national access.
Sec. 815. Cybersecurity of web applications.

 Subtitle B--Collaboration Among Mission Directorates and Other Matters

Sec. 821. Collaboration among mission directorates.
Sec. 822. NASA launch capabilities collaboration.
Sec. 823. Detection and avoidance of counterfeit parts.
Sec. 824. Education and outreach.
Sec. 825. Leveraging commercial satellite servicing capabilities across 
           mission directorates.
Sec. 826. Flight opportunities.
Sec. 827. Sense of Congress on small class launch missions.
Sec. 828. Baseline and cost controls.
Sec. 829. Commercial technology transfer program.
Sec. 830. Avoiding organizational conflicts of interest in major 
           administration acquisition programs.
Sec. 831. Protection of Apollo landing sites.
Sec. 832. NASA lease of non-excess property.
Sec. 833. Termination liability.
Sec. 834. Independent reviews.
Sec. 835. NASA Advisory Council.
Sec. 836. Cost estimation.
Sec. 837. Facilities and infrastructure.
Sec. 838. Human space flight accident investigations.
Sec. 839. Orbital debris.
Sec. 840. Review of orbital debris removal concepts.
Sec. 841. Space Act Agreements.

SEC. 2. <<NOTE: 51 USC 10101 note.>>  DEFINITIONS.

    In this Act:
            (1) Administration.--The term ``Administration'' means the 
        National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

[[Page 131 STAT. 20]]

            (2) Administrator.--The term ``Administrator'' means the 
        Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space 
        Administration.
            (3) Appropriate committees of congress.--The term 
        ``appropriate committees of Congress'' means--
                    (A) the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
                Transportation of the Senate; and
                    (B) the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology 
                of the House of Representatives.
            (4) Cis-lunar space.--The term ``cis-lunar space'' means the 
        region of space from the Earth out to and including the region 
        around the surface of the Moon.
            (5) Deep space.--The term ``deep space'' means the region of 
        space beyond low-Earth orbit, to include cis-lunar space.
            (6) Government astronaut.--The term ``government astronaut'' 
        has the meaning given the term in section 50902 of title 51, 
        United States Code.
            (7) ISS.--The term ``ISS'' means the International Space 
        Station.
            (8) ISS management entity.--The term ``ISS management 
        entity'' means the organization with which the Administrator has 
        a cooperative agreement under section 504(a) of the National 
        Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 
        (42 U.S.C. 18354(a)).
            (9) NASA.--The term ``NASA'' means the National Aeronautics 
        and Space Administration.
            (10) Orion.--The term ``Orion'' means the multipurpose crew 
        vehicle described under section 303 of the National Aeronautics 
        and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 
        18323).
            (11) Space launch system.--The term ``Space Launch System'' 
        has the meaning given the term in section 3 of the National 
        Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 
        (42 U.S.C. 18302).
            (12) United states government astronaut.--The term ``United 
        States government astronaut'' has the meaning given the term 
        ``government astronaut'' in section 50902 of title 51, United 
        States Code, except it does not include an individual who is an 
        international partner astronaut.

                TITLE I--AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS

SEC. 101. FISCAL YEAR 2017.

    There are authorized to be appropriated to NASA for fiscal year 
2017, $19,508,000,000, as follows:
            (1) For Exploration, $4,330,000,000.
            (2) For Space Operations, $5,023,000,000.
            (3) For Science, $5,500,000,000.
            (4) For Aeronautics, $640,000,000.
            (5) For Space Technology, $686,000,000.
            (6) For Education, $115,000,000.
            (7) For Safety, Security, and Mission Services, 
        $2,788,600,000.
            (8) For Construction and Environmental Compliance and 
        Restoration, $388,000,000.

[[Page 131 STAT. 21]]

            (9) For Inspector General, $37,400,000.

             TITLE II--SUSTAINING NATIONAL SPACE COMMITMENTS

SEC. 201. SENSE OF CONGRESS ON SUSTAINING NATIONAL SPACE 
                        COMMITMENTS.

    It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) honoring current national space commitments and building 
        upon investments in space across successive Administrations 
        demonstrates clear continuity of purpose by the United States, 
        in collaboration with its international, academic, and industry 
        partners, to extend humanity's reach into deep space, including 
        cis-lunar space, the Moon, the surface and moons of Mars, and 
        beyond;
            (2) NASA leaders can best leverage investments in the United 
        States space program by continuing to develop a balanced 
        portfolio for space exploration and space science, including 
        continued development of the Space Launch System, Orion, 
        Commercial Crew Program, space and planetary science missions 
        such as the James Webb Space Telescope, Wide-Field Infrared 
        Survey Telescope, and Europa mission, and ongoing operations of 
        the ISS and Commercial Resupply Services Program;
            (3) a national, government-led space program that builds on 
        current science and exploration programs, advances human 
        knowledge and capabilities, and opens the frontier beyond Earth 
        for ourselves, commercial enterprise, and science, and with our 
        international partners, is of critical importance to our 
        national destiny and to a future guided by United States values 
        and freedoms;
            (4) continuity of purpose and effective execution of core 
        NASA programs are essential for efficient use of resources in 
        pursuit of timely and tangible accomplishments;
            (5) NASA could improve its efficiency and effectiveness by 
        working with industry to streamline existing programs and 
        requirements, procurement practices, institutional footprint, 
        and bureaucracy while preserving effective program oversight, 
        accountability, and safety;
            (6) it is imperative that the United States maintain and 
        enhance its leadership in space exploration and space science, 
        and continue to expand freedom and economic opportunities in 
        space for all Americans that are consistent with the 
        Constitution of the United States; and
            (7) NASA should be a multi-mission space agency, and should 
        have a balanced and robust set of core missions in space 
        science, space technology, aeronautics, human space flight and 
        exploration, and education.
SEC. 202. FINDINGS.

    Congress makes the following findings:
            (1) Returns on the Nation's investments in science, 
        technology, and exploration accrue over decades-long timeframes, 
        and a disruption of such investments could prevent returns from 
        being fully realized.

[[Page 131 STAT. 22]]

            (2) Past challenges to the continuity of such investments, 
        particularly threats regarding the cancellation of authorized 
        programs with bipartisan and bicameral support, have disrupted 
        completion of major space systems thereby--
                    (A) impeding planning and pursuit of national 
                objectives in space science and human space exploration;
                    (B) placing such investments in space science and 
                space exploration at risk; and
                    (C) degrading the aerospace industrial base.
            (3) The National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
        Authorization Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-155; 119 Stat. 2895), 
        National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act 
        of 2008 (Public Law 110-422; 122 Stat. 4779), and National 
        Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 
        (42 U.S.C. 18301 et seq.) reflect a broad, bipartisan agreement 
        on the path forward for NASA's core missions in science, space 
        technology, aeronautics, human space flight and exploration, and 
        education, that serves as the foundation for the policy updates 
        by this Act.
            (4) Sufficient investment and maximum utilization of the ISS 
        and ISS National Laboratory with our international and industry 
        partners is--
                    (A) consistent with the goals and objectives of the 
                United States space program; and
                    (B) imperative to continuing United States global 
                leadership in human space exploration, science, 
                research, technology development, and education 
                opportunities that contribute to development of the next 
                generation of American scientists, engineers, and 
                leaders, and to creating the opportunity for economic 
                development of low-Earth orbit.
            (5) NASA has made measurable progress in the development and 
        testing of the Space Launch System and Orion exploration systems 
        with the near-term objectives of the initial integrated test 
        flight and launch in 2018, a human mission in 2021, and 
        continued missions with an annual cadence in cis-lunar space and 
        eventually to the surface of Mars.
            (6) The Commercial Crew Program has made measurable progress 
        toward reestablishing the capability to launch United States 
        government astronauts from United States soil into low-Earth 
        orbit by the end of 2018.
            (7) The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel, in its 2015 Annual 
        Report, urged continuity of purpose noting concerns over the 
        potential for cost overruns and schedule slips that could 
        accompany significant changes to core NASA programs.

    TITLE III--MAXIMIZING UTILIZATION OF THE ISS AND LOW-EARTH ORBIT

SEC. 301. <<NOTE: 51 USC 50111 note.>>  OPERATION OF THE ISS.

    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) after 15 years of continuous human presence in low-Earth 
        orbit, the ISS continues to overcome challenges and operate 
        safely;
            (2) the ISS is a unique testbed for future space exploration 
        systems development, including long-duration space travel;

[[Page 131 STAT. 23]]

            (3) the expansion of partnerships, scientific research, and 
        commercial applications of the ISS is essential to ensuring the 
        greatest return on investments made by the United States and its 
        international space partners in the development, assembly, and 
        operations of that unique facility;
            (4) utilization of the ISS will sustain United States 
        leadership and progress in human space exploration by--
                    (A) facilitating the commercialization and economic 
                development of low-Earth orbit;
                    (B) serving as a testbed for technologies and a 
                platform for scientific research and development; and
                    (C) serving as an orbital facility enabling research 
                upon--
                          (i) the health, well-being, and performance of 
                      humans in space; and
                          (ii) the development of in-space systems 
                      enabling human space exploration beyond low-Earth 
                      orbit; and
            (5) the ISS provides a platform for fundamental, 
        microgravity, discovery-based space life and physical sciences 
        research that is critical for enabling space exploration, 
        protecting humans in space, increasing pathways for commercial 
        space development that depend on advances in basic research, and 
        contributes to advancing science, technology, engineering, and 
        mathematics research.

    (b) Objectives.--The primary objectives of the ISS program shall 
be--
            (1) to achieve the long term goal and objectives under 
        section 202 of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
        Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18312); and
            (2) to pursue a research program that advances knowledge and 
        provides other benefits to the Nation.

    (c) Continuation of the ISS.--Section 501 of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 
U.S.C. 18351) is amended to read as follows:
``SEC. 501. CONTINUATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION.

    ``(a) Policy of the United States.--It shall be the policy of the 
United States, in consultation with its international partners in the 
ISS program, to support full and complete utilization of the ISS through 
at least 2024.
    ``(b) NASA Action.--In furtherance of the policy set forth in 
subsection (a), NASA shall--
            ``(1) pursue international, commercial, and 
        intragovernmental means to maximize ISS logistics supply, 
        maintenance, and operational capabilities, reduce risks to ISS 
        systems sustainability, and offset and minimize United States 
        operations costs relating to the ISS;
            ``(2) utilize, to the extent practicable, the ISS for the 
        development of capabilities and technologies needed for the 
        future of human space exploration beyond low-Earth orbit; and
            ``(3) utilize, if practical and cost effective, the ISS for 
        Science Mission Directorate missions in low-Earth orbit.''.
SEC. 302. <<NOTE: 51 USC 50111 note.>>  TRANSPORTATION TO ISS.

    (a) Findings.--Congress finds that reliance on foreign carriers for 
United States crew transfer is unacceptable, and the Nation's human 
space flight program must acquire the capability to launch

[[Page 131 STAT. 24]]

United States government astronauts on vehicles using United States 
rockets from United States soil as soon as is safe, reliable, and 
affordable to do so.
    (b) Sense of Congress on Commercial Crew Program and Commercial 
Resupply Services Program.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) once developed and certified to meet the 
        Administration's safety and reliability requirements, United 
        States commercially provided crew transportation systems can 
        serve as the primary means of transporting United States 
        government astronauts and international partner astronauts to 
        and from the ISS and serving as ISS crew rescue vehicles;
            (2) previous budgetary assumptions used by the 
        Administration in its planning for the Commercial Crew Program 
        assumed significantly higher funding levels than were authorized 
        and appropriated by Congress;
            (3) credibility in the Administration's budgetary estimates 
        for the Commercial Crew Program can be enhanced by an 
        independently developed cost estimate;
            (4) such credibility in budgetary estimates is an important 
        factor in understanding program risk;
            (5) United States access to low-Earth orbit is paramount to 
        the continued success of the ISS and ISS National Laboratory;
            (6) a stable and successful Commercial Resupply Services 
        Program and Commercial Crew Program are critical to ensuring 
        timely provisioning of the ISS and to reestablishing the 
        capability to launch United States government astronauts from 
        United States soil into orbit, ending reliance upon Russian 
        transport of United States government astronauts to the ISS 
        which has not been possible since the retirement of the Space 
        Shuttle program in 2011;
            (7) NASA should build upon the success of the Commercial 
        Orbital Transportation Services Program and Commercial Resupply 
        Services Program that have allowed private sector companies to 
        partner with NASA to deliver cargo and scientific experiments to 
        the ISS since 2012;
            (8) the 21st Century Launch Complex Program has enabled 
        significant modernization and infrastructure improvements at 
        launch sites across the United States to support NASA's 
        Commercial Resupply Services Program and other civil and 
        commercial space flight missions; and
            (9) the 21st Century Launch Complex Program should be 
        continued in a manner that leverages State and private 
        investments to achieve the goals of that program.

    (c) Reaffirmation.--Congress reaffirms--
            (1) its commitment to the use of a commercially developed, 
        private sector launch and delivery system to the ISS for crew 
        missions as expressed in the National Aeronautics and Space 
        Administration Authorization Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-155; 
        119 Stat. 2895), the National Aeronautics and Space 
        Administration Authorization Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-422; 
        122 Stat. 4779), and the National Aeronautics and Space 
        Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18301 et 
        seq.); and
            (2) the requirement under section 50111(b)(1)(A) of title 
        51, United States Code, that the Administration shall make

[[Page 131 STAT. 25]]

        use of United States commercially provided ISS crew transfer and 
        crew rescue services to the maximum extent practicable.

    (d) Use of Non-United States Human Space Flight Transportation 
Capabilities.--Section 201(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18311(a)) is amended 
to read as follows:
    ``(a) Use of Non-United States Human Space Flight Transportation 
Services.--
            ``(1) In general.--The Federal Government may not acquire 
        human space flight transportation services from a foreign entity 
        unless--
                    ``(A) no United States Government-operated human 
                space flight capability is available;
                    ``(B) no United States commercial provider is 
                available; and
                    ``(C) it is a qualified foreign entity.
            ``(2) Definitions.--In this subsection:
                    ``(A) Commercial provider.--The term `commercial 
                provider' means any person providing human space flight 
                transportation services, primary control of which is 
                held by persons other than the Federal Government, a 
                State or local government, or a foreign government.
                    ``(B) Qualified foreign entity.--The term `qualified 
                foreign entity' means a foreign entity that is in 
                compliance with all applicable safety standards and is 
                not prohibited from providing space transportation 
                services under other law.
                    ``(C) United states commercial provider.--The term 
                `United States commercial provider' means a commercial 
                provider, organized under the laws of the United States 
                or of a State, that is more than 50 percent owned by 
                United States nationals.
            ``(3) Arrangements with foreign entities.--Nothing in this 
        subsection shall prevent the Administrator from negotiating or 
        entering into human space flight transportation arrangements 
        with foreign entities to ensure safety of flight and continued 
        ISS operations.''.

    (e) Commercial Crew Program.--
            (1) Objective.--The objective of the Commercial Crew Program 
        shall be to assist in the development and certification of 
        commercially provided transportation that--
                    (A) can carry United States government astronauts 
                safely, reliably, and affordably to and from the ISS;
                    (B) can serve as a crew rescue vehicle; and
                    (C) can accomplish subparagraphs (A) and (B) as soon 
                as practicable.
            (2) Primary consideration.--The objective described in 
        paragraph (1) shall be the primary consideration in the 
        acquisition strategy for the Commercial Crew Program.
            (3) Safety.--
                    (A) In general.--The Administrator shall protect the 
                safety of government astronauts by ensuring that each 
                commercially provided transportation system under this 
                subsection meets all applicable human rating 
                requirements in accordance with section 403(b)(1) of the 
                National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
                Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18342(b)(1)).

[[Page 131 STAT. 26]]

                    (B) Lessons learned.--Consistent with the findings 
                and recommendations of the Columbia Accident 
                Investigation Board, the Administration shall ensure 
                that safety and the minimization of the probability of 
                loss of crew are the critical priorities of the 
                Commercial Crew Program.
            (4) Cost minimization.--The Administrator shall strive 
        through the competitive selection process to minimize the life 
        cycle cost to the Administration through the planned period of 
        commercially provided crew transportation services.

    (f) Commercial Cargo Program.--Section 401 of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 
U.S.C. 18341) is amended by striking ``Commercial Orbital Transportation 
Services'' and inserting ``Commercial Resupply Services''.
    (g) <<NOTE: Contracts.>>  Competition.--It is the policy of the 
United States that, to foster the competitive development, operation, 
improvement, and commercial availability of space transportation 
services, and to minimize the life cycle cost to the Administration, the 
Administrator shall procure services for Federal Government access to 
and return from the ISS, whenever practicable, via fair and open 
competition for well-defined, milestone-based, Federal Acquisition 
Regulation-based contracts under section 201(a) of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 
U.S.C. 18311(a)).

