Text: H.Res.857 — 116th Congress (2019-2020)All Information (Except Text)

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Introduced in House (02/13/2020)

 
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[H. Res. 857 Introduced in House (IH)]

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116th CONGRESS
  2d Session
H. RES. 857

   Recognizing the 75th anniversary of the amphibious landing on the 
Japanese island of Iwo Jima during World War II and the raisings of the 
             flag of the United States on Mount Suribachi.


_______________________________________________________________________


                    IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

                           February 13, 2020

Mr. Calvert (for himself, Mr. Visclosky, Mr. Pence, Mr. Gallagher, Mr. 
Bergman, Mr. Taylor, Mr. Cook, and Mr. Gallego) submitted the following 
resolution; which was referred to the Committee on Armed Services, and 
  in addition to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, for a period to be 
subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration 
  of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee 
                               concerned

_______________________________________________________________________

                               RESOLUTION


 
   Recognizing the 75th anniversary of the amphibious landing on the 
Japanese island of Iwo Jima during World War II and the raisings of the 
             flag of the United States on Mount Suribachi.

Whereas, following the surprise attack by Japanese forces on December 7, 1941, 
        at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, the United States formally declared war on the 
        Imperial Government of Japan on December 8, 1941;
Whereas during the four years that followed the attack, the United States and 
        allied forces fought a prolonged counterattack against Japanese advances 
        across the Pacific region;
Whereas the tactic of attacking, defeating, and controlling Japanese-held 
        outposts through the use of amphibious assault landings against 
        Japanese-held islands and territories (referred to in this preamble as 
        ``island hopping'') became crucial to successfully countering Japanese 
        advances throughout the Pacific region;
Whereas the goal of this island hopping was to secure airfields and supply 
        bases--

    (1) in order to launch aerial bombardment attacks against the mainland 
of Japan using the new Boeing B-29 Superfortress; and

    (2) in preparation for, and in anticipation of, a United States 
invasion of Japan;

Whereas, by early 1945, the United States and allied forces bravely fought and 
        advanced to the island of Iwo Jima, an 8-square-mile volcanic island 
        with 3 strategic airfields, located between the Mariana Islands and 
        Japan;
Whereas Iwo Jima was--

    (1) a strategic island with airfields to support bombers of the United 
States with fighter escorts; and

    (2) an essential base for emergency, refueling, and diversionary 
landings for B-29 bombers;

Whereas, under the command of Japanese Lieutenant General Tadamichi Kuribayashi, 
        Iwo Jima was a heavily fortified island with nearly 11 miles of 
        underground and networked tunnels, rooms, bunkers, artillery 
        emplacements, ammunition dumps, and pillboxes supporting more than 
        21,000 Japanese soldiers;
Whereas, on February 19, 1945, under the leadership of United States Navy 5th 
        Fleet Admiral Raymond A. Spruance and United States Marine Corps V 
        Amphibious Corps Major General Harry Schmidt, with 3d Division Major 
        General Graves B. Erskine, 4th Division Major General Clifton Cates, and 
        5th Division Major General Keller E. Rockey, the United States launched 
        an amphibious landing and assault on Iwo Jima that culminated with the 
        engagement of more than 70,000 members of the United States Marine 
        Corps, buttressed by thousands of members of the United States Navy and 
        the United States Army serving as assault, garrison, and support forces 
        (referred to in this preamble as the ``Battle of Iwo Jima'');
Whereas the Marines who fought in the Battle of Iwo Jima overcame numerous 
        disadvantages in the 36-day battle that included treacherous terrain, 
        unfavorable weather conditions, and heavy enemy fire from an embedded, 
        determined, and fierce Japanese fighting force in places immortalized by 
        members of the United States Marine Corps, including the ``Meat 
        Grinder'' and ``Bloody Gorge'';
Whereas, on February 23, 1945, only 5 days into the Battle of Iwo Jima, members 
        of the United States Marine Corps ascended the highest point on the 
        island, Mount Suribachi, and raised the flag of the United States two 
        separate times, and the second flag raising resulted in the iconic, 
        Pulitzer Prize-winning image that--

    (1) was captured on film by photographer Joe Rosenthal;

    (2) has become a recognized symbol of determination, perseverance, and 
struggle; and

    (3) has been memorialized as the United States Marine Corps War 
Memorial in Arlington, Virginia;

Whereas the Battle of Iwo Jima, one of the bloodiest battles in the history of 
        the Marine Corps, resulted in more than 26,000 American casualties, 
        including more than 6,800 killed;
Whereas most of the more than 20,000 estimated Japanese soldiers that fought in 
        the Battle of Iwo Jima were killed, with only approximately 1,083 
        Japanese soldiers surviving at the conclusion of the campaign;
Whereas the Battle of Iwo Jima led to 22 members of the United States Marine 
        Corps and 5 members of the United States Navy receiving the Medal of 
        Honor, representing--

    (1) the most Marines ever to receive the highest military decoration in 
the United States for a single battle; and

    (2) more than a quarter of all members of the United States Marine 
Corps to receive the decoration during World War II;

Whereas the secured airfields on Iwo Jima became emergency landing locations for 
        2,400 B-29 Bombers, saving the lives of an estimated 24,000 flight 
        crewmen;
Whereas, 160 days after the end and victory of the pivotal Battle of Iwo Jima, 
        the United States received the unconditional surrender of Japan on 
        September 2, 1945;
Whereas the world owes a debt of gratitude to the Marines who selflessly led the 
        fight for the strategic island of Iwo Jima in the middle of the Pacific 
        theater; and
Whereas, on March 28, 2020, the 75th anniversary of the Battle of Iwo Jima will 
        be marked by commemorative events on the island of Iwo Jima, organized 
        by the people of the United States and Japan: Now, therefore, be it
    Resolved, That the House of Representatives--
            (1) recognizes the 75th anniversary of the amphibious 
        landing on the Japanese island of Iwo Jima that began on 
        February 19, 1945, and ended on March 26, 1945;
            (2) commemorates the iconic and historic raisings of the 
        flag of the United States on Mount Suribachi that occurred on 
        February 23, 1945;
            (3) honors the Marines, sailors, soldiers, army air crew, 
        and coast guardsmen who fought bravely on Iwo Jima, including 
        the thousands of Japanese soldiers who defended the island;
            (4) remembers and venerates the servicemembers who gave 
        their last full measure of devotion on the battlefield;
            (5) recognizes that the Allied victory in the Battle of Iwo 
        Jima--
                    (A) was led by the United States Marine Corps; and
                    (B) made possible the defeat of the Empire of Japan 
                in World War II;
            (6) affirms the immortal words of Admiral Chester Nimitz, 
        who stated that ``uncommon valor was a common virtue'' of those 
        servicemembers who fought on Iwo Jima;
            (7) reaffirms the bonds of friendship between the United 
        States and Japan;
            (8) encourages the people of the United States to honor the 
        veterans of the Battle of Iwo Jima with appropriate programs, 
        ceremonies, and activities; and
            (9) honors the service and sacrifice of the men and women 
        who serve the United States today, carrying on the proud 
        tradition of the individuals who came before them.
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