Bill summaries are authored by CRS.

Shown Here:
Conference report filed in House (12/17/1985)

(Conference report filed in House, H. Rept. 99-447)

Food Security Act of 1985 - Title I: Dairy - Subtitle A: Milk Price Support and Producer-Supported Dairy Program - Amends the Agricultural Act of 1949 to set milk price support levels at: (1) $11.60 per hundredweight for 1986; (2) $11.35 per hundredweight from January 1, 1987, through September 30, 1987; and (3) $11.10 per hundredweight from October 1, 1987, through December 31, 1990. Adjusts initial 1988 through 1990 support levels to reflect estimated commercial demand.

Directs the Secretary of Agriculture to reduce milk prices by: (1) $.40 per hundredweight of marketed milk for the period April 1, 1986, through December 31, 1986; and (2) $.25 cents per hundredweight of marketed milk for period January 1, 1987, through September 30, 1987. Remits such funds to the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC).

Directs the Secretary to carry out an 18-month milk production termination program beginning April 1, 1986. Provides for dairy herd reductions through export, slaughter, and a ban on acquisition of new dairy capacities. Makes producers who began milk marketing in the 15-month period ending on March 31, 1986, ineligible for program participation. Provides marketing and civil penalties for contract violations or false statements.

Authorizes a milk diversion program or a milk production termination program for 1988 through 1990. Directs the Secretary to minimize any adverse effects on beef, pork, and poultry producers.

States that the market value of whey shall not be considered in determining milk price supports.

Directs the Secretary to make additional purchases of red meat for domestic and export use, including military bases.

Directs the CCC to provide at least 1,000,000 pounds of nonfat dry milk annually to individuals or entities on a bid basis to be used for the manufacture of casein. Directs the Secretary to: (1) conduct a study to determine the effects of imported casein on milk price support program; and (2) report to the appropriate congressional committees within 60 days.

Directs the Secretary to: (1) monitor CCC dairy purchases during the milk production termination program; and (2) report quarterly to the Congress regarding disruptions of historical milk distribution patterns.

Subtitle B: Dairy Research and Promotion - Authorizes the Secretary to establish a National Dairy Research Endowment Institute within the Department of Agriculture (Department) to aid the dairy industry through implementation of the dairy products research order and the use of Dairy Research Trust Fund moneys. Authorizes the establishment in the Treasury of the Dairy Research Trust Fund. Authorizes appropriations. Authorizes the Secretary to issue a dairy product research order. Sets forth required terms.

Subtitle C: Milk Marketing Orders - Amends the Agricultural Adjustment Act, as amended by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, to revise minimum price differentials (including location) for Class 1 milk marketing orders.

Provides for the inclusion of marketwide service payments in milk marketing orders. Sets forth such payment terms.

Amends the Agriculture and Food Act of 1981 to extend specified authority through 1990 regarding seasonal adjustments, hearings on amendments, and milk price determinations.

Subtitle D: National Commission on Dairy Policy - Establishes a National Commission on Dairy Policy to study the operation of the milk price support program; and (2) report to the Secretary and to the Congress by March 31, 1987. Terminates the Commission 30 days after submitting such report.

Subtitle E: Miscellaneous - Extends through FY 1990 authority for: (1) indemnity payments; and (2) donations to veterans' hospitals and the military.

Directs the CCC to establish a dairy export incentive program through FY 1989.

Title II: Wool and Mohair - Amends the National Wool Act of 1954 to extend the wool and mohair price support program through 1990.

Title III: Wheat - Directs the Secretary, by July 1, 1986, to conduct a poll of specified wheat producers to determine whether they favor mandatory production limits that will result in wheat prices that are not lower than 125 percent of production costs.

Amends the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, effective for the 1987 through 1990 wheat crops, to authorize the Secretary to: (1) conduct a poll by April 1, 1986, to determine whether producers favor a marketing quota referendum, and, if approved, to hold such referendum by June 15, 1986; (2) establish marketing quota apportionment factors; (3) establish farm marketing quotas; and (14) provide penalties for excess production.

Amends the Agricultural Act of 1949, effective for the 1986 through 1990 wheat crops, to set loan and purchase levels for marketing quota years at the higher of $3.55 per bushel or 75 percent of the national coverage cost of production. Sets levels for nonquota years at: (1) $3.00 per bushel for 1986; and (2) between 75 and 85 percent of the preceding five year price (except that levels may not be reduced by more than five percent of the previous year's level) for 1987 through 1990.

Authorizes: (1) specified support reductions to maintain domestic and export markets; (2) reduced loan repayments; and (3) deficiency payments.

Sets target prices for marketing quota years at the higher of $4.65 per bushel or the national average cost of production. Sets target prices for nonquota years at: (1) $4.38 per bushel for 1986 and 1987; (2) $4.29 per bushel for 1988; (3) $4.16 per bushel for 1989; and (4) $4.00 per bushel for 1990.

Permits up to five percent of in-kind payments.

Authorizes prevented planting disaster payments (in cash or in-kind) where Federal crop insurance is unavailable.

Requires the Secretary to proclaim a national program acreage, and announce any acreage limitation or set-aside programs by June 1 of each year. Authorizes adjustments to be made not later than July 31.

Authorizes 1986 through 1990 acreage limitation and set-aside programs. Authorizes haying and grazing in 1986 and grazing for 1987 through 1989 as permitted program conservation uses.

Authorizes the Secretary to make land diversion payments regardless of whether an acreage limitation or set-aside program is in effect.

