Summary: S.829 — 98th Congress (1983-1984)All Information (Except Text)

There is one summary for S.829. Bill summaries are authored by CRS.

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Introduced in Senate (03/16/1983)

Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1983 - Title I: Bail - Bail Reform Act of 1983 - Repeals the Bail Reform Act of 1966 and sets forth new bail procedures.

Retains execution of a money bond as a condition for pretrial release.

Authorizes a judicial officer to consider the safety of any person or the community when making a pretrial release determination.

Establishes as a mandatory release condition that the person not commit a Federal, State, or local crime during release. Expands the discretionary release conditions to include that the defendant: (1) maintain employment or an educational program; (2) avoid contact with an alleged victim or potential witness; (3) report to a law enforcement or pretrial service agency; (4) comply with a curfew; (5) refrain from possessing a firearm or using alcohol or narcotic drugs; (6) undergo medical treatment; (7) agree to forfeit designated property, including money, upon failure to appear; and (8) return to custody at specified hours.

Prohibits a judicial officer from imposing financial conditions that result in the pretrial detention of a person.

Authorizes a judicial officer to order detention for up to ten days: (1) if a person who is presently on pretrial release for a felony under Federal, State, or local law or on probation or parole or release pending sentencing or appeal for any offense, upon a determination that such person may flee or pose a danger to any person or the community; or (2) if such person is not a U.S. citizen.

Requires that a detention hearing be held in any case involving: (1) a crime of violence; (2) any offense punishable by life imprisonment or death; (3) a narcotics offense punishable by at least ten years' imprisonment; (4) a serious risk of flight or obstruction of justice; or (5) any felony committed after the person has been convicted of two or more offenses for which a hearing is mandated.

Authorizes a judicial officer after such a hearing to order the pretrial detention of a person upon finding that no condition will reasonably assure such person's appearance and the safety of any other person and the community.

Enumerates additional factors to be considered by the judicial officer in making a release determination, including the defendant's past conduct, history of drug or alcohol abuse, criminal history, and the nature and seriousness of the danger to the community or any person.

Requires the detention of a person who has appealed his conviction unless the judicial officer finds by clear and convincing evidence that: (1) such person is not likely to flee or pose a danger to another person or property; and (2) the appeal raises a substantial question of law or fact. Requires the detention of a person awaiting sentencing unless the officer finds by clear and convincing evidence that the person is not likely to flee or pose a danger to any other person or the community.

Authorizes a U.S. attorney to appeal a release order.

Makes a person guilty of an offense for failing to appear after having been released. Provides increased penalties for persons charged with more serious offenses. Makes it an affirmative defense to such crime that uncontrollable circumstances prevented the person from appearing.

Establishes mandatory additional penalties for commission of an offense while on pretrial release.

Subjects a person who has been conditionally released and violates a condition of release to revocation or release and prosecution for contempt of court.

Authorizes a surety to arrest a person charged with an offense who is released upon execution of an appearance bond with such surety. Requires such person to be delivered promptly to a judicial officer for a revocation determination.

Grants new authority to law enforcement officers to arrest a person who violates pretrial release conditions.

Title II: Sentencing Reform - Sentencing Reform Act of 1983 - Sets forth a new sentencing structure applicable to a defendant who is found guilty of an offense under any Federal statute. Permits an individual to be sentenced to a term of imprisonment or probation and a fine, and to receive additional sanctions, including: (1) forfeiture for certain racketeering crimes and drug-related offenses; (2) an order of notice to victims of crimes in cases involving fraud or deceptive practices; or (3) an order of restitution in cases involving bodily injury or property damage. Permits an organization to receive these penalties, with the exception of imprisonment.

Creates the United States Sentencing Commission. Specifies factors to be considered by a sentencing court, including the guidelines and policy statements issued by the United States Sentencing Commission.

Requires the court to impose a sentence within the range set forth by the Commission unless aggravating or mitigating circumstances exist that were not adequately considered by the Commission in formulating the guidelines. Requires the court to state in open court at the time of sentencing the reason for imposing a sentence at a point within the prescribed range, or the specific reason for imposing a sentence outside of such range.

Authorizes the imposition of a term of probation, unless specifically prohibited, for all but the most serious class of felonies. Requires as a mandatory condition of probation that a defendant not commit another crime. Enumerates 20 discretionary conditions.

Sets forth a fine schedule for the categories of offenses generally at higher levels than current law. Includes higher maximums for organizational defendants. Directs the court to consider the defendant's financial status in determining the amount of a fine and the method of payment.

Sets maximum terms of imprisonment for five classes of felonies (A to E), three classes of misdemeanors (A to C), and an infraction (five day maximum). Allows the court, in imposing a sentence of imprisonment for a felony or misdemeanor, to include a term of supervised release after imprisonment.

Eliminates the special sentencing provisions under current law for dangerous special offenders, youth offenders, young adult offenders, and drug addicts, but provides for these categories of offenders under the proposed sentencing guidelines.

Excludes capital punishment as an authorized penalty, but leaves unaffected the current death penalty and procedures for aircraft hijacking.

Eliminates the parole system. Permits a defendant to petition for a sentence reduction upon a showing of extraordinary and compelling reasons. Limits this motion for defendants who are sentenced to six or more years of imprisonment.

Allows the defendant or the government to file a notice of appeal in the district court for review of a final sentence.

Provides for congressional review of the operation of the sentencing system after receipt of a study by the General Accounting Office.

Title III: Limitation of the Exclusionary Rule - Exclusionary Rule Limitation Act of 1982. Amends the Federal criminal code to provide that evidence obtained by a search or seizure shall not be excluded in a Federal proceeding if the seizure was undertaken in a reasonable good faith belied in its conformity with the Fourth Amendment to the Constitution.

Provides that evidence obtained in accordance with a warrant is prima facie evidence of good faith, absent intentional and material misrepresentation.

Title IV: Criminal Forfeiture - Comprehensive Forfeiture Act of 1983 - Amends the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Statute (RICO) to specify that property subject to forfeiture for racketeering activity includes: (1) all proceeds obtained directly or indirectly from racketeering activity; (2) real and tangible and intangible personal property; and (3) positions, offices, appointments, and benefits obtained through illegal activity.

Makes property forfeitable to the United States upon the commission of the act giving rise to forfeiture. Permits the forfeiture of property which has been transferred to a third party, but includes a provision protecting innocent bona fide purchasers.

Authorizes a court to order the forfeiture of substitute assets of the defendant where the original property cannot be located or traced.

Authorizes a court to take appropriate action preserving the availability of property during the pre-indictment period effective for up to 90 days. Specifies the circumstances under which a temporary restraining order may be issued without notice to the affected party.

Authorizes the Attorney General to grant petitions for remission or mitigation of forfeiture. Directs the Attorney General to establish regulations governing the restitution and disposition of forfeited property.

Amends the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 to establish general criminal forfeiture provisions for felony violations under titles II and III. Includes provisions similar to the RICO amendments of this Act, relating to property subject to forfeiture, third party transfers, asset substitution, pre-indictment orders, and remission.

Authorizes a court to issue a warrant authorizing the seizure of property subject to forfeiture in the same manner provided for a search warrant, if other injunctive relief would not assure the availability of the property.

Provides that a criminal forfeiture proceeding shall stay any civil forfeiture proceeding with respect to the same property.

Establishes in the Treasury of the United States, the "Drug Assets Forfeiture Fund" and the "Customs Forfeiture Fund." Transfers the proceeds from the sale or other disposition of the forfeited property into these accounts. Grants law enforcement authority to customs agents.

Title V: Offenders with Mental Disease or Defect - Insanity Defense Reform Act of 1983 - Amends the Federal criminal code to make it an affirmative defense to a Federal prosecution, that at the time of the commission of the acts constitutiong the offense, the defendant, as a result of mental disease or defect, was unable to appreciate the nature and quality or the wrongfulness of his acts. Authorizes a special verdict of "not guilty only by reason of insanity" for any criminal defendant who raises the issue of insanity by notice as currently provided. Establishes a new civil commitment procedure for persons found not guilty only by reason of insanity.

Title VI: Reform of Federal Intervention in State Proceedings - Reform of Federal Intervention in State Proceedings Act of 1983 - Conditions consideration of a habeas corpus claim by a State prisoner on a showing of actual prejudice resulting from the Federal right violated and a showing that: (1) State action precluded assertion of the right; (2) the Federal right did not previously exist; or (3) the factual basis of the claim could not have been discovered by reasonable diligence.

Establishes a one-year statute of limitations for habeas corpus actions brought by State prisoners.

Vests authority to issue certificates for probable cause for appeal or habeas corpus orders exclusively in the courts of appeals.

Permits denial on the merits of habeas corpus writs notwithstanding the failure to exhaust State remedies.

Prohibits the granting of a habeas corpus writ with respect to any claim which has been fully and fairly adjudicated in State proceedings.

Title VII: Drug Enforcement Amendments - Controlled Substances Penalties Amendments Act of 1983 - Increases the fine levels for drug trafficking. Increases the penalties for trafficking in large amounts of controlled substances. Amends the Controlled Substances Act to allow the Attorney General to place an uncontrolled substance under temporary controls which provide for registration, recordkeeping and criminal penalties.

Provides for administrative charges in the registration of practitioners.

Title VIII: Justice Assistance - Amends title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (Justice System Improvement) to eliminate the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, including the Office of Community Anti-Crime Programs and the Office of Justice Assistance, Research, and Statistics. Retains the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Institute of Justice. Establishes a new Office of Justice Assistance (OJA), to be headed by an Assistant Attorney General. Places the National Institute of Justice and the Bureau of Justice Statistics within the new Office of Justice Assistance.

Establishes a Justice Assistance Board to: (1) advise and make recommendations to the Assistant Attorney General on research, statistics and program priorities; (2) review and evaluate demonstration programs and (3) undertake additional tasks the board deems necessary.

Authorizes grants to States for programs that address critical problems of violent and serious crime and for programs which have been certified successful. Enumerates 12 criteria for the awarding of these grants.

Limits the Federal share of the grant programs to a period of three years and includes a cash match requirement.

Eliminates the current national priority grant programs.

Retains the discretionary grant program. Limits the purposes of discretionary grants to: (1) educational and training programs for criminal justice personnel; (2) the provision of technical assistance; and (3) national demonstration programs which are likely to be successful but unlikely to be funded.

Authorizes a State to apply for emergency Federal law enforcement assistance in the event that a crime problem of serious and epidemic proportions exists.

Authorizes appropriations for law enforcement assistance for each of FY 1984 through 1987.

Title IX: Surplus Federal Property Amendments - Amends the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 to authorize the Administrator of the General Services Administration to transfer to any State or local government surplus property determined by the Attorney General to be required for correctional facility use.

Requires the Administrator to report annually to Congress on the acquisition cost of all donated personal property and real property disposed of during the preceding fiscal year.

Title X: Reinstitution of Capital Punishment - Establishes procedures for imposition of the death penalty in certain homicide, treason and espionage cases.

Title XI: Labor Racketeering Amendments - Amends the Labor Management Relations Act, 1947 (Taft-Hartley Act) to increase penalties for specified violations of restrictions on financial transactions. Makes violations involving more than $1,000 felonies punishable by up to $15,000 fines and/or five years' imprisonment.

Adds intent to benefit a person not permitted to receive payments, loans, or delivery of money or other thing of value to a labor organization in payment of membership dues, to a joint labor-management trust fund, or to a plant, area, or industry-wide labor-management committee as an element of violations involving those transactions. Grants civil jurisdiction to U.S. district courts over suits brought by: (1) the United States alleging a violation involving those transactions; or (2) any person directly affected by violations by restrictions on financial transactions under such Act.

Amends the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) and the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959 to revise prohibitions against persons guilty of criminal offenses holding specified offices or positions involving employee benefit plans, labor organizations, or labor relations consultation to employer organizations. Increases the types of positions from which an individual is barred upon conviction of enumerated crimes. Requires immediate removal of such individual upon conviction (rather than after appeal) of enumerated crimes and crimes relating to the position. Increases, from five years to ten years, the time during which a convicted individual is prohibited from holding such offices or positions, but permits a lesser period to be set by the sentencing court under specified circumstances. Prohibits any person from knowingly hiring, retaining, employing, or otherwise placing any other person to serve in a capacity in violation of such prohibitions. Raises, from one year to five years, the maximum time of imprisonment for violations of such prohibitions.

Provides that any salary payable but for such prohibitions shall be placed in escrow pending final disposition of any appeal.

Title XII: Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act Amendments - Increases penalties for currency violations and authorizes payments of rewards for information leading to the recovery of a criminal fine, civil penalty or forfeiture. Allows U.S. Customs agents to conduct border searches relating to currency offenses.

Title XIII: Federal Tort Claims Act Amendments - Amends the Federal Tort Claims Act to make the United States rather than the individual Federal employee civilly liable for common law and constitutional torts involving injury to property or persons.

Title XIV: Miscellaneous Violent Crime Amendments - Provides Federal jurisdiction over murder-for-hire and crimes in aid of racketeering activity.

Makes it a Federal offense to solicit an individual to commit a crime of violence.

Revises the felony-murder rule.

Provides minimum mandatory sentences for the use of firearms during a Federal crime of violence. Allows for an additional mandatory sentence for the use of armorpiercing bullets in the course of Federal crimes.

Makes it a Federal offense to kidnap or assault Federal officers or employees, in the performance of their duties or to commit a crime against any family members of Federal officials.

Amends the Major Crimes Act to include the crimes of maiming and sodomy.

Includes trucks in the definition of "motor vehicle" for purposes of the prohibition against destruction of motor vehicles.

Makes it a federal offense to knowingly and willfully damage the property of an energy facility.

Provides for criminal penalties for any individual who escapes from civil commitment.

Makes changes in the procedure governing interstate rendition and extradition of foreign criminals found in the United States.

Title XV: Serious Nonviolent Offenses - Amends the Federal criminal code to make it a Federal offense to cause injury or death to any person by adulterating a food, drug, cosmetic or other product. Establishes separate offenses, for any person who conveys false information concerning an attempt at such adulteration.

Amends the Sexual Exploitation of Children Act of 1977 to prohibit the transfer of any materials involving the sexual exploitation of minors, even if they are found not to be obscene.

Makes it a Federal offense for any person to give warning of an impending execution of a search warrant.

Establishes a Federal offense regarding fraud or bribery in programs receiving Federal funds.

Makes it a Federal crime to counterfeit or forge state or corporate securities.

Revises provisions relating to receipt of stolen bank property, bribery and fraud.

Provides penalties for any inmate in a Federal penal or correctional institution who possesses any contraband article.

Title XVI: Procedural Amendments - Makes certain procedural amendments allowing certain juveniles to be prosecuted as adults.

Amends the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act to provide for emergency interception of wire or oral communications before an order authorizing such interception can be obtained.

Modifies the venue statute for threat offenses, and certain tax offenses.

Authorizes the Attorney General to initiate a civil proceeding in a district court to enjoin a violation of the mail fraud statutes.

Authorizes a government appeal after any decision, judgment or order in a district court granting a new trial.

Amends the provisions dealing with witness relocation and protection.