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[S. 756 Enrolled Bill (ENR)]

        S.756

                     One Hundred Fifteenth Congress

                                 of the

                        United States of America


                          AT THE SECOND SESSION

         Begun and held at the City of Washington on Wednesday,
           the third day of January, two thousand and eighteen


                                 An Act


 
To reauthorize and amend the Marine Debris Act to promote international 
         action to reduce marine debris, and for other purposes.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.
    (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``First Step Act of 
2018''.
    (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for this Act is as 
follows:

Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.

                      TITLE I--RECIDIVISM REDUCTION

Sec. 101. Risk and needs assessment system.
Sec. 102. Implementation of system and recommendations by Bureau of 
          Prisons.
Sec. 103. GAO report.
Sec. 104. Authorization of appropriations.
Sec. 105. Rule of construction.
Sec. 106. Faith-based considerations.
Sec. 107. Independent Review Committee.

           TITLE II--BUREAU OF PRISONS SECURE FIREARMS STORAGE

Sec. 201. Short title.
Sec. 202. Secure firearms storage.

         TITLE III--RESTRAINTS ON PREGNANT PRISONERS PROHIBITED

Sec. 301. Use of restraints on prisoners during the period of pregnancy 
          and postpartum recovery prohibited.

                       TITLE IV--SENTENCING REFORM

Sec. 401. Reduce and restrict enhanced sentencing for prior drug 
          felonies.
Sec. 402. Broadening of existing safety valve.
Sec. 403. Clarification of section 924(c) of title 18, United States 
          Code.
Sec. 404. Application of Fair Sentencing Act.

           TITLE V--SECOND CHANCE ACT OF 2007 REAUTHORIZATION

Sec. 501. Short title.
Sec. 502. Improvements to existing programs.
Sec. 503. Audit and accountability of grantees.
Sec. 504. Federal reentry improvements.
Sec. 505. Federal interagency reentry coordination.
Sec. 506. Conference expenditures.
Sec. 507. Evaluation of the Second Chance Act program.
Sec. 508. GAO review.

                TITLE VI--MISCELLANEOUS CRIMINAL JUSTICE

Sec. 601. Placement of prisoners close to families.
Sec. 602. Home confinement for low-risk prisoners.
Sec. 603. Federal prisoner reentry initiative reauthorization; 
          modification of imposed term of imprisonment.
Sec. 604. Identification for returning citizens.
Sec. 605. Expanding inmate employment through Federal Prison Industries.
Sec. 606. De-escalation training.
Sec. 607. Evidence-Based treatment for opioid and heroin abuse.
Sec. 608. Pilot programs.
Sec. 609. Ensuring supervision of released sexually dangerous persons.
Sec. 610. Data collection.
Sec. 611. Healthcare products.
Sec. 612. Adult and juvenile collaboration programs.
Sec. 613. Juvenile solitary confinement.

                     TITLE I--RECIDIVISM REDUCTION

    SEC. 101. RISK AND NEEDS ASSESSMENT SYSTEM.
    (a) In General.--Chapter 229 of title 18, United States Code, is 
amended by inserting after subchapter C the following:

            ``SUBCHAPTER D--RISK AND NEEDS ASSESSMENT SYSTEM

``Sec.
``3631. Duties of the Attorney General.
``3632. Development of risk and needs assessment system.
``3633. Evidence-based recidivism reduction program and recommendations.
``3634. Report.
``3635. Definitions.

``Sec. 3631. Duties of the Attorney General
    ``(a) In General.--The Attorney General shall carry out this 
subchapter in consultation with--
        ``(1) the Director of the Bureau of Prisons;
        ``(2) the Director of the Administrative Office of the United 
    States Courts;
        ``(3) the Director of the Office of Probation and Pretrial 
    Services;
        ``(4) the Director of the National Institute of Justice;
        ``(5) the Director of the National Institute of Corrections; 
    and
        ``(6) the Independent Review Committee authorized by the First 
    Step Act of 2018
    ``(b) Duties.--The Attorney General shall--
        ``(1) conduct a review of the existing prisoner risk and needs 
    assessment systems in operation on the date of enactment of this 
    subchapter;
        ``(2) develop recommendations regarding evidence-based 
    recidivism reduction programs and productive activities in 
    accordance with section 3633;
        ``(3) conduct ongoing research and data analysis on--
            ``(A) evidence-based recidivism reduction programs relating 
        to the use of prisoner risk and needs assessment tools;
            ``(B) the most effective and efficient uses of such 
        programs;
            ``(C) which evidence-based recidivism reduction programs 
        are the most effective at reducing recidivism, and the type, 
        amount, and intensity of programming that most effectively 
        reduces the risk of recidivism; and
            ``(D) products purchased by Federal agencies that are 
        manufactured overseas and could be manufactured by prisoners 
        participating in a prison work program without reducing job 
        opportunities for other workers in the United States;
        ``(4) on an annual basis, review, validate, and release 
    publicly on the Department of Justice website the risk and needs 
    assessment system, which review shall include--
            ``(A) any subsequent changes to the risk and needs 
        assessment system made after the date of enactment of this 
        subchapter;
            ``(B) the recommendations developed under paragraph (2), 
        using the research conducted under paragraph (3);
            ``(C) an evaluation to ensure that the risk and needs 
        assessment system bases the assessment of each prisoner's risk 
        of recidivism on indicators of progress and of regression that 
        are dynamic and that can reasonably be expected to change while 
        in prison;
            ``(D) statistical validation of any tools that the risk and 
        needs assessment system uses; and
            ``(E) an evaluation of the rates of recidivism among 
        similarly classified prisoners to identify any unwarranted 
        disparities, including disparities among similarly classified 
        prisoners of different demographic groups, in such rates;
        ``(5) make any revisions or updates to the risk and needs 
    assessment system that the Attorney General determines appropriate 
    pursuant to the review under paragraph (4), including updates to 
    ensure that any disparities identified in paragraph (4)(E) are 
    reduced to the greatest extent possible; and
        ``(6) report to Congress in accordance with section 3634.
``Sec. 3632. Development of risk and needs assessment system
    ``(a) In General.--Not later than 210 days after the date of 
enactment of this subchapter, the Attorney General, in consultation 
with the Independent Review Committee authorized by the First Step Act 
of 2018, shall develop and release publicly on the Department of 
Justice website a risk and needs assessment system (referred to in this 
subchapter as the `System'), which shall be used to--
        ``(1) determine the recidivism risk of each prisoner as part of 
    the intake process, and classify each prisoner as having minimum, 
    low, medium, or high risk for recidivism;
        ``(2) assess and determine, to the extent practicable, the risk 
    of violent or serious misconduct of each prisoner;
        ``(3) determine the type and amount of evidence-based 
    recidivism reduction programming that is appropriate for each 
    prisoner and assign each prisoner to such programming accordingly, 
    and based on the prisoner's specific criminogenic needs, and in 
    accordance with subsection (b);
        ``(4) reassess the recidivism risk of each prisoner 
    periodically, based on factors including indicators of progress, 
    and of regression, that are dynamic and that can reasonably be 
    expected to change while in prison;
        ``(5) reassign the prisoner to appropriate evidence-based 
    recidivism reduction programs or productive activities based on the 
    revised determination to ensure that--
            ``(A) all prisoners at each risk level have a meaningful 
        opportunity to reduce their classification during the period of 
        incarceration;
            ``(B) to address the specific criminogenic needs of the 
        prisoner; and
            ``(C) all prisoners are able to successfully participate in 
        such programs;
        ``(6) determine when to provide incentives and rewards for 
    successful participation in evidence-based recidivism reduction 
    programs or productive activities in accordance with subsection 
    (e);
        ``(7) determine when a prisoner is ready to transfer into 
    prerelease custody or supervised release in accordance with section 
    3624; and
        ``(8) determine the appropriate use of audio technology for 
    program course materials with an understanding of dyslexia.
In carrying out this subsection, the Attorney General may use existing 
risk and needs assessment tools, as appropriate.
    ``(b) Assignment of Evidence-based Recidivism Reduction Programs.--
The System shall provide guidance on the type, amount, and intensity of 
evidence-based recidivism reduction programming and productive 
activities that shall be assigned for each prisoner, including--
        ``(1) programs in which the Bureau of Prisons shall assign the 
    prisoner to participate, according to the prisoner's specific 
    criminogenic needs; and
        ``(2) information on the best ways that the Bureau of Prisons 
    can tailor the programs to the specific criminogenic needs of each 
    prisoner so as to most effectively lower each prisoner's risk of 
    recidivism.
    ``(c) Housing and Assignment Decisions.--The System shall provide 
guidance on program grouping and housing assignment determinations and, 
after accounting for the safety of each prisoner and other individuals 
at the prison, provide that prisoners with a similar risk level be 
grouped together in housing and assignment decisions to the extent 
practicable.
    ``(d) Evidence-Based Recidivism Reduction Program Incentives and 
Productive Activities Rewards.--The System shall provide incentives and 
rewards for prisoners to participate in and complete evidence-based 
recidivism reduction programs as follows:
        ``(1) Phone and visitation privileges.--A prisoner who is 
    successfully participating in an evidence-based recidivism 
    reduction program shall receive--
            ``(A) phone privileges, or, if available, video 
        conferencing privileges, for up to 30 minutes per day, and up 
        to 510 minutes per month; and
            ``(B) additional time for visitation at the prison, as 
        determined by the warden of the prison.
        ``(2) Transfer to institution closer to release residence.--A 
    prisoner who is successfully participating in an evidence-based 
    recidivism reduction program shall be considered by the Bureau of 
    Prisons for placement in a facility closer to the prisoner's 
    release residence upon request from the prisoner and subject to--
            ``(A) bed availability at the transfer facility;
            ``(B) the prisoner's security designation; and
            ``(C) the recommendation from the warden of the prison at 
        which the prisoner is incarcerated at the time of making the 
        request.
        ``(3) Additional policies.--The Director of the Bureau of 
    Prisons shall develop additional policies to provide appropriate 
    incentives for successful participation and completion of evidence-
    based recidivism reduction programming. The incentives shall 
    include not less than 2 of the following:
            ``(A) Increased commissary spending limits and product 
        offerings.
            ``(B) Extended opportunities to access the email system.
            ``(C) Consideration of transfer to preferred housing units 
        (including transfer to different prison facilities).
            ``(D) Other incentives solicited from prisoners and 
        determined appropriate by the Director.
        ``(4) Time credits.--
            ``(A) In general.--A prisoner, except for an ineligible 
        prisoner under subparagraph (D), who successfully completes 
        evidence-based recidivism reduction programming or productive 
        activities, shall earn time credits as follows:
                ``(i) A prisoner shall earn 10 days of time credits for 
            every 30 days of successful participation in evidence-based 
            recidivism reduction programming or productive activities.
                ``(ii) A prisoner determined by the Bureau of Prisons 
            to be at a minimum or low risk for recidivating, who, over 
            2 consecutive assessments, has not increased their risk of 
            recidivism, shall earn an additional 5 days of time credits 
            for every 30 days of successful participation in evidence-
            based recidivism reduction programming or productive 
            activities.
            ``(B) Availability.--A prisoner may not earn time credits 
        under this paragraph for an evidence-based recidivism reduction 
        program that the prisoner successfully completed--
                ``(i) prior to the date of enactment of this 
            subchapter; or
                ``(ii) during official detention prior to the date that 
            the prisoner's sentence commences under section 3585(a).
            ``(C) Application of time credits toward prerelease custody 
        or supervised release.--Time credits earned under this 
        paragraph by prisoners who successfully participate in 
        recidivism reduction programs or productive activities shall be 
        applied toward time in prerelease custody or supervised 
        release. The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall transfer 
        eligible prisoners, as determined under section 3624(g), into 
        prerelease custody or supervised release.
            ``(D) Ineligible prisoners.--A prisoner is ineligible to 
        receive time credits under this paragraph if the prisoner is 
        serving a sentence for a conviction under any of the following 
        provisions of law:
                ``(i) Section 32, relating to destruction of aircraft 
            or aircraft facilities.
                ``(ii) Section 33, relating to destruction of motor 
            vehicles or motor vehicle facilities.
                ``(iii) Section 36, relating to drive-by shootings.
                ``(iv) Section 81, relating to arson within special 
            maritime and territorial jurisdiction.
                ``(v) Section 111(b), relating to assaulting, 
            resisting, or impeding certain officers or employees using 
            a deadly or dangerous weapon or inflicting bodily injury.
                ``(vi) Paragraph (1), (7), or (8) of section 113(a), 
            relating to assault with intent to commit murder, assault 
            resulting in substantial bodily injury to a spouse or 
            intimate partner, a dating partner, or an individual who 
            has not attained the age of 16 years, or assault of a 
            spouse, intimate partner, or dating partner by strangling, 
            suffocating, or attempting to strangle or suffocate.
                ``(vii) Section 115, relating to influencing, impeding, 
            or retaliating against a Federal official by injuring a 
            family member, except for a threat made in violation of 
            that section.
                ``(viii) Section 116, relating to female genital 
            mutilation.
                ``(ix) Section 117, relating to domestic assault by a 
            habitual offender.
                ``(x) Any section of chapter 10, relating to biological 
            weapons.
                ``(xi) Any section of chapter 11B, relating to chemical 
            weapons.
                ``(xii) Section 351, relating to Congressional, 
            Cabinet, and Supreme Court assassination, kidnapping, and 
            assault.
                ``(xiii) Section 521, relating to criminal street 
            gangs.
                ``(xiv) Section 751, relating to prisoners in custody 
            of an institution or officer.
                ``(xv) Section 793, relating to gathering, 
            transmitting, or losing defense information.
                ``(xvi) Section 794, relating to gathering or 
            delivering defense information to aid a foreign government.
                ``(xvii) Any section of chapter 39, relating to 
            explosives and other dangerous articles, except for section 
            836 (relating to the transportation of fireworks into a 
            State prohibiting sale or use).
                ``(xviii) Section 842(p), relating to distribution of 
            information relating to explosives, destructive devices, 
            and weapons of mass destruction, but only if the conviction 
            involved a weapon of mass destruction (as defined in 
            section 2332a(c)).
                ``(xix) Subsection (f)(3), (h), or (i) of section 844, 
            relating to the use of fire or an explosive.
                ``(xx) Section 871, relating to threats against the 
            President and successors to the Presidency.
                ``(xxi) Section 879, relating to threats against former 
            Presidents and certain other persons.
                ``(xxii) Section 924(c), relating to unlawful 
            possession or use of a firearm during and in relation to 
            any crime of violence or drug trafficking crime.
                ``(xxiii) Section 1030(a)(1), relating to fraud and 
            related activity in connection with computers.
                ``(xxiv) Section 1091, relating to genocide.
                ``(xxv) Any section of chapter 51, relating to 
            homicide, except for section 1112 (relating to 
            manslaughter), 1113 (relating to attempt to commit murder 
            or manslaughter, but only if the conviction was for an 
            attempt to commit manslaughter), 1115 (relating to 
            misconduct or neglect of ship officers), or 1122 (relating 
            to protection against the human immunodeficiency virus).
                ``(xxvi) Any section of chapter 55, relating to 
            kidnapping.
                ``(xxvii) Any offense under chapter 77, relating to 
            peonage, slavery, and trafficking in persons, except for 
            sections 1593 through 1596.
                ``(xxviii) Section 1751, relating to Presidential and 
            Presidential staff assassination, kidnapping, and assault.
                ``(xxix) Section 1791, relating to providing or 
            possessing contraband in prison.
                ``(xxx) Section 1792, relating to mutiny and riots.
                ``(xxxi) Section 1841(a)(2)(C), relating to 
            intentionally killing or attempting to kill an unborn 
            child.
                ``(xxxii) Section 1992, relating to terrorist attacks 
            and other violence against railroad carriers and against 
            mass transportation systems on land, on water, or through 
            the air.
                ``(xxxiii) Section 2113(e), relating to bank robbery 
            resulting in death.
                ``(xxxiv) Section 2118(c), relating to robberies and 
            burglaries involving controlled substances resulting in 
            assault, putting in jeopardy the life of any person by the 
            use of a dangerous weapon or device, or death.
                ``(xxxv) Section 2119, relating to taking a motor 
            vehicle (commonly referred to as `carjacking').
                ``(xxxvi) Any section of chapter 105, relating to 
            sabotage, except for section 2152.
                ``(xxxvii) Any section of chapter 109A, relating to 
            sexual abuse.
                ``(xxxviii) Section 2250, relating to failure to 
            register as a sex offender.
                ``(xxxix) Section 2251, relating to the sexual 
            exploitation of children.
                ``(xl) Section 2251A, relating to the selling or buying 
            of children.
                ``(xli) Section 2252, relating to certain activities 
            relating to material involving the sexual exploitation of 
            minors.
                ``(xlii) Section 2252A, relating to certain activities 
            involving material constituting or containing child 
            pornography.
                ``(xliii) Section 2260, relating to the production of 
            sexually explicit depictions of a minor for importation 
            into the United States.
                ``(xliv) Section 2283, relating to the transportation 
            of explosive, biological, chemical, or radioactive or 
            nuclear materials.
                ``(xlv) Section 2284, relating to the transportation of 
            terrorists.
                ``(xlvi) Section 2291, relating to the destruction of a 
            vessel or maritime facility, but only if the conduct that 
            led to the conviction involved a substantial risk of death 
            or serious bodily injury.
                ``(xlvii) Any section of chapter 113B, relating to 
            terrorism.
                ``(xlviii) Section 2340A, relating to torture.
                ``(xlix) Section 2381, relating to treason.
                ``(l) Section 2442, relating to the recruitment or use 
            of child soldiers.
                ``(li) An offense described in section 3559(c)(2)(F), 
            for which the offender was sentenced to a term of 
            imprisonment of more than 1 year, if the offender has a 
            previous conviction, for which the offender served a term 
            of imprisonment of more than 1 year, for a Federal or State 
            offense, by whatever designation and wherever committed, 
            consisting of murder (as described in section 1111), 
            voluntary manslaughter (as described in section 1112), 
            assault with intent to commit murder (as described in 
            section 113(a)), aggravated sexual abuse and sexual abuse 
            (as described in sections 2241 and 2242), abusive sexual 
            contact (as described in sections 2244(a)(1) and (a)(2)), 
            kidnapping (as described in chapter 55), carjacking (as 
            described in section 2119), arson (as described in section 
            844(f)(3), (h), or (i)), or terrorism (as described in 
            chapter 113B).
                ``(lii) Section 57(b) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 
            (42 U.S.C. 2077(b)), relating to the engagement or 
            participation in the development or production of special 
            nuclear material.
                ``(liii) Section 92 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 
            (42 U.S.C. 2122), relating to prohibitions governing atomic 
            weapons.
                ``(liv) Section 101 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 
            (42 U.S.C. 2131), relating to the atomic energy license 
            requirement.
                ``(lv) Section 224 or 225 of the Atomic Energy Act of 
            1954 (42 U.S.C. 2274, 2275), relating to the communication 
            or receipt of restricted data.
                ``(lvi) Section 236 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 
            (42 U.S.C. 2284), relating to the sabotage of nuclear 
            facilities or fuel.
                ``(lvii) Section 60123(b) of title 49, relating to 
            damaging or destroying a pipeline facility, but only if the 
            conduct which led to the conviction involved a substantial 
            risk of death or serious bodily injury.
                ``(lviii) Section 401(a) of the Controlled Substances 
            Act (21 U.S.C. 841), relating to manufacturing or 
            distributing a controlled substance in the case of a 
            conviction for an offense described in subparagraph (A), 
            (B), or (C) of subsection (b)(1) of that section for which 
            death or serious bodily injury resulted from the use of 
            such substance.
                ``(lix) Section 276(a) of the Immigration and 
            Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1326), relating to the reentry of 
            a removed alien, but only if the alien is described in 
            paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (b) of that section.
                ``(lx) Section 277 of the Immigration and Nationality 
            Act (8 U.S.C. 1327), relating to aiding or assisting 
            certain aliens to enter the United States.
                ``(lxi) Section 278 of the Immigration and Nationality 
            Act (8 U.S.C. 1328), relating to the importation of an 
            alien into the United States for an immoral purpose.
                ``(lxii) Any section of the Export Administration Act 
            of 1979 (50 U.S.C. 4611 et seq.)
                ``(lxiii) Section 206 of the International Emergency 
            Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1705).
                ``(lxiv) Section 601 of the National Security Act of 
            1947 (50 U.S.C. 3121), relating to the protection of 
            identities of certain United States undercover intelligence 
            officers, agents, informants, and sources.
                ``(lxv) Subparagraph (A)(i) or (B)(i) of section 
            401(b)(1) of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 
            841(b)(1)) or paragraph (1)(A) or (2)(A) of section 1010(b) 
            of the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (21 
            U.S.C. 960(b)), relating to manufacturing, distributing, 
            dispensing, or possessing with intent to manufacture, 
            distribute, dispense, or knowingly importing or exporting, 
            a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of 
            heroin if the sentencing court finds that the offender was 
            an organizer, leader, manager, or supervisor of others in 
            the offense, as determined under the guidelines promulgated 
            by the United States Sentencing Commission.
                ``(lxvi) Subparagraph (A)(vi) or (B)(vi) of section 
            401(b)(1) of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 
            841(b)(1)) or paragraph (1)(F) or (2)(F) of section 1010(b) 
            of the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (21 
            U.S.C. 960(b)), relating to manufacturing, distributing, 
            dispensing, or possessing with intent to manufacture, 
            distribute, or dispense, a mixture or substance containing 
            a detectable amount of N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-
            piperidinyl] propanamide, or any analogue thereof.
                ``(lxvii) Subparagraph (A)(viii) or (B)(viii) of 
            section 401(b)(1) of the Controlled Substances Act (21 
            U.S.C. 841(b)(1)) or paragraph (1)(H) or (2)(H) of section 
            1010(b) the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (21 
            U.S.C. 960(b)), relating to manufacturing, distributing, 
            dispensing, or possessing with intent to manufacture, 
            distribute, or dispense, or knowingly importing or 
            exporting, a mixture of substance containing a detectable 
            amount of methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, or salts of 
            its isomers, if the sentencing court finds that the 
            offender was an organizer, leader, manager, or supervisor 
            of others in the offense, as determined under the 
            guidelines promulgated by the United States Sentencing 
            Commission.
                ``(lxviii) Subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 401(b)(1) 
            of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 841(b)(1)) or 
            paragraph (1) or (2) of section 1010(b) of the Controlled 
            Substances Import and Export Act (21 U.S.C. 960(b)), 
            relating to manufacturing, distributing, dispensing, or 
            possessing with intent to manufacture, distribute, or 
            dispense, a controlled substance, or knowingly importing or 
            exporting a controlled substance, if the sentencing court 
            finds that--

                    ``(I) the offense involved a mixture or substance 
                containing a detectable amount of N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-
                phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl] propanamide, or any 
                analogue thereof; and
                    ``(II) the offender was an organizer, leader, 
                manager, or supervisor of others in the offense, as 
                determined under the guidelines promulgated by the 
                United States Sentencing Commission.

            ``(E) Deportable prisoners ineligible to apply time 
        credits.--
                ``(i) In general.--A prisoner is ineligible to apply 
            time credits under subparagraph (C) if the prisoner is the 
            subject of a final order of removal under any provision of 
            the immigration laws (as such term is defined in section 
            101(a)(17) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 
            1101(a)(17))).
                ``(ii) Proceedings.--The Attorney General, in 
            consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security, shall 
            ensure that any alien described in section 212 or 237 of 
            the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182, 1227) 
            who seeks to earn time credits are subject to proceedings 
            described in section 238(a) of that Act (8 U.S.C. 1228(a)) 
            at a date as early as practicable during the prisoner's 
            incarceration.
        ``(5) Risk reassessments and level adjustment.--A prisoner who 
    successfully participates in evidence-based recidivism reduction 
    programming or productive activities shall receive periodic risk 
    reassessments not less often than annually, and a prisoner 
    determined to be at a medium or high risk of recidivating and who 
    has less than 5 years until his or her projected release date shall 
    receive more frequent risk reassessments. If the reassessment shows 
    that the prisoner's risk of recidivating or specific needs have 
    changed, the Bureau of Prisons shall update the determination of 
    the prisoner's risk of recidivating or information regarding the 
    prisoner's specific needs and reassign the prisoner to appropriate 
    evidence-based recidivism reduction programming or productive 
    activities based on such changes.
        ``(6) Relation to other incentive programs.--The incentives 
    described in this subsection shall be in addition to any other 
    rewards or incentives for which a prisoner may be eligible.
    ``(e) Penalties.--The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall 
develop guidelines for the reduction of rewards and incentives earned 
under subsection (d) for prisoners who violate prison rules or 
evidence-based recidivism reduction program or productive activity 
rules, which shall provide--
        ``(1) general levels of violations and resulting reductions;
        ``(2) that any reduction that includes the loss of time credits 
    shall require written notice to the prisoner, shall be limited to 
    time credits that a prisoner earned as of the date of the 
    prisoner's rule violation, and shall not include any future time 
    credits that the prisoner may earn; and
        ``(3) for a procedure to restore time credits that a prisoner 
    lost as a result of a rule violation, based on the prisoner's 
    individual progress after the date of the rule violation.
    ``(f) Bureau of Prisons Training.--The Attorney General shall 
develop and implement training programs for Bureau of Prisons officers 
and employees responsible for administering the System, which shall 
include--
        ``(1) initial training to educate officers and employees on how 
    to use the System in an appropriate and consistent manner, as well 
    as the reasons for using the System;
        ``(2) continuing education;
        ``(3) periodic training updates; and
        ``(4) a requirement that such officers and employees 
    demonstrate competence in administering the System, including 
    interrater reliability, on a biannual basis.
    ``(g) Quality Assurance.--In order to ensure that the Bureau of 
Prisons is using the System in an appropriate and consistent manner, 
the Attorney General shall monitor and assess the use of the System, 
which shall include conducting annual audits of the Bureau of Prisons 
regarding the use of the System.
    ``(h) Dyslexia Screening.--
        ``(1) Screening.--The Attorney General shall incorporate a 
    dyslexia screening program into the System, including by screening 
    for dyslexia during--
            ``(A) the intake process; and
            ``(B) each periodic risk reassessment of a prisoner.
        ``(2) Treatment.--The Attorney General shall incorporate 
    programs designed to treat dyslexia into the evidence-based 
    recidivism reduction programs or productive activities required to 
    be implemented under this section. The Attorney General may also 
    incorporate programs designed to treat other learning disabilities.
``Sec. 3633. Evidence-based recidivism reduction program and 
    recommendations
    ``(a) In General.--Prior to releasing the System, in consultation 
with the Independent Review Committee authorized by the First Step Act 
of 2018, the Attorney General shall--
        ``(1) review the effectiveness of evidence-based recidivism 
    reduction programs that exist as of the date of enactment of this 
    subchapter in prisons operated by the Bureau of Prisons;
        ``(2) review available information regarding the effectiveness 
    of evidence-based recidivism reduction programs and productive 
    activities that exist in State-operated prisons throughout the 
    United States;
        ``(3) identify the most effective evidence-based recidivism 
    reduction programs;
        ``(4) review the policies for entering into evidence-based 
    recidivism reduction partnerships described in section 3621(h)(5); 
    and
        ``(5) direct the Bureau of Prisons regarding--
            ``(A) evidence-based recidivism reduction programs;
            ``(B) the ability for faith-based organizations to function 
        as a provider of educational evidence-based programs outside of 
        the religious classes and services provided through the 
        Chaplaincy; and
            ``(C) the addition of any new effective evidence-based 
        recidivism reduction programs that the Attorney General finds.
    ``(b) Review and Recommendations Regarding Dyslexia Mitigation.--In 
carrying out subsection (a), the Attorney General shall consider the 
prevalence and mitigation of dyslexia in prisons, including by--
        ``(1) reviewing statistics on the prevalence of dyslexia, and 
    the effectiveness of any programs implemented to mitigate the 
    effects of dyslexia, in prisons operated by the Bureau of Prisons 
    and State-operated prisons throughout the United States; and
        ``(2) incorporating the findings of the Attorney General under 
    paragraph (1) of this subsection into any directives given to the 
    Bureau of Prisons under paragraph (5) of subsection (a).
``Sec. 3634. Report
    ``Beginning on the date that is 2 years after the date of enactment 
of this subchapter, and annually thereafter for a period of 5 years, 
the Attorney General shall submit a report to the Committees on the 
Judiciary of the Senate and the House of Representatives and the 
Subcommittees on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies of 
the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and the House of 
Representatives that contains the following:
        ``(1) A summary of the activities and accomplishments of the 
    Attorney General in carrying out this Act.
        ``(2) A summary and assessment of the types and effectiveness 
    of the evidence-based recidivism reduction programs and productive 
    activities in prisons operated by the Bureau of Prisons, 
    including--
            ``(A) evidence about which programs have been shown to 
        reduce recidivism;
            ``(B) the capacity of each program and activity at each 
        prison, including the number of prisoners along with the 
        recidivism risk of each prisoner enrolled in each program; and
            ``(C) identification of any gaps or shortages in capacity 
        of such programs and activities.
        ``(3) Rates of recidivism among individuals who have been 
    released from Federal prison, based on the following criteria:
            ``(A) The primary offense of conviction.
            ``(B) The length of the sentence imposed and served.
            ``(C) The Bureau of Prisons facility or facilities in which 
        the prisoner's sentence was served.
            ``(D) The evidence-based recidivism reduction programming 
        that the prisoner successfully completed, if any.
            ``(E) The prisoner's assessed and reassessed risk of 
        recidivism.
            ``(F) The productive activities that the prisoner 
        successfully completed, if any.
        ``(4) The status of prison work programs at facilities operated 
    by the Bureau of Prisons, including--
            ``(A) a strategy to expand the availability of such 
        programs without reducing job opportunities for workers in the 
        United States who are not in the custody of the Bureau of 
        Prisons, including the feasibility of prisoners manufacturing 
        products purchased by Federal agencies that are manufactured 
        overseas;
            ``(B) an assessment of the feasibility of expanding such 
        programs, consistent with the strategy required under 
        subparagraph (A), with the goal that 5 years after the date of 
        enactment of this subchapter, not less than 75 percent of 
        eligible minimum- and low-risk offenders have the opportunity 
        to participate in a prison work program for not less than 20 
        hours per week; and
            ``(C) a detailed discussion of legal authorities that would 
        be useful or necessary to achieve the goals described in 
        subparagraphs (A) and (B).
        ``(5) An assessment of the Bureau of Prisons' compliance with 
    section 3621(h).
        ``(6) An assessment of progress made toward carrying out the 
    purposes of this subchapter, including any savings associated 
    with--
            ``(A) the transfer of prisoners into prerelease custody or 
        supervised release under section 3624(g), including savings 
        resulting from the avoidance or deferral of future 
        construction, acquisition, and operations costs; and
            ``(B) any decrease in recidivism that may be attributed to 
        the System or the increase in evidence-based recidivism 
        reduction programs required under this subchapter.
        ``(7) An assessment of budgetary savings resulting from this 
    subchapter, including--
            ``(A) a summary of the amount of savings resulting from the 
        transfer of prisoners into prerelease custody under this 
        chapter, including savings resulting from the avoidance or 
        deferral of future construction, acquisition, or operations 
        costs;
            ``(B) a summary of the amount of savings resulting from any 
        decrease in recidivism that may be attributed to the 
        implementation of the risk and needs assessment system or the 
        increase in recidivism reduction programs and productive 
        activities required by this subchapter;
            ``(C) a strategy to reinvest the savings described in 
        subparagraphs (A) and (B) in other--
                ``(i) Federal, State, and local law enforcement 
            activities; and
                ``(ii) expansions of recidivism reduction programs and 
            productive activities in the Bureau of Prisons; and
            ``(D) a description of how the reduced expenditures on 
        Federal corrections and the budgetary savings resulting from 
        this subchapter are currently being used and will be used to--
                ``(i) increase investment in law enforcement and crime 
            prevention to combat gangs of national significance and 
            high-level drug traffickers through the High Intensity Drug 
            Trafficking Areas Program and other task forces;
                ``(ii) hire, train, and equip law enforcement officers 
            and prosecutors; and
                ``(iii) promote crime reduction programs using 
            evidence-based practices and strategic planning to help 
            reduce crime and criminal recidivism.
        ``(8) Statistics on--
            ``(A) the prevalence of dyslexia among prisoners in prisons 
        operated by the Bureau of Prisons; and
            ``(B) any change in the effectiveness of dyslexia 
        mitigation programs among such prisoners that may be attributed 
        to the incorporation of dyslexia screening into the System and 
        of dyslexia treatment into the evidence-based recidivism 
        reduction programs, as required under this chapter.
``Sec. 3635. Definitions
    ``In this subchapter the following definitions apply:
        ``(1) Dyslexia.--The term `dyslexia' means an unexpected 
    difficulty in reading for an individual who has the intelligence to 
    be a much better reader, most commonly caused by a difficulty in 
    the phonological processing (the appreciation of the individual 
    sounds of spoken language), which affects the ability of an 
    individual to speak, read, and spell.
        ``(2) Dyslexia screening program.--The term `dyslexia screening 
    program' means a screening program for dyslexia that is--
            ``(A) evidence-based (as defined in section 8101(21) of the 
        Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 
        7801(21))) with proven psychometrics for validity;
            ``(B) efficient and low-cost; and
            ``(C) readily available.
        ``(3) Evidence-based recidivism reduction program.--The term 
    `evidence-based recidivism reduction program' means either a group 
    or individual activity that--
            ``(A) has been shown by empirical evidence to reduce 
        recidivism or is based on research indicating that it is likely 
        to be effective in reducing recidivism;
            ``(B) is designed to help prisoners succeed in their 
        communities upon release from prison; and
            ``(C) may include--
                ``(i) social learning and communication, interpersonal, 
            anti-bullying, rejection response, and other life skills;
                ``(ii) family relationship building, structured parent-
            child interaction, and parenting skills;
                ``(iii) classes on morals or ethics;
                ``(iv) academic classes;
                ``(v) cognitive behavioral treatment;
                ``(vi) mentoring;
                ``(vii) substance abuse treatment;
                ``(viii) vocational training;
                ``(ix) faith-based classes or services;
                ``(x) civic engagement and reintegrative community 
            services;
                ``(xi) a prison job, including through a prison work 
            program;
                ``(xii) victim impact classes or other restorative 
            justice programs; and
                ``(xiii) trauma counseling and trauma-informed support 
            programs.
        ``(4) Prisoner.--The term `prisoner' means a person who has 
    been sentenced to a term of imprisonment pursuant to a conviction 
    for a Federal criminal offense, or a person in the custody of the 
    Bureau of Prisons.
        ``(5) Productive activity.--The term `productive activity' 
    means either a group or individual activity that is designed to 
    allow prisoners determined as having a minimum or low risk of 
    recidivating to remain productive and thereby maintain a minimum or 
    low risk of recidivating, and may include the delivery of the 
    programs described in paragraph (1) to other prisoners.
        ``(6) Risk and needs assessment tool.--The term `risk and needs 
    assessment tool' means an objective and statistically validated 
    method through which information is collected and evaluated to 
    determine--
            ``(A) as part of the intake process, the risk that a 
        prisoner will recidivate upon release from prison;
            ``(B) the recidivism reduction programs that will best 
        minimize the risk that the prisoner will recidivate upon 
        release from prison; and
            ``(C) the periodic reassessment of risk that a prisoner 
        will recidivate upon release from prison, based on factors 
        including indicators of progress and of regression, that are 
        dynamic and that can reasonably be expected to change while in 
        prison.''.
    (b) Clerical Amendment.--The table of subchapters for chapter 229 
of title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the 
following:

``D.  Risk and Needs Assessment..................................3631''.

    SEC. 102. IMPLEMENTATION OF SYSTEM AND RECOMMENDATIONS BY BUREAU OF 
      PRISONS.
    (a) Implementation of System Generally.--Section 3621 of title 18, 
United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following:
    ``(h) Implementation of Risk and Needs Assessment System.--
        ``(1) In general.--Not later than 180 days after the Attorney 
    General completes and releases the risk and needs assessment system 
    (referred to in this subsection as the `System') developed under 
    subchapter D, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall, in 
    accordance with that subchapter--
            ``(A) implement and complete the initial intake risk and 
        needs assessment for each prisoner (including for each prisoner 
        who was a prisoner prior to the effective date of this 
        subsection), regardless of the prisoner's length of imposed 
        term of imprisonment, and begin to assign prisoners to 
        appropriate evidence-based recidivism reduction programs based 
        on that determination;
            ``(B) begin to expand the effective evidence-based 
        recidivism reduction programs and productive activities it 
        offers and add any new evidence-based recidivism reduction 
        programs and productive activities necessary to effectively 
        implement the System; and
            ``(C) begin to implement the other risk and needs 
        assessment tools necessary to effectively implement the System 
        over time, while prisoners are participating in and completing 
        the effective evidence-based recidivism reduction programs and 
        productive activities.
        ``(2) Phase-in.--In order to carry out paragraph (1), so that 
    every prisoner has the opportunity to participate in and complete 
    the type and amount of evidence-based recidivism reduction programs 
    or productive activities they need, and be reassessed for 
    recidivism risk as necessary to effectively implement the System, 
    the Bureau of Prisons shall--
            ``(A) provide such evidence-based recidivism reduction 
        programs and productive activities for all prisoners before the 
        date that is 2 years after the date on which the Bureau of 
        Prisons completes a risk and needs assessment for each prisoner 
        under paragraph (1)(A); and
            ``(B) develop and validate the risk and needs assessment 
        tool to be used in the reassessments of risk of recidivism, 
        while prisoners are participating in and completing evidence-
        based recidivism reduction programs and productive activities.
        ``(3) Priority during phase-in.--During the 2-year period 
    described in paragraph (2)(A), the priority for such programs and 
    activities shall be accorded based on a prisoner's proximity to 
    release date.
        ``(4) Preliminary expansion of evidence-based recidivism 
    reduction programs and authority to use incentives.--Beginning on 
    the date of enactment of this subsection, the Bureau of Prisons may 
    begin to expand any evidence-based recidivism reduction programs 
    and productive activities that exist at a prison as of such date, 
    and may offer to prisoners who successfully participate in such 
    programs and activities the incentives and rewards described in 
    subchapter D.
        ``(5) Recidivism reduction partnerships.--In order to expand 
    evidence-based recidivism reduction programs and productive 
    activities, the Attorney General shall develop policies for the 
    warden of each prison of the Bureau of Prisons to enter into 
    partnerships, subject to the availability of appropriations, with 
    any of the following:
            ``(A) Nonprofit and other private organizations, including 
        faith-based, art, and community-based organizations that will 
        deliver recidivism reduction programming on a paid or volunteer 
        basis.
            ``(B) Institutions of higher education (as defined in 
        section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 
        1001)) that will deliver instruction on a paid or volunteer 
        basis.
            ``(C) Private entities that will--
                ``(i) deliver vocational training and certifications;
                ``(ii) provide equipment to facilitate vocational 
            training or employment opportunities for prisoners;
                ``(iii) employ prisoners; or
                ``(iv) assist prisoners in prerelease custody or 
            supervised release in finding employment.
            ``(D) Industry-sponsored organizations that will deliver 
        workforce development and training, on a paid or volunteer 
        basis.
        ``(6) Requirement to provide programs to all prisoners; 
    priority.--The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall provide all 
    prisoners with the opportunity to actively participate in evidence-
    based recidivism reduction programs or productive activities, 
    according to their specific criminogenic needs, throughout their 
    entire term of incarceration. Priority for participation in 
    recidivism reduction programs shall be given to medium-risk and 
    high-risk prisoners, with access to productive activities given to 
    minimum-risk and low-risk prisoners.
        ``(7) Definitions.--The terms in this subsection have the 
    meaning given those terms in section 3635.''.
    (b) Prerelease Custody.--
        (1) In general.--Section 3624 of title 18, United States Code, 
    is amended--
            (A) in subsection (b)(1)--
                (i) by striking ``, beyond the time served, of up to 54 
            days at the end of each year of the prisoner's term of 
            imprisonment, beginning at the end of the first year of the 
            term,'' and inserting ``of up to 54 days for each year of 
            the prisoner's sentence imposed by the court,''; and
                (ii) by striking ``credit for the last year or portion 
            of a year of the term of imprisonment shall be prorated and 
            credited within the last six weeks of the sentence'' and 
            inserting ``credit for the last year of a term of 
            imprisonment shall be credited on the first day of the last 
            year of the term of imprisonment''; and
            (B) by adding at the end the following:
    ``(g) Prerelease Custody or Supervised Release for Risk and Needs 
Assessment System Participants.--
        ``(1) Eligible prisoners.--This subsection applies in the case 
    of a prisoner (as such term is defined in section 3635) who--
            ``(A) has earned time credits under the risk and needs 
        assessment system developed under subchapter D (referred to in 
        this subsection as the `System') in an amount that is equal to 
        the remainder of the prisoner's imposed term of imprisonment;
            ``(B) has shown through the periodic risk reassessments a 
        demonstrated recidivism risk reduction or has maintained a 
        minimum or low recidivism risk, during the prisoner's term of 
        imprisonment;
            ``(C) has had the remainder of the prisoner's imposed term 
        of imprisonment computed under applicable law; and
            ``(D)(i) in the case of a prisoner being placed in 
        prerelease custody, the prisoner--
                ``(I) has been determined under the System to be a 
            minimum or low risk to recidivate pursuant to the last 2 
            reassessments of the prisoner; or
                ``(II) has had a petition to be transferred to 
            prerelease custody or supervised release approved by the 
            warden of the prison, after the warden's determination 
            that--

                    ``(aa) the prisoner would not be a danger to 
                society if transferred to prerelease custody or 
                supervised release;
                    ``(bb) the prisoner has made a good faith effort to 
                lower their recidivism risk through participation in 
                recidivism reduction programs or productive activities; 
                and
                    ``(cc) the prisoner is unlikely to recidivate; or

            ``(ii) in the case of a prisoner being placed in supervised 
        release, the prisoner has been determined under the System to 
        be a minimum or low risk to recidivate pursuant to the last 
        reassessment of the prisoner.
        ``(2) Types of prerelease custody.--A prisoner shall be placed 
    in prerelease custody as follows:
            ``(A) Home confinement.--
                ``(i) In general.--A prisoner placed in prerelease 
            custody pursuant to this subsection who is placed in home 
            confinement shall--

                    ``(I) be subject to 24-hour electronic monitoring 
                that enables the prompt identification of the prisoner, 
                location, and time, in the case of any violation of 
                subclause (II);
                    ``(II) remain in the prisoner's residence, except 
                that the prisoner may leave the prisoner's home in 
                order to, subject to the approval of the Director of 
                the Bureau of Prisons--

                        ``(aa) perform a job or job-related activities, 
                    including an apprenticeship, or participate in job-
                    seeking activities;
                        ``(bb) participate in evidence-based recidivism 
                    reduction programming or productive activities 
                    assigned by the System, or similar activities;
                        ``(cc) perform community service;
                        ``(dd) participate in crime victim restoration 
                    activities;
                        ``(ee) receive medical treatment;
                        ``(ff) attend religious activities; or
                        ``(gg) participate in other family-related 
                    activities that facilitate the prisoner's 
                    successful reentry such as a family funeral, a 
                    family wedding, or to visit a family member who is 
                    seriously ill; and

                    ``(III) comply with such other conditions as the 
                Director determines appropriate.

                ``(ii) Alternate means of monitoring.--If the 
            electronic monitoring of a prisoner described in clause 
            (i)(I) is infeasible for technical or religious reasons, 
            the Director of the Bureau of Prisons may use alternative 
            means of monitoring a prisoner placed in home confinement 
            that the Director determines are as effective or more 
            effective than the electronic monitoring described in 
            clause (i)(I).
                ``(iii) Modifications.--The Director of the Bureau of 
            Prisons may modify the conditions described in clause (i) 
            if the Director determines that a compelling reason exists 
            to do so, and that the prisoner has demonstrated exemplary 
            compliance with such conditions.
                ``(iv) Duration.--Except as provided in paragraph (4), 
            a prisoner who is placed in home confinement shall remain 
            in home confinement until the prisoner has served not less 
            than 85 percent of the prisoner's imposed term of 
            imprisonment.
            ``(B) Residential reentry center.--A prisoner placed in 
        prerelease custody pursuant to this subsection who is placed at 
        a residential reentry center shall be subject to such 
        conditions as the Director of the Bureau of Prisons determines 
        appropriate.
        ``(3) Supervised release.--If the sentencing court included as 
    a part of the prisoner's sentence a requirement that the prisoner 
    be placed on a term of supervised release after imprisonment 
    pursuant to section 3583, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons may 
    transfer the prisoner to begin any such term of supervised release 
    at an earlier date, not to exceed 12 months, based on the 
    application of time credits under section 3632.
        ``(4) Determination of conditions.--In determining appropriate 
    conditions for prisoners placed in prerelease custody pursuant to 
    this subsection, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall, to 
    the extent practicable, provide that increasingly less restrictive 
    conditions shall be imposed on prisoners who demonstrate continued 
    compliance with the conditions of such prerelease custody, so as to 
    most effectively prepare such prisoners for reentry.
        ``(5) Violations of conditions.--If a prisoner violates a 
    condition of the prisoner's prerelease custody, the Director of the 
    Bureau of Prisons may impose such additional conditions on the 
    prisoner's prerelease custody as the Director of the Bureau of 
    Prisons determines appropriate, or revoke the prisoner's prerelease 
    custody and require the prisoner to serve the remainder of the term 
    of imprisonment to which the prisoner was sentenced, or any portion 
    thereof, in prison. If the violation is nontechnical in nature, the 
    Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall revoke the prisoner's 
    prerelease custody.
        ``(6) Issuance of guidelines.--The Attorney General, in 
    consultation with the Assistant Director for the Office of 
    Probation and Pretrial Services, shall issue guidelines for use by 
    the Bureau of Prisons in determining--
            ``(A) the appropriate type of prerelease custody or 
        supervised release and level of supervision for a prisoner 
        placed on prerelease custody pursuant to this subsection; and
            ``(B) consequences for a violation of a condition of such 
        prerelease custody by such a prisoner, including a return to 
        prison and a reassessment of evidence-based recidivism risk 
        level under the System.
        ``(7) Agreements with united states probation and pretrial 
    services.--The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall, to the 
    greatest extent practicable, enter into agreements with United 
    States Probation and Pretrial Services to supervise prisoners 
    placed in home confinement under this subsection. Such agreements 
    shall--
            ``(A) authorize United States Probation and Pretrial 
        Services to exercise the authority granted to the Director 
        pursuant to paragraphs (3) and (4); and
            ``(B) take into account the resource requirements of United 
        States Probation and Pretrial Services as a result of the 
        transfer of Bureau of Prisons prisoners to prerelease custody 
        or supervised release.
        ``(8) Assistance.--United States Probation and Pretrial 
    Services shall, to the greatest extent practicable, offer 
    assistance to any prisoner not under its supervision during 
    prerelease custody under this subsection.
        ``(9) Mentoring, reentry, and spiritual services.--Any 
    prerelease custody into which a prisoner is placed under this 
    subsection may not include a condition prohibiting the prisoner 
    from receiving mentoring, reentry, or spiritual services from a 
    person who provided such services to the prisoner while the 
    prisoner was incarcerated, except that the warden of the facility 
    at which the prisoner was incarcerated may waive the requirement 
    under this paragraph if the warden finds that the provision of such 
    services would pose a significant security risk to the prisoner, 
    persons who provide such services, or any other person. The warden 
    shall provide written notice of any such waiver to the person 
    providing such services and to the prisoner.
        ``(10) Time limits inapplicable.--The time limits under 
    subsections (b) and (c) shall not apply to prerelease custody under 
    this subsection.
        ``(11) Prerelease custody capacity.--The Director of the Bureau 
    of Prisons shall ensure there is sufficient prerelease custody 
    capacity to accommodate all eligible prisoners.''.
        (2) Effective date.--The amendments made by this subsection 
    shall take effect beginning on the date that the Attorney General 
    completes and releases the risk and needs assessment system under 
    subchapter D of chapter 229 of title 18, United States Code, as 
    added by section 101(a) of this Act.
        (3) Applicability.--The amendments made by this subsection 
    shall apply with respect to offenses committed before, on, or after 
    the date of enactment of this Act, except that such amendments 
    shall not apply with respect to offenses committed before November 
    1, 1987.
    SEC. 103. GAO REPORT.
    Not later than 2 years after the Director of the Bureau of Prisons 
implements the risk and needs assessment system under section 3621 of 
title 18, United States Code, and every 2 years thereafter, the 
Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct an audit of the 
use of the risk and needs assessment system at Bureau of Prisons 
facilities. The audit shall include analysis of the following:
        (1) Whether inmates are being assessed under the risk and needs 
    assessment system with the frequency required under such section 
    3621 of title 18, United States Code.
        (2) Whether the Bureau of Prisons is able to offer recidivism 
    reduction programs and productive activities (as such terms are 
    defined in section 3635 of title 18, United States Code, as added 
    by section 101(a) of this Act).
        (3) Whether the Bureau of Prisons is offering the type, amount, 
    and intensity of recidivism reduction programs and productive 
    activities for prisoners to earn the maximum amount of time credits 
    for which they are eligible.
        (4) Whether the Attorney General is carrying out the duties 
    under section 3631(b) of title 18, United States Code, as added by 
    section 101(a) of this Act.
        (5) Whether officers and employees of the Bureau of Prisons are 
    receiving the training described in section 3632(f) of title 18, 
    United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act.
        (6) Whether the Bureau of Prisons offers work assignments to 
    all prisoners who might benefit from such an assignment.
        (7) Whether the Bureau of Prisons transfers prisoners to 
    prerelease custody or supervised release as soon as they are 
    eligible for such a transfer under section 3624(g) of title 18, 
    United States Code, as added by section 102(b) of this Act.
        (8) The rates of recidivism among similarly classified 
    prisoners to identify any unwarranted disparities, including 
    disparities among similarly classified prisoners of different 
    demographic groups, in such rates.
    SEC. 104. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.
    (a) In General.--There is authorized to be appropriated to carry 
out this title $75,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2019 through 2023. 
Of the amount appropriated under this subsection, 80 percent shall be 
reserved for use by the Director of the Bureau of Prisons to implement 
the system under section 3621(h) of title 18, United States Code, as 
added by section 102(a) of this Act.
    (b) Savings.--It is the sense of Congress that any savings 
associated with reductions in recidivism that result from this title 
should be reinvested--
        (1) to supplement funding for programs that increase public 
    safety by providing resources to State and local law enforcement 
    officials, including for the adoption of innovative technologies 
    and information sharing capabilities;
        (2) into evidence-based recidivism reduction programs offered 
    by the Bureau of Prisons; and
        (3) into ensuring eligible prisoners have access to such 
    programs and productive activities offered by the Bureau of 
    Prisons.
    SEC. 105. RULE OF CONSTRUCTION.
    Nothing in this Act, or the amendments made by this Act, may be 
construed to provide authority to place a prisoner in prerelease 
custody or supervised release who is serving a term of imprisonment 
pursuant to a conviction for an offense under the laws of one of the 50 
States, or of a territory or possession of the United States or to 
amend or affect the enforcement of the immigration laws, as defined in 
section 101 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101).
    SEC. 106. FAITH-BASED CONSIDERATIONS.
    (a) In General.--In considering any program, treatment, regimen, 
group, company, charity, person, or entity of any kind under any 
provision of this Act, or the amendments made by this Act, the fact 
that it may be or is faith-based may not be a basis for any 
discrimination against it in any manner or for any purpose.
    (b) Eligibility for Earned Time Credit.--Participation in a faith-
based program, treatment, or regimen may qualify a prisoner for earned 
time credit under subchapter D of chapter 229 of title 18, United 
States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act, however, the 
Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall ensure that non-faith-based 
programs that qualify for earned time credit are offered at each Bureau 
of Prisons facility in addition to any such faith-based programs.
    (c) Limitation on Activities.--A group, company, charity, person, 
or entity may not engage in explicitly religious activities using 
direct financial assistance made available under this title or the 
amendments made by this title.
    (d) Rule of Construction.--Nothing in this Act, or the amendments 
made by this Act, may be construed to amend any requirement under 
Federal law or the Constitution of the United States regarding funding 
for faith-based programs or activities.
    SEC. 107. INDEPENDENT REVIEW COMMITTEE.
    (a) In General.--The Attorney General shall consult with an 
Independent Review Committee in carrying out the Attorney General's 
duties under sections 3631(b), 3632 and 3633 of title 18, United States 
Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act.
    (b) Formation of Independent Review Committee.--The National 
Institute of Justice shall select a nonpartisan and nonprofit 
organization with expertise in the study and development of risk and 
needs assessment tools to host the Independent Review Committee. The 
Independent Review Committee shall be established not later than 30 
days after the date of enactment of this Act.
    (c) Appointment of Independent Review Committee.--The organization 
selected by the National Institute of Justice shall appoint not fewer 
than 6 members to the Independent Review Committee.
    (d) Composition of the Independent Review Committee.--The members 
of the Independent Review Committee shall all have expertise in risk 
and needs assessment systems and shall include--
        (1) 2 individuals who have published peer-reviewed scholarship 
    about risk and needs assessments in both corrections and community 
    settings;
        (2) 2 corrections practitioners who have developed and 
    implemented a risk assessment tool in a corrections system or in a 
    community supervision setting, including 1 with prior experience 
    working within the Bureau of Prisons; and
        (3) 1 individual with expertise in assessing risk assessment 
    implementation.
    (e) Duties of the Independent Review Committee.--The Independent 
Review Committee shall assist the Attorney General in carrying out the 
Attorney General's duties under sections 3631(b), 3632 and 3633 of 
title 18, United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act, 
including by assisting in--
        (1) conducting a review of the existing prisoner risk and needs 
    assessment systems in operation on the date of enactment of this 
    Act;
        (2) developing recommendations regarding evidence-based 
    recidivism reduction programs and productive activities;
        (3) conducting research and data analysis on--
            (A) evidence-based recidivism reduction programs relating 
        to the use of prisoner risk and needs assessment tools;
            (B) the most effective and efficient uses of such programs; 
        and
            (C) which evidence-based recidivism reduction programs are 
        the most effective at reducing recidivism, and the type, 
        amount, and intensity of programming that most effectively 
        reduces the risk of recidivism; and
        (4) reviewing and validating the risk and needs assessment 
    system.
    (f) Bureau of Prisons Cooperation.--The Director of the Bureau of 
Prisons shall assist the Independent Review Committee in performing the 
Committee's duties and promptly respond to requests from the Committee 
for access to Bureau of Prisons facilities, personnel, and information.
    (g) Report.--Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Independent Review Committee shall submit to the 
Committee on the Judiciary and the Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, 
Science, and Related Agencies of the Committee on Appropriations of the 
Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary and the Subcommittee on 
Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies of the Committee on 
Appropriations of the House of Representatives a report that includes--
        (1) a list of all offenses of conviction for which prisoners 
    were ineligible to receive time credits under section 3632(d)(4)(D) 
    of title 18, United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this 
    Act, and for each offense the number of prisoners excluded, 
    including demographic percentages by age, race, and sex;
        (2) the criminal history categories of prisoners ineligible to 
    receive time credits under section 3632(d)(4)(D) of title 18, 
    United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act, and for 
    each category the number of prisoners excluded, including 
    demographic percentages by age, race, and sex;
        (3) the number of prisoners ineligible to apply time credits 
    under section 3632(d)(4)(D) of title 18, United States Code, as 
    added by section 101(a) of this Act, who do not participate in 
    recidivism reduction programming or productive activities, 
    including the demographic percentages by age, race, and sex;
        (4) any recommendations for modifications to section 
    3632(d)(4)(D) of title 18, United States Code, as added by section 
    101(a) of this Act, and any other recommendations regarding 
    recidivism reduction.
    (h) Termination.--The Independent Review Committee shall terminate 
on the date that is 2 years after the date on which the risk and needs 
assessment system authorized by sections 3632 and 3633 of title 18, 
United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act, is 
released.

          TITLE II--BUREAU OF PRISONS SECURE FIREARMS STORAGE

    SEC. 201. SHORT TITLE.
    This title may be cited as the ``Lieutenant Osvaldo Albarati 
Correctional Officer Self-Protection Act of 2018''.
    SEC. 202. SECURE FIREARMS STORAGE.
    (a) In General.--Chapter 303 of title 18, United States Code, is 
amended by adding at the end the following:
``Sec. 4050. Secure firearms storage
    ``(a) Definitions.--In this section--
        ``(1) the term `employee' means a qualified law enforcement 
    officer employed by the Bureau of Prisons; and
        ``(2) the terms `firearm' and `qualified law enforcement 
    officer' have the meanings given those terms under section 926B.
    ``(b) Secure Firearms Storage.--The Director of the Bureau of 
Prisons shall ensure that each chief executive officer of a Federal 
penal or correctional institution--
        ``(1)(A) provides a secure storage area located outside of the 
    secure perimeter of the institution for employees to store 
    firearms; or
        ``(B) allows employees to store firearms in a vehicle lockbox 
    approved by the Director of the Bureau of Prisons; and
        ``(2) notwithstanding any other provision of law, allows 
    employees to carry concealed firearms on the premises outside of 
    the secure perimeter of the institution.''.
    (b) Technical and Conforming Amendment.--The table of sections for 
chapter 303 of title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding at 
the end the following:

``4050. Secure firearms storage.''.

         TITLE III--RESTRAINTS ON PREGNANT PRISONERS PROHIBITED

    SEC. 301. USE OF RESTRAINTS ON PRISONERS DURING THE PERIOD OF 
      PREGNANCY AND POSTPARTUM RECOVERY PROHIBITED.
    (a) In General.--Chapter 317 of title 18, United States Code, is 
amended by inserting after section 4321 the following:
``Sec. 4322. Use of restraints on prisoners during the period of 
    pregnancy, labor, and postpartum recovery prohibited
    ``(a) Prohibition.--Except as provided in subsection (b), beginning 
on the date on which pregnancy is confirmed by a healthcare 
professional, and ending at the conclusion of postpartum recovery, a 
prisoner in the custody of the Bureau of Prisons, or in the custody of 
the United States Marshals Service pursuant to section 4086, shall not 
be placed in restraints.
    ``(b) Exceptions.--
        ``(1) In general.--The prohibition under subsection (a) shall 
    not apply if--
            ``(A) an appropriate corrections official, or a United 
        States marshal, as applicable, makes a determination that the 
        prisoner--
                ``(i) is an immediate and credible flight risk that 
            cannot reasonably be prevented by other means; or
                ``(ii) poses an immediate and serious threat of harm to 
            herself or others that cannot reasonably be prevented by 
            other means; or
            ``(B) a healthcare professional responsible for the health 
        and safety of the prisoner determines that the use of 
        restraints is appropriate for the medical safety of the 
        prisoner.
        ``(2) Least restrictive restraints.--In the case that 
    restraints are used pursuant to an exception under paragraph (1), 
    only the least restrictive restraints necessary to prevent the harm 
    or risk of escape described in paragraph (1) may be used.
        ``(3) Application.--
            ``(A) In general.--The exceptions under paragraph (1) may 
        not be applied--
                ``(i) to place restraints around the ankles, legs, or 
            waist of a prisoner;
                ``(ii) to restrain a prisoner's hands behind her back;
                ``(iii) to restrain a prisoner using 4-point 
            restraints; or
                ``(iv) to attach a prisoner to another prisoner.
            ``(B) Medical request.--Notwithstanding paragraph (1), upon 
        the request of a healthcare professional who is responsible for 
        the health and safety of a prisoner, a corrections official or 
        United States marshal, as applicable, shall refrain from using 
        restraints on the prisoner or shall remove restraints used on 
        the prisoner.
    ``(c) Reports.--
        ``(1) Report to the director and healthcare professional.--If a 
    corrections official or United States marshal uses restraints on a 
    prisoner under subsection (b)(1), that official or marshal shall 
    submit, not later than 30 days after placing the prisoner in 
    restraints, to the Director of the Bureau of Prisons or the 
    Director of the United States Marshals Service, as applicable, and 
    to the healthcare professional responsible for the health and 
    safety of the prisoner, a written report that describes the facts 
    and circumstances surrounding the use of restraints, and includes--
            ``(A) the reasoning upon which the determination to use 
        restraints was made;
            ``(B) the details of the use of restraints, including the 
        type of restraints used and length of time during which 
        restraints were used; and
            ``(C) any resulting physical effects on the prisoner 
        observed by or known to the corrections official or United 
        States marshal, as applicable.
        ``(2) Supplemental report to the director.--Upon receipt of a 
    report under paragraph (1), the healthcare professional responsible 
    for the health and safety of the prisoner may submit to the 
    Director such information as the healthcare professional determines 
    is relevant to the use of restraints on the prisoner.
        ``(3) Report to judiciary committees.--
            ``(A) In general.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
        enactment of this section, and annually thereafter, the 
        Director of the Bureau of Prisons and the Director of the 
        United States Marshals Service shall each submit to the 
        Judiciary Committee of the Senate and of the House of 
        Representatives a report that certifies compliance with this 
        section and includes the information required to be reported 
        under paragraph (1).
            ``(B) Personally identifiable information.--The report 
        under this paragraph shall not contain any personally 
        identifiable information of any prisoner.
    ``(d) Notice.--Not later than 48 hours after the confirmation of a 
prisoner's pregnancy by a healthcare professional, that prisoner shall 
be notified by an appropriate healthcare professional, corrections 
official, or United States marshal, as applicable, of the restrictions 
on the use of restraints under this section.
    ``(e) Violation Reporting Process.--The Director of the Bureau of 
Prisons, in consultation with the Director of the United States 
Marshals Service, shall establish a process through which a prisoner 
may report a violation of this section.
    ``(f) Training.--
        ``(1) In general.--The Director of the Bureau of Prisons and 
    the Director of the United States Marshals Service shall each 
    develop training guidelines regarding the use of restraints on 
    female prisoners during the period of pregnancy, labor, and 
    postpartum recovery, and shall incorporate such guidelines into 
    appropriate training programs. Such training guidelines shall 
    include--
            ``(A) how to identify certain symptoms of pregnancy that 
        require immediate referral to a healthcare professional;
            ``(B) circumstances under which the exceptions under 
        subsection (b) would apply;
            ``(C) in the case that an exception under subsection (b) 
        applies, how to apply restraints in a way that does not harm 
        the prisoner, the fetus, or the neonate;
            ``(D) the information required to be reported under 
        subsection (c); and
            ``(E) the right of a healthcare professional to request 
        that restraints not be used, and the requirement under 
        subsection (b)(3)(B) to comply with such a request.
        ``(2) Development of guidelines.--In developing the guidelines 
    required by paragraph (1), the Directors shall each consult with 
    healthcare professionals with expertise in caring for women during 
    the period of pregnancy and postpartum recovery.
    ``(g) Definitions.--For purposes of this section:
        ``(1) Postpartum recovery.--The term `postpartum recovery' 
    means the 12-week period, or longer as determined by the healthcare 
    professional responsible for the health and safety of the prisoner, 
    following delivery, and shall include the entire period that the 
    prisoner is in the hospital or infirmary.
        ``(2) Prisoner.--The term `prisoner' means a person who has 
    been sentenced to a term of imprisonment pursuant to a conviction 
    for a Federal criminal offense, or a person in the custody of the 
    Bureau of Prisons, including a person in a Bureau of Prisons 
    contracted facility.
        ``(3) Restraints.--The term `restraints' means any physical or 
    mechanical device used to control the movement of a prisoner's 
    body, limbs, or both.''.
    (b) Clerical Amendment.--The table of sections for chapter 317 of 
title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding after the item 
relating to section 4321 the following:

``4322. Use of restraints on prisoners during the period of pregnancy, 
          labor, and postpartum recovery prohibited.''.

                      TITLE IV--SENTENCING REFORM

    SEC. 401. REDUCE AND RESTRICT ENHANCED SENTENCING FOR PRIOR DRUG 
      FELONIES.
    (a) Controlled Substances Act Amendments.--The Controlled 
Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.) is amended--
        (1) in section 102 (21 U.S.C. 802), by adding at the end the 
    following:
        ``(57) The term `serious drug felony' means an offense 
    described in section 924(e)(2) of title 18, United States Code, for 
    which--
            ``(A) the offender served a term of imprisonment of more 
        than 12 months; and
            ``(B) the offender's release from any term of imprisonment 
        was within 15 years of the commencement of the instant offense.
        ``(58) The term `serious violent felony' means--
            ``(A) an offense described in section 3559(c)(2) of title 
        18, United States Code, for which the offender served a term of 
        imprisonment of more than 12 months; and
            ``(B) any offense that would be a felony violation of 
        section 113 of title 18, United States Code, if the offense 
        were committed in the special maritime and territorial 
        jurisdiction of the United States, for which the offender 
        served a term of imprisonment of more than 12 months.''; and
        (2) in section 401(b)(1) (21 U.S.C. 841(b)(1))--
            (A) in subparagraph (A), in the matter following clause 
        (viii)--
                (i) by striking ``If any person commits such a 
            violation after a prior conviction for a felony drug 
            offense has become final, such person shall be sentenced to 
            a term of imprisonment which may not be less than 20 
            years'' and inserting the following: ``If any person 
            commits such a violation after a prior conviction for a 
            serious drug felony or serious violent felony has become 
            final, such person shall be sentenced to a term of 
            imprisonment of not less than 15 years''; and
                (ii) by striking ``after two or more prior convictions 
            for a felony drug offense have become final, such person 
            shall be sentenced to a mandatory term of life imprisonment 
            without release'' and inserting the following: ``after 2 or 
            more prior convictions for a serious drug felony or serious 
            violent felony have become final, such person shall be 
            sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than 25 
            years''; and
            (B) in subparagraph (B), in the matter following clause 
        (viii), by striking ``If any person commits such a violation 
        after a prior conviction for a felony drug offense has become 
        final'' and inserting the following: ``If any person commits 
        such a violation after a prior conviction for a serious drug 
        felony or serious violent felony has become final''.
    (b) Controlled Substances Import and Export Act Amendments.--
Section 1010(b) of the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (21 
U.S.C. 960(b)) is amended--
        (1) in paragraph (1), in the matter following subparagraph (H), 
    by striking ``If any person commits such a violation after a prior 
    conviction for a felony drug offense has become final, such person 
    shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than 20 
    years'' and inserting ``If any person commits such a violation 
    after a prior conviction for a serious drug felony or serious 
    violent felony has become final, such person shall be sentenced to 
    a term of imprisonment of not less than 15 years''; and
        (2) in paragraph (2), in the matter following subparagraph (H), 
    by striking ``felony drug offense'' and inserting ``serious drug 
    felony or serious violent felony''.
    (c) Applicability to Pending Cases.--This section, and the 
amendments made by this section, shall apply to any offense that was 
committed before the date of enactment of this Act, if a sentence for 
the offense has not been imposed as of such date of enactment.
    SEC. 402. BROADENING OF EXISTING SAFETY VALVE.
    (a) Amendments.--Section 3553 of title 18, United States Code, is 
amended--
        (1) in subsection (f)--
            (A) in the matter preceding paragraph (1)--
                (i) by striking ``or section 1010'' and inserting ``, 
            section 1010''; and
                (ii) by inserting ``, or section 70503 or 70506 of 
            title 46'' after ``963)'';
            (B) by striking paragraph (1) and inserting the following:
        ``(1) the defendant does not have--
            ``(A) more than 4 criminal history points, excluding any 
        criminal history points resulting from a 1-point offense, as 
        determined under the sentencing guidelines;
            ``(B) a prior 3-point offense, as determined under the 
        sentencing guidelines; and
            ``(C) a prior 2-point violent offense, as determined under 
        the sentencing guidelines;''; and
            (C) by adding at the end the following:
``Information disclosed by a defendant under this subsection may not be 
used to enhance the sentence of the defendant unless the information 
relates to a violent offense.''; and
        (2) by adding at the end the following:
    ``(g) Definition of Violent Offense.--As used in this section, the 
term `violent offense' means a crime of violence, as defined in section 
16, that is punishable by imprisonment.''.
    (b) Applicability.--The amendments made by this section shall apply 
only to a conviction entered on or after the date of enactment of this 
Act.
    SEC. 403. CLARIFICATION OF SECTION 924(c) OF TITLE 18, UNITED 
      STATES CODE.
    (a) In General.--Section 924(c)(1)(C) of title 18, United States 
Code, is amended, in the matter preceding clause (i), by striking 
``second or subsequent conviction under this subsection'' and inserting 
``violation of this subsection that occurs after a prior conviction 
under this subsection has become final''.
    (b) Applicability to Pending Cases.--This section, and the 
amendments made by this section, shall apply to any offense that was 
committed before the date of enactment of this Act, if a sentence for 
the offense has not been imposed as of such date of enactment.
    SEC. 404. APPLICATION OF FAIR SENTENCING ACT.
    (a) Definition of Covered Offense.--In this section, the term 
``covered offense'' means a violation of a Federal criminal statute, 
the statutory penalties for which were modified by section 2 or 3 of 
the Fair Sentencing Act of 2010 (Public Law 111-220; 124 Stat. 2372), 
that was committed before August 3, 2010.
    (b) Defendants Previously Sentenced.--A court that imposed a 
sentence for a covered offense may, on motion of the defendant, the 
Director of the Bureau of Prisons, the attorney for the Government, or 
the court, impose a reduced sentence as if sections 2 and 3 of the Fair 
Sentencing Act of 2010 (Public Law 111-220; 124 Stat. 2372) were in 
effect at the time the covered offense was committed.
    (c) Limitations.--No court shall entertain a motion made under this 
section to reduce a sentence if the sentence was previously imposed or 
previously reduced in accordance with the amendments made by sections 2 
and 3 of the Fair Sentencing Act of 2010 (Public Law 111-220; 124 Stat. 
2372) or if a previous motion made under this section to reduce the 
sentence was, after the date of enactment of this Act, denied after a 
complete review of the motion on the merits. Nothing in this section 
shall be construed to require a court to reduce any sentence pursuant 
to this section.

           TITLE V--SECOND CHANCE ACT OF 2007 REAUTHORIZATION

    SEC. 501. SHORT TITLE.
    This title may be cited as the ``Second Chance Reauthorization Act 
of 2018''.
    SEC. 502. IMPROVEMENTS TO EXISTING PROGRAMS.
    (a) Reauthorization of Adult and Juvenile Offender State and Local 
Demonstration Projects.--Section 2976 of title I of the Omnibus Crime 
Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (34 U.S.C. 10631) is amended--
        (1) by striking subsection (a) and inserting the following:
    ``(a) Grant Authorization.--The Attorney General shall make grants 
to States, local governments, territories, or Indian tribes, or any 
combination thereof (in this section referred to as an `eligible 
entity'), in partnership with interested persons (including Federal 
corrections and supervision agencies), service providers, and nonprofit 
organizations for the purpose of strategic planning and implementation 
of adult and juvenile offender reentry projects.'';
        (2) in subsection (b)--
            (A) in paragraph (3), by inserting ``or reentry courts,'' 
        after ``community,'';
            (B) in paragraph (6), by striking ``and'' at the end;
            (C) in paragraph (7), by striking the period at the end and 
        inserting ``; and''; and
            (D) by adding at the end the following:
        ``(8) promoting employment opportunities consistent with the 
    Transitional Jobs strategy (as defined in section 4 of the Second 
    Chance Act of 2007 (34 U.S.C. 60502)).''; and
        (3) by striking subsections (d), (e), and (f) and inserting the 
    following:
    ``(d) Combined Grant Application; Priority Consideration.--
        ``(1) In general.--The Attorney General shall develop a 
    procedure to allow applicants to submit a single application for a 
    planning grant under subsection (e) and an implementation grant 
    under subsection (f).
        ``(2) Priority consideration.--The Attorney General shall give 
    priority consideration to grant applications under subsections (e) 
    and (f) that include a commitment by the applicant to partner with 
    a local evaluator to identify and analyze data that will--
            ``(A) enable the grantee to target the intended offender 
        population; and
            ``(B) serve as a baseline for purposes of the evaluation.
    ``(e) Planning Grants.--
        ``(1) In general.--Except as provided in paragraph (3), the 
    Attorney General may make a grant to an eligible entity of not more 
    than $75,000 to develop a strategic, collaborative plan for an 
    adult or juvenile offender reentry demonstration project as 
    described in subsection (h) that includes--
            ``(A) a budget and a budget justification;
            ``(B) a description of the outcome measures that will be 
        used to measure the effectiveness of the program in promoting 
        public safety and public health;
            ``(C) the activities proposed;
            ``(D) a schedule for completion of the activities described 
        in subparagraph (C); and
            ``(E) a description of the personnel necessary to complete 
        the activities described in subparagraph (C).
        ``(2) Maximum total grants and geographic diversity.--
            ``(A) Maximum amount.--The Attorney General may not make 
        initial planning grants and implementation grants to 1 eligible 
        entity in a total amount that is more than a $1,000,000.
            ``(B) Geographic diversity.--The Attorney General shall 
        make every effort to ensure equitable geographic distribution 
        of grants under this section and take into consideration the 
        needs of underserved populations, including rural and tribal 
        communities.
        ``(3) Period of grant.--A planning grant made under this 
    subsection shall be for a period of not longer than 1 year, 
    beginning on the first day of the month in which the planning grant 
    is made.
    ``(f) Implementation Grants.--
        ``(1) Applications.--An eligible entity desiring an 
    implementation grant under this subsection shall submit to the 
    Attorney General an application that--
            ``(A) contains a reentry strategic plan as described in 
        subsection (h), which describes the long-term strategy and 
        incorporates a detailed implementation schedule, including the 
        plans of the applicant to fund the program after Federal 
        funding is discontinued;
            ``(B) identifies the local government role and the role of 
        governmental agencies and nonprofit organizations that will be 
        coordinated by, and that will collaborate on, the offender 
        reentry strategy of the applicant, and certifies the 
        involvement of such agencies and organizations;
            ``(C) describes the evidence-based methodology and outcome 
        measures that will be used to evaluate the program funded with 
        a grant under this subsection, and specifically explains how 
        such measurements will provide valid measures of the impact of 
        that program; and
            ``(D) describes how the project could be broadly replicated 
        if demonstrated to be effective.
        ``(2) Requirements.--The Attorney General may make a grant to 
    an applicant under this subsection only if the application--
            ``(A) reflects explicit support of the chief executive 
        officer, or their designee, of the State, unit of local 
        government, territory, or Indian tribe applying for a grant 
        under this subsection;
            ``(B) provides discussion of the role of Federal 
        corrections, State corrections departments, community 
        corrections agencies, juvenile justice systems, and tribal or 
        local jail systems in ensuring successful reentry of offenders 
        into their communities;
            ``(C) provides evidence of collaboration with State, local, 
        or tribal government agencies overseeing health, housing, child 
        welfare, education, substance abuse, victims services, and 
        employment services, and with local law enforcement agencies;
            ``(D) provides a plan for analysis of the statutory, 
        regulatory, rules-based, and practice-based hurdles to 
        reintegration of offenders into the community;
            ``(E) includes the use of a State, local, territorial, or 
        tribal task force, described in subsection (i), to carry out 
        the activities funded under the grant;
            ``(F) provides a plan for continued collaboration with a 
        local evaluator as necessary to meeting the requirements under 
        subsection (h); and
            ``(G) demonstrates that the applicant participated in the 
        planning grant process or engaged in comparable planning for 
        the reentry project.
        ``(3) Priority considerations.--The Attorney General shall give 
    priority to grant applications under this subsection that best--
            ``(A) focus initiative on geographic areas with a 
        disproportionate population of offenders released from prisons, 
        jails, and juvenile facilities;
            ``(B) include--
                ``(i) input from nonprofit organizations, in any case 
            where relevant input is available and appropriate to the 
            grant application;
                ``(ii) consultation with crime victims and offenders 
            who are released from prisons, jails, and juvenile 
            facilities;
                ``(iii) coordination with families of offenders;
                ``(iv) input, where appropriate, from the juvenile 
            justice coordinating council of the region;
                ``(v) input, where appropriate, from the reentry 
            coordinating council of the region; or
                ``(vi) input, where appropriate, from other interested 
            persons;
            ``(C) demonstrate effective case assessment and management 
        abilities in order to provide comprehensive and continuous 
        reentry, including--
                ``(i) planning for prerelease transitional housing and 
            community release that begins upon admission for juveniles 
            and jail inmates, and, as appropriate, for prison inmates, 
            depending on the length of the sentence;
                ``(ii) establishing prerelease planning procedures to 
            ensure that the eligibility of an offender for Federal, 
            tribal, or State benefits upon release is established prior 
            to release, subject to any limitations in law, and to 
            ensure that offenders obtain all necessary referrals for 
            reentry services, including assistance identifying and 
            securing suitable housing; or
                ``(iii) delivery of continuous and appropriate mental 
            health services, drug treatment, medical care, job training 
            and placement, educational services, vocational services, 
            and any other service or support needed for reentry;
            ``(D) review the process by which the applicant adjudicates 
        violations of parole, probation, or supervision following 
        release from prison, jail, or a juvenile facility, taking into 
        account public safety and the use of graduated, community-based 
        sanctions for minor and technical violations of parole, 
        probation, or supervision (specifically those violations that 
        are not otherwise, and independently, a violation of law);
            ``(E) provide for an independent evaluation of reentry 
        programs that include, to the maximum extent possible, random 
        assignment and controlled studies to determine the 
        effectiveness of such programs;
            ``(F) target moderate and high-risk offenders for reentry 
        programs through validated assessment tools; or
            ``(G) target offenders with histories of homelessness, 
        substance abuse, or mental illness, including a prerelease 
        assessment of the housing status of the offender and behavioral 
        health needs of the offender with clear coordination with 
        mental health, substance abuse, and homelessness services 
        systems to achieve stable and permanent housing outcomes with 
        appropriate support service.
        ``(4) Period of grant.--A grant made under this subsection 
    shall be effective for a 2-year period--
            ``(A) beginning on the date on which the planning grant 
        awarded under subsection (e) concludes; or
            ``(B) in the case of an implementation grant awarded to an 
        eligible entity that did not receive a planning grant, 
        beginning on the date on which the implementation grant is 
        awarded.'';
        (4) in subsection (h)--
            (A) by redesignating paragraphs (2) and (3) as paragraphs 
        (3) and (4), respectively; and
            (B) by striking paragraph (1) and inserting the following:
        ``(1) In general.--As a condition of receiving financial 
    assistance under subsection (f), each application shall develop a 
    comprehensive reentry strategic plan that--
            ``(A) contains a plan to assess inmate reentry needs and 
        measurable annual and 3-year performance outcomes;
            ``(B) uses, to the maximum extent possible, randomly 
        assigned and controlled studies, or rigorous quasi-experimental 
        studies with matched comparison groups, to determine the 
        effectiveness of the program funded with a grant under 
        subsection (f); and
            ``(C) includes as a goal of the plan to reduce the rate of 
        recidivism for offenders released from prison, jail or a 
        juvenile facility with funds made available under subsection 
        (f).
        ``(2) Local evaluator.--A partnership with a local evaluator 
    described in subsection (d)(2) shall require the local evaluator to 
    use the baseline data and target population characteristics 
    developed under a subsection (e) planning grant to derive a target 
    goal for recidivism reduction during the 3-year period beginning on 
    the date of implementation of the program.'';
        (5) in subsection (i)(1)--
            (A) in the matter preceding subparagraph (A), by striking 
        ``under this section'' and inserting ``under subsection (f)''; 
        and
            (B) in subparagraph (B), by striking ``subsection (e)(4)'' 
        and inserting ``subsection (f)(2)(D)'';
        (6) in subsection (j)--
            (A) in paragraph (1), by inserting ``for an implementation 
        grant under subsection (f)'' after ``applicant'';
            (B) in paragraph (2)--
                (i) in subparagraph (E), by inserting ``, where 
            appropriate'' after ``support''; and
                (ii) by striking subparagraphs (F), (G), and (H), and 
            inserting the following:
            ``(F) increased number of staff trained to administer 
        reentry services;
            ``(G) increased proportion of individuals served by the 
        program among those eligible to receive services;
            ``(H) increased number of individuals receiving risk 
        screening needs assessment, and case planning services;
            ``(I) increased enrollment in, and completion of treatment 
        services, including substance abuse and mental health services 
        among those assessed as needing such services;
            ``(J) increased enrollment in and degrees earned from 
        educational programs, including high school, GED, vocational 
        training, and college education;
            ``(K) increased number of individuals obtaining and 
        retaining employment;
            ``(L) increased number of individuals obtaining and 
        maintaining housing;
            ``(M) increased self-reports of successful community 
        living, including stability of living situation and positive 
        family relationships;
            ``(N) reduction in drug and alcohol use; and
            ``(O) reduction in recidivism rates for individuals 
        receiving reentry services after release, as compared to either 
        baseline recidivism rates in the jurisdiction of the grantee or 
        recidivism rates of the control or comparison group.'';
            (C) in paragraph (3), by striking ``facilities.'' and 
        inserting ``facilities, including a cost-benefit analysis to 
        determine the cost effectiveness of the reentry program.'';
            (D) in paragraph (4), by striking ``this section'' and 
        inserting ``subsection (f)''; and
            (E) in paragraph (5), by striking ``this section'' and 
        inserting ``subsection (f)'';
        (7) in subsection (k)(1), by striking ``this section'' each 
    place the term appears and inserting ``subsection (f)'';
        (8) in subsection (l)--
            (A) in paragraph (2), by inserting ``beginning on the date 
        on which the most recent implementation grant is made to the 
        grantee under subsection (f)'' after ``2-year period''; and
            (B) in paragraph (4), by striking ``over a 2-year period'' 
        and inserting ``during the 2-year period described in paragraph 
        (2)'';
        (9) in subsection (o)(1), by striking ``appropriated'' and all 
    that follows and inserting the following: ``appropriated 
    $35,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2019 through 2023.''; and
        (10) by adding at the end the following:
    ``(p) Definition.--In this section, the term `reentry court' means 
a program that--
        ``(1) monitors juvenile and adult eligible offenders reentering 
    the community;
        ``(2) provides continual judicial supervision;
        ``(3) provides juvenile and adult eligible offenders reentering 
    the community with coordinated and comprehensive reentry services 
    and programs, such as--
            ``(A) drug and alcohol testing and assessment for 
        treatment;
            ``(B) assessment for substance abuse from a substance abuse 
        professional who is approved by the State or Indian tribe and 
        licensed by the appropriate entity to provide alcohol and drug 
        addiction treatment, as appropriate;
            ``(C) substance abuse treatment, including medication-
        assisted treatment, from a provider that is approved by the 
        State or Indian tribe, and licensed, if necessary, to provide 
        medical and other health services;
            ``(D) health (including mental health) services and 
        assessment;
            ``(E) aftercare and case management services that--
                ``(i) facilitate access to clinical care and related 
            health services; and
                ``(ii) coordinate with such clinical care and related 
            health services; and
            ``(F) any other services needed for reentry;
        ``(4) convenes community impact panels, victim impact panels, 
    or victim impact educational classes;
        ``(5) provides and coordinates the delivery of community 
    services to juvenile and adult eligible offenders, including--
            ``(A) housing assistance;
            ``(B) education;
            ``(C) job training;
            ``(D) conflict resolution skills training;
            ``(E) batterer intervention programs; and
            ``(F) other appropriate social services; and
        ``(6) establishes and implements graduated sanctions and 
    incentives.''.
    (b) Grants for Family-Based Substance Abuse Treatment.--Part DD of 
title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (34 
U.S.C. 10591 et seq.) is amended--
        (1) in section 2921 (34 U.S.C. 10591), in the matter preceding 
    paragraph (1), by inserting ``nonprofit organizations,'' before 
    ``and Indian'';
        (2) in section 2923 (34 U.S.C. 10593), by adding at the end the 
    following:
    ``(c) Priority Considerations.--The Attorney General shall give 
priority consideration to grant applications for grants under section 
2921 that are submitted by a nonprofit organization that demonstrates a 
relationship with State and local criminal justice agencies, 
including--
        ``(1) within the judiciary and prosecutorial agencies; or
        ``(2) with the local corrections agencies, which shall be 
    documented by a written agreement that details the terms of access 
    to facilities and participants and provides information on the 
    history of the organization of working with correctional 
    populations.''; and
        (3) by striking section 2926(a) and inserting the following:
    ``(a) In General.--There are authorized to be appropriated to carry 
out this part $10,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2019 through 
2023.''.
    (c) Grant Program To Evaluate and Improve Educational Methods at 
Prisons, Jails, and Juvenile Facilities.--Title I of the Omnibus Crime 
Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 3711 et seq.) is 
amended--
        (1) by striking the second part designated as part JJ, as added 
    by the Second Chance Act of 2007 (Public Law 110-199; 122 Stat. 
    677), relating to grants to evaluate and improve educational 
    methods at prisons, jails, and juvenile facilities;
        (2) by adding at the end the following:

``PART NN--GRANT PROGRAM TO EVALUATE AND IMPROVE EDUCATIONAL METHODS AT 
                PRISONS, JAILS, AND JUVENILE FACILITIES

``SEC. 3041. GRANT PROGRAM TO EVALUATE AND IMPROVE EDUCATIONAL METHODS 
AT PRISONS, JAILS, AND JUVENILE FACILITIES.
    ``(a) Grant Program Authorized.--The Attorney General may carry out 
a grant program under which the Attorney General may make grants to 
States, units of local government, territories, Indian Tribes, and 
other public and private entities to--
        ``(1) evaluate methods to improve academic and vocational 
    education for offenders in prisons, jails, and juvenile facilities;
        ``(2) identify, and make recommendations to the Attorney 
    General regarding, best practices relating to academic and 
    vocational education for offenders in prisons, jails, and juvenile 
    facilities, based on the evaluation under paragraph (1);
        ``(3) improve the academic and vocational education programs 
    (including technology career training) available to offenders in 
    prisons, jails, and juvenile facilities; and
        ``(4) implement methods to improve academic and vocational 
    education for offenders in prisons, jails, and juvenile facilities 
    consistent with the best practices identified in subsection (c).
    ``(b) Application.--To be eligible for a grant under this part, a 
State or other entity described in subsection (a) shall submit to the 
Attorney General an application in such form and manner, at such time, 
and accompanied by such information as the Attorney General specifies.
    ``(c) Best Practices.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
enactment of the Second Chance Reauthorization Act of 2018, the 
Attorney General shall identify and publish best practices relating to 
academic and vocational education for offenders in prisons, jails, and 
juvenile facilities. The best practices shall consider the evaluations 
performed and recommendations made under grants made under subsection 
(a) before the date of enactment of the Second Chance Reauthorization 
Act of 2018.
    ``(d) Report.--Not later than 90 days after the last day of the 
final fiscal year of a grant under this part, each entity described in 
subsection (a) receiving such a grant shall submit to the Attorney 
General a detailed report of the progress made by the entity using such 
grant, to permit the Attorney General to evaluate and improve academic 
and vocational education methods carried out with grants under this 
part.''; and
        (3) in section 1001(a) of part J of title I of the Omnibus 
    Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (34 U.S.C. 10261(a)), by 
    adding at the end the following:
        ``(28) There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out 
    section 3031(a)(4) of part NN $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 
    2019, 2020, 2021, 2022, and 2023.''.
    (d) Careers Training Demonstration Grants.--Section 115 of the 
Second Chance Act of 2007 (34 U.S.C. 60511) is amended--
        (1) in the heading, by striking ``technology careers'' and 
    inserting ``careers'';
        (2) in subsection (a)--
            (A) by striking ``and Indian'' and inserting ``nonprofit 
        organizations, and Indian''; and
            (B) by striking ``technology career training to prisoners'' 
        and inserting ``career training, including subsidized 
        employment, when part of a training program, to prisoners and 
        reentering youth and adults'';
        (3) in subsection (b)--
            (A) by striking ``technology careers training'';
            (B) by striking ``technology-based''; and
            (C) by inserting ``, as well as upon transition and reentry 
        into the community'' after ``facility'';
        (4) by striking subsection (e);
        (5) by redesignating subsections (c) and (d) as subsections (d) 
    and (e), respectively;
        (6) by inserting after subsection (b) the following:
    ``(c) Priority Consideration.--Priority consideration shall be 
given to any application under this section that--
        ``(1) provides assessment of local demand for employees in the 
    geographic areas to which offenders are likely to return;
        ``(2) conducts individualized reentry career planning upon the 
    start of incarceration or post-release employment planning for each 
    offender served under the grant;
        ``(3) demonstrates connections to employers within the local 
    community; or
        ``(4) tracks and monitors employment outcomes.''; and
        (7) by adding at the end the following:
    ``(f) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to carry out this section $10,000,000 for each of fiscal 
years 2019, 2020, 2021, 2022, and 2023.''.
    (e) Offender Reentry Substance Abuse and Criminal Justice 
Collaboration Program.--Section 201(f)(1) of the Second Chance Act of 
2007 (34 U.S.C. 60521(f)(1)) is amended to read as follows:
        ``(1) In general.--There are authorized to be appropriated to 
    carry out this section $15,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2019 
    through 2023.''.
    (f) Community-Based Mentoring and Transitional Service Grants to 
Nonprofit Organizations.--
        (1) In general.--Section 211 of the Second Chance Act of 2007 
    (34 U.S.C. 60531) is amended--
            (A) in the header, by striking ``mentoring grants to 
        nonprofit organizations'' and inserting ``community-based 
        mentoring and transitional service grants to nonprofit 
        organizations'';
            (B) in subsection (a), by striking ``mentoring and other'';
            (C) in subsection (b), by striking paragraph (2) and 
        inserting the following:
        ``(2) transitional services to assist in the reintegration of 
    offenders into the community, including--
            ``(A) educational, literacy, and vocational, services and 
        the Transitional Jobs strategy;
            ``(B) substance abuse treatment and services;
            ``(C) coordinated supervision and services for offenders, 
        including physical health care and comprehensive housing and 
        mental health care;
            ``(D) family services; and
            ``(E) validated assessment tools to assess the risk factors 
        of returning inmates; and''; and
            (D) in subsection (f), by striking ``this section'' and all 
        that follows and inserting the following: ``this section 
        $15,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2019 through 2023.''.
        (2) Table of contents amendment.--The table of contents in 
    section 2 of the Second Chance Act of 2007 (Public Law 110-199; 122 
    Stat. 657) is amended by striking the item relating to section 211 
    and inserting the following:

``Sec. 211. Community-based mentoring and transitional service 
          grants.''.

    (g) Definitions.--
        (1) In general.--Section 4 of the Second Chance Act of 2007 (34 
    U.S.C. 60502) is amended to read as follows:
``SEC. 4. DEFINITIONS.
    ``In this Act--
        ``(1) the term `exoneree' means an individual who--
            ``(A) has been convicted of a Federal, tribal, or State 
        offense that is punishable by a term of imprisonment of more 
        than 1 year;
            ``(B) has served a term of imprisonment for not less than 6 
        months in a Federal, tribal, or State prison or correctional 
        facility as a result of the conviction described in 
        subparagraph (A); and
            ``(C) has been determined to be factually innocent of the 
        offense described in subparagraph (A);
        ``(2) the term `Indian tribe' has the meaning given in section 
    901 of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 
    1968 (34 U.S.C. 10251);
        ``(3) the term `offender' includes an exoneree; and
        ``(4) the term `Transitional Jobs strategy' means an employment 
    strategy for youth and adults who are chronically unemployed or 
    those that have barriers to employment that--
            ``(A) is conducted by State, tribal, and local governments, 
        State, tribal, and local workforce boards, and nonprofit 
        organizations;
            ``(B) provides time-limited employment using individual 
        placements, team placements, and social enterprise placements, 
        without displacing existing employees;
            ``(C) pays wages in accordance with applicable law, but in 
        no event less than the higher of the rate specified in section 
        6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 U.S.C. 
        206(a)(1)) or the applicable State or local minimum wage law, 
        which are subsidized, in whole or in part, by public funds;
            ``(D) combines time-limited employment with activities that 
        promote skill development, remove barriers to employment, and 
        lead to unsubsidized employment such as a thorough orientation 
        and individual assessment, job readiness and life skills 
        training, case management and supportive services, adult 
        education and training, child support-related services, job 
        retention support and incentives, and other similar activities;
            ``(E) places participants into unsubsidized employment; and
            ``(F) provides job retention, re-employment services, and 
        continuing and vocational education to ensure continuing 
        participation in unsubsidized employment and identification of 
        opportunities for advancement.''.
        (2) Table of contents amendment.--The table of contents in 
    section 2 of the Second Chance Act of 2007 (Public Law 110-199; 122 
    Stat. 657) is amended by striking the item relating to section 4 
    and inserting the following:

``Sec. 4. Definitions.''.

    (h) Extension of the Length of Section 2976 Grants.--Section 6(1) 
of the Second Chance Act of 2007 (34 U.S.C. 60504(1)) is amended by 
inserting ``or under section 2976 of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe 
Streets Act of 1968 (34 U.S.C. 10631)'' after ``and 212''.
    SEC. 503. AUDIT AND ACCOUNTABILITY OF GRANTEES.
    (a) Definitions.--In this section--
        (1) the term ``covered grant program'' means grants awarded 
    under section 115, 201, or 211 of the Second Chance Act of 2007 (34 
    U.S.C. 60511, 60521, and 60531), as amended by this title;
        (2) the term ``covered grantee'' means a recipient of a grant 
    from a covered grant program;
        (3) the term ``nonprofit'', when used with respect to an 
    organization, means an organization that is described in section 
    501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, and is exempt from 
    taxation under section 501(a) of such Code; and
        (4) the term ``unresolved audit finding'' means an audit report 
    finding in a final audit report of the Inspector General of the 
    Department of Justice that a covered grantee has used grant funds 
    awarded to that grantee under a covered grant program for an 
    unauthorized expenditure or otherwise unallowable cost that is not 
    closed or resolved during a 12-month period prior to the date on 
    which the final audit report is issued.
    (b) Audit Requirement.--Beginning in fiscal year 2019, and annually 
thereafter, the Inspector General of the Department of Justice shall 
conduct audits of covered grantees to prevent waste, fraud, and abuse 
of funds awarded under covered grant programs. The Inspector General 
shall determine the appropriate number of covered grantees to be 
audited each year.
    (c) Mandatory Exclusion.--A grantee that is found to have an 
unresolved audit finding under an audit conducted under subsection (b) 
may not receive grant funds under a covered grant program in the fiscal 
year following the fiscal year to which the finding relates.
    (d) Reimbursement.--If a covered grantee is awarded funds under the 
covered grant program from which it received a grant award during the 
1-fiscal-year period during which the covered grantee is ineligible for 
an allocation of grant funds under subsection (c), the Attorney General 
shall--
        (1) deposit into the General Fund of the Treasury an amount 
    that is equal to the amount of the grant funds that were improperly 
    awarded to the covered grantee; and
        (2) seek to recoup the costs of the repayment to the Fund from 
    the covered grantee that was improperly awarded the grant funds.
    (e) Priority of Grant Awards.--The Attorney General, in awarding 
grants under a covered grant program shall give priority to eligible 
entities that during the 2-year period preceding the application for a 
grant have not been found to have an unresolved audit finding.
    (f) Nonprofit Requirements.--
        (1) Prohibition.--A nonprofit organization that holds money in 
    offshore accounts for the purpose of avoiding the tax described in 
    section 511(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, shall not be 
    eligible to receive, directly or indirectly, any funds from a 
    covered grant program.
        (2) Disclosure.--Each nonprofit organization that is a covered 
    grantee shall disclose in its application for such a grant, as a 
    condition of receipt of such a grant, the compensation of its 
    officers, directors, and trustees. Such disclosure shall include a 
    description of the criteria relied on to determine such 
    compensation.
    (g) Prohibition on Lobbying Activity.--
        (1) In general.--Amounts made available under a covered grant 
    program may not be used by any covered grantee to--
            (A) lobby any representative of the Department of Justice 
        regarding the award of grant funding; or
            (B) lobby any representative of the Federal Government or a 
        State, local, or tribal government regarding the award of grant 
        funding.
        (2) Penalty.--If the Attorney General determines that a covered 
    grantee has violated paragraph (1), the Attorney General shall--
            (A) require the covered grantee to repay the grant in full; 
        and
            (B) prohibit the covered grantee from receiving a grant 
        under the covered grant program from which it received a grant 
        award during at least the 5-year period beginning on the date 
        of such violation.
    SEC. 504. FEDERAL REENTRY IMPROVEMENTS.
    (a) Responsible Reintegration of Offenders.--Section 212 of the 
Second Chance Act of 2007 (34 U.S.C. 60532) is repealed.
    (b) Federal Prisoner Reentry Initiative.--Section 231 of the Second 
Chance Act of 2007 (434 U.S.C. 60541) is amended--
        (1) in subsection (g)--
            (A) in paragraph (3), by striking ``carried out during 
        fiscal years 2009 and 2010'' and inserting ``carried out during 
        fiscal years 2019 through 2023''; and
            (B) in paragraph (5)(A)(ii), by striking ``the greater of 
        10 years or'';
        (2) by striking subsection (h);
        (3) by redesignating subsection (i) as subsection (h); and
        (4) in subsection (h), as so redesignated, by striking ``2009 
    and 2010'' and inserting ``2019 through 2023''.
    (c) Enhancing Reporting Requirements Pertaining to Community 
Corrections.--Section 3624(c) of title 18, United States Code, is 
amended--
        (1) in paragraph (5), in the second sentence, by inserting ``, 
    and number of prisoners not being placed in community corrections 
    facilities for each reason set forth'' before ``, and any other 
    information''; and
        (2) in paragraph (6), by striking ``the Second Chance Act of 
    2007'' and inserting ``the Second Chance Reauthorization Act of 
    2018''.
    (d) Termination of Study on Effectiveness of Depot Naltrexone for 
Heroin Addiction.--Section 244 of the Second Chance Act of 2007 (34 
U.S.C. 60554) is repealed.
    (e) Authorization of Appropriations for Research.--Section 245 of 
the Second Chance Act of 2007 (34 U.S.C. 60555) is amended--
        (1) by striking ``243, and 244'' and inserting ``and 243''; and
        (2) by striking ``$10,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2009 
    and 2010'' and inserting ``$5,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 
    2019, 2020, 2021, 2022, and 2023''.
    (f) Federal Prisoner Recidivism Reduction Programming 
Enhancement.--
        (1) In general.--Section 3621 of title 18, United States Code, 
    as amended by section 102(a) of this Act, is amended--
            (A) by redesignating subsection (g) as subsection (i); and
            (B) by inserting after subsection (f) the following:
    ``(g) Partnerships To Expand Access to Reentry Programs Proven To 
Reduce Recidivism.--
        ``(1) Definition.--The term `demonstrated to reduce recidivism' 
    means that the Director of Bureau of Prisons has determined that 
    appropriate research has been conducted and has validated the 
    effectiveness of the type of program on recidivism.
        ``(2) Eligibility for recidivism reduction partnership.--A 
    faith-based or community-based nonprofit organization that provides 
    mentoring or other programs that have been demonstrated to reduce 
    recidivism is eligible to enter into a recidivism reduction 
    partnership with a prison or community-based facility operated by 
    the Bureau of Prisons.
        ``(3) Recidivism reduction partnerships.--The Director of the 
    Bureau of Prisons shall develop policies to require wardens of 
    prisons and community-based facilities to enter into recidivism 
    reduction partnerships with faith-based and community-based 
    nonprofit organizations that are willing to provide, on a volunteer 
    basis, programs described in paragraph (2).
        ``(4) Reporting requirement.--The Director of the Bureau of 
    Prisons shall submit to Congress an annual report on the last day 
    of each fiscal year that--
            ``(A) details, for each prison and community-based facility 
        for the fiscal year just ended--
                ``(i) the number of recidivism reduction partnerships 
            under this section that were in effect;
                ``(ii) the number of volunteers that provided 
            recidivism reduction programming; and
                ``(iii) the number of recidivism reduction programming 
            hours provided; and
            ``(B) explains any disparities between facilities in the 
        numbers reported under subparagraph (A).''.
        (2) Effective date.--The amendments made by paragraph (1) shall 
    take effect 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act.
    (g) Repeals.--
        (1) Section 2978 of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and 
    Safe Streets Act of 1968 (34 U.S.C. 10633) is repealed.
        (2) Part CC of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe 
    Streets Act of 1968 (34 U.S.C. 10581 et seq.) is repealed.
    SEC. 505. FEDERAL INTERAGENCY REENTRY COORDINATION.
    (a) Reentry Coordination.--The Attorney General, in consultation 
with the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, the Secretary of 
Labor, the Secretary of Education, the Secretary of Health and Human 
Services, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, the Secretary of 
Agriculture, and the heads of such other agencies of the Federal 
Government as the Attorney General considers appropriate, and in 
collaboration with interested persons, service providers, nonprofit 
organizations, and State, tribal, and local governments, shall 
coordinate on Federal programs, policies, and activities relating to 
the reentry of individuals returning from incarceration to the 
community, with an emphasis on evidence-based practices and protection 
against duplication of services.
    (b) Report.--Not later than 2 years after the date of the enactment 
of this Act, the Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretaries 
listed in subsection (a), shall submit to Congress a report summarizing 
the achievements under subsection (a), and including recommendations 
for Congress that would further reduce barriers to successful reentry.
    SEC. 506. CONFERENCE EXPENDITURES.
    (a) Limitation.--No amounts authorized to be appropriated to the 
Department of Justice under this title, or any amendments made by this 
title, may be used by the Attorney General, or by any individual or 
organization awarded discretionary funds under this title, or any 
amendments made by this title, to host or support any expenditure for 
conferences that uses more than $20,000 in Department funds, unless the 
Deputy Attorney General or such Assistant Attorney Generals, Directors, 
or principal deputies as the Deputy Attorney General may designate, 
provides prior written authorization that the funds may be expended to 
host a conference. A conference that uses more than $20,000 in such 
funds, but less than an average of $500 in such funds for each attendee 
of the conference, shall not be subject to the limitations of this 
section.
    (b) Written Approval.--Written approval under subsection (a) shall 
include a written estimate of all costs associated with the conference, 
including the cost of all food and beverages, audiovisual equipment, 
honoraria for speakers, and any entertainment.
    (c) Report.--The Deputy Attorney General shall submit an annual 
report to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the 
Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives on all 
approved conference expenditures referenced in this section.
    SEC. 507. EVALUATION OF THE SECOND CHANCE ACT PROGRAM.
    (a) Evaluation of the Second Chance Act Grant Program.--Not later 
than 5 years after the date of enactment of this Act, the National 
Institute of Justice shall evaluate the effectiveness of grants used by 
the Department of Justice to support offender reentry and recidivism 
reduction programs at the State, local, Tribal, and Federal levels. The 
National Institute of Justice shall evaluate the following:
        (1) The effectiveness of such programs in relation to their 
    cost, including the extent to which the programs improve reentry 
    outcomes, including employment, education, housing, reductions in 
    recidivism, of participants in comparison to comparably situated 
    individuals who did not participate in such programs and 
    activities.
        (2) The effectiveness of program structures and mechanisms for 
    delivery of services.
        (3) The impact of such programs on the communities and 
    participants involved.
        (4) The impact of such programs on related programs and 
    activities.
        (5) The extent to which such programs meet the needs of various 
    demographic groups.
        (6) The quality and effectiveness of technical assistance 
    provided by the Department of Justice to grantees for implementing 
    such programs.
        (7) Such other factors as may be appropriate.
    (b) Authorization of Funds for Evaluation.--Not more than 1 percent 
of any amounts authorized to be appropriated to carry out the Second 
Chance Act grant program shall be made available to the National 
Institute of Justice each year to evaluate the processes, 
implementation, outcomes, costs, and effectiveness of the Second Chance 
Act grant program in improving reentry and reducing recidivism. Such 
funding may be used to provide support to grantees for supplemental 
data collection, analysis, and coordination associated with evaluation 
activities.
    (c) Techniques.--Evaluations conducted under this section shall use 
appropriate methodology and research designs. Impact evaluations 
conducted under this section shall include the use of intervention and 
control groups chosen by random assignment methods, to the extent 
possible.
    (d) Metrics and Outcomes for Evaluation.--
        (1) In general.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
    enactment of this Act, the National Institute of Justice shall 
    consult with relevant stakeholders and identify outcome measures, 
    including employment, housing, education, and public safety, that 
    are to be achieved by programs authorized under the Second Chance 
    Act grant program and the metrics by which the achievement of such 
    outcomes shall be determined.
        (2) Publication.--Not later than 30 days after the date on 
    which the National Institute of Justice identifies metrics and 
    outcomes under paragraph (1), the Attorney General shall publish 
    such metrics and outcomes identified.
    (e) Data Collection.--As a condition of award under the Second 
Chance Act grant program (including a subaward under section 3021(b) of 
title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (34 
U.S.C. 10701(b))), grantees shall be required to collect and report to 
the Department of Justice data based upon the metrics identified under 
subsection (d). In accordance with applicable law, collection of 
individual-level data under a pledge of confidentiality shall be 
protected by the National Institute of Justice in accordance with such 
pledge.
    (f) Data Accessibility.--Not later than 5 years after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the National Institute of Justice shall--
        (1) make data collected during the course of evaluation under 
    this section available in de-identified form in such a manner that 
    reasonably protects a pledge of confidentiality to participants 
    under subsection (e); and
        (2) make identifiable data collected during the course of 
    evaluation under this section available to qualified researchers 
    for future research and evaluation, in accordance with applicable 
    law.
    (g) Publication and Reporting of Evaluation Findings.--The National 
Institute of Justice shall--
        (1) not later than 365 days after the date on which the 
    enrollment of participants in an impact evaluation is completed, 
    publish an interim report on such evaluation;
        (2) not later than 90 days after the date on which any 
    evaluation is completed, publish and make publicly available such 
    evaluation; and
        (3) not later than 60 days after the completion date described 
    in paragraph (2), submit a report to the Committee on the Judiciary 
    of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary 
    of the Senate on such evaluation.
    (h) Second Chance Act Grant Program Defined.--In this section, the 
term ``Second Chance Act grant program'' means any grant program 
reauthorized under this title and the amendments made by this title.
    SEC. 508. GAO REVIEW.
    Not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of the First 
Step Act of 2018 the Comptroller General of the United States shall 
conduct a review of all of the grant awards made under this title and 
amendments made by this title that includes--
        (1) an evaluation of the effectiveness of the reentry programs 
    funded by grant awards under this title and amendments made by this 
    title at reducing recidivism, including a determination of which 
    reentry programs were most effective;
        (2) recommendations on how to improve the effectiveness of 
    reentry programs, including those for which prisoners may earn time 
    credits under the First Step Act of 2018; and
        (3) an evaluation of the effectiveness of mental health 
    services, drug treatment, medical care, job training and placement, 
    educational services, and vocational services programs funded under 
    this title and amendments made by this title.

                TITLE VI--MISCELLANEOUS CRIMINAL JUSTICE

    SEC. 601. PLACEMENT OF PRISONERS CLOSE TO FAMILIES.
    Section 3621(b) of title 18, United States Code, is amended--
        (1) by striking ``shall designate the place of the prisoner's 
    imprisonment.'' and inserting ``shall designate the place of the 
    prisoner's imprisonment, and shall, subject to bed availability, 
    the prisoner's security designation, the prisoner's programmatic 
    needs, the prisoner's mental and medical health needs, any request 
    made by the prisoner related to faith-based needs, recommendations 
    of the sentencing court, and other security concerns of the Bureau 
    of Prisons, place the prisoner in a facility as close as 
    practicable to the prisoner's primary residence, and to the extent 
    practicable, in a facility within 500 driving miles of that 
    residence. The Bureau shall, subject to consideration of the 
    factors described in the preceding sentence and the prisoner's 
    preference for staying at his or her current facility or being 
    transferred, transfer prisoners to facilities that are closer to 
    the prisoner's primary residence even if the prisoner is already in 
    a facility within 500 driving miles of that residence.''; and
        (2) by adding at the end the following: ``Notwithstanding any 
    other provision of law, a designation of a place of imprisonment 
    under this subsection is not reviewable by any court.''.
    SEC. 602. HOME CONFINEMENT FOR LOW-RISK PRISONERS.
    Section 3624(c)(2) of title 18, United States Code, is amended by 
adding at the end the following: ``The Bureau of Prisons shall, to the 
extent practicable, place prisoners with lower risk levels and lower 
needs on home confinement for the maximum amount of time permitted 
under this paragraph.''.
    SEC. 603. FEDERAL PRISONER REENTRY INITIATIVE REAUTHORIZATION; 
      MODIFICATION OF IMPOSED TERM OF IMPRISONMENT.
    (a) Federal Prisoner Reentry Initiative Reauthorization.--Section 
231(g) of the Second Chance Act of 2007 (34 U.S.C. 60541(g)) is 
amended--
        (1) in paragraph (1)--
            (A) by inserting ``and eligible terminally ill offenders'' 
        after ``elderly offenders'' each place the term appears;
            (B) in subparagraph (A), by striking ``a Bureau of Prisons 
        facility'' and inserting ``Bureau of Prisons facilities'';
            (C) in subparagraph (B)--
                (i) by striking ``the Bureau of Prisons facility'' and 
            inserting ``Bureau of Prisons facilities''; and
                (ii) by inserting ``, upon written request from either 
            the Bureau of Prisons or an eligible elderly offender or 
            eligible terminally ill offender'' after ``to home 
            detention''; and
            (D) in subparagraph (C), by striking ``the Bureau of 
        Prisons facility'' and inserting ``Bureau of Prisons 
        facilities'';
        (2) in paragraph (2), by inserting ``or eligible terminally ill 
    offender'' after ``elderly offender'';
        (3) in paragraph (3), as amended by section 504(b)(1)(A) of 
    this Act, by striking ``at least one Bureau of Prisons facility'' 
    and inserting ``Bureau of Prisons facilities''; and
        (4) in paragraph (4)--
            (A) by inserting ``or eligible terminally ill offender'' 
        after ``each eligible elderly offender''; and
            (B) by inserting ``and eligible terminally ill offenders'' 
        after ``eligible elderly offenders''; and
        (5) in paragraph (5)--
            (A) in subparagraph (A)--
                (i) in clause (i), striking ``65 years of age'' and 
            inserting ``60 years of age''; and
                (ii) in clause (ii), as amended by section 504(b)(1)(B) 
            of this Act, by striking ``75 percent'' and inserting ``\2/
            3\''; and
            (B) by adding at the end the following:
            ``(D) Eligible terminally ill offender.--The term `eligible 
        terminally ill offender' means an offender in the custody of 
        the Bureau of Prisons who--
                ``(i) is serving a term of imprisonment based on 
            conviction for an offense or offenses that do not include 
            any crime of violence (as defined in section 16(a) of title 
            18, United States Code), sex offense (as defined in section 
            111(5) of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification 
            Act (34 U.S.C. 20911(5))), offense described in section 
            2332b(g)(5)(B) of title 18, United States Code, or offense 
            under chapter 37 of title 18, United States Code;
                ``(ii) satisfies the criteria specified in clauses 
            (iii) through (vii) of subparagraph (A); and
                ``(iii) has been determined by a medical doctor 
            approved by the Bureau of Prisons to be--

                    ``(I) in need of care at a nursing home, 
                intermediate care facility, or assisted living 
                facility, as those terms are defined in section 232 of 
                the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 1715w); or
                    ``(II) diagnosed with a terminal illness.''.

    (b) Increasing the Use and Transparency of Compassionate Release.--
Section 3582 of title 18, United States Code, is amended--
        (1) in subsection (c)(1)(A), in the matter preceding clause 
    (i), by inserting after ``Bureau of Prisons,'' the following: ``or 
    upon motion of the defendant after the defendant has fully 
    exhausted all administrative rights to appeal a failure of the 
    Bureau of Prisons to bring a motion on the defendant's behalf or 
    the lapse of 30 days from the receipt of such a request by the 
    warden of the defendant's facility, whichever is earlier,'';
        (2) by redesignating subsection (d) as subsection (e); and
        (3) by inserting after subsection (c) the following:
    ``(d) Notification Requirements.--
        ``(1) Terminal illness defined.--In this subsection, the term 
    `terminal illness' means a disease or condition with an end-of-life 
    trajectory.
        ``(2) Notification.--The Bureau of Prisons shall, subject to 
    any applicable confidentiality requirements--
            ``(A) in the case of a defendant diagnosed with a terminal 
        illness--
                ``(i) not later than 72 hours after the diagnosis 
            notify the defendant's attorney, partner, and family 
            members of the defendant's condition and inform the 
            defendant's attorney, partner, and family members that they 
            may prepare and submit on the defendant's behalf a request 
            for a sentence reduction pursuant to subsection (c)(1)(A);
                ``(ii) not later than 7 days after the date of the 
            diagnosis, provide the defendant's partner and family 
            members (including extended family) with an opportunity to 
            visit the defendant in person;
                ``(iii) upon request from the defendant or his 
            attorney, partner, or a family member, ensure that Bureau 
            of Prisons employees assist the defendant in the 
            preparation, drafting, and submission of a request for a 
            sentence reduction pursuant to subsection (c)(1)(A); and
                ``(iv) not later than 14 days of receipt of a request 
            for a sentence reduction submitted on the defendant's 
            behalf by the defendant or the defendant's attorney, 
            partner, or family member, process the request;
            ``(B) in the case of a defendant who is physically or 
        mentally unable to submit a request for a sentence reduction 
        pursuant to subsection (c)(1)(A)--
                ``(i) inform the defendant's attorney, partner, and 
            family members that they may prepare and submit on the 
            defendant's behalf a request for a sentence reduction 
            pursuant to subsection (c)(1)(A);
                ``(ii) accept and process a request for sentence 
            reduction that has been prepared and submitted on the 
            defendant's behalf by the defendant's attorney, partner, or 
            family member under clause (i); and
                ``(iii) upon request from the defendant or his 
            attorney, partner, or family member, ensure that Bureau of 
            Prisons employees assist the defendant in the preparation, 
            drafting, and submission of a request for a sentence 
            reduction pursuant to subsection (c)(1)(A); and
            ``(C) ensure that all Bureau of Prisons facilities 
        regularly and visibly post, including in prisoner handbooks, 
        staff training materials, and facility law libraries and 
        medical and hospice facilities, and make available to prisoners 
        upon demand, notice of--
                ``(i) a defendant's ability to request a sentence 
            reduction pursuant to subsection (c)(1)(A);
                ``(ii) the procedures and timelines for initiating and 
            resolving requests described in clause (i); and
                ``(iii) the right to appeal a denial of a request 
            described in clause (i) after all administrative rights to 
            appeal within the Bureau of Prisons have been exhausted.
        ``(3) Annual report.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
    enactment of this subsection, and once every year thereafter, the 
    Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall submit to the Committee on 
    the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of 
    the House of Representatives a report on requests for sentence 
    reductions pursuant to subsection (c)(1)(A), which shall include a 
    description of, for the previous year--
            ``(A) the number of prisoners granted and denied sentence 
        reductions, categorized by the criteria relied on as the 
        grounds for a reduction in sentence;
            ``(B) the number of requests initiated by or on behalf of 
        prisoners, categorized by the criteria relied on as the grounds 
        for a reduction in sentence;
            ``(C) the number of requests that Bureau of Prisons 
        employees assisted prisoners in drafting, preparing, or 
        submitting, categorized by the criteria relied on as the 
        grounds for a reduction in sentence, and the final decision 
        made in each request;
            ``(D) the number of requests that attorneys, partners, or 
        family members submitted on a defendant's behalf, categorized 
        by the criteria relied on as the grounds for a reduction in 
        sentence, and the final decision made in each request;
            ``(E) the number of requests approved by the Director of 
        the Bureau of Prisons, categorized by the criteria relied on as 
        the grounds for a reduction in sentence;
            ``(F) the number of requests denied by the Director of the 
        Bureau of Prisons and the reasons given for each denial, 
        categorized by the criteria relied on as the grounds for a 
        reduction in sentence;
            ``(G) for each request, the time elapsed between the date 
        the request was received by the warden and the final decision, 
        categorized by the criteria relied on as the grounds for a 
        reduction in sentence;
            ``(H) for each request, the number of prisoners who died 
        while their request was pending and, for each, the amount of 
        time that had elapsed between the date the request was received 
        by the Bureau of Prisons, categorized by the criteria relied on 
        as the grounds for a reduction in sentence;
            ``(I) the number of Bureau of Prisons notifications to 
        attorneys, partners, and family members of their right to visit 
        a terminally ill defendant as required under paragraph 
        (2)(A)(ii) and, for each, whether a visit occurred and how much 
        time elapsed between the notification and the visit;
            ``(J) the number of visits to terminally ill prisoners that 
        were denied by the Bureau of Prisons due to security or other 
        concerns, and the reasons given for each denial; and
            ``(K) the number of motions filed by defendants with the 
        court after all administrative rights to appeal a denial of a 
        sentence reduction had been exhausted, the outcome of each 
        motion, and the time that had elapsed between the date the 
        request was first received by the Bureau of Prisons and the 
        date the defendant filed the motion with the court.''.
    SEC. 604. IDENTIFICATION FOR RETURNING CITIZENS.
    (a) Identification and Release Assistance for Federal Prisoners.--
Section 231(b) of the Second Chance Act of 2007 (34 U.S.C. 60541(b)) is 
amended--
        (1) in paragraph (1)--
            (A) by striking ``(including'' and inserting ``prior to 
        release from a term of imprisonment in a Federal prison or if 
        the individual was not sentenced to a term of imprisonment in a 
        Federal prison, prior to release from a sentence to a term in 
        community confinement, including''; and
            (B) by striking ``or birth certificate) prior to release'' 
        and inserting ``and a birth certificate''; and
        (2) by adding at the end the following:
        ``(4) Definition.--In this subsection, the term `community 
    confinement' means residence in a community treatment center, 
    halfway house, restitution center, mental health facility, alcohol 
    or drug rehabilitation center, or other community facility.''.
    (b) Duties of the Bureau of Prisons.--Section 4042(a) of title 18, 
United States Code, is amended--
        (1) by redesignating paragraphs (D) and (E) as paragraphs (6) 
    and (7), respectively;
        (2) in paragraph (6) (as so redesignated)--
            (A) in clause (i)--
                (i) by striking ``Social Security Cards,''; and
                (ii) by striking ``and'' at the end;
            (B) by redesignating clause (ii) as clause (iii);
            (C) by inserting after clause (i) the following:
                ``(ii) obtain identification, including a social 
            security card, driver's license or other official photo 
            identification, and a birth certificate; and'';
            (D) in clause (iii) (as so redesignated), by inserting 
        after ``prior to release'' the following: ``from a sentence to 
        a term of imprisonment in a Federal prison or if the individual 
        was not sentenced to a term of imprisonment in a Federal 
        prison, prior to release from a sentence to a term of community 
        confinement''; and
            (E) by redesignating clauses (i), (ii), and (iii) (as so 
        amended) as subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C), respectively, and 
        adjusting the margins accordingly; and
        (3) in paragraph (7) (as so redesignated), by redesignating 
    clauses (i) through (vii) as subparagraphs (A) through (G), 
    respectively, and adjusting the margins accordingly.
    SEC. 605. EXPANDING INMATE EMPLOYMENT THROUGH FEDERAL PRISON 
      INDUSTRIES.
    (a) New Market Authorizations.--Chapter 307 of title 18, United 
States Code, is amended by inserting after section 4129 the following:
``Sec. 4130. Additional markets
    ``(a) In General.--Except as provided in subsection (b), 
notwithstanding any other provision of law, Federal Prison Industries 
may sell products to--
        ``(1) public entities for use in penal or correctional 
    institutions;
        ``(2) public entities for use in disaster relief or emergency 
    response;
        ``(3) the government of the District of Columbia; and
        ``(4) any organization described in subsection (c)(3), (c)(4), 
    or (d) of section 501 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 that is 
    exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of such Code.
    ``(b) Office Furniture.--Federal Prison Industries may not sell 
office furniture to the organizations described in subsection (a)(4).
    ``(c) Definitions.--In this section:
        ``(1) The term `office furniture' means any product or service 
    offering intended to meet the furnishing needs of the workplace, 
    including office, healthcare, educational, and hospitality 
    environments.
        ``(2) The term `public entity' means a State, a subdivision of 
    a State, an Indian tribe, and an agency or governmental corporation 
    or business of any of the foregoing.
        ``(3) The term `State' means a State, the District of Columbia, 
    the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Northern 
    Mariana Islands, and the United States Virgin Islands.''.
    (b) Technical Amendment.--The table of sections for chapter 307 of 
title 18, United States Code, is amended by inserting after the item 
relating to section 4129 the following:

``4130. Additional markets.''.