Title IV: Feed Grains - Amends the Agricultural Act of 1949, effective for the 1986 through 1990 feed grain crops, to set loan and purchase levels at: (1) $2.40 per bushel for 1986; and (2) between 75 and 85 percent of the preceding five year price (except that levels may not be reduced by more than five percent of the previous year's level) for 1987 through 1990.

Authorizes: (1) specified support reductions; and (2) reduced loan repayments.

Sets target prices for corn (upon which other feed grain prices are based) at: (1) $3.03 per bushel for 1986 and 1987; (2) $2.97 per bushel for 1988; (3) $2.88 per bushel for 1989; and (4) $2.75 per bushel for 1990.

Permits up to five percent of in-kind payments.

Authorizes the 1986 through 1990: (1) prevented planting payments; (2) deficiency payments; (3) acreage limitation, set-aside, and land diversion programs; and (4) coin silage price supports.

Authorizes haying and grazing in 1986 and grazing for 1987 through 1990 as permitted conservation uses.

Title V: Cotton - Amends the Agricultural Act of 1949 to make ten-month nonrecourse loans available for the 1986 through 1990 upland cotton crops. Sets 1986 levels at not less than $.55 per pound. Sets 1987 through 1990 levels at the lesser of: (1) 85 percent of the three-year acreage price of Strict Low-Middling one-and-one sixteenth inch cotton at designated U.S. spot markets; or (2) 90 percent of a specified 15-week period average of the five lowest priced growths for Middling one-and-three-thirty-seconds inch cotton C.I.F. northern Europe. Prohibits 1987 through 1990 loan levels from being reduced by more than five percent of the previous year's level, nor below $.50 per pound. Authorizes loan level increases (not to exceed U.S. spot market prices) if the European price is less than the U.S. price.

Authorizes: (1) specified support reductions; (2) reduced loan repayments; (3) deficiency payments; (4) eight-month loan extensions; and (5) export marketing certificates.

Sets target prices for upland cotton at: (1) $.81 per pound for 1986; (2) $.794 per pound for 1987; (3) $.77 per pound for 1988; (4) $.745 per pound for 1989; and (5) $.729 per pound for 1990.

Directs the Secretary to provide for prevented planting payments.

Authorizes 1986 through 1990 acreage limitation, set-aside, and land diversion programs.

Extends skiprow practice authority through 1990.

Authorizes haying and grazing in 1986 and grazing for 1987 through 1990 as permitted conservation uses.

Sets forth CCC sales price restrictions for upland cotton, and makes such authority effective through July 31, 1991.

Provides for import quotas under specified conditions.

Revises the minimum loan rate formula for extra long staple cotton. States that such program provisions shall apply to the 1991 and subsequent crops of extra long staple cotton.

Title VI: Rice - Amends the Agricultural Act of 1949 to make loans and purchases available for the 1986 through 1990 rice crops. Sets 1986 levels at $7.20 per hundredweight. Sets 1987 through 1990 levels at the higher of: (1) $6.50 per hundredweight; or (2) 85 percent of the preceding five year average.

Authorizes: (1) specified support reductions; (2) reduced loan repayments; (3) deficiency payments; (4) acreage limitation, set-aside, and land diversion programs; and (5) export marketing certificates.

Sets target prices for rice at: (1) $11.90 per hundredweight for 1986; (2) $11.66 per hundred weight for 1987; (3) $11.30 per hundredweight for 1988; (4) $10.95 per hundredweight for 1989; and (5) $10.71 per hundredweight for 1990.

Authorizes haying and grazing in 1986 and grazing for 1987 through 1990 as permitted conservation uses.

Title VII: Peanuts - Amends the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 to establish a national poundage quota of at least 1,100,000 tons per year for the 1986 through 1990 peanut crops.

Requires that farm poundage quotas be established for each farm that had a 1985 quota, and for other farms which produced peanuts for marketing in at least two of the three previous years if the apportioned State quota exceeds the previous year's quota. Apportions any quota decrease among a State's farms.

Provides for a producer referendum to decide in favor or against five-year poundage quotas.

Authorizes quota leasing under specified circumstances.

Increases handler penalties for marketing violations. Establishes an August 1 deadline date for contracting with handlers for crushing or exporting additional peanuts.

Amends the Agricultural Act of 1949 to make price supports available for the 1986 through 1990 peanut crops. Sets 1986 levels at adjusted 1985 rates. Sets 1987 through 1990 levels at the previous year's rate, adjusted to reflect any increases in production costs.

Provides with regard to marketing pools that bright hull and dark hull Valencia peanuts shall be considered separate types for the purpose of establishing separate pools for New Mexico-produced Valencia peanuts.

Makes warehouse storage loans available to designated area marketing associations.

Title VIII: Soybeans - Amends the Agricultural Act of 1949 to set 1986 and 1987 price supports at $5.02 per bushel. Sets 1988 through 1990 levels at 75 percent of the preceeding five year price, but not less than $4.50 per bushel. Authorizes support reductions not to exceed five percent.

Authorizes reduced loan repayments.

Prohibits: (1) storage payments; (2) reserve program eligibility; and (3) participation in an adjustment control program as a condition for price support eligibility.

Title IX: Sugar - Amends the Agricultural Act of 1949 to provide nonrecourse loan price supports for the 1986 through 1990 sugar crops at not less than $.18 per pound for sugarcane. Authorizes support increases.

Directs the President, beginning with the 1986/1987 quota year, to use available authorities to enable the Secretary to operate the sugar program at no cost to the Federal Government by preventing the accumulation of CCC sugar stocks.

Directs the President, only for the 1985/1986 quota year for sugar imports to extend such year through at least December 31, 1986, and reschedule shipping in order to prevent sugar loan forfeitures.

Provides for the payment of maximum price support benefