Text: S.847 — 116th Congress (2019-2020)All Information (Except Text)

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Introduced in Senate (03/14/2019)

 
[Congressional Bills 116th Congress]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office]
[S. 847 Introduced in Senate (IS)]

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116th CONGRESS
  1st Session
                                 S. 847

 To prohibit certain entities from using facial recognition technology 
  to identify or track an end user without obtaining the affirmative 
            consent of the end user, and for other purposes.


_______________________________________________________________________


                   IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES

                             March 14, 2019

 Mr. Blunt (for himself and Mr. Schatz) introduced the following bill; 
    which was read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, 
                      Science, and Transportation

_______________________________________________________________________

                                 A BILL


 
 To prohibit certain entities from using facial recognition technology 
  to identify or track an end user without obtaining the affirmative 
            consent of the end user, and for other purposes.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ``Commercial Facial Recognition 
Privacy Act of 2019''.

SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.

    In this Act:
            (1) Affirmative consent.--The term ``affirmative consent'' 
        means the consent of an end user that involves an individual, 
        voluntary, and explicit agreement to the collection and data 
        use policies of a controller.
            (2) Controller.--The term ``controller'' means a covered 
        entity that, alone or jointly with others, determines the 
        purposes and means of the processing of facial recognition 
        data.
            (3) Covered entity.--The term ``covered entity''--
                    (A) means any person, including corporate 
                affiliates, that collects, stores, or processes facial 
                recognition data; and
                    (B) does not include--
                            (i) the Federal Government or any State or 
                        local government;
                            (ii) a law enforcement agency;
                            (iii) a national security agency; or
                            (iv) an intelligence agency.
            (4) End user.--The term ``end user'' means an individual.
            (5) Facial recognition technology.--The term ``facial 
        recognition technology'' means technology that--
                    (A) analyzes facial features in still or video 
                images; and
                    (B)(i) is used to assign a unique, persistent 
                identifier; or
                    (ii) is used for the unique personal identification 
                of a specific individual.
            (6) Facial recognition data.--The term ``facial recognition 
        data'' means any unique attribute or feature of the face of an 
        end user that is used by facial recognition technology to 
        assign a unique, persistent identifier or for the unique 
        personal identification of a specific individual.
            (7) Process.--The term ``process'' means any operation that 
        is performed on facial recognition data, including collection, 
        creation, generation, recording, organization, structuring, 
        storage, adaptation, alteration, retrieval, consultation, use, 
        disclosure, transfer, dissemination or otherwise making 
        available, combination, erasure, or destruction.
            (8) Processor.--The term ``processor'' means a covered 
        entity that processes facial recognition data on behalf of a 
        controller.
            (9) Security application.--The term ``security 
        application'' means loss prevention and any other application 
        intended to detect or prevent criminal activity, including 
        shoplifting and fraud.
            (10) Unaffiliated third party.--The term ``unaffiliated 
        third party'' means any person other than--
                    (A) a user of a product or service of a covered 
                entity;
                    (B) an employee of a covered entity;
                    (C) a person under common control or ownership with 
                a covered entity; or
                    (D) a person to whom--
                            (i) an end user directed a covered entity 
                        to disclose information derived from facial 
                        recognition technology; or
                            (ii) information derived from facial 
                        recognition technology was disclosed with the 
                        affirmative consent of an end user.

SEC. 3. PROHIBITED CONDUCT.

    (a) In General.--Except as provided in subsection (e), it shall be 
unlawful for a controller to knowingly--
            (1) use facial recognition technology to collect facial 
        recognition data, unless the controller--
                    (A) obtains from an end user affirmative consent in 
                accordance with subsection (b); and
                    (B) to the extent possible, if facial recognition 
                technology is present, provides to the end user--
                            (i) a concise notice that facial 
                        recognition technology is present, and, if 
                        contextually appropriate, where the end user 
                        can find more information about the use of 
                        facial recognition technology by the 
                        controller; and
                            (ii) documentation that includes general 
                        information that explains the capabilities and 
                        limitations of the facial recognition 
                        technology in terms that end users are able to 
                        understand;
            (2) use the facial recognition technology to discriminate 
        against an end user in violation of applicable Federal or State 
        law;
            (3) repurpose facial recognition data for a purpose that is 
        different from those presented to the end user under paragraph 
        (1)(A); or
            (4) share the facial recognition data with an unaffiliated 
        third party without affirmative consent that is separate from 
        the affirmative consent required under paragraph (1)(A).
    (b) Consent.--
            (1) In general.--When obtaining affirmative consent, a 
        controller shall make available to an end user a notice that 
        describes the specific practices of the processor in terms that 
        end users are able to understand regarding the collection, 
        storage, and use of facial recognition data, including--
                    (A) the reasonably foreseeable purposes, or 
                examples, for which the processor collects and shares 
                information derived from facial recognition technology 
                or uses facial recognition technology;
                    (B) the data retention and deidentification 
                practices of the processor; and
                    (C) if the controller offers the ability to review, 
                correct, or delete information derived from facial 
                recognition technology, the process to accomplish such 
                actions.
            (2) Processor requirement.--If the processor and controller 
        are not the same entity, the processor shall make easily 
        accessible to controllers the information required under 
        paragraph (1).
            (3) Conditioning service on consent prohibited.--If the use 
        of facial recognition technology is not necessary for a 
        service, no controller may--
                    (A) condition the service on consent by an end user 
                to waive privacy rights; or
                    (B) terminate or refuse the service as a direct 
                consequence of refusal by the end user to provide 
                affirmative consent to the covered entity.
    (c) Review.--A controller, and the processor if applicable, shall 
employ meaningful human review prior to making any final decision based 
on the output of facial recognition technology if the final decision--
            (1) may result in a reasonably foreseeable and material 
        physical or financial harm to an end user; or
            (2) may be unexpected or highly offensive to a reasonable 
        end user.
    (d) Application Programming Interface.--A covered entity that makes 
a facial recognition technology available as an online service shall 
make available an application programming interface to enable at least 
1 third party that is legitimately engaged in independent testing to 
conduct reasonable tests of the facial recognition technology for 
accuracy and bias.
    (e) Exceptions.--
            (1) In general.--Except as provided in paragraph (2), 
        subsections (a)(1) and (b) shall not apply to controllers that 
        use--
                    (A) an application that--
                            (i) is a product or service designed for 
                        personal file management or photo or video 
                        sorting or storage if the facial recognition 
                        technology is not used for unique personal 
                        identification of a specific individual;
                            (ii) involves identification of public 
                        figures for journalistic media created for 
                        public interest;
                            (iii) involves identification of public 
                        figures in copyrighted material for theatrical 
                        release; or
                            (iv) is used if there is an emergency 
                        involving imminent danger or risk of death or 
                        serious physical injury to an individual; or
                    (B) facial recognition data to determine whether an 
                end user has given affirmative consent if the 
                controller immediately and permanently destroys the 
                facial recognition data after determining that the end 
                user has not given affirmative consent.
            (2) Security applications.--Subsections (a)(1)(A) and (b) 
        shall not apply to controllers that use an application that is 
        a security application.
            (3) Rule of construction.--Nothing in paragraph (1)(B) may 
        be construed to authorize the mass scanning of faces in spaces 
        where end users do not have a reasonable expectation that 
        facial recognition technology is being used on them.

SEC. 4. ENFORCEMENT.

    (a) Unfair or Deceptive Act or Practice.--A violation of section 3 
shall be treated as a violation of a rule defining an unfair or 
deceptive act or practice prescribed under section 18(a)(1)(B) of the 
Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C. 57a(a)(1)(B)).
    (b) Powers of Commission.--
            (1) In general.--The Federal Trade Commission shall enforce 
        this Act in the same manner, by the same means, and with the 
        same jurisdiction as though all applicable terms and provisions 
        of the Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C. 41 et seq.) were 
        incorporated into and made a part of this Act.
            (2) Privileges and immunities.--Any person who violates 
        section 3 shall be subject to the penalties and entitled to the 
        privileges and immunities provided in the Federal Trade 
        Commission Act (15 U.S.C. 41 et seq.).
    (c) Enforcement by States.--
            (1) In general.--If the attorney general of a State has 
        reason to believe that an interest of the residents of the 
        State has been or is being threatened or adversely affected by 
        a practice that violates section 3, the attorney general of the 
        State may, as parens patriae, bring a civil action on behalf of 
        the residents of the State in an appropriate district court of 
        the United States to obtain appropriate relief.
            (2) Rights of commission.--
                    (A) Notice to commission.--
                            (i) In general.--Except as provided in 
                        clause (iii), the attorney general of a State, 
                        before initiating a civil action under 
                        paragraph (1), shall provide written 
                        notification to the Commission that the 
                        attorney general intends to bring such civil 
                        action.
                            (ii) Contents.--The notification required 
                        under clause (i) shall include a copy of the 
                        complaint to be filed to initiate the civil 
                        action.
                            (iii) Exception.--If it is not feasible for 
                        the attorney general of a State to provide the 
                        notification required under clause (i) before 
                        initiating a civil action under paragraph (1), 
                        the attorney general shall notify the 
                        Commission immediately upon instituting the 
                        civil action.
                    (B) Intervention by commission.--The Commission 
                may--
                            (i) intervene in any civil action brought 
                        by the attorney general of a State under 
                        paragraph (1); and
                            (ii) upon intervening--
                                    (I) be heard on all matters arising 
                                in the civil action; and
                                    (II) file petitions for appeal of a 
                                decision in the civil action.
            (3) Investigatory powers.--Nothing in this subsection may 
        be construed to prevent the attorney general of a State from 
        exercising the powers conferred on the attorney general by the 
        laws of the State to conduct investigations, to administer 
        oaths or affirmations, or to compel the attendance of witnesses 
        or the production of documentary or other evidence.
            (4) Venue; service of process.--
                    (A) Venue.--Any action brought under paragraph (1) 
                may be brought in--
                            (i) the district court of the United States 
                        that meets applicable requirements relating to 
                        venue under section 1391 of title 28, United 
                        States Code; or
                            (ii) another court of competent 
                        jurisdiction.
                    (B) Service of process.--In an action brought under 
                paragraph (1), process may be served in any district in 
                which--
                            (i) the defendant is an inhabitant, may be 
                        found, or transacts business; or
                            (ii) venue is proper under section 1391 of 
                        title 28, United States Code.
            (5) Actions by other state officials.--
                    (A) In general.--In addition to a civil action 
                brought by an attorney general under paragraph (1), any 
                other officer of a State who is authorized by the State 
                to do so may bring a civil action under paragraph (1), 
                subject to the same requirements and limitations that 
                apply under this subsection to civil actions brought by 
                attorneys general.
                    (B) Savings provision.--Nothing in this subsection 
                may be construed to prohibit an authorized official of 
                a State from initiating or continuing any proceeding in 
                a court of the State for a violation of any civil or 
                criminal law of the State.

SEC. 5. REGULATIONS.

    (a) Regulations.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Federal Trade Commission, in consultation 
with the National Institute of Standards and Technology, shall 
promulgate regulations, in accordance with section 553 of title 5, 
United States Code--
            (1) describing data security, minimization, and retention 
        standards to be met at a minimum by processors;
            (2) defining what is harmful and highly offensive under 
        paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 3(c); and
            (3) expanding the list of exceptions described in section 
        3(e) in cases where it is impossible for a controller to obtain 
        affirmative consent from, or provide notice to, end users.
    (b) Considerations.--In promulgating regulations under subsection 
(a), the Commission shall consider, among other factors--
            (1) the size of the processor;
            (2) the complexity of the offerings of the processor; and
            (3) the nature and scope of the activities of the 
        processor.

SEC. 6. RELATION TO STATE LAWS.

    (a) In General.--This Act shall not be construed as superseding, 
altering, or affecting any statute, regulation, order, or 
interpretation in effect in any State, except to the extent that such 
statute, regulation, order, or interpretation is inconsistent with the 
provisions of this Act, and then only to the extent of the 
inconsistency.
    (b) Greater Protection Under State Law.--For purposes of this Act, 
a State statute, regulation, order, or interpretation is not 
inconsistent with the provisions of this subtitle if the protection 
such statute, regulation, order, or interpretation affords any person 
is greater than the protection provided under this Act, as determined 
by the Federal Trade Commission.

SEC. 7. RELATION TO OTHER PRIVACY AND SECURITY LAWS.

    Nothing in this Act may be construed to--
            (1) modify, limit, or supersede the operation of any 
        privacy or security provision in any other Federal or State law 
        (including regulations); or
            (2) limit the authority of the Commission under any other 
        provision of law.

SEC. 8. EFFECTIVE DATE.

    This Act shall take effect on the date that is 180 days after the 
date of enactment of this Act.
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