    (c) Deferred Compensation.--Section 4126(c)(4) of title 18, United 
States Code, is amended by inserting after ``operations,'' the 
following: ``not less than 15 percent of such compensation for any 
inmate shall be reserved in the fund or a separate account and made 
available to assist the inmate with costs associated with release from 
prison,''.
    (d) GAO Report.--Beginning not later than 90 days after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Comptroller General of the United States 
shall conduct an audit of Federal Prison Industries that includes the 
following:
        (1) An evaluation of Federal Prison Industries's effectiveness 
    in reducing recidivism compared to other rehabilitative programs in 
    the prison system.
        (2) An evaluation of the scope and size of the additional 
    markets made available to Federal Prison Industries under this 
    section and the total market value that would be opened up to 
    Federal Prison Industries for competition with private sector 
    providers of products and services.
        (3) An evaluation of whether the following factors create an 
    unfair competitive environment between Federal Prison Industries 
    and private sector providers of products and services which would 
    be exacerbated by further expansion:
            (A) Federal Prison Industries's status as a mandatory 
        source of supply for Federal agencies and the requirement that 
        the buying agency must obtain a waiver in order to make a 
        competitive purchase from the private sector if the item to be 
        acquired is listed on the schedule of products and services 
        published by Federal Prison Industries.
            (B) Federal Prison Industries's ability to determine that 
        the price to be paid by Federal Agencies is fair and 
        reasonable, rather than such a determination being made by the 
        buying agency.
            (C) An examination of the extent to which Federal Prison 
        Industries is bound by the requirements of the generally 
        applicable Federal Acquisition Regulation pertaining to the 
        conformity of the delivered product with the specified design 
        and performance specifications and adherence to the delivery 
        schedule required by the Federal agency, based on the 
        transactions being categorized as interagency transfers.
            (D) An examination of the extent to which Federal Prison 
        Industries avoids transactions that are little more than pass 
        through transactions where the work provided by inmates does 
        not create meaningful value or meaningful work opportunities 
        for inmates.
            (E) The extent to which Federal Prison Industries must 
        comply with the same worker protection, workplace safety and 
        similar regulations applicable to, and enforceable against, 
        Federal contractors.
            (F) The wages Federal Prison Industries pays to inmates, 
        taking into account inmate productivity and other factors such 
        as security concerns associated with having a facility in a 
        prison.
            (G) The effect of any additional cost advantages Federal 
        Prison Industries has over private sector providers of goods 
        and services, including--
                (i) the costs absorbed by the Bureau of Prisons such as 
            inmate medical care and infrastructure expenses including 
            real estate and utilities; and
                (ii) its exemption from Federal and State income taxes 
            and property taxes.
        (4) An evaluation of the extent to which the customers of 
    Federal Prison Industries are satisfied with quality, price, and 
    timely delivery of the products and services provided it provides, 
    including summaries of other independent assessments such as 
    reports of agency inspectors general, if applicable.
    SEC. 606. DE-ESCALATION TRAINING.
    Beginning not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this 
Act, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall incorporate into 
training programs provided to officers and employees of the Bureau of 
Prisons (including officers and employees of an organization with which 
the Bureau of Prisons has a contract to provide services relating to 
imprisonment) specialized and comprehensive training in procedures to--
        (1) de-escalate encounters between a law enforcement officer or 
    an officer or employee of the Bureau of Prisons, and a civilian or 
    a prisoner (as such term is defined in section 3635 of title 18, 
    United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act); and
        (2) identify and appropriately respond to incidents that 
    involve the unique needs of individuals who have a mental illness 
    or cognitive deficit.
    SEC. 607. EVIDENCE-BASED TREATMENT FOR OPIOID AND HEROIN ABUSE.
    (a) Report on Evidence-based Treatment for Opioid and Heroin 
Abuse.--Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act, 
the Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall submit to the Committees on 
the Judiciary and the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and of 
the House of Representatives a report assessing the availability of and 
the capacity of the Bureau of Prisons to treat heroin and opioid abuse 
through evidence-based programs, including medication-assisted 
treatment where appropriate. In preparing the report, the Director 
shall consider medication-assisted treatment as a strategy to assist in 
treatment where appropriate and not as a replacement for holistic and 
other drug-free approaches. The report shall include a description of 
plans to expand access to evidence-based treatment for heroin and 
opioid abuse for prisoners, including access to medication-assisted 
treatment in appropriate cases. Following submission, the Director 
shall take steps to implement these plans.
    (b) Report on the Availability of Medication-Assisted Treatment for 
Opioid and Heroin Abuse, and Implementation Thereof.--Not later than 
120 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Director of the 
Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall submit to the 
Committees on the Judiciary and the Committees on Appropriations of the 
Senate and of the House of Representatives a report assessing the 
availability of and capacity for the provision of medication-assisted 
treatment for opioid and heroin abuse by treatment service providers 
serving prisoners who are serving a term of supervised release, and 
including a description of plans to expand access to medication-
assisted treatment for heroin and opioid abuse whenever appropriate 
among prisoners under supervised release. Following submission, the 
Director will take steps to implement these plans.
    SEC. 608. PILOT PROGRAMS.
    (a) In General.--The Bureau of Prisons shall establish each of the 
following pilot programs for 5 years, in at least 20 facilities:
        (1) Mentorship for youth.--A program to pair youth with 
    volunteers from faith-based or community organizations, which may 
    include formerly incarcerated offenders, that have relevant 
    experience or expertise in mentoring, and a willingness to serve as 
    a mentor in such a capacity.
        (2) Service to abandoned, rescued, or otherwise vulnerable 
    animals.--A program to equip prisoners with the skills to provide 
    training and therapy to animals seized by Federal law enforcement 
    under asset forfeiture authority and to organizations that provide 
    shelter and similar services to abandoned, rescued, or otherwise 
    vulnerable animals.
    (b) Reporting Requirement.--Not later than 1 year after the 
conclusion of the pilot programs, the Attorney General shall report to 
Congress on the results of the pilot programs under this section. Such 
report shall include cost savings, numbers of participants, and 
information about recidivism rates among participants.
    (c) Definition.--In this title, the term ``youth'' means a prisoner 
(as such term is defined in section 3635 of title 18, United States 
Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act) who was 21 years of age 
or younger at the time of the commission or alleged commission of the 
criminal offense for which the individual is being prosecuted or 
serving a term of imprisonment, as the case may be.
    SEC. 609. ENSURING SUPERVISION OF RELEASED SEXUALLY DANGEROUS 
      PERSONS.
    (a) Probation Officers.--Section 3603 of title 18, United States 
Code, is amended in paragraph (8)(A) by striking ``or 4246'' and 
inserting ``, 4246, or 4248''.
    (b) Pretrial Services Officers.--Section 3154 of title 18, United 
States Code, is amended in paragraph (12)(A) by striking ``or 4246'' 
and inserting ``, 4246, or 4248''.
    SEC. 610. DATA COLLECTION.
    (a) National Prisoner Statistics Program.--Beginning not later than 
1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, and annually 
thereafter, pursuant to the authority under section 302 of the Omnibus 
Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 3732), the 
Director of the Bureau of Justice Statistics, with information that 
shall be provided by the Director of the Bureau of Prisons, shall 
include in the National Prisoner Statistics Program the following:
        (1) The number of prisoners (as such term is defined in section 
    3635 of title 18, United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of 
    this Act) who are veterans of the Armed Forces of the United 
    States.
        (2) The number of prisoners who have been placed in solitary 
    confinement at any time during the previous year.
        (3) The number of female prisoners known by the Bureau of 
    Prisons to be pregnant, as well as the outcomes of such 
    pregnancies, including information on pregnancies that result in 
    live birth, stillbirth, miscarriage, abortion, ectopic pregnancy, 
    maternal death, neonatal death, and preterm birth.
        (4) The number of prisoners who volunteered to participate in a 
    substance abuse treatment program, and the number of prisoners who 
    have participated in such a program.
        (5) The number of prisoners provided medication-assisted 
    treatment with medication approved by the Food and Drug 
    Administration while in custody in order to treat substance use 
    disorder.
        (6) The number of prisoners who were receiving medication-
    assisted treatment with medication approved by the Food and Drug 
    Administration prior to the commencement of their term of 
    imprisonment.
        (7) The number of prisoners who are the parent or guardian of a 
    minor child.
        (8) The number of prisoners who are single, married, or 
    otherwise in a committed relationship.
        (9) The number of prisoners who have not achieved a GED, high 
    school diploma, or equivalent prior to entering prison.
        (10) The number of prisoners who, during the previous year, 
    received their GED or other equivalent certificate while 
    incarcerated.
        (11) The numbers of prisoners for whom English is a second 
    language.
        (12) The number of incidents, during the previous year, in 
    which restraints were used on a female prisoner during pregnancy, 
    labor, or postpartum recovery, as well as information relating to 
    the type of restraints used, and the circumstances under which each 
    incident occurred.
        (13) The vacancy rate for medical and healthcare staff 
    positions, and average length of such a vacancy.
        (14) The number of facilities that operated, at any time during 
    the previous year, without at least 1 clinical nurse, certified 
    paramedic, or licensed physician on site.
        (15) The number of facilities that during the previous year 
    were accredited by the American Correctional Association.
        (16) The number and type of recidivism reduction partnerships 
    described in section 3621(h)(5) of title 18, United States Code, as 
    added by section 102(a) of this Act, entered into by each facility.
        (17) The number of facilities with remote learning 
    capabilities.
        (18) The number of facilities that offer prisoners video 
    conferencing.
        (19) Any changes in costs related to legal phone calls and 
    visits following implementation of section 3632(d)(1) of title 18, 
    United States Code, as added by section 101(a) of this Act.
        (20) The number of aliens in prison during the previous year.
        (21) For each Bureau of Prisons facility, the total number of 
    violations that resulted in reductions in rewards, incentives, or 
    time credits, the number of such violations for each category of 
    violation, and the demographic breakdown of the prisoners who have 
    received such reductions.
        (22) The number of assaults on Bureau of Prisons staff by 
    prisoners and the number of criminal prosecutions of prisoners for 
    assaulting Bureau of Prisons staff.
        (23) The capacity of each recidivism reduction program and 
    productive activity to accommodate eligible inmates at each Bureau 
    of Prisons facility.
        (24) The number of volunteers who were certified to volunteer 
    in a Bureau of Prisons facility, broken down by level (level I and 
    level II), and by each Bureau of Prisons facility.
        (25) The number of prisoners enrolled in recidivism reduction 
    programs and productive activities at each Bureau of Prisons 
    facility, broken down by risk level and by program, and the number 
    of those enrolled prisoners who successfully completed each 
    program.
        (26) The breakdown of prisoners classified at each risk level 
    by demographic characteristics, including age, sex, race, and the 
    length of the sentence imposed.
    (b) Report to Judiciary Committees.--Beginning not later than 1 
year after the date of enactment of this Act, and annually thereafter 
for a period of 7 years, the Director of the Bureau of Justice 
Statistics shall submit a report containing the information described 
in paragraphs (1) through (26) of subsection (a) to the Committee on 
the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the 
House of Representatives.
    SEC. 611. HEALTHCARE PRODUCTS.
    (a) Availability.--The Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall make 
the healthcare products described in subsection (c) available to 
prisoners for free, in a quantity that is appropriate to the healthcare 
needs of each prisoner.
    (b) Quality Products.--The Director shall ensure that the 
healthcare products provided under this section conform with applicable 
industry standards.
    (c) Products.--The healthcare products described in this subsection 
are tampons and sanitary napkins.
    SEC. 612. ADULT AND JUVENILE COLLABORATION PROGRAMS.
    Section 2991 of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe 
Streets Act of 1968 (34 U.S.C. 10651) is amended--
        (1) in subsection (b)(4)--
            (A) by striking subparagraph (D); and
            (B) by redesignating subparagraph (E) as subparagraph (D);
        (2) in subsection (e), by striking ``may use up to 3 percent'' 
    and inserting ``shall use not less than 6 percent''; and
        (3) by amending subsection (g) to read as follows:
    ``(g) Collaboration Set-aside.--The Attorney General shall use not 
less than 8 percent of funds appropriated to provide technical 
assistance to State and local governments receiving grants under this 
part to foster collaboration between such governments in furtherance of 
the purposes set forth in section 3 of the Mentally Ill Offender 
Treatment and Crime Reduction Act of 2004 (34 U.S.C. 10651 note).''.
    SEC. 613. JUVENILE SOLITARY CONFINEMENT.
    (a) In General.--Chapter 403 of title 18, United States Code, is 
amended by adding at the end the following:
``Sec. 5043. Juvenile solitary confinement
    ``(a) Definitions.--In this section--
        ``(1) the term `covered juvenile' means--
            ``(A) a juvenile who--
                ``(i) is being proceeded against under this chapter for 
            an alleged act of juvenile delinquency; or
                ``(ii) has been adjudicated delinquent under this 
            chapter; or
            ``(B) a juvenile who is being proceeded against as an adult 
        in a district court of the United States for an alleged 
        criminal offense;
        ``(2) the term `juvenile facility' means any facility where 
    covered juveniles are--
            ``(A) committed pursuant to an adjudication of delinquency 
        under this chapter; or
            ``(B) detained prior to disposition or conviction; and
        ``(3) the term `room confinement' means the involuntary 
    placement of a covered juvenile alone in a cell, room, or other 
    area for any reason.
    ``(b) Prohibition on Room Confinement in Juvenile Facilities.--
        ``(1) In general.--The use of room confinement at a juvenile 
    facility for discipline, punishment, retaliation, or any reason 
    other than as a temporary response to a covered juvenile's behavior 
    that poses a serious and immediate risk of physical harm to any 
    individual, including the covered juvenile, is prohibited.
        ``(2) Juveniles posing risk of harm.--
            ``(A) Requirement to use least restrictive techniques.--
                ``(i) In general.--Before a staff member of a juvenile 
            facility places a covered juvenile in room confinement, the 
            staff member shall attempt to use less restrictive 
            techniques, including--

                    ``(I) talking with the covered juvenile in an 
                attempt to de-escalate the situation; and
                    ``(II) permitting a qualified mental health 
                professional to talk to the covered juvenile.

                ``(ii) Explanation.--If, after attempting to use less 
            restrictive techniques as required under clause (i), a 
            staff member of a juvenile facility decides to place a 
            covered juvenile in room confinement, the staff member 
            shall first--

                    ``(I) explain to the covered juvenile the reasons 
                for the room confinement; and
                    ``(II) inform the covered juvenile that release 
                from room confinement will occur--

                        ``(aa) immediately when the covered juvenile 
                    regains self-control, as described in subparagraph 
                    (B)(i); or
                        ``(bb) not later than after the expiration of 
                    the time period described in subclause (I) or (II) 
                    of subparagraph (B)(ii), as applicable.
            ``(B) Maximum period of confinement.--If a covered juvenile 
        is placed in room confinement because the covered juvenile 
        poses a serious and immediate risk of physical harm to himself 
        or herself, or to others, the covered juvenile shall be 
        released--
                ``(i) immediately when the covered juvenile has 
            sufficiently gained control so as to no longer engage in 
            behavior that threatens serious and immediate risk of 
            physical harm to himself or herself, or to others; or
                ``(ii) if a covered juvenile does not sufficiently gain 
            control as described in clause (i), not later than--

                    ``(I) 3 hours after being placed in room 
                confinement, in the case of a covered juvenile who 
                poses a serious and immediate risk of physical harm to 
                others; or
                    ``(II) 30 minutes after being placed in room 
                confinement, in the case of a covered juvenile who 
                poses a serious and immediate risk of physical harm 
                only to himself or herself.

            ``(C) Risk of harm after maximum period of confinement.--
        If, after the applicable maximum period of confinement under 
        subclause (I) or (II) of subparagraph (B)(ii) has expired, a 
        covered juvenile continues to pose a serious and immediate risk 
        of physical harm described in that subclause--
                ``(i) the covered juvenile shall be transferred to 
            another juvenile facility or internal location where 
            services can be provided to the covered juvenile without 
            relying on room confinement; or
                ``(ii) if a qualified mental health professional 
            believes the level of crisis service needed is not 
            currently available, a staff member of the juvenile 
            facility shall initiate a referral to a location that can 
            meet the needs of the covered juvenile.
            ``(D) Spirit and purpose.--The use of consecutive periods 
        of room confinement to evade the spirit and purpose of this 
        subsection shall be prohibited.''.
    (b) Technical and Conforming Amendment.--The table of sections for 
chapter 403 of title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding at 
the end the following:

``5043. Juvenile solitary confinement.''.


                               Speaker of the House of Representatives.

                            Vice President of the United States and    
                                               President of the Senate.