    (h) Transparency.--
            (1) Sense of congress.--It is the sense of Congress that 
        cost transparency and schedule transparency aid in effective 
        program management and risk assessment.
            (2) In general.--The Administrator shall, to the greatest 
        extent practicable and in a manner that does not add costs or 
        schedule delays to the program, ensure all Commercial Crew 
        Program and Commercial Resupply Services Program providers 
        provide evidence-based support for their costs and schedules.

    (i) <<NOTE: Deadline. Reports. Contracts.>>  ISS Cargo Resupply 
Services Lessons Learned.--Not later than 120 days after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the appropriate 
committees of Congress a report that--
            (1) identifies the lessons learned to date from previous and 
        existing Commercial Resupply Services contracts;
            (2) indicates whether changes are needed to the manner in 
        which the Administration procures and manages similar services 
        prior to the issuance of future Commercial Resupply Services 
        procurement opportunities; and
            (3) identifies any lessons learned from the Commercial 
        Resupply Services contracts that should be applied to the 
        procurement and management of commercially provided crew 
        transfer services to and from the ISS or to other future 
        procurements.
SEC. 303. <<NOTE: 51 USC 50111 note.>>  ISS TRANSITION PLAN.

    (a) Findings.--Congress finds that--
            (1) NASA has been both the primary supplier and consumer of 
        human space flight capabilities and services of the ISS and in 
        low-Earth orbit; and
            (2) according to the National Research Council report 
        ``Pathways to Exploration: Rationales and Approaches for a U.S. 
        Program of Human Space Exploration'' extending ISS

[[Page 131 STAT. 27]]

        beyond 2020 to 2024 or 2028 will have significant negative 
        impacts on the schedule of crewed missions to Mars, without 
        significant increases in funding.

    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) an orderly transition for United States human space 
        flight activities in low-Earth orbit from the current regime, 
        that relies heavily on NASA sponsorship, to a regime where NASA 
        is one of many customers of a low-Earth orbit commercial human 
        space flight enterprise may be necessary; and
            (2) decisions about the long-term future of the ISS impact 
        the ability to conduct future deep space exploration activities, 
        and that such decisions regarding the ISS should be considered 
        in the context of the human exploration roadmap under section 
        432 of this Act.

    (c) Reports.--Section 50111 of title 51, United States Code, is 
amended by adding at the end the following:
    ``(c) ISS Transition Plan.--
            ``(1) <<NOTE: Coordination.>>  In general.--The 
        Administrator, in coordination with the ISS management entity 
        (as defined in section 2 of the National Aeronautics and Space 
        Administration Transition Authorization Act of 2017), ISS 
        partners, the scientific user community, and the commercial 
        space sector, shall develop a plan to transition in a step-wise 
        approach from the current regime that relies heavily on NASA 
        sponsorship to a regime where NASA could be one of many 
        customers of a low-Earth orbit non-governmental human space 
        flight enterprise.
            ``(2) Reports.--Not later than December 1, 2017, and 
        biennially thereafter until 2023, the Administrator shall submit 
        to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the 
        Senate and the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of 
        the House of Representatives a report that includes--
                    ``(A) a description of the progress in achieving the 
                Administration's deep space human exploration objectives 
                on ISS and prospects for accomplishing future mission 
                requirements, space exploration objectives, and other 
                research objectives on future commercially supplied low-
                Earth orbit platforms or migration of those objectives 
                to cis-lunar space;
                    ``(B) the steps NASA is taking and will take, 
                including demonstrations that could be conducted on the 
                ISS, to stimulate and facilitate commercial demand and 
                supply of products and services in low-Earth orbit;
                    ``(C) an identification of barriers preventing the 
                commercialization of low-Earth orbit, including issues 
                relating to policy, regulations, commercial intellectual 
                property, data, and confidentiality, that could inhibit 
                the use of the ISS as a commercial incubator;
                    ``(D) <<NOTE: Criteria.>>  the criteria for defining 
                the ISS as a research success;
                    ``(E) <<NOTE: Criteria.>>  the criteria used to 
                determine whether the ISS is meeting the objective under 
                section 301(b)(2) of the National Aeronautics and Space 
                Administration Transition Authorization Act of 2017;
                    ``(F) <<NOTE: Assessment.>>  an assessment of 
                whether the criteria under subparagraphs (D) and (E) are 
                consistent with the research areas defined in, and 
                recommendations and schedules under, the current 
                National Academies of Sciences,

[[Page 131 STAT. 28]]

                Engineering, and Medicine Decadal Survey on Biological 
                and Physical Sciences in Space;
                    ``(G) any necessary contributions that ISS extension 
                would make to enabling execution of the human 
                exploration roadmap under section 432 of the National 
                Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition 
                Authorization Act of 2017;
                    ``(H) <<NOTE: Cost estimate.>>  the cost estimates 
                for operating the ISS to achieve the criteria required 
                under subparagraphs (D) and (E) and the contributions 
                identified under subparagraph (G);
                    ``(I) <<NOTE: Cost estimate.>>  the cost estimates 
                for extending operations of the ISS to 2024, 2028, and 
                2030;
                    ``(J) <<NOTE: Evaluation.>>  an evaluation of the 
                feasible and preferred service life of the ISS beyond 
                the period described in section 503 of the National 
                Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act 
                of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18353), through at least 2028, as a 
                unique scientific, commercial, and space exploration-
                related facility, including--
                          ``(i) a general discussion of international 
                      partner capabilities and prospects for extending 
                      the partnership;
                          ``(ii) the cost associated with extending the 
                      service life;
                          ``(iii) <<NOTE: Assessment.>>  an assessment 
                      on the technical limiting factors of the service 
                      life of the ISS, including a list of critical 
                      components and their expected service life and 
                      availability; and
                          ``(iv) such other information as may be 
                      necessary to fully describe the justification for 
                      and feasibility of extending the service life of 
                      the ISS, including the potential scientific or 
                      technological benefits to the Federal Government, 
                      public, or to academic or commercial entities;
                    ``(K) <<NOTE: Cost estimate.>>  an identification of 
                the necessary actions and an estimate of the costs to 
                deorbit the ISS once it has reached the end of its 
                service life;
                    ``(L) the impact on deep space exploration 
                capabilities, including a crewed mission to Mars in the 
                2030s, if the preferred service life of the ISS is 
                extended beyond 2024 and NASA maintains a flat budget 
                profile; and
                    ``(M) <<NOTE: Evaluation. Determination.>>  an 
                evaluation of the functions, roles, and responsibilities 
                for management and operation of the ISS and a 
                determination of--
                          ``(i) those functions, roles, and 
                      responsibilities the Federal Government should 
                      retain during the lifecycle of the ISS;
                          ``(ii) those functions, roles, and 
                      responsibilities that could be transferred to the 
                      commercial space sector;
                          ``(iii) the metrics that would indicate the 
                      commercial space sector's readiness and ability to 
                      assume the functions, roles, and responsibilities 
                      described in clause (ii); and
                          ``(iv) any necessary changes to any agreements 
                      or other documents and the law to enable the 
                      activities described in subparagraphs (A) and (B).
            ``(3) Demonstrations.--If additional Government crew, power, 
        and transportation resources are available after meeting

[[Page 131 STAT. 29]]

        the Administration's requirements for ISS activities defined in 
        the human exploration roadmap and related research, 
        demonstrations identified under paragraph (2) may--
                    ``(A) test the capabilities needed to meet future 
                mission requirements, space exploration objectives, and 
                other research objectives described in paragraph (2)(A); 
                and
                    ``(B) demonstrate or test capabilities, including 
                commercial modules or deep space habitats, Environmental 
                Control and Life Support Systems, orbital satellite 
                assembly, exploration space suits, a node that enables a 
                wide variety of activity, including multiple commercial 
                modules and airlocks, additional docking or berthing 
                ports for commercial crew and cargo, opportunities for 
                the commercial space sector to cost share for 
                transportation and other services on the ISS, other 
                commercial activities, or services obtained through 
                alternate acquisition approaches.''.
SEC. 304. SPACE COMMUNICATIONS.

    (a) <<NOTE: Consultation. Time period.>>  Plan.--The Administrator 
shall develop a plan, in consultation with relevant Federal agencies, to 
meet the Administration's projected space communication and navigation 
needs for low-Earth orbit and deep space operations in the 20-year 
period following the date of enactment of this Act.

    (b) <<NOTE: Cost estimates.>>  Contents.--The plan shall include--
            (1) the lifecycle cost estimates and a 5-year funding 
        profile;
            (2) the performance capabilities required to meet the 
        Administration's projected space communication and navigation 
        needs;
            (3) the measures the Administration will take to sustain the 
        existing space communications and navigation architecture;
            (4) an identification of the projected space communications 
        and navigation network and infrastructure needs;
            (5) a description of the necessary upgrades to meet the 
        needs identified in paragraph (4), including--
                    (A) an estimate of the cost of the upgrades;
                    (B) a schedule for implementing the upgrades; and
                    (C) <<NOTE: Assessment.>>  an assessment of whether 
                and how any related missions will be impacted if 
                resources are not secured at the level needed;
            (6) the cost estimates for the maintenance of existing space 
        communications network capabilities necessary to meet the needs 
        identified in paragraph (4);
            (7) <<NOTE: Criteria.>>  the criteria for prioritizing 
        resources for the upgrades described in paragraph (5) and the 
        maintenance described in paragraph (6);
            (8) an estimate of any reimbursement amounts the 
        Administration may receive from other Federal agencies;
            (9) <<NOTE: Time period.>>  an identification of the 
        projected Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System needs in the 
        20-year period following the date of enactment of this Act, 
        including in support of relevant Federal agencies, and cost and 
        schedule estimates to maintain and upgrade the Tracking and Data 
        Relay Satellite System to meet the projected needs;
            (10) the measures the Administration is taking to meet space 
        communications needs after all Tracking and Data Relay Satellite 
        System third-generation communications satellites are 
        operational; and

[[Page 131 STAT. 30]]

            (11) the measures the Administration is taking to mitigate 
        threats to electromagnetic spectrum use.

    (c) <<NOTE: Deadline.>>  Schedule.--Not later than 1 year after the 
date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit the plan 
to the appropriate committees of Congress.
SEC. 305. INDEMNIFICATION; NASA LAUNCH SERVICES AND REENTRY 
                        SERVICES.

    (a) In General.--Subchapter III of chapter 201 of title 51, United 
States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following:
``Sec. 20148. <<NOTE: 51 USC 20148.>>  Indemnification; NASA 
                    launch services and reentry services

    ``(a) <<NOTE: Regulations. Contracts.>>  In General.--Under such 
regulations in conformity with this section as the Administrator shall 
prescribe taking into account the availability, cost, and terms of 
liability insurance, any contract between the Administration and a 
provider may provide that the United States will indemnify the provider 
against successful claims (including reasonable expenses of litigation 
or settlement) by third parties for death, bodily injury, or loss of or 
damage to property resulting from launch services and reentry services 
carried out under the contract that the contract defines as unusually 
hazardous or nuclear in nature, but only to the extent the total amount 
of successful claims related to the activities under the contract--
            ``(1) is more than the amount of insurance or demonstration 
        of financial responsibility described in subsection (c)(3); and
            ``(2) is not more than the amount specified in section 
        50915(a)(1)(B).

    ``(b) <<NOTE: Contracts.>>  Terms of Indemnification.--A contract 
made under subsection (a) that provides indemnification shall provide 
for--
            ``(1) <<NOTE: Notice.>>  notice to the United States of any 
        claim or suit against the provider for death, bodily injury, or 
        loss of or damage to property; and
            ``(2) control of or assistance in the defense by the United 
        States, at its election, of that claim or suit and approval of 
        any settlement.

    ``(c) Liability Insurance of the Provider.--
            ``(1) In general.--The provider under subsection (a) shall 
        obtain liability insurance or demonstrate financial 
        responsibility in amounts to compensate for the maximum probable 
        loss from claims by--
                    ``(A) a third party for death, bodily injury, or 
                property damage or loss resulting from a launch service 
                or reentry service carried out under the contract; and
                    ``(B) the United States Government for damage or 
                loss to Government property resulting from a launch 
                service or reentry service carried out under the 
                contract.
            ``(2) Maximum probable losses.--
                    ``(A) <<NOTE: Determination. Deadline.>>  In 
                general.--The Administrator shall determine the maximum 
                probable losses under subparagraphs (A) and (B) of 
                paragraph (1) not later than 90 days after the date that 
                the provider requests such a determination and submits 
                all information the Administrator requires.
                    ``(B) Revisions.--The Administrator may revise a 
                determination under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph 
                if the Administrator determines the revision is 
                warranted based on new information.

[[Page 131 STAT. 31]]

            ``(3) Amount of insurance.--For the total claims related to 
        one launch or reentry, a provider shall not be required to 
        obtain insurance or demonstrate financial responsibility of more 
        than--
                    ``(A)(i) $500,000,000 under paragraph (1)(A); or
                          ``(ii) $100,000,000 under paragraph (1)(B); or
                    ``(B) the maximum liability insurance available on 
                the world market at reasonable cost.
            ``(4) Coverage.--An insurance policy or demonstration of 
        financial responsibility under this subsection shall protect the 
        following, to the extent of their potential liability for 
        involvement in launch services or reentry services:
                    ``(A) The Government.
                    ``(B) Personnel of the Government.
                    ``(C) Related entities of the Government.
                    ``(D) Related entities of the provider.
                    ``(E) Government astronauts.

    ``(d) No Indemnification Without Cross-waiver.--Notwithstanding 
subsection (a), the Administrator may not indemnify a provider under 
this section unless there is a cross-waiver between the Administration 
and the provider as described in subsection (e).
    ``(e) Cross-Waivers.--
            ``(1) In general.--The Administrator, on behalf of the 
        United States and its departments, agencies, and 
        instrumentalities, shall reciprocally waive claims with a 
        provider under which each party to the waiver agrees to be 
        responsible, and agrees to ensure that its related entities are 
        responsible, for damage or loss to its property, or for losses 
        resulting from any injury or death sustained by its employees or 
        agents, as a result of activities arising out of the performance 
        of the contract.
            ``(2) Limitation.--The waiver made by the Government under 
        paragraph (1) shall apply only to the extent that the claims are 
        more than the amount of insurance or demonstration of financial 
        responsibility required under subsection (c)(1)(B).

    ``(f) Willful Misconduct.--Indemnification under subsection (a) may 
exclude claims resulting from the willful misconduct of the provider or 
its related entities.
    ``(g) Certification of Just and Reasonable Amount.--No payment may 
be made under subsection (a) unless the Administrator or the 
Administrator's designee certifies that the amount is just and 
reasonable.
    ``(h) Payments.--
            ``(1) In general.--Upon the approval by the Administrator, 
        payments under subsection (a) may be made from funds 
        appropriated for such payments.
            ``(2) Limitation.--The Administrator shall not approve 
        payments under paragraph (1), except to the extent provided in 
        an appropriation law or to the extent additional legislative 
        authority is enacted providing for such payments.
            ``(3) Additional appropriations.--If the Administrator 
        requests additional appropriations to make payments under this 
        subsection, then the request for those appropriations shall be 
        made in accordance with the procedures established under section 
        50915.

    ``(i) Rules of Construction.--

[[Page 131 STAT. 32]]

            ``(1) In general.--The authority to indemnify under this 
        section shall not create any rights in third persons that would 
        not otherwise exist by law.
            ``(2) Other authority.--Nothing in this section may be 
        construed as prohibiting the Administrator from indemnifying a 
        provider or any other NASA contractor under other law, including 
        under Public Law 85-804 (50 U.S.C. 1431 et seq.).
            ``(3) Anti-deficiency act.--Notwithstanding any other 
        provision of this section--
                    ``(A) all obligations under this section are subject 
                to the availability of funds; and
                    ``(B) nothing in this section may be construed to 
                require obligation or payment of funds in violation of 
                sections 1341, 1342, 1349 through 1351, and 1511 through 
                1519 of title 31, United States Code (commonly referred 
                to as the `Anti-Deficiency Act').

    ``(j) Relationship to Other Laws.--The Administrator may not provide 
indemnification under this section for an activity that requires a 
license or permit under chapter 509.
    ``(k) Definitions.--In this section:
            ``(1) Government astronaut.--The term `government astronaut' 
        has the meaning given the term in section 50902.
            ``(2) Launch services.--The term `launch services' has the 
        meaning given the term in section 50902.
            ``(3) Provider.--The term `provider' means a person that 
        provides domestic launch services or domestic reentry services 
        to the Government.
            ``(4) Reentry services.--The term `reentry services' has the 
        meaning given the term in section 50902.
            ``(5) Related entity.--The term `related entity' means a 
        contractor or subcontractor.
            ``(6) Third party.--The term `third party' means a person 
        except--
                    ``(A) the United States Government;
                    ``(B) related entities of the Government involved in 
                launch services or reentry services;
                    ``(C) a provider;
                    ``(D) related entities of the provider involved in 
                launch services or reentry services; or
                    ``(E) a government astronaut.''.

    (b) Conforming Amendment.--The table of contents for subchapter III 
of chapter 201 of title 51, <<NOTE: 51 USC 20101 prec.>>  United States 
Code, is amended by inserting after the item relating to section 20147 
the following:

``20148. Indemnification; NASA launch services and reentry services.''.

[[Page 131 STAT. 33]]

            TITLE IV--ADVANCING HUMAN DEEP SPACE EXPLORATION

   Subtitle A--Human Space Flight and Exploration Goals and Objectives

SEC. 411. HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT AND EXPLORATION LONG-TERM GOALS.

    Section 202(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18312(a)) is amended to read as 
follows:
    ``(a) Long-term Goals.--The long-term goals of the human space 
flight and exploration efforts of NASA shall be--
            ``(1) to expand permanent human presence beyond low-Earth 
        orbit and to do so, where practical, in a manner involving 
        international, academic, and industry partners;
            ``(2) crewed missions and progress toward achieving the goal 
        in paragraph (1) to enable the potential for subsequent human 
        exploration and the extension of human presence throughout the 
        solar system; and
            ``(3) to enable a capability to extend human presence, 
        including potential human habitation on another celestial body 
        and a thriving space economy in the 21st Century.''.
SEC. 412. KEY OBJECTIVES.

    Section 202(b) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18312(b)) is amended--
            (1) in paragraph (3), by striking ``; and'' and inserting a 
        semicolon;
            (2) in paragraph (4), by striking the period at the end and 
        inserting ``; and''; and
            (3) by adding at the end the following:
            ``(5) to achieve human exploration of Mars and beyond 
        through the prioritization of those technologies and 
        capabilities best suited for such a mission in accordance with 
        the stepping stone approach to exploration under section 70504 
        of title 51, United States Code.''.
SEC. 413. VISION FOR SPACE EXPLORATION.

    Section 20302 of title 51, United States Code, is amended--
            (1) in subsection (a), by inserting ``in cis-lunar space 
        or'' after ``sustained human presence'';
            (2) by amending subsection (b) to read as follows:

    ``(b) Future Exploration of Mars.--The Administrator shall manage 
human space flight programs, including the Space Launch System and 
Orion, to enable humans to explore Mars and other destinations by 
defining a series of sustainable steps and conducting mission planning, 
research, and technology development on a timetable that is technically 
and fiscally possible, consistent with section 70504.''; and
            (3) by adding at the end the following:

    ``(c) Definitions.--In this section:
            ``(1) Orion.--The term `Orion' means the multipurpose crew 
        vehicle described under section 303 of the National Aeronautics

[[Page 131 STAT. 34]]

        and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 
        18323).
            ``(2) Space launch system.--The term `Space Launch System' 
        means has the meaning given the term in section 3 of the 
        National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act 
        of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18302).''.
SEC. 414. STEPPING STONE APPROACH TO EXPLORATION.

    Section 70504 of title 51, United States Code, is amended to read as 
follows:
``Sec. 70504. Stepping stone approach to exploration

    ``(a) In General.--The Administration--
            ``(1) may conduct missions to intermediate destinations in 
        sustainable steps in accordance with section 20302(b) of this 
        title, and on a timetable determined by the availability of 
        funding, in order to achieve the objective of human exploration 
        of Mars specified in section 202(b)(5) of the National 
        Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 
        (42 U.S.C. 18312(b)(5)); and
            ``(2) shall incorporate any such missions into the human 
        exploration roadmap under section 432 of the National 
        Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition Authorization 
        Act of 2017.

    ``(b) Cost-effectiveness.--In order to maximize the cost-
effectiveness of the long-term space exploration and utilization 
activities of the United States, the Administrator shall take all 
necessary steps, including engaging international, academic, and 
industry partners, to ensure that activities in the Administration's 
human space exploration program balance how those activities might also 
help meet the requirements of future exploration and utilization 
activities leading to human habitation on the surface of Mars.
    ``(c) Completion.--Within budgetary considerations, once an 
exploration-related project enters its development phase, the 
Administrator shall seek, to the maximum extent practicable, to complete 
that project without undue delays.
    ``(d) International Participation.--In order to achieve the goal of 
successfully conducting a crewed mission to the surface of Mars, the 
President may invite the United States partners in the ISS program and 
other nations, as appropriate, to participate in an international 
initiative under the leadership of the United States.''.
SEC. 415. UPDATE OF EXPLORATION PLAN AND PROGRAMS.

    Section 70502(2) of title 51, United States Code, is amended to read 
as follows:
            ``(2) implement an exploration research and technology 
        development program to enable human and robotic operations 
        consistent with section 20302(b) of this title;''.
SEC. 416. REPEALS.

    (a)  Space Shuttle Capability Assurance.--Section 203 of the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 
(42 U.S.C. 18313) is amended--
            (1) by striking subsection (b);
            (2) in subsection (d), by striking ``subsection (c)'' and 
        inserting ``subsection (b)''; and

[[Page 131 STAT. 35]]

            (3) by redesignating subsections (c) and (d) as subsections 
        (b) and (c), respectively.

    (b) Shuttle Pricing Policy for Commercial and Foreign Users.--
Chapter 703 of title 51, United States Code, and the item relating to 
that chapter in the table of chapters for that title, are repealed.
    (c) Shuttle Privatization.--Section 50133 of title 51, United States 
Code, and the item relating to that section in the table of sections for 
chapter 501 <<NOTE: 51 USC 50101 prec.>>  of that title, are repealed.
SEC. 417. ASSURED ACCESS TO SPACE.

    Section 70501 of title 51, United States Code, is amended--
            (1) by amending subsection (a) to read as follows:

    ``(a) Policy Statement.--In order to ensure continuous United States 
participation and leadership in the exploration and utilization of space 
and as an essential instrument of national security, it is the policy of 
the United States to maintain an uninterrupted capability for human 
space flight and operations--
            ``(1) in low-Earth orbit; and
            ``(2) beyond low-Earth orbit once the capabilities described 
        in section 421(f) of the National Aeronautics and Space 
        Administration Transition Authorization Act of 2017 become 
        available.''; and
            (2) in subsection (b), by striking ``Committee on Science 
        and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee 
        on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate 
        describing the progress being made toward developing the Crew 
        Exploration Vehicle and the Crew Launch Vehicle'' and inserting 
        ``Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the 
        Senate and the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of 
        the House of Representatives describing the progress being made 
        toward developing the Space Launch System and Orion''.

         Subtitle B--Assuring Core Capabilities for Exploration

SEC. 421. <<NOTE: 51 USC 20301 note.>>  SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEM, 
                        ORION, AND EXPLORATION GROUND SYSTEMS.

    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
            (1) NASA has made steady progress in developing and testing 
        the Space Launch System and Orion exploration systems with the 
        successful Exploration Flight Test of Orion in December of 2014, 
        the final qualification test firing of the 5-segment Space 
        Launch System boosters in June 2016, and a full thrust, full 
        duration test firing of the RS-25 Space Launch System core stage 
        engine in August 2016.
            (2) Through the 21st Century Launch Complex program and 
        Exploration Ground Systems programs, NASA has made significant 
        progress in transforming exploration ground systems 
        infrastructure to meet NASA's mission requirements for the Space 
        Launch System and Orion and to modernize NASA's launch complexes 
        to the benefit of the civil, defense, and commercial space 
        sectors.

    (b) Space Launch System.--

[[Page 131 STAT. 36]]

            (1) Sense of congress.--It is the sense of Congress that use 
        of the Space Launch System and Orion, with contributions from 
        partnerships with the private sector, academia, and the 
        international community, is the most practical approach to 
        reaching the Moon, Mars, and beyond.
            (2) Reaffirmation.--Congress reaffirms the policy and 
        minimum capability requirements for the Space Launch System 
        under section 302 of the National Aeronautics and Space 
        Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18322).

    (c) Sense of Congress on Space Launch System, Orion, and Exploration 
Ground Systems.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) as the United States works to send humans on a series of 
        missions to Mars in the 2030s, the United States national space 
        program should continue to make progress on its commitment by 
        fully developing the Space Launch System, Orion, and related 
        Exploration Ground Systems;
            (2) using the Space Launch System and Orion for a wide range 
        of contemplated missions will facilitate the national defense, 
        science, and exploration objectives of the United States;
            (3) the United States should have continuity of purpose for 
        the Space Launch System and Orion in deep space exploration 
        missions, using them beginning with the uncrewed mission, EM-1, 
        planned for 2018, followed by the crewed mission, EM-2, in cis-
        lunar space planned for 2021, and for subsequent missions 
        beginning with EM-3 extending into cis-lunar space and 
        eventually to Mars;
            (4) the President's annual budget requests for the Space 
        Launch System and Orion development, test, and operational 
        phases should strive to accurately reflect the resource 
        requirements of each of those phases;
            (5) the fully integrated Space Launch System, including an 
        upper stage needed to go beyond low-Earth orbit, will safely 
        enable human space exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond; 
        and
            (6) the Administrator should budget for and undertake a 
        robust ground test and uncrewed and crewed flight test and 
        demonstration program for the Space Launch System and Orion in 
        order to promote safety and reduce programmatic risk.

    (d) In General.--The Administrator shall continue the development of 
the fully integrated Space Launch System, including an upper stage 
needed to go beyond low-Earth orbit, in order to safely enable human 
space exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond over the course of the 
next century as required in section 302(c) of the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18322(c)).
    (e) Report.--
            (1) In general.--Not later than 60 days after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the 
        appropriate committees of Congress a report addressing the 
        ability of Orion to meet the needs and the minimum capability 
        requirements described in section 303(b)(3) of the National 
        Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 
        (42 U.S.C. 18323(b)(3)).
            (2) Contents.--The report shall detail--

[[Page 131 STAT. 37]]

                    (A) those components and systems of Orion that 
                ensure it is in compliance with section 303(b)(3) of 
                that Act (42 U.S.C. 18323(b)(3));
                    (B) the expected date that Orion, integrated with a 
                vehicle other than the Space Launch System, could be 
                available to transport crew and cargo to the ISS;
                    (C) any impacts to the deep space exploration 
                missions under subsection (f) of this section due to 
                enabling Orion to meet the minimum capability 
                requirements described in section 303(b)(3) of that Act 
                (42 U.S.C. 18323(b)(3)) and conducting the mission 
                described in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph; and
                    (D) the overall cost and schedule impacts associated 
                with enabling Orion to meet the minimum capability 
                requirements described in section 303(b)(3) of that Act 
                (42 U.S.C. 18323(b)(3)) and conducting the mission 
                described in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph.

    (f) Exploration Missions.--The Administrator shall continue 
development of--
            (1) an uncrewed exploration mission to demonstrate the 
        capability of both the Space Launch System and Orion as an 
        integrated system by 2018;
            (2) subject to applicable human rating processes and 
        requirements, a crewed exploration mission to demonstrate the 
        Space Launch System, including the Core Stage and Exploration 
        Upper Stages, by 2021;
            (3) subsequent missions beginning with EM-3 at operational 
        flight rate sufficient to maintain safety and operational 
        readiness using the Space Launch System and Orion to extend into 
        cis-lunar space and eventually to Mars; and
            (4) a deep space habitat as a key element in a deep space 
        exploration architecture along with the Space Launch System and 
        Orion.

    (g) <<NOTE: Assessment.>>  Other Uses.--The Administrator shall 
assess the utility of the Space Launch System for use by the science 
community and for other Federal Government launch needs, including 
consideration of overall cost and schedule savings from reduced transit 
times and increased science returns enabled by the unique capabilities 
of the Space Launch System.

    (h) Utilization Report.--
            (1) <<NOTE: Consultation.>>  In general.--The Administrator, 
        in consultation with the Secretary of Defense and the Director 
        of National Intelligence, shall prepare a report that addresses 
        the effort and budget required to enable and utilize a cargo 
        variant of the 130-ton Space Launch System configuration 
        described in section 302(c) of the National Aeronautics and 
        Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 
        18322(c)).
            (2) Contents.--In preparing the report, the Administrator 
        shall--
                    (A) consider the technical requirements of the 
                scientific and national security communities related to 
                a cargo variant of the Space Launch System; and
                    (B) <<NOTE: Assessment.>>  directly assess the 
                utility and estimated cost savings obtained by using a 
                cargo variant of the Space Launch System for national 
                security and space science missions.

[[Page 131 STAT. 38]]

            (3) Submission to congress.--Not later than 180 days after 
        the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall 
        submit the report to the appropriate committees of Congress.

                       Subtitle C--Journey to Mars

SEC. 431. <<NOTE: 51 USC 20302 note.>>  FINDINGS ON HUMAN SPACE 
                        EXPLORATION.

    Congress makes the following findings:
            (1) In accordance with section 204 of the National 
        Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 
        (124 Stat. 2813), the National Academies of Sciences, 
        Engineering, and Medicine, through its Committee on Human 
        Spaceflight, conducted a review of the goals, core capabilities, 
        and direction of human space flight, and published the findings 
        and recommendations in a 2014 report entitled, ``Pathways to 
        Exploration: Rationales and Approaches for a U.S. Program of 
        Human Space Exploration''.
            (2) The Committee on Human Spaceflight included leaders from 
        the aerospace, scientific, security, and policy communities.
            (3) With input from the public, the Committee on Human 
        Spaceflight concluded that many practical and aspirational 
        rationales for human space flight together constitute a 
        compelling case for continued national investment and pursuit of 
        human space exploration toward the horizon goal of Mars.
            (4) According to the Committee on Human Spaceflight, the 
        rationales include economic benefits, national security, 
        national prestige, inspiring students and other citizens, 
        scientific discovery, human survival, and a sense of shared 
        destiny.
            (5) The Committee on Human Spaceflight affirmed that Mars is 
        the appropriate long-term goal for the human space flight 
        program.
            (6) The Committee on Human Spaceflight recommended that NASA 
        define a series of sustainable steps and conduct mission 
        planning and technology development as needed to achieve the 
        long-term goal of placing humans on the surface of Mars.
            (7) Expanding human presence beyond low-Earth orbit and 
        advancing toward human missions to Mars requires early planning 
        and timely decisions to be made in the near-term on the 
        necessary courses of action for commitments to achieve short-
        term and long-term goals and objectives.
            (8) In addition to the 2014 report described in paragraph 
        (1), there are several independently developed reports or 
        concepts that describe potential Mars architectures or concepts 
        and identify Mars as the long-term goal for human space 
        exploration, including NASA's ``The Global Exploration Roadmap'' 
        of 2013, ``NASA's Journey to Mars-Pioneering Next Steps in Space 
        Exploration'' of 2015, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's 
        ``Minimal Architecture for Human Journeys to Mars'' of 2015, and 
        Explore Mars' ``The Humans to Mars Report 2016''.
SEC. 432. <<NOTE: 51 USC 20302 note.>>  HUMAN EXPLORATION ROADMAP.

    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) expanding human presence beyond low-Earth orbit and 
        advancing toward human missions to Mars in the 2030s

[[Page 131 STAT. 39]]

        requires early strategic planning and timely decisions to be 
        made in the near-term on the necessary courses of action for 
        commitments to achieve short-term and long-term goals and 
        objectives;
            (2) for strong and sustained United States leadership, a 
        need exists to advance a human exploration roadmap, addressing 
        exploration objectives in collaboration with international, 
        academic, and industry partners;
            (3) an approach that incrementally advances toward a long-
        term goal is one in which nearer-term developments and 
        implementation would influence future development and 
        implementation; and
            (4) a human exploration roadmap should begin with low-Earth 
        orbit, then address in greater detail progress beyond low-Earth 
        orbit to cis-lunar space, and then address future missions aimed 
        at human arrival and activities near and then on the surface of 
        Mars.

    (b) Human Exploration Roadmap.--
            (1) <<NOTE: Plan.>>  In general.--The Administrator shall 
        develop a human exploration roadmap, including a critical 
        decision plan, to expand human presence beyond low-Earth orbit 
        to the surface of Mars and beyond, considering potential interim 
        destinations such as cis-lunar space and the moons of Mars.
            (2) Scope.--The human exploration roadmap shall include--
                    (A) an integrated set of exploration, science, and 
                other goals and objectives of a United States human 
                space exploration program to achieve the long-term goal 
                of human missions near or on the surface of Mars in the 
                2030s;
                    (B) opportunities for international, academic, and 
                industry partnerships for exploration-related systems, 
                services, research, and technology if those 
                opportunities provide cost-savings, accelerate program 
                schedules, or otherwise benefit the goals and objectives 
                developed under subparagraph (A);
                    (C) sets and sequences of precursor missions in cis-
                lunar space and other missions or activities necessary--
                          (i) to demonstrate the proficiency of the 
                      capabilities and technologies identified under 
                      subparagraph (D); and
                          (ii) to meet the goals and objectives 
                      developed under subparagraph (A), including 
                      anticipated timelines and missions for the Space 
                      Launch System and Orion;
                    (D) an identification of the specific capabilities 
                and technologies, including the Space Launch System, 
                Orion, a deep space habitat, and other capabilities, 
                that facilitate the goals and objectives developed under 
                subparagraph (A);
                    (E) a description of how cis-lunar elements, 
                objectives, and activities advance the human exploration 
                of Mars;
                    (F) <<NOTE: Assessment.>>  an assessment of 
                potential human health and other risks, including 
                radiation exposure;
                    (G) <<NOTE: Mitigation plans.>>  mitigation plans, 
                whenever possible, to address the risks identified in 
                subparagraph (F);
                    (H) a description of those technologies already 
                under development across the Federal Government or by 
                other

[[Page 131 STAT. 40]]

                entities that facilitate the goals and objectives 
                developed under subparagraph (A);
                    (I) a specific process for the evolution of the 
                capabilities of the fully integrated Orion with the 
                Space Launch System and a description of how these 
                systems facilitate the goals and objectives developed 
                under subparagraph (A) and demonstrate the capabilities 
                and technologies described in subparagraph (D);
                    (J) a description of the capabilities and 
                technologies that need to be demonstrated or research 
                data that could be gained through the utilization of the 
                ISS and the status of the development of such 
                capabilities and technologies;
                    (K) <<NOTE: Assessment.>>  a framework for 
                international cooperation in the development of all 
                capabilities and technologies identified under this 
                section, including an assessment of the risks posed by 
                relying on international partners for capabilities and 
                technologies on the critical path of development;
                    (L) a process for partnering with nongovernmental 
                entities using Space Act Agreements or other acquisition 
                instruments for future human space exploration; and
                    (M) include information on the phasing of planned 
                intermediate destinations, Mars mission risk areas and 
                potential risk mitigation approaches, technology 
                requirements and phasing of required technology 
                development activities, the management strategy to be 
                followed, related ISS activities, planned international 
                collaborative activities, potential commercial 
                contributions, and other activities relevant to the 
                achievement of the goal established in this section.
            (3) Considerations.--In developing the human exploration 
        roadmap, the Administrator shall consider--
                    (A) using key exploration capabilities, namely the 
                Space Launch System and Orion;
                    (B) using existing commercially available 
                technologies and capabilities or those technologies and 
                capabilities being developed by industry for commercial 
                purposes;
                    (C) establishing an organizational approach to 
                ensure collaboration and coordination among NASA's 
                Mission Directorates under section 821, when 
                appropriate, including to collect and return to Earth a 
                sample from the Martian surface;
                    (D) building upon the initial uncrewed mission, EM-
                1, and first crewed mission, EM-2, of the Space Launch 
                System and Orion to establish a sustainable cadence of 
                missions extending human exploration missions into cis-
                lunar space, including anticipated timelines and 
                milestones;
                    (E) developing the robotic and precursor missions 
                and activities that will demonstrate, test, and develop 
                key technologies and capabilities essential for 
                achieving human missions to Mars, including long-
                duration human operations beyond low-Earth orbit, space 
                suits, solar electric propulsion, deep space habitats, 
                environmental control life support systems, Mars lander 
                and ascent vehicle, entry, descent, landing, ascent, 
                Mars surface systems, and in-situ resource utilization;

[[Page 131 STAT. 41]]

                    (F) demonstrating and testing 1 or more habitat 
                modules in cis-lunar space to prepare for Mars missions;
                    (G) using public-private, firm fixed-price 
                partnerships, where practicable;
                    (H) collaborating with international, academic, and 
                industry partners, when appropriate;
                    (I) any risks to human health and sensitive onboard 
                technologies, including radiation exposure;
                    (J) any risks identified through research outcomes 
                under the NASA Human Research Program's Behavioral 
                Health Element; and
                    (K) the recommendations and ideas of several 
                independently developed reports or concepts that 
                describe potential Mars architectures or concepts and 
                identify Mars as the long-term goal for human space 
                exploration, including the reports described under 
                section 431.
            (4) Critical decision plan on human space exploration.--As 
        part of the human exploration roadmap, the Administrator shall 
        include a critical decision plan--
                    (A) <<NOTE: Deadline.>>  identifying and defining 
                key decisions guiding human space exploration priorities 
                and plans that need to be made before June 30, 2020, 
                including decisions that may guide human space 
                exploration capability development, precursor missions, 
                long-term missions, and activities;
                    (B) defining decisions needed to maximize 
                efficiencies and resources for reaching the near, 
                intermediate, and long-term goals and objectives of 
                human space exploration; and
                    (C) identifying and defining timelines and 
                milestones for a sustainable cadence of missions 
                beginning with EM-3 for the Space Launch System and 
                Orion to extend human exploration from cis-lunar space 
                to the surface of Mars.
            (5) Reports.--
                    (A) Initial human exploration roadmap.--The 
                Administrator shall submit to the appropriate committees 
                of Congress--
                          (i) <<NOTE: Plan.>>  an initial human 
                      exploration roadmap, including a critical decision 
                      plan, before December 1, 2017; and
                          (ii) an updated human exploration roadmap 
                      periodically as the Administrator considers 
                      necessary but not less than biennially.
                    (B) <<NOTE: Time periods.>>  Contents.--Each human 
                exploration roadmap under this paragraph shall include a 
                description of--
                          (i) the achievements and goals accomplished in 
                      the process of developing such capabilities and 
                      technologies during the 2-year period prior to the 
                      submission of the human exploration roadmap; and
                          (ii) the expected goals and achievements in 
                      the following 2- year period.
                    (C) Submission with budget.--Each human exploration 
                roadmap under this section shall be included in the 
                budget for that fiscal year transmitted to Congress 
                under section 1105(a) of title 31, United States Code.

[[Page 131 STAT. 42]]

SEC. 433. <<NOTE: Deadline. Plan. Evaluation.>>  ADVANCED SPACE 
                        SUIT CAPABILITY.

    Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the 
Administrator shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a 
detailed plan for achieving an advanced space suit capability that 
aligns with the crew needs for exploration enabled by the Space Launch 
System and Orion, including an evaluation of the merit of delivering the 
planned suit system for use on the ISS.
SEC. 434. ASTEROID ROBOTIC REDIRECT MISSION.

    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
            (1) NASA initially estimated that the Asteroid Robotic 
        Redirect Mission would launch in December 2020 and cost no more 
        than $1,250,000,000, excluding launch and operations.
            (2) On July 15, 2016, NASA conducted its Key Decision Point-
        B review of the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission or approval 
        for Phase B in mission formulation.
            (3) During the Key Decision Point-B review, NASA estimated 
        that costs have grown to $1,400,000,000 excluding launch and 
        operations for a launch in December 2021 and the agency must 
        evaluate whether to accept the increase or reduce the Asteroid 
        Robotic Redirect Mission's scope to stay within the cost cap set 
        by the Administrator.
            (4) In April 2015, the NASA Advisory Council--
                    (A) issued a finding that--
                          (i) high-performance solar electric propulsion 
                      will likely be an important part of an 
                      architecture to send humans to Mars; and
                          (ii) maneuvering a large test mass is not 
                      necessary to provide a valid in-space test of a 
                      new solar electric propulsion stage;
                    (B) determined that a solar electric propulsion 
                mission will contribute more directly to the goal of 
                sending humans to Mars if the mission is focused 
                entirely on development and validation of the solar 
                electric propulsion stage; and
                    (C) determined that other possible motivations for 
                acquiring and maneuvering a boulder, such as asteroid 
                science and planetary defense, do not have value 
                commensurate with their probable cost.
            (5) The Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission is competing for 
        resources with other critical exploration development programs, 
        including the Space Launch System, Orion, commercial crew, and a 
        habitation module.
            (6) In 2014, the NASA Advisory Council recommended that NASA 
        conduct an independent cost and technical assessment of the 
        Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission.
            (7) In 2015, the NASA Advisory Council recommended that NASA 
        preserve the following key objectives if the program needed to 
        be descoped:
                    (A) Development of high power solar electric 
                propulsion.
                    (B) Ability to maneuver in a low gravity environment 
                in deep space.
            (8) In January 2015 and July 2015, the NASA Advisory Council 
        expressed its concern to NASA about the potential for growing 
        costs for the program and highlighted that choices would need to 
        be made about the program's content.

[[Page 131 STAT. 43]]

    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) the technological and scientific goals of the Asteroid 
        Robotic Redirect Mission have not been demonstrated to Congress 
        to be commensurate with the cost; and
            (2) alternative missions may provide a more cost effective 
        and scientifically beneficial means to demonstrate the 
        technologies needed for a human mission to Mars that would 
        otherwise be demonstrated by the Asteroid Robotic Redirect 
        Mission.

    (c) Evaluation and Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date 
of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall--
            (1) conduct an evaluation of--
                    (A) alternative approaches to the Asteroid Robotic 
                Redirect Mission for demonstrating the technologies and 
                capabilities needed for a human mission to Mars that 
                would otherwise be demonstrated by the Asteroid Robotic 
                Redirect Mission;
                    (B) the scientific and technical benefits of the 
                alternative approaches under subparagraph (A) to future 
                human space exploration compared to scientific and 
                technical benefits of the Asteroid Redirect Robotic 
                Mission;
                    (C) the commercial benefits of the alternative 
                approaches identified in subparagraph (A), including the 
                impact on the development of domestic solar electric 
                propulsion technology to bolster United States 
                competitiveness in the global marketplace; and
                    (D) a comparison of the estimated costs of the 
                alternative approaches identified in subparagraph (A); 
                and
            (2) <<NOTE: Recommenda- tions.>>  submit to the appropriate 
        committees of Congress a report on the evaluation under 
        paragraph (1), including any recommendations.
SEC. 435. MARS 2033 REPORT.

    (a) <<NOTE: Contracts. Study.>>  In General.--Not later than 120 
days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall 
contract with an independent, non-governmental systems engineering and 
technical assistance organization to study a Mars human space flight 
mission to be launched in 2033.

    (b) Contents.--The study shall include--
            (1) <<NOTE: Plan.>>  a technical development, test, 
        fielding, and operations plan using the Space Launch System, 
        Orion, and other systems to successfully launch such a Mars 
        human space flight mission by 2033;
            (2) <<NOTE: Cost estimates.>>  an annual budget profile, 
        including cost estimates, for the technical development, test, 
        fielding, and operations plan to carry out a Mars human space 
        flight mission by 2033; and
            (3) a comparison of the annual budget profile to the 5-year 
        budget profile contained in the President's budget request for 
        fiscal year 2017 under section 1105 of title 31, United States 
        Code.

    (c) <<NOTE: Recommenda- tions.>>  Report.--Not later than 180 days 
after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit 
to the appropriate committees of Congress a report on the study, 
including findings and recommendations regarding the Mars 2033 human 
space flight mission described in subsection (a).

    (d) Assessment.--Not later than 60 days after the date the report is 
submitted under subsection (c), the Administrator shall

[[Page 131 STAT. 44]]

submit to the appropriate committees of Congress an assessment by the 
NASA Advisory Council of whether the proposal for a Mars human space 
flight mission to be launched in 2033 is in the strategic interests of 
the United States in space exploration.

  Subtitle <<NOTE: To Research, Evaluate, Assess, and Treat Astronauts 
Act. 51 USC 10101 note.>>  D--TREAT Astronauts Act
SEC. 441. SHORT TITLE.

    This subtitle may be cited as the ``To Research, Evaluate, Assess, 
and Treat Astronauts Act'' or the ``TREAT Astronauts Act''.
SEC. 442. FINDINGS; SENSE OF CONGRESS.

    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
            (1) Human space exploration can pose significant challenges 
        and is full of substantial risk, which has ultimately claimed 
        the lives of 24 NASA astronauts serving in the line of duty.
            (2) As United States government astronauts participate in 
        long-duration and exploration space flight missions they may 
        experience increased health risks, such as vision impairment, 
        bone demineralization, and behavioral health and performance 
        risks, and may be exposed to galactic cosmic radiation. Exposure 
        to high levels of radiation and microgravity can result in acute 
        and long-term health consequences that can increase the risk of 
        cancer and tissue degeneration and have potential effects on the 
        musculoskeletal system, central nervous system, cardiovascular 
        system, immune function, and vision.
            (3) <<NOTE: Scott Kelly. Mark Kelly.>>  To advance the goal 
        of long-duration and exploration space flight missions, United 
        States government astronaut Scott Kelly participated in a 1-year 
        twins study in space while his identical twin brother, former 
        United States government astronaut Mark Kelly, acted as a human 
        control specimen on Earth, providing an understanding of the 
        physical, behavioral, microbiological, and molecular reaction of 
        the human body to an extended period of time in space.
            (4) Since the Administration currently provides medical 
        monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment for United States 
        government astronauts during their active employment, given the 
        unknown long-term health consequences of long-duration space 
        exploration, the Administration has requested statutory 
        authority from Congress to provide medical monitoring, 
        diagnosis, and treatment to former United States government 
        astronauts for psychological and medical conditions associated 
        with human space flight.

    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) the United States should continue to seek the unknown 
        and lead the world in space exploration and scientific discovery 
        as the Administration prepares for long-duration and exploration 
        space flight in deep space and an eventual mission to Mars;
            (2) data relating to the health of astronauts will become 
        increasingly valuable to improving our understanding of many 
        diseases humans face on Earth;
            (3) the Administration should provide the type of 
        monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment described in subsection (a)

[[Page 131 STAT. 45]]

        only for conditions the Administration considers unique to the 
        training or exposure to the space flight environment of United 
        States government astronauts and should not require any former 
        United States Government astronauts to participate in the 
        Administration's monitoring;
            (4) such monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment should not 
        replace a former United States government astronaut's private 
        health insurance;
            (5) expanded data acquired from such monitoring, diagnosis, 
        and treatment should be used to tailor treatment, inform the 
        requirements for new space flight medical hardware, and develop 
        controls in order to prevent disease occurrence in the astronaut 
        corps; and
            (6) the 340-day space mission of Scott Kelly aboard the 
        ISS--
                    (A) was pivotal for the goal of the United States 
                for humans to explore deep space and Mars as the mission 
                generated new insight into how the human body adjusts to 
                weightlessness, isolation, radiation, and the stress of 
                long-duration space flight; and
                    (B) will help support the physical and mental well-
                being of astronauts during longer space exploration 
                missions in the future.
SEC. 443. MEDICAL MONITORING AND RESEARCH RELATING TO HUMAN SPACE 
                        FLIGHT.

    (a) In General.--Subchapter III of chapter 201 of title 51, United 
States Code, as amended by section 305 of this Act, is further amended 
by adding at the end the following:
``Sec. 20149. <<NOTE: 51 USC 20149.>>  Medical monitoring and 
                    research relating to human space flight

    ``(a) In General.--Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the 
Administrator may provide for--
            ``(1) the medical monitoring and diagnosis of a former 
        United States government astronaut or a former payload 
        specialist for conditions that the Administrator considers 
        potentially associated with human space flight; and
            ``(2) the treatment of a former United States government 
        astronaut or a former payload specialist for conditions that the 
        Administrator considers associated with human space flight, 
        including scientific and medical tests for psychological and 
        medical conditions.

    ``(b) Requirements.--
            ``(1) No cost sharing.--The medical monitoring, diagnosis, 
        or treatment described in subsection (a) shall be provided 
        without any deductible, copayment, or other cost sharing 
        obligation.
            ``(2) Access to local services.--The medical monitoring, 
        diagnosis, and treatment described in subsection (a) may be 
        provided by a local health care provider if it is unadvisable 
        due to the health of the applicable former United States 
        government astronaut or former payload specialist for that 
        former United States government astronaut or former payload 
        specialist to travel to the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, as 
        determined by the Administrator.
            ``(3) Secondary payment.--Payment or reimbursement for the 
        medical monitoring, diagnosis, or treatment described in

[[Page 131 STAT. 46]]

        subsection (a) shall be secondary to any obligation of the 
        United States Government or any third party under any other 
        provision of law or contractual agreement to pay for or provide 
        such medical monitoring, diagnosis, or treatment. Any costs for 
        items and services that may be provided by the Administrator for 
        medical monitoring, diagnosis, or treatment under subsection (a) 
        that are not paid for or provided under such other provision of 
        law or contractual agreement, due to the application of 
        deductibles, copayments, coinsurance, other cost sharing, or 
        otherwise, are reimbursable by the Administrator on behalf of 
        the former United States government astronaut or former payload 
        specialist involved to the extent such items or services are 
        authorized to be provided by the Administrator for such medical 
        monitoring, diagnosis, or treatment under subsection (a).
            ``(4) Conditional payment.--The Administrator may provide 
        for conditional payments for or provide medical monitoring, 
        diagnosis, or treatment described in subsection (a) that is 
        obligated to be paid for or provided by the United States or any 
        third party under any other provision of law or contractual 
        agreement to pay for or provide such medical monitoring, 
        diagnosis, or treatment if--
                    ``(A) payment for (or the provision of) such medical 
                monitoring, diagnosis, or treatment services has not 
                been made (or provided) or cannot reasonably be expected 
                to be made (or provided) promptly by the United States 
                or such third party, respectively; and
                    ``(B) such payment (or such provision of services) 
                by the Administrator is conditioned on reimbursement by 
                the United States or such third party, respectively, for 
                such medical monitoring, diagnosis, or treatment.

    ``(c) Exclusions.--The Administrator may not--
            ``(1) provide for medical monitoring or diagnosis of a 
        former United States government astronaut or former payload 
        specialist under subsection (a) for any psychological or medical 
        condition that is not potentially associated with human space 
        flight;
            ``(2) provide for treatment of a former United States 
        government astronaut or former payload specialist under 
        subsection (a) for any psychological or medical condition that 
        is not associated with human space flight; or
            ``(3) require a former United States government astronaut or 
        former payload specialist to participate in the medical 
        monitoring, diagnosis, or treatment authorized under subsection 
        (a).

    ``(d) Privacy.--Consistent with applicable provisions of Federal law 
relating to privacy, the Administrator shall protect the privacy of all 
medical records generated under subsection (a) and accessible to the 
Administration.
    ``(e) Regulations.--The Administrator shall promulgate such 
regulations as are necessary to carry out this section.
    ``(f) Definition of United States Government Astronaut.--In this 
section, the term `United States government astronaut' has the meaning 
given the term `government astronaut' in section 50902, except it does 
not include an individual who is an international partner astronaut.

[[Page 131 STAT. 47]]

    ``(g) Data Use and Disclosure.--The Administrator may use or 
disclose data acquired in the course of medical monitoring, diagnosis, 
or treatment of a former United States government astronaut or a former 
payload specialist under subsection (a), in accordance with subsection 
(d). Former United States government astronaut or former payload 
specialist participation in medical monitoring, diagnosis, or treatment 
under subsection (a) shall constitute consent for the Administrator to 
use or disclose such data.''.
    (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for chapter 201 of 
title 51, United States Code, as amended by section 305 of this 
Act, <<NOTE: 51 USC 20101 prec.>>  is further amended by inserting after 
the item relating to section 20148 the following:

``20149. Medical monitoring and research relating to human space 
           flight.''.

    (c) <<NOTE: 51 USC 20149 note.>>  Annual Reports.--
            (1) In general.--Each fiscal year, not later than the date 
        of submission of the President's annual budget request for that 
        fiscal year under section 1105 of title 31, United States Code, 
        the Administrator shall publish a report, in accordance with 
        applicable Federal privacy laws, on the activities of the 
        Administration under section 20149 of title 51, United States 
        Code.
            (2) <<NOTE: Budget estimate.>>  Contents.--Each report under 
        paragraph (1) shall include a detailed cost accounting of the 
        Administration's activities under section 20149 of title 51, 
        United States Code, and a 5-year budget estimate.
            (3) Submission to congress.--The Administrator shall submit 
        to the appropriate committees of Congress each report under 
        paragraph (1) not later than the date of submission of the 
        President's annual budget request for that fiscal year under 
        section 1105 of title 31, United States Code.

    (d) Cost Estimate.--
            (1) Requirement.--Not later than 90 days after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall enter into an 
        arrangement with an independent external organization to 
        undertake an independent cost estimate of the cost to the 
        Administration and the Federal Government to implement and 
        administer the activities of the Administration under section 
        20149 of title 51, United States Code. The independent external 
        organization may not be a NASA entity, such as the Office of 
        Safety and Mission Assurance.
            (2) Submittal to congress.--Not later than 1 year after the 
        date of the enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall 
        submit to the appropriate committees of Congress the independent 
        cost estimate under paragraph (1).

    (e) Privacy Study.--
            (1) Study.--The Administrator shall carry out a study on any 
        potential privacy or legal issues related to the possible 
        sharing beyond the Federal Government of data acquired under the 
        activities of the Administration under section 20149 of title 
        51, United States Code.
            (2) Report.--Not later than 270 days after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the 
        appropriate committees of Congress a report containing the 
        results of the study carried out under paragraph (1).

    (f) <<NOTE: 51 USC 20149 note.>>  Inspector General Audit.--The 
Inspector General of NASA shall periodically audit or review, as the 
Inspector General

[[Page 131 STAT. 48]]

considers necessary to prevent waste, fraud, and abuse, the activities 
of the Administration under section 20149 of title 51, United States 
Code.

                    TITLE V--ADVANCING SPACE SCIENCE

SEC. 501. <<NOTE: 51 USC 20301 note.>>  MAINTAINING A BALANCED 
                        SPACE SCIENCE PORTFOLIO.

    (a) Sense of Congress on Science Portfolio.--Congress reaffirms the 
sense of Congress that--
            (1) a balanced and adequately funded set of activities, 
        consisting of research and analysis grant programs, technology 
        development, suborbital research activities, and small, medium, 
        and large space missions, contributes to a robust and productive 
        science program and serves as a catalyst for innovation and 
        discovery; and
            (2) the Administrator should set science priorities by 
        following the guidance provided by the scientific community 
        through the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and 
        Medicine's decadal surveys.

    (b) Policy.--It is the policy of the United States to ensure, to the 
extent practicable, a steady cadence of large, medium, and small science 
missions.
SEC. 502. <<NOTE: 51 USC 20301 note.>>  PLANETARY SCIENCE.

    (a) Findings.--Congress finds that--
            (1) Administration support for planetary science is critical 
        to enabling greater understanding of the solar system and the 
        origin of the Earth;
            (2) the United States leads the world in planetary science 
        and can augment its success in that area with appropriate 
        international, academic, and industry partnerships;
            (3) a mix of small, medium, and large planetary science 
        missions is required to sustain a steady cadence of planetary 
        exploration; and
            (4) robotic planetary exploration is a key component of 
        preparing for future human exploration.

    (b) Mission Priorities.--
            (1) In general.--In accordance with the priorities 
        established in the most recent Planetary Science Decadal Survey, 
        the Administrator shall ensure, to the greatest extent 
        practicable, the completion of a balanced set of Discovery, New 
        Frontiers, and Flagship missions at the cadence recommended by 
        the most recent Planetary Science Decadal Survey.
            (2) Mission priority adjustments.--Consistent with the set 
        of missions described in paragraph (1), and while maintaining 
        the continuity of scientific data and steady development of 
        capabilities and technologies, the Administrator may seek, if 
        necessary, adjustments to mission priorities, schedule, and 
        scope in light of changing budget projections.
SEC. 503. JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE.

    It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) the James Webb Space Telescope will--
                    (A) significantly advance our understanding of star 
                and planet formation, and improve our knowledge of the 
                early universe; and
                    (B) support United States leadership in 
                astrophysics;

[[Page 131 STAT. 49]]

            (2) consistent with annual Government Accountability Office 
        reviews of the James Webb Space Telescope program, the 
        Administrator should continue robust surveillance of the 
        performance of the James Webb Space Telescope project and 
        continue to improve the reliability of cost estimates and 
        contractor performance data and other major space flight 
        projects in order to enhance NASA's ability to successfully 
        deliver the James Webb Space Telescope on-time and within 
        budget;
            (3) the on-time and on-budget delivery of the James Webb 
        Space Telescope is a high congressional priority; and
            (4) the Administrator should ensure that integrated testing 
        is appropriately timed and sufficiently comprehensive to enable 
        potential issues to be identified and addressed early enough to 
        be handled within the James Webb Space Telescope's development 
        schedule and prior to its launch.
SEC. 504. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY TELESCOPE.

    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (referred to in 
        this section as ``WFIRST'') mission has the potential to enable 
        scientific discoveries that will transform our understanding of 
        the universe; and
            (2) the Administrator, to the extent practicable, should 
        make progress on the technologies and capabilities needed to 
        position the Administration to meet the objectives, as outlined 
        in the 2010 National Academies' Astronomy and Astrophysics 
        Decadal Survey, in a way that maximizes the scientific 
        productivity of meeting those objectives for the resources 
        invested.

    (b) Continuity of Development.--The Administrator shall ensure that 
the concept definition and pre-formulation activities of the WFIRST 
mission continue while the James Webb Space Telescope is being 
completed.
SEC. 505. MARS 2020 ROVER.

    It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) the Mars 2020 mission, to develop a Mars rover and to 
        enable the return of samples to Earth, should remain a priority 
        for NASA; and
            (2) the Mars 2020 mission--
                    (A) should significantly increase our understanding 
                of Mars;
                    (B) should help determine whether life previously 
                existed on that planet; and
                    (C) should provide opportunities to gather knowledge 
                and demonstrate technologies that address the challenges 
                of future human expeditions to Mars.
SEC. 506. EUROPA.

    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
            (1) Studies of Europa, Jupiter's moon, indicate that Europa 
        may provide a habitable environment, as it contains key 
        ingredients known to support life.
            (2) In 2012, using the Hubble Space Telescope, NASA 
        scientists observed water vapor around the south polar region of 
        Europa, which provides potential evidence of water plumes in 
        that region.
            (3) For decades, the Europa mission has consistently ranked 
        as a high priority mission for the scientific community.

[[Page 131 STAT. 50]]

            (4) The Europa mission was ranked as the top priority 
        mission in the previous Planetary Science Decadal Survey and 
        ranked as the second-highest priority in the current Planetary 
        Science Decadal Survey.

    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) the Europa mission could provide another avenue in which 
        to capitalize on our Nation's current investment in the Space 
        Launch System that would significantly reduce the transit time 
        for such a deep space mission; and
            (2) a scientific, robotic exploration mission to Europa, as 
        prioritized in both Planetary Science Decadal Surveys, should be 
        supported.
SEC. 507. CONGRESSIONAL DECLARATION OF POLICY AND PURPOSE.

    Section 20102(d) of title 51, United States Code, is amended by 
adding at the end the following:
            ``(10) The search for life's origin, evolution, 
        distribution, and future in the universe.''.
SEC. 508. <<NOTE: 51 USC 20301 note.>>  EXTRASOLAR PLANET 
                        EXPLORATION STRATEGY.

    (a) Strategy.--
            (1) In general.--The Administrator shall enter into an 
        arrangement with the National Academies to develop a science 
        strategy for the study and exploration of extrasolar planets, 
        including the use of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, 
        the James Webb Space Telescope, a potential Wide-Field Infrared 
        Survey Telescope mission, or any other telescope, spacecraft, or 
        instrument, as appropriate.
            (2) Requirements.--The strategy shall--
                    (A) outline key scientific questions;
                    (B) identify the most promising research in the 
                field;
                    (C) indicate the extent to which the mission 
                priorities in existing decadal surveys address the key 
                extrasolar planet research and exploration goals;
                    (D) identify opportunities for coordination with 
                international partners, commercial partners, and not-
                for-profit partners; and
                    (E) <<NOTE: Recommenda- tions.>>  make 
                recommendations regarding the activities under 
                subparagraphs (A) through (D), as appropriate.

    (b) Use of Strategy.--The Administrator shall use the strategy--
            (1) to inform roadmaps, strategic plans, and other 
        activities of the Administration as they relate to extrasolar 
        planet research and exploration; and
            (2) to provide a foundation for future activities and 
        initiatives related to extrasolar planet research and 
        exploration.

    (c) Report to Congress.--Not later than 18 months after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the National Academies shall submit to the 
Administrator and to the appropriate committees of Congress a report 
containing the strategy developed under subsection (a).
SEC. 509. <<NOTE: 51 USC 20301 note.>>  ASTROBIOLOGY STRATEGY.

    (a) Strategy.--
            (1) In general.--The Administrator shall enter into an 
        arrangement with the National Academies to develop a science 
        strategy for astrobiology that would outline key scientific 
        questions, identify the most promising research in the field, 
        and

[[Page 131 STAT. 51]]

        indicate the extent to which the mission priorities in existing 
        decadal surveys address the search for life's origin, evolution, 
        distribution, and future in the Universe.
            (2) Recommendations.--The strategy shall include 
        recommendations for coordination with international partners.

    (b) Use of Strategy.--The Administrator shall use the strategy 
developed under subsection (a) in planning and funding research and 
other activities and initiatives in the field of astrobiology.
    (c) Report to Congress.--Not later than 18 months after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the National Academies shall submit to the 
Administrator and to the appropriate committees of Congress a report 
containing the strategy developed under subsection (a).
SEC. 510. <<NOTE: Deadline. Reports.>>  ASTROBIOLOGY PUBLIC-
                        PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS.

    Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the 
Administrator shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a 
report describing how the Administration can expand collaborative 
partnerships to study life's origin, evolution, distribution, and future 
in the universe.
SEC. 511. NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS.

    Section 321 of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Authorization Act of 2005 <<NOTE: 51 USC 71101 note prec.>>  (51 U.S.C. 
note prec. 71101) is amended by adding at the end the following:

    ``(e) Program Report.--The Director of the Office of Science and 
Technology Policy and the Administrator shall submit to the Committee on 
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on 
Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives, not 
later than 1 year after the date of enactment of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition Authorization Act of 
2017, an initial report that provides--
            ``(1) <<NOTE: Recommenda- tions.>>  recommendations for 
        carrying out the Survey program and an associated proposed 
        budget;
            ``(2) <<NOTE: Analysis. Strategy.>>  an analysis of possible 
        options that the Administration could employ to divert an object 
        on a likely collision course with Earth; and
            ``(3) a description of the status of efforts to coordinate 
        and cooperate with other countries to discover hazardous 
        asteroids and comets, plan a mitigation strategy, and implement 
        that strategy in the event of the discovery of an object on a 
        likely collision course with Earth.

    ``(f) <<NOTE: Summaries.>>  Annual Reports.--After the initial 
report under subsection (e), the Administrator shall annually transmit 
to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate 
and the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
Representatives a report that includes--
            ``(1) a summary of all activities carried out under 
        subsection (d) since the date of enactment of the National 
        Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition Authorization 
        Act of 2017, including the progress toward achieving 90 percent 
        completion of the survey described in subsection (d); and
            ``(2) a summary of expenditures for all activities carried 
        out under subsection (d) since the date of enactment of the 
        National Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition 
        Authorization Act of 2017.

[[Page 131 STAT. 52]]

    ``(g) Assessment.--The Administrator, in collaboration with other 
relevant Federal agencies, shall carry out a technical and scientific 
assessment of the capabilities and resources--
            ``(1) to accelerate the survey described in subsection (d); 
        and
            ``(2) to expand the Administration's Near-Earth Object 
        Program to include the detection, tracking, cataloguing, and 
        characterization of potentially hazardous near-Earth objects 
        less than 140 meters in diameter.

    ``(h) <<NOTE: Deadline.>>  Transmittal.--Not later than 270 days 
after the date of enactment of the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration Transition Authorization Act of 2017, the Administrator 
shall transmit the results of the assessment under subsection (g) to the 
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the 
Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
Representatives.''.
SEC. 512. NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS.

    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the 
Administration should seek to leverage the capabilities of the private 
sector and philanthropic organizations to the maximum extent practicable 
in carrying out the Near-Earth Object Survey Program in order to meet 
the goal of that program under section 321(d)(1) of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2005 (51 
U.S.C. note prec. 71101(d)(1)).
    (b) Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the appropriate committees 
of Congress a report describing how the Administration can expand 
collaborative partnerships to detect, track, catalogue, and categorize 
near-Earth objects.
SEC. 513. ASSESSMENT OF SCIENCE MISSION EXTENSIONS.

    Section 30504 of title 51, United States Code, is amended to read as 
follows:
``Sec. 30504. Assessment of science mission extensions

    ``(a) Assessments.--
            ``(1) <<NOTE: Deadline. Reviews.>>  In general.--The 
        Administrator shall carry out triennial reviews within each of 
        the Science divisions to assess the cost and benefits of 
        extending the date of the termination of data collection for 
        those missions that exceed their planned missions' lifetime.
            ``(2) Considerations.--In conducting an assessment under 
        paragraph (1), the Administrator shall consider whether and how 
        extending missions impacts the start of future missions.

    ``(b) Consultation and Consideration of Potential Benefits of 
Instruments on Missions.--When deciding whether to extend a mission that 
has an operational component, the Administrator shall--
            ``(1) consult with any affected Federal agency; and
            ``(2) take into account the potential benefits of 
        instruments on missions that are beyond their planned mission 
        lifetime.

    ``(c) Reports.--The Administrator shall submit to the Committee on 
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on 
Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives, at the 
same time as the submission to Congress of the Administration's annual 
budget request for each fiscal year,

[[Page 131 STAT. 53]]

a report detailing any assessment under subsection (a) that was carried 
out during the previous year.''.
SEC. 514. <<NOTE: Termination date.>>  STRATOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY 
                        FOR INFRARED ASTRONOMY.

    The Administrator may not terminate science operations of the 
Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy before December 31, 
2017.
SEC. 515. RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS.

    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) exploration of the outer reaches of the solar system is 
        enabled by radioisotope power systems;
            (2) establishing continuity in the production of the 
        material needed for radioisotope power systems is essential to 
        maintaining the availability of such systems for future deep 
        space exploration missions; and
            (3) Federal agencies supporting the Administration through 
        the production of such material should do so in a cost effective 
        manner so as not to impose excessive reimbursement requirements 
        on the Administration.

    (b) <<NOTE: Consultation.>>  Analysis of Requirements and Risks.--
The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy and the 
Administrator, in consultation with the heads of other Federal agencies, 
shall conduct an analysis of--
            (1) the requirements of the Administration for radioisotope 
        power system material that is needed to carry out planned, high 
        priority robotic missions in the solar system and other surface 
        exploration activities beyond low-Earth orbit; and
            (2) the risks to missions of the Administration in meeting 
        those requirements, or any additional requirements, due to a 
        lack of adequate radioisotope power system material.

    (c) Contents of Analysis.--The analysis conducted under subsection 
(b) shall--
            (1) detail the Administration's current projected mission 
        requirements and associated timeframes for radioisotope power 
        system material;
            (2) explain the assumptions used to determine the 
        Administration's requirements for the material, including--
                    (A) the planned use of advanced thermal conversion 
                technology such as advanced thermocouples and Stirling 
                generators and converters; and
                    (B) the risks and implications of, and contingencies 
                for, any delays or unanticipated technical challenges 
                affecting or related to the Administration's mission 
                plans for the anticipated use of advanced thermal 
                conversion technology;
            (3) <<NOTE: Assessment.>>  assess the risk to the 
        Administration's programs of any potential delays in achieving 
        the schedule and milestones for planned domestic production of 
        radioisotope power system material;
            (4) outline a process for meeting any additional 
        Administration requirements for the material;
            (5) <<NOTE: Cost estimate.>>  estimate the incremental costs 
        required to increase the amount of material produced each year, 
        if such an increase is needed to support additional 
        Administration requirements for the material;

[[Page 131 STAT. 54]]

            (6) detail how the Administration and other Federal agencies 
        will manage, operate, and fund production facilities and the 
        design and development of all radioisotope power systems used by 
        the Administration and other Federal agencies as necessary;
            (7) <<NOTE: Consultation. Reimbursements.>>  specify the 
        steps the Administration will take, in consultation with the 
        Department of Energy, to preserve the infrastructure and 
        workforce necessary for production of radioisotope power systems 
        and ensure that its reimbursements to the Department of Energy 
        associated with such preservation are equitable and justified; 
        and
            (8) detail how the Administration has implemented or 
        rejected the recommendations from the National Research 
        Council's 2009 report titled ``Radioisotope Power Systems: An 
        Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space 
        Exploration.''

    (d) Report to Congress.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit the results of the 
analysis to the appropriate committees of Congress.
SEC. 516. ASSESSMENT OF MARS ARCHITECTURE.

    (a) Assessment.--The Administrator shall enter into an arrangement 
with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to 
assess--
            (1) the Administration's Mars exploration architecture and 
        its responsiveness to the strategies, priorities, and guidelines 
        put forward by the National Academies' planetary science decadal 
        surveys and other relevant National Academies Mars-related 
        reports;
            (2) the long-term goals of the Administration's Mars 
        Exploration Program and such program's ability to optimize the 
        science return, given the current fiscal posture of the program;
            (3) the Mars exploration architecture's relationship to 
        Mars-related activities to be undertaken by foreign agencies and 
        organizations; and
            (4) the extent to which the Mars exploration architecture 
        represents a reasonably balanced mission portfolio.

    (b) Report to Congress.--Not later than 18 months after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit the results of the 
assessment to the appropriate committees of Congress.
SEC. 517. COLLABORATION.

    The Administration shall continue to develop first-of-a-kind 
instruments that, once proved, can be transitioned to other agencies for 
operations. Whenever responsibilities for the development of sensors or 
for measurements are transferred to the Administration from another 
agency, the Administration shall seek, to the extent possible, to be 
reimbursed for the assumption of such responsibilities.

                          TITLE VI--AERONAUTICS

SEC. 601. <<NOTE: Reimbursement. 51 USC 20113 note.>>  SENSE OF 
                        CONGRESS ON AERONAUTICS.

    It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) a robust aeronautics research portfolio will help 
        maintain the United States status as a leader in aviation, 
        enhance

[[Page 131 STAT. 55]]

        the competitiveness of the United States in the world economy, 
        and improve the quality of life of all citizens;
            (2) aeronautics research is essential to the 
        Administration's mission, continues to be an important core 
        element of the Administration's mission, and should be 
        supported;
            (3) the Administrator should coordinate and consult with 
        relevant Federal agencies and the private sector to minimize 
        duplication of efforts and leverage resources; and
            (4) carrying aeronautics research to a level of maturity 
        that allows the Administration's research results to be 
        transferred to the users, whether private or public sector, is 
        critical to their eventual adoption.
SEC. 602. TRANSFORMATIVE AERONAUTICS RESEARCH.

    It is the sense of Congress that the Administrator should look 
strategically into the future and ensure that the Administration's 
Center personnel are at the leading edge of aeronautics research by 
encouraging investigations into the early-stage advancement of new 
processes, novel concepts, and innovative technologies that have the 
potential to meet national aeronautics needs.
SEC. 603. HYPERSONIC RESEARCH.

    (a) <<NOTE: Deadline. Consultation.>>  Roadmap for Hypersonic 
Research.--Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this 
Act, the Administrator, in consultation with the heads of other relevant 
Federal agencies, shall develop and submit to the appropriate committees 
of Congress a research and development roadmap for hypersonic aircraft 
research.

    (b) Objective.--The objective of the roadmap is to explore 
hypersonic science and technology using air-breathing propulsion 
concepts, through a mix of theoretical work, basic and applied research, 
and development of flight research demonstration vehicles.
    (c) <<NOTE: Recommenda- tions.>>  Contents.--The roadmap shall 
recommend appropriate Federal agency contributions, coordination 
efforts, and technology milestones.
SEC. 604. SUPERSONIC RESEARCH.

    (a) Findings.--Congress finds that--
            (1) the ability to fly commercial aircraft over land at 
        supersonic speeds without adverse impacts on the environment or 
        on local communities could open new global markets and enable 
        new transportation capabilities; and
            (2) continuing the Administration's research program is 
        necessary to assess the impact in a relevant environment of 
        commercial supersonic flight operations and provide the basis 
        for establishing appropriate sonic boom standards for such 
        flight operations.

    (b) Roadmap for Supersonic Research.--
            (1) <<NOTE: Deadline.>>  In general.--Not later than 1 year 
        after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall 
        develop and submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a 
        roadmap that allows for flexible funding profiles for supersonic 
        aeronautics research and development.
            (2) Objective.--The objective of the roadmap is to develop 
        and demonstrate, in a relevant environment, airframe and 
        propulsion technologies to minimize the environmental impact, 
        including noise, of supersonic overland flight in an efficient 
        and economical manner.

[[Page 131 STAT. 56]]

            (3) <<NOTE: Plans.>>  Contents.--The roadmap shall include--
                    (A) the baseline research as embodied by the 
                Administration's existing research on supersonic flight;
                    (B) <<NOTE: Lists.>>  a list of specific 
                technological, environmental, and other challenges that 
                must be overcome to minimize the environmental impact, 
                including noise, of supersonic overland flight;
                    (C) a research plan to address the challenges under 
                subparagraph (B), including a project timeline for 
                accomplishing relevant research goals;
                    (D) a plan for coordination with stakeholders, 
                including relevant government agencies and industry; and
                    (E) a plan for how the Administration will ensure 
                that sonic boom research is coordinated as appropriate 
                with relevant Federal agencies.
SEC. 605. ROTORCRAFT RESEARCH.

    (a) <<NOTE: Deadline. Consultation.>>  Roadmap for Rotorcraft 
Research.--Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this 
Act, the Administrator, in consultation with the heads of other relevant 
Federal agencies, shall prepare and submit to the appropriate committees 
of Congress a roadmap for research relating to rotorcraft and other 
runway-independent air vehicles.

    (b) Objective.--The objective of the roadmap is to develop and 
demonstrate improved safety, noise, and environmental impact in a 
relevant environment.
    (c) <<NOTE: Timeline. Guidelines.>>  Contents.--The roadmap shall 
include specific goals for the research, a timeline for implementation, 
metrics for success, and guidelines for collaboration and coordination 
with industry and other Federal agencies.

                       TITLE VII--SPACE TECHNOLOGY

SEC. 701. <<NOTE: 51 USC 20301 note.>>  SPACE TECHNOLOGY INFUSION.

    (a) Sense of Congress on Space Technology.--It is the sense of 
Congress that space technology is critical--
            (1) to developing technologies and capabilities that will 
        make the Administration's core missions more affordable and more 
        reliable;
            (2) to enabling a new class of Administration missions 
        beyond low-Earth orbit; and
            (3) to improving technological capabilities and promote 
        innovation for the Administration and the Nation.

    (b) Sense of Congress on Propulsion Technology.--It is the sense of 
Congress that advancing propulsion technology would improve the 
efficiency of trips to Mars and could shorten travel time to Mars, 
reduce astronaut health risks, and reduce radiation exposure, 
consumables, and mass of materials required for the journey.
    (c) Policy.--It is the policy of the United States that the 
Administrator shall develop technologies to support the Administration's 
core missions, as described in section 2(3) of the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18301(3)), 
and support sustained investments in early stage innovation, fundamental 
research, and technologies to expand the boundaries of the national 
aerospace enterprise.

[[Page 131 STAT. 57]]

    (d) Propulsion Technologies.--A goal of propulsion technologies 
developed under subsection (c) shall be to significantly reduce human 
travel time to Mars.
SEC. 702. <<NOTE: 51 USC 20301 note.>>  SPACE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM.

    (a) Space Technology Program Authorized.--The Administrator shall 
conduct a space technology program (referred to in this section as the 
``Program'') to research and develop advanced space technologies that 
could deliver innovative solutions across the Administration's space 
exploration and science missions.
    (b) Considerations.--In conducting the Program, the Administrator 
shall consider--
            (1) the recommendations of the National Academies' review of 
        the Administration's Space Technology roadmaps and priorities; 
        and
            (2) the applicable enabling aspects of the stepping stone 
        approach to exploration under section 70504 of title 51, United 
        States Code.

    (c) Requirements.--In conducting the Program, the Administrator 
shall--
            (1) to the extent practicable, use a competitive process to 
        select research and development projects;
            (2) to the extent practicable and appropriate, use small 
        satellites and the Administration's suborbital and ground-based 
        platforms to demonstrate space technology concepts and 
        developments; and
            (3) as appropriate, partner with other Federal agencies, 
        universities, private industry, and foreign countries.

    (d) Small Business Programs.--The Administrator shall organize and 
manage the Administration's Small Business Innovation Research Program 
and Small Business Technology Transfer Program within the Program.
    (e) Nonduplication Certification.--The Administrator shall submit a 
budget for each fiscal year, as transmitted to Congress under section 
1105(a) of title 31, United States Code, that avoids duplication of 
projects, programs, or missions conducted by Program with other 
projects, programs, or missions conducted by another office or 
directorate of the Administration.
    (f) Collaboration, Coordination, and Alignment.--
            (1) In general.--The Administrator shall--
                    (A) ensure that the Administration's projects, 
                programs, and activities in support of technology 
                research and development of advanced space technologies 
                are fully coordinated and aligned;
                    (B) ensure that the results the projects, programs, 
                and activities under subparagraph (A) are shared and 
                leveraged within the Administration; and
                    (C) ensure that the organizational responsibility 
                for research and development activities in support of 
                human space exploration not initiated as of the date of 
                enactment of this Act is established on the basis of a 
                sound rationale.
            (2) Sense of congress.--It is the sense of Congress that 
        projects, programs, and missions being conducted by the Human 
        Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate in support of 
        research and development of advanced space technologies and 
        systems focusing on human space exploration should continue in 
        that Directorate.

[[Page 131 STAT. 58]]

    (g) Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Administrator shall provide to the appropriate committees 
of Congress a report--
            (1) comparing the Administration's space technology 
        investments with the high-priority technology areas identified 
        by the National Academies in the National Research Council's 
        report on the Administration's Space Technology Roadmaps; and
            (2) including--
                    (A) identification of how the Administration will 
                address any gaps between the agency's investments and 
                the recommended technology areas, including a projection 
                of funding requirements; and
                    (B) identification of the rationale described in 
                subsection (f)(1)(C).

    (h) Annual Report.--The Administrator shall include in the 
Administration's annual budget request for each fiscal year the 
rationale for assigning organizational responsibility for, in the year 
prior to the budget fiscal year, each initiated project, program, and 
mission focused on research and development of advanced technologies for 
human space exploration.

                    TITLE VIII--MAXIMIZING EFFICIENCY

       Subtitle A--Agency Information Technology and Cybersecurity

SEC. 811. <<NOTE: 51 USC 20111 note.>>  INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 
                        GOVERNANCE.

    (a) In General.--The Administrator shall, in a manner that reflects 
the unique nature of NASA's mission and expertise--
            (1) ensure the NASA Chief Information Officer, Mission 
        Directorates, and Centers have appropriate roles in the 
        management, governance, and oversight processes related to 
        information technology operations and investments and 
        information security programs for the protection of NASA 
        systems;
            (2) ensure the NASA Chief Information Officer has the 
        appropriate resources and insight to oversee NASA information 
        technology and information security operations and investments;
            (3) provide an information technology program management 
        framework to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of 
        information technology investments, including relying on metrics 
        for identifying and reducing potential duplication, waste, and 
        cost;
            (4) improve the operational linkage between the NASA Chief 
        Information Officer and each NASA mission directorate, center, 
        and mission support office to ensure both agency and mission 
        needs are considered in agency-wide information technology and 
        information security management and oversight;
            (5) <<NOTE: Review.>>  review the portfolio of information 
        technology investments and spending, including information 
        technology-related investments included as part of activities 
        within NASA mission directorates that may not be considered 
        information technology,

[[Page 131 STAT. 59]]

        to ensure investments are recognized and reported appropriately 
        based on guidance from the Office of Management and Budget;
            (6) consider appropriate revisions to the charters of 
        information technology boards and councils that inform 
        information technology investment and operation decisions; and
            (7) consider whether the NASA Chief Information Officer 
        should have a seat on any boards or councils described in 
        paragraph (6).

    (b) GAO Study.--
            (1) Study.--The Comptroller General of the United States 
        shall conduct a study of the effectiveness of the 
        Administration's Information Technology Governance in ensuring 
        information technology resources are aligned with agency 
        missions and are cost effective and secure.
            (2) <<NOTE: Assessment.>>  Contents.--The study shall 
        include an assessment of--
                    (A) the resources available for overseeing 
                Administration-wide information technology operations, 
                investments, and security measures and the NASA Chief 
                Information Officer's visibility and involvement into 
                information technology oversight and access to those 
                resources;
                    (B) the effectiveness and challenges of the 
                Administration's information technology structure, 
                decision making processes and authorities, including 
                impacts on its ability to implement information 
                security; and
                    (C) the impact of NASA Chief Information Officer 
                approval authority over information technology 
                investments that exceed a defined monetary threshold, 
                including any potential impacts of such authority on the 
                Administration's missions, flights programs and 
                projects, research activities, and Center operations.
            (3) <<NOTE: Recommenda- tions.>>  Report.--Not later than 1 
        year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Comptroller 
        General shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a 
        report detailing the results of the study under paragraph (1), 
        including any recommendations.
SEC. 812. <<NOTE: 51 USC 20111 note.>>  INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 
                        STRATEGIC PLAN.

    (a) In General.--Subject to subsection (b), the Administrator shall 
develop an information technology strategic plan to guide NASA 
information technology management and strategic objectives.
    (b) Requirements.--In developing the strategic plan, the 
Administrator shall ensure that the strategic plan addresses--
            (1) the deadline under section 306(a) of title 5, United 
        States Code; and
            (2) the requirements under section 3506 of title 44, United 
        States Code.

    (c) Contents.--The strategic plan shall address, in a manner that 
reflects the unique nature of NASA's mission and expertise--
            (1) near and long-term goals and objectives for leveraging 
        information technology;
            (2) a plan for how NASA will submit to Congress of a list of 
        information technology projects, including completion dates and 
        risk level in accordance with guidance from the Office of 
        Management and Budget;

[[Page 131 STAT. 60]]

            (3) an implementation overview for an agency-wide approach 
        to information technology investments and operations, including 
        reducing barriers to cross-center collaboration;
            (4) <<NOTE: Coordination.>>  coordination by the NASA Chief 
        Information Officer with centers and mission directorates to 
        ensure that information technology policies are effectively and 
        efficiently implemented across the agency;
            (5) a plan to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of 
        information technology investments, including a description of 
        how unnecessarily duplicative, wasteful, legacy, or outdated 
        information technology across NASA will be identified and 
        eliminated, and a schedule for the identification and 
        elimination of such information technology;
            (6) a plan for improving the information security of agency 
        information and agency information systems, including improving 
        security control assessments and role-based security training of 
        employees; and
            (7) submission by NASA to Congress of information regarding 
        high risk projects and cybersecurity risks.

    (d) Congressional Oversight.--The Administrator shall submit to the 
appropriate committees of Congress the strategic plan under subsection 
(a) and any updates thereto.
SEC. 813. <<NOTE: 51 USC 20111 note.>>  CYBERSECURITY.

    (a) Finding.--Congress finds that the security of NASA information 
and information systems is vital to the success of the mission of the 
agency.
    (b) Information Security Plan.--
            (1) <<NOTE: Deadline.>>  In general.--Not later than 1 year 
        after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall 
        implement the information security plan developed under 
        paragraph (2) and take such further actions as the Administrator 
        considers necessary to improve the information security system 
        in accordance with this section.
            (2) Information security plan.--Subject to paragraphs (3) 
        and (4), the Administrator shall develop an agency-wide 
        information security plan to enhance information security for 
        NASA information and information infrastructure.
            (3) Requirements.--In developing the plan under paragraph 
        (2), the Administrator shall ensure that the plan--
                    (A) reflects the unique nature of NASA's mission and 
                expertise;
                    (B) is informed by policies, standards, guidelines, 
                and directives on information security required for 
                Federal agencies;
                    (C) is consistent with the standards and guidelines 
                under section 11331 of title 40, United States Code; and
                    (D) meets applicable National Institute of Standards 
                and Technology information security standards and 
                guidelines.
            (4) Contents.--The plan shall address--
                    (A) an overview of the requirements of the 
                information security system;
                    (B) an agency-wide risk management framework for 
                information security;

[[Page 131 STAT. 61]]

                    (C) a description of the information security system 
                management controls and common controls that are 
                necessary to ensure compliance with information 
                security-related requirements;
                    (D) an identification and assignment of roles, 
                responsibilities, and management commitment for 
                information security at the agency;
                    (E) coordination among organizational entities, 
                including between each center, facility, mission 
                directorate, and mission support office, and among 
                agency entities responsible for different aspects of 
                information security;
                    (F) the need to protect the information security of 
                mission-critical systems and activities and high-impact 
                and moderate-impact information systems; and
                    (G) a schedule of frequent reviews and updates, as 
                necessary, of the plan.
SEC. 814. <<NOTE: Notification.>>  SECURITY MANAGEMENT OF FOREIGN 
                        NATIONAL ACCESS.

    The Administrator shall notify the appropriate committees of 
Congress when the agency has implemented the information technology 
security recommendations from the National Academy of Public 
Administration on foreign national access management, based on reports 
from January 2014 and March 2016.
SEC. 815. <<NOTE: Deadline. Plans.>>  CYBERSECURITY OF WEB 
                        APPLICATIONS.

    Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the 
Administrator shall, in a manner that reflects the unique nature of 
NASA's mission and expertise--
            (1) develop a plan, including such actions and milestones as 
        are necessary, to fully remediate security vulnerabilities of 
        NASA web applications within a timely fashion after discovery; 
        and
            (2) provide an update on its plan to implement the 
        recommendation from the NASA Inspector General in the audit 
        report dated July 10, 2014, (IG-14-023) to remove from the 
        Internet or otherwise secure all NASA web applications in 
        development or testing mode.

 Subtitle B--Collaboration Among Mission Directorates and Other Matters

SEC. 821. <<NOTE: 51 USC 20111 note.>>  COLLABORATION AMONG 
                        MISSION DIRECTORATES.

    The Administrator shall encourage an interdisciplinary approach 
among all NASA mission directorates and divisions, whenever appropriate, 
for projects or missions--
            (1) to improve coordination, and encourage collaboration and 
        early planning on scope;
            (2) to determine areas of overlap or alignment;
            (3) to find ways to leverage across divisional perspectives 
        to maximize outcomes; and
            (4) to be more efficient with resources and funds.
SEC. 822. <<NOTE: 51 USC 50131 note.>>  NASA LAUNCH CAPABILITIES 
                        COLLABORATION.

    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:

[[Page 131 STAT. 62]]

            (1) The Launch Services Program is responsible for the 
        acquisition, management, and technical oversight of commercial 
        launch services for NASA's science and robotic missions.
            (2) The Commercial Crew Program is responsible for the 
        acquisition, management, and technical oversight of commercial 
        crew transportation systems.
            (3) The Launch Services Program and Commercial Crew Program 
        have worked together to gain exceptional technical insight into 
        the contracted launch service providers that are common to both 
        programs.
            (4) The Launch Services Program has a long history of 
        oversight of 12 different launch vehicles and over 80 launches.
            (5) Co-location of the Launch Services Program and 
        Commercial Crew Program has enabled the Commercial Crew Program 
        to efficiently obtain the launch vehicle technical expertise of 
        and provide engineering and analytical support to the Commercial 
        Crew Program.

    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) the Launch Services Program and Commercial Crew Program 
        each benefit from communication and coordination of launch 
        manifests, technical information, and common launch vehicle 
        insight between the programs; and
            (2) such communication and coordination is enabled by the 
        co-location of the programs.

    (c) In General.--The Administrator shall pursue a strategy for 
acquisition of crewed transportation services and non-crewed launch 
services that continues to enhance communication, collaboration, and 
coordination between the Launch Services Program and the Commercial Crew 
Program.
SEC. 823. <<NOTE: 51 USC 30301 note prec.>>  DETECTION AND 
                        AVOIDANCE OF COUNTERFEIT PARTS.

    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
            (1) A 2012 investigation by the Committee on Armed Services 
        of the Senate of counterfeit electronic parts in the Department 
        of Defense supply chain from 2009 through 2010 uncovered 1,800 
        cases and over 1,000,000 counterfeit parts and exposed the 
        threat such counterfeit parts pose to service members and 
        national security.
            (2) Since 2010, the Comptroller General of the United States 
        has identified in 3 separate reports the risks and challenges 
        associated with counterfeit parts and counterfeit prevention at 
        both the Department of Defense and NASA, including inconsistent 
        definitions of counterfeit parts, poorly targeted quality 
        control practices, and potential barriers to improvements to 
        these practices.

    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the 
presence of counterfeit electronic parts in the NASA supply chain poses 
a danger to United States government astronauts, crew, and other 
personnel and a risk to the agency overall.
    (c) Regulations.--
            (1) <<NOTE: Deadline.>>  In general.--Not later than 270 
        days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator 
        shall revise the NASA Supplement to the Federal Acquisition 
        Regulation to improve the detection and avoidance of counterfeit 
        electronic parts in the supply chain.
            (2) Contractor responsibilities.--In revising the 
        regulations under paragraph (1), the Administrator shall--

[[Page 131 STAT. 63]]

                    (A) require each covered contractor--
                          (i) to detect and avoid the use or inclusion 
                      of any counterfeit parts in electronic parts or 
                      products that contain electronic parts;
                          (ii) to take such corrective actions as the 
                      Administrator considers necessary to remedy the 
                      use or inclusion described in clause (i); and
                          (iii) <<NOTE: Notification. Deadline.>>  
                      including a subcontractor, to notify the 
                      applicable NASA contracting officer not later than 
                      30 calendar days after the date the covered 
                      contractor becomes aware, or has reason to 
                      suspect, that any end item, component, part or 
                      material contained in supplies purchased by NASA, 
                      or purchased by a covered contractor or 
                      subcontractor for delivery to, or on behalf of, 
                      NASA, contains a counterfeit electronic part or 
                      suspect counterfeit electronic part; and
                    (B) prohibit the cost of counterfeit electronic 
                parts, suspect counterfeit electronic parts, and any 
                corrective action described under subparagraph (A)(ii) 
                from being included as allowable costs under agency 
                contracts, unless--
                          (i)(I) the covered contractor has an 
                      operational system to detect and avoid counterfeit 
                      electronic parts and suspect counterfeit 
                      electronic parts that has been reviewed and 
                      approved by NASA or the Department of Defense; and
                                    (II) the covered contractor has 
                                provided the notice under subparagraph 
                                (A)(iii); or
                          (ii) the counterfeit electronic parts or 
                      suspect counterfeit electronic parts were provided 
                      to the covered contractor as Government property 
                      in accordance with part 45 of the Federal 
                      Acquisition Regulation.
            (3) Suppliers of electronic parts.--In revising the 
        regulations under paragraph (1), the Administrator shall--
                    (A) require NASA and covered contractors, including 
                subcontractors, at all tiers--
                          (i) to obtain electronic parts that are in 
                      production or currently available in stock from--
                                    (I) the original manufacturers of 
                                the parts or their authorized dealers; 
                                or
                                    (II) suppliers who obtain such parts 
                                exclusively from the original 
                                manufacturers of the parts or their 
                                authorized dealers; and
                          (ii) to obtain electronic parts that are not 
                      in production or currently available in stock from 
                      suppliers that meet qualification requirements 
                      established under subparagraph (C);
                    (B) establish documented requirements consistent 
                with published industry standards or Government contract 
                requirements for--
                          (i) notification of the agency; and
                          (ii) inspection, testing, and authentication 
                      of electronic parts that NASA or a covered 
                      contractor, including a subcontractor, obtains 
                      from any source other than a source described in 
                      subparagraph (A);
                    (C) establish qualification requirements, consistent 
                with the requirements of section 2319 of title 10, 
                United

[[Page 131 STAT. 64]]

                States Code, pursuant to which NASA may identify 
                suppliers that have appropriate policies and procedures 
                in place to detect and avoid counterfeit electronic 
                parts and suspect counterfeit electronic parts; and
                    (D) authorize a covered contractor, including a 
                subcontractor, to identify and use additional suppliers 
                beyond those identified under subparagraph (C) if--
                          (i) the standards and processes for 
                      identifying such suppliers comply with established 
                      industry standards;
                          (ii) the covered contractor assumes 
                      responsibility for the authenticity of parts 
                      provided by such suppliers under paragraph (2); 
                      and
                          (iii) the selection of such suppliers is 
                      subject to review and audit by NASA.

    (d) Definitions.--In this section:
            (1) Covered contractor.--The term ``covered contractor'' 
        means a contractor that supplies an electronic part, or a 
        product that contains an electronic part, to NASA.
            (2) Electronic part.--The term ``electronic part'' means a 
        discrete electronic component, including a microcircuit, 
        transistor, capacitor, resistor, or diode, that is intended for 
        use in a safety or mission critical application.
SEC. 824. <<NOTE: 51 USC 40901 note prec.>>  EDUCATION AND 
                        OUTREACH.

    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) United States competitiveness in the 21st century 
        requires engaging the science, technology, engineering, and 
        mathematics (referred to in this section as ``STEM'') talent in 
        all States;
            (2) the Administration is uniquely positioned to educate and 
        inspire students and the broader public on STEM subjects and 
        careers;
            (3) the Administration's Education and Communication 
        Offices, Mission Directorates, and Centers have been effective 
        in delivering educational content because of the strong 
        engagement of Administration scientists and engineers in the 
        Administration's education and outreach activities;
            (4) the Administration's education and outreach programs, 
        including the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive 
        Research (EPSCoR) and the Space Grant College and Fellowship 
        Program, reflect the Administration's successful commitment to 
        growing and diversifying the national science and engineering 
        workforce; and
            (5) in order to grow and diversify the Nation's engineering 
        workforce, it is vital for the Administration to bolster 
        programs, such as High Schools United with NASA to Create 
        Hardware (HUNCH) program, that conduct outreach activities to 
        underserved rural communities, vocational schools, and tribal 
        colleges and universities and encourage new participation in the 
        STEM workforce.

    (b) Continuation of Education and Outreach Activities and 
Programs.--
            (1) In general.--The Administrator shall continue engagement 
        with the public and education opportunities for students via all 
        the Administration's mission directorates to the maximum extent 
        practicable.

[[Page 131 STAT. 65]]

            (2) Report.--Not later than 60 days after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the 
        appropriate committees of Congress a report on the 
        Administration's near-term outreach plans for advancing space 
        law education.
SEC. 825. <<NOTE: 51 USC 50131 note.>>  LEVERAGING COMMERCIAL 
                        SATELLITE SERVICING CAPABILITIES ACROSS 
                        MISSION DIRECTORATES.

    (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
            (1) Refueling and relocating aging satellites to extend 
        their operational lifetimes is a capacity that NASA will 
        substantially benefit from and is important for lowering the 
        costs of ongoing scientific, national security, and commercial 
        satellite operations.
            (2) The technologies involved in satellite servicing, such 
        as dexterous robotic arms, propellant transfer systems, and 
        solar electric propulsion, are all critical capabilities to 
        support a human exploration mission to Mars.

    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) satellite servicing is a vital capability that will 
        bolster the capacity and affordability of NASA's ongoing 
        scientific and human exploration operations while simultaneously 
        enhancing the ability of domestic companies to compete in the 
        global marketplace; and
            (2) future NASA satellites and spacecraft across mission 
        directorates should be constructed in a manner that allows for 
        servicing in order to maximize operational longevity and 
        affordability.

    (c) Leveraging of Capabilities.--The Administrator shall--
            (1) identify orbital assets in both the Science Mission 
        Directorate and the Human Exploration and Operations Mission 
        Directorate that could benefit from satellite servicing-related 
        technologies; and
            (2) <<NOTE: Evaluation.>>  work across all NASA mission 
        directorates to evaluate opportunities for the private sector to 
        perform such services or advance technical capabilities by 
        leveraging the technologies and techniques developed by NASA 
        programs and other industry programs.
SEC. 826. <<NOTE: 51 USC 70102 note.>>  FLIGHT OPPORTUNITIES.

    (a) Development of Payloads.--
            (1) In general.--In order to conduct necessary research, the 
        Administrator shall continue and, as the Administrator considers 
        appropriate, expand the development of technology payloads for--
                    (A) scientific research; and
                    (B) investigating new or improved capabilities.
            (2) Funds.--For the purpose of carrying out paragraph (1), 
        the Administrator shall make funds available for--
                    (A) flight testing;
                    (B) payload development; and
                    (C) hardware related to subparagraphs (A) and (B).

    (b) Reaffirmation of Policy.--Congress reaffirms that the 
Administrator should provide flight opportunities for payloads to 
microgravity environments and suborbital altitudes as authorized by 
section 907 of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18405).

[[Page 131 STAT. 66]]

SEC. 827. SENSE OF CONGRESS ON SMALL CLASS LAUNCH MISSIONS.

    It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) Venture Class Launch Services contracts awarded under 
        the Launch Services Program will expand opportunities for future 
        dedicated launches of CubeSats and other small satellites and 
        small orbital science missions; and
            (2) principal investigator-led small orbital science 
        missions, including CubeSat class, Small Explorer (SMEX) class, 
        and Venture class, offer valuable opportunities to advance 
        science at low cost, train the next generation of scientists and 
        engineers, and enable participants to acquire skills in systems 
        engineering and systems integration that are critical to 
        maintaining the Nation's leadership in space and to enhancing 
        United States innovation and competitiveness abroad.
SEC. 828. BASELINE AND COST CONTROLS.

    Section 30104(a)(1) of title 51, United States Code, is amended by 
striking ``Procedural Requirements 7120.5c, dated March 22, 2005'' and 
inserting ``Procedural Requirements 7120.5E, dated August 14, 2012''.
SEC. 829. COMMERCIAL TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM.

    Section 50116(a) of title 51, United States Code, is amended by 
inserting ``, while protecting national security'' after ``research 
community''.
SEC. 830. <<NOTE: 51 USC 30301 note prec.>>  AVOIDING 
                        ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST IN 
                        MAJOR ADMINISTRATION ACQUISITION PROGRAMS.

    (a) <<NOTE: Deadline. Recommenda- tions.>>  Revised Regulations 
Required.--Not later than 270 days after the date of enactment of this 
Act, the Administrator shall revise the Administration Supplement to the 
Federal Acquisition Regulation to provide uniform guidance and recommend 
revised requirements for organizational conflicts of interest by 
contractors in major acquisition programs in order to address the 
elements identified in subsection (b).

    (b) Elements.--The revised regulations under subsection (a) shall, 
at a minimum--
            (1) address organizational conflicts of interest that could 
        potentially arise as a result of--
                    (A) lead system integrator contracts on major 
                acquisition programs and contracts that follow lead 
                system integrator contracts on such programs, 
                particularly contracts for production;
                    (B) the ownership of business units performing 
                systems engineering and technical assistance functions, 
                professional services, or management support services in 
                relation to major acquisition programs by contractors 
                who simultaneously own business units competing to 
                perform as either the prime contractor or the supplier 
                of a major subsystem or component for such programs;
                    (C) the award of major subsystem contracts by a 
                prime contractor for a major acquisition program to 
                business units or other affiliates of the same parent 
                corporate entity, and particularly the award of 
                subcontracts for software integration or the development 
                of a proprietary software system architecture; or
                    (D) the performance by, or assistance of, 
                contractors in technical evaluations on major 
                acquisition programs;

[[Page 131 STAT. 67]]

            (2) require the Administration to request advice on systems 
        architecture and systems engineering matters with respect to 
        major acquisition programs from objective sources independent of 
        the prime contractor;
            (3) require that a contract for the performance of systems 
        engineering and technical assistance functions for a major 
        acquisition program contains a provision prohibiting the 
        contractor or any affiliate of the contractor from participating 
        as a prime contractor or a major subcontractor in the 
        development of a system under the program; and
            (4) establish such limited exceptions to the requirement in 
        paragraphs (2) and (3) as the Administrator considers necessary 
        to ensure that the Administration has continued access to advice 
        on systems architecture and systems engineering matters from 
        highly qualified contractors with domain experience and 
        expertise, while ensuring that such advice comes from sources 
        that are objective and unbiased.
SEC. 831. <<NOTE: Historic preservation.>>  PROTECTION OF APOLLO 
                        LANDING SITES.

    (a) <<NOTE: Consultation.>>  Assessment.--The Director of the Office 
of Science and Technology Policy, in consultation with relevant Federal 
agencies and stakeholders, shall assess the issues relating to 
protecting and preserving historically important Apollo Program lunar 
landing sites and Apollo program artifacts residing on the lunar 
surface, including those pertaining to Apollo 11 and Apollo 17.

    (b) <<NOTE: Determinations.>>  Contents.--In conducting the 
assessment, the Director shall include--
            (1) a determination of what risks to the protection and 
        preservation of those sites and artifacts exist or may exist in 
        the future;
            (2) a determination of what measures are required to ensure 
        such protection and preservation;
            (3) a determination of the extent to which additional 
        domestic legislation or international treaties or agreements 
        will be required; and
            (4) <<NOTE: Recommenda- tions.>>  specific recommendations 
        for protecting and preserving those lunar landing sites and 
        artifacts.

    (c) Report.--Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Director shall submit to the appropriate committees of 
Congress the results of the assessment.
SEC. 832. NASA LEASE OF NON-EXCESS PROPERTY.

    Section 20145(g) of title 51, United States Code, is amended by 
striking ``10 years after December 26, 2007'' and inserting ``December 
31, 2018''.
SEC. 833. TERMINATION LIABILITY.

    It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) the ISS, the Space Launch System, and the Orion will 
        enable the Nation to continue operations in low-Earth orbit and 
        to send its astronauts to deep space;
            (2) the James Webb Space Telescope will revolutionize our 
        understanding of star and planet formation and how galaxies 
        evolved, and will advance the search for the origins of our 
        universe;
            (3) as a result of their unique capabilities and their 
        critical contribution to the future of space exploration, these 
        systems

[[Page 131 STAT. 68]]

        have been designated by Congress and the Administration as 
        priority investments;
            (4) contractors are currently holding program funding, 
        estimated to be in the hundreds of millions of dollars, to cover 
        the potential termination liability should the Government choose 
        to terminate a program for convenience;
            (5) as a result, hundreds of millions of taxpayer dollars 
        are unavailable for meaningful work on these programs;
            (6) according to the Government Accountability Office, the 
        Administration procures most of its goods and services through 
        contracts, and it terminates very few of them;
            (7) in fiscal year 2010, the Administration terminated 28 of 
        16,343 active contracts and orders, a termination rate of about 
        0.17 percent; and
            (8) the Administration should vigorously pursue a policy on 
        termination liability that maximizes the utilization of its 
        appropriated funds to make maximum progress in meeting 
        established technical goals and schedule milestones on these 
        high-priority programs.
SEC. 834. <<NOTE: Reports.>>  INDEPENDENT REVIEWS.

    Not later than 270 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the 
Administrator shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a 
report describing--
            (1) the Administration's procedures for conducting 
        independent reviews of projects and programs at lifecycle 
        milestones;
            (2) how the Administration ensures the independence of the 
        individuals who conduct those reviews prior to their assignment;
            (3) the internal and external entities independent of 
        project and program management that conduct reviews of projects 
        and programs at life cycle milestones; and
            (4) how the Administration ensures the independence of such 
        entities and their members.
SEC. 835. NASA ADVISORY COUNCIL.

    (a) <<NOTE: Recommenda- tions.>>  Assessment.--The Administrator 
shall enter into an arrangement with the National Academy of Public 
Administration to assess the effectiveness of the NASA Advisory Council 
and to make recommendations to Congress for any change to--
            (1) the functions of the Council;
            (2) the appointment of members to the Council;
            (3) the qualifications for members of the Council;
            (4) the duration of terms of office for members of the 
        Council;
            (5) the frequency of meetings of the Council;
            (6) the structure of leadership and Committees of the 
        Council; and
            (7) the levels of professional staffing for the Council.

    (b) Considerations.--In carrying out the assessment under subsection 
(a), the National Academy of Public Administration shall--
            (1) consider the impacts of broadening the Council's role to 
        include providing consultation and advice to Congress under 
        section 20113(g) of title 51, United States Code;
            (2) consider the past activities of the Council and the 
        activities of other analogous Federal advisory bodies; and

[[Page 131 STAT. 69]]

            (3) any other issues that the National Academy of Public 
        Administration determines could potentially impact the 
        effectiveness of the Council.

    (c) <<NOTE: Recommenda- tions.>>  Report.--The National Academy of 
Public Administration shall submit to the appropriate committees of 
Congress the results of the assessment, including any recommendations.

    (d) Consultation and Advice.--
            (1) In general.--Section 20113(g) of title 51, United States 
        Code, is amended by inserting ``and Congress'' after ``advice to 
        the Administration''.
            (2) <<NOTE: Effective date. 51 USC 30307 note.>>  Sunset.--
        Effective September 30, 2017, section 20113(g) of title 51, 
        United States Code, is amended by striking ``and Congress''.
SEC. 836. <<NOTE: 51 USC 30307 note.>>  COST ESTIMATION.

    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) realistic cost estimating is critically important to the 
        ultimate success of major space development projects; and
            (2) the Administration has devoted significant efforts over 
        the past 5 years to improving its cost estimating capabilities, 
        but it is important that the Administration continue its efforts 
        to develop and implement guidance in establishing realistic cost 
        estimates.

    (b) Guidance and Criteria.--The Administrator shall provide to its 
acquisition programs and projects, in a manner consistent with the 
Administration's Space Flight Program and Project Management 
Requirements--
            (1) guidance on when to use an Independent Cost Estimate and 
        Independent Cost Assessment; and
            (2) criteria to use to make a determination under paragraph 
        (1).
SEC. 837. <<NOTE: 51 USC 31502 note.>>  FACILITIES AND 
                        INFRASTRUCTURE.

    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) the Administration must address, mitigate, and reverse, 
        where possible, the deterioration of its facilities and 
        infrastructure, as their condition is hampering the 
        effectiveness and efficiency of research performed by both the 
        Administration and industry participants making use of 
        Administration facilities, thus harming the competitiveness of 
        the United States aerospace industry;
            (2) the Administration has a role in providing laboratory 
        capabilities to industry participants that are not economically 
        viable as commercial entities and thus are not available 
        elsewhere;
            (3) to ensure continued access to reliable and efficient 
        world-class facilities by researchers, the Administration should 
        establish strategic partnerships with other Federal agencies, 
        State agencies, FAA-licensed spaceports, institutions of higher 
        education, and industry, as appropriate; and
            (4) decisions on whether to dispose of, maintain, or 
        modernize existing facilities must be made in the context of 
        meeting Administration and other needs, including those required 
        to meet the activities supporting the human exploration roadmap 
        under section 432 of this Act, considering other national 
        laboratory needs as the Administrator deems appropriate.

[[Page 131 STAT. 70]]

    (b) Policy.--It is the policy of the United States that the 
Administration maintain reliable and efficient facilities and 
infrastructure and that decisions on whether to dispose of, maintain, or 
modernize existing facilities or infrastructure be made in the context 
of meeting future Administration needs.
    (c) Plan.--
            (1) In general.--The Administrator shall develop a 
        facilities and infrastructure plan.
            (2) Goal.--The goal of the plan is to position the 
        Administration to have the facilities and infrastructure, 
        including laboratories, tools, and approaches, necessary to meet 
        future Administration and other Federal agencies' laboratory 
        needs.
            (3) Contents.--The plan shall identify--
                    (A) current Administration and other Federal agency 
                laboratory needs;
                    (B) future Administration research and development 
                and testing needs;
                    (C) <<NOTE: Strategy.>>  a strategy for identifying 
                facilities and infrastructure that are candidates for 
                disposal, that is consistent with the national strategic 
                direction set forth in--
                          (i) the National Space Policy;
                          (ii) the National Aeronautics Research, 
                      Development, Test, and Evaluation Infrastructure 
                      Plan;
                          (iii) the National Aeronautics and Space 
                      Administration Authorization Act of 2005 (Public 
                      Law 109-155; 119 Stat. 2895), National Aeronautics 
                      and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2008 
                      (Public Law 110-422; 122 Stat. 4779), and National 
                      Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization 
                      Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18301 et seq.); and
                          (iv) the human exploration roadmap under 
                      section 432 of this Act;
                    (D) <<NOTE: Strategy.>>  a strategy for the 
                maintenance, repair, upgrading, and modernization of 
                Administration facilities and infrastructure, including 
                laboratories and equipment;
                    (E) <<NOTE: Criteria.>>  criteria for--
                          (i) prioritizing deferred maintenance tasks;
                          (ii) maintaining, repairing, upgrading, or 
                      modernizing Administration facilities and 
                      infrastructure; and
                          (iii) implementing processes, plans, and 
                      policies for guiding the Administration's Centers 
                      on whether to maintain, repair, upgrade, or 
                      modernize a facility or infrastructure and for 
                      determining the type of instrument to be used;
                    (F) <<NOTE: Assessment.>>  an assessment of 
                modifications needed to maximize usage of facilities 
                that offer unique and highly specialized benefits to the 
                aerospace industry and the American public; and
                    (G) <<NOTE: Timeline. Estimate.>>  implementation 
                steps, including a timeline, milestones, and an estimate 
                of resources required for carrying out the plan.

    (d) Requirement To Establish Policy.--
            (1) <<NOTE: Deadline. Public information.>>  In general.--
        Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, 
        the Administrator shall establish and make publicly available a 
        policy that guides the Administration's use of existing 
        authorities to out-grant, lease, excess to the General Services 
        Administration, sell, decommission,

[[Page 131 STAT. 71]]

        demolish, or otherwise transfer property, facilities, or 
        infrastructure.
            (2) Criteria.--The policy shall include criteria for the use 
        of authorities, best practices, standardized procedures, and 
        guidelines for how to appropriately manage property, facilities, 
        and infrastructure.

    (e) <<NOTE: Deadline.>>  Submission to Congress.--Not later than 1 
year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall 
submit to the appropriate committees of Congress the plan developed 
under subsection (c).
SEC. 838. HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT ACCIDENT INVESTIGATIONS.

    Section 70702 of title 51, United States Code, is amended--
            (1) by amending subsection (a)(3) to read as follows:
            ``(3) any other orbital or suborbital space vehicle carrying 
        humans that is--
                    ``(A) owned by the Federal Government; or
                    ``(B) being used pursuant to a contract or Space Act 
                Agreement with the Federal Government for carrying a 
                government astronaut or a researcher funded by the 
                Federal Government; or''; and
            (2) by adding at the end the following:

    ``(c) Definitions.--In this section:
            ``(1) Government astronaut.--The term `government astronaut' 
        has the meaning given the term in section 50902.
            ``(2) Space act agreement.--The term `Space Act Agreement' 
        means an agreement entered into by the Administration pursuant 
        to its other transactions authority under section 20113(e).''.
SEC. 839. ORBITAL DEBRIS.

    (a) Findings.--Congress finds that--
            (1) orbital debris poses serious risks to the operational 
        space capabilities of the United States;
            (2) an international commitment and integrated strategic 
        plan are needed to mitigate the growth of orbital debris 
        wherever possible; and
            (3) the delay in the Office of Science and Technology 
        Policy's submission of a report on the status of international 
        coordination and development of orbital debris mitigation 
        strategies is inconsistent with such risks.

    (b) Reports.--
            (1) Coordination.--Not later than 90 days after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the 
        appropriate committees of Congress a report on the status of 
        efforts to coordinate with foreign countries within the Inter-
        Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee to mitigate the 
        effects and growth of orbital debris under section 1202(b)(1) of 
        the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization 
        Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18441(b)(1)).
            (2) Mitigation strategy.--Not later than 90 days after the 
        date of enactment of this Act, the Director of the Office of 
        Science and Technology Policy shall submit to the appropriate 
        committees of Congress a report on the status of the orbital 
        debris mitigation strategy required under section 1202(b)(2) of 
        the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization 
        Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18441(b)(2)).

[[Page 131 STAT. 72]]

SEC. 840. REVIEW OF ORBITAL DEBRIS REMOVAL CONCEPTS.

    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) orbital debris in low-Earth orbit poses significant 
        risks to spacecraft;
            (2) such orbital debris may increase due to collisions 
        between existing debris objects; and
            (3) understanding options to address and remove orbital 
        debris is important for ensuring safe and effective spacecraft 
        operations in low-Earth orbit.

    (b) Review.--
            (1) <<NOTE: Deadline.>>  In general.--Not later than 270 
        days after the date of enactment of this Act, the 
        Administrator--
                    (A) in collaboration with the heads of other 
                relevant Federal agencies, shall solicit and review 
                concepts and options for removing orbital debris from 
                low-Earth orbit; and
                    (B) <<NOTE: Reports. Recommenda- tions.>>  shall 
                submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a 
                report on the solicitation and review under subparagraph 
                (A), including recommendations on the best options for 
                decreasing the risks associated with orbital debris.
            (2) Requirements.--The solicitation and review under 
        paragraph (1) shall address the requirements for and feasibility 
        of developing and implementing each of the options.
SEC. 841. <<NOTE: 51 USC 20113 note.>>  SPACE ACT AGREEMENTS.

    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that, when used 
appropriately, Space Act Agreements can provide significant value in 
furtherance of NASA's mission.
    (b) Funded Space Act Agreements.--To the extent appropriate, the 
Administrator shall seek to maximize the value of contributions provided 
by other parties under a funded Space Act Agreement in order to advance 
NASA's mission.
    (c) Non-exclusivity.--
            (1) In general.--The Administrator shall, to the greatest 
        extent practicable, issue each Space Act Agreement--
                    (A) except as provided in paragraph (2), on a 
                nonexclusive basis;
                    (B) in a manner that ensures all non-government 
                parties have equal access to NASA resources; and
                    (C) exercising reasonable care not to reveal unique 
                or proprietary information.
            (2) <<NOTE: Determination.>>  Exclusivity.--If the 
        Administrator determines an exclusive arrangement is necessary, 
        the Administrator shall, to the greatest extent practicable, 
        issue the Space Act Agreement--
                    (A) utilizing a competitive selection process when 
                exclusive arrangements are necessary; and
                    (B) pursuant to public announcements when exclusive 
                arrangements are necessary.

    (d) <<NOTE: Public information. Web posting. Estimate. Deadline.>>  
Transparency.--The Administrator shall publicly disclose on the 
Administration's website and make available in a searchable format each 
Space Act Agreement, including an estimate of committed NASA resources 
and the expected benefits to agency objectives for each agreement, with 
appropriate redactions for proprietary, sensitive, or classified 
information, not later than 60 days after such agreement is signed by 
the parties.

    (e) Annual Reports.--

[[Page 131 STAT. 73]]

            (1) Requirement.--Not later than 90 days after the end of 
        each fiscal year, the Administrator shall submit to the 
        appropriate committees of Congress a report on the use of Space 
        Act Agreement authority by the Administration during the 
        previous fiscal year.
            (2) Contents.--The report shall include for each Space Act 
        Agreement in effect at the time of the report--
                    (A) an indication of whether the agreement is a 
                reimbursable, non-reimbursable, or funded Space Act 
                Agreement;
                    (B) a description of--
                          (i) the subject and terms;
                          (ii) the parties;
                          (iii) the responsible--
                                    (I) Mission Directorate;
                                    (II) Center; or
                                    (III) headquarters element;
                          (iv) the value;
                          (v) the extent of the cost sharing among 
                      Federal Government and non-Federal sources;
                          (vi) the time period or schedule; and
                          (vii) all milestones; and
                    (C) an indication of whether the agreement was 
                renewed during the previous fiscal year.
            (3) <<NOTE: Lists.>>  Anticipated agreements.--The report 
        shall include a list of all anticipated reimbursable, non-
        reimbursable, and funded Space Act Agreements for the upcoming 
        fiscal year.
            (4) Cumulative program benefits.--The report shall include, 
        with respect to each Space Act Agreement covered by the report, 
        a summary of--
                    (A) the technology areas in which research projects 
                were conducted under that agreement;
                    (B) the extent to which the use of that agreement--
                          (i) has contributed to a broadening of the 
                      technology and industrial base available for 
                      meeting Administration needs; and
                          (ii) has fostered within the technology and 
                      industrial base new relationships and practices 
                      that support the United States; and

[[Page 131 STAT. 74]]

                    (C) the total amount of value received by the 
                Federal Government during the fiscal year under that 
                agreement.

    Approved March 21, 2017.

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY--S. 442:
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CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, Vol. 163 (2017):
            Feb. 17, considered and passed Senate.
            Mar. 7, considered and passed House.
DAILY COMPILATION OF PRESIDENTIAL DOCUMENTS (2017):
            Mar. 21, Presidential remarks.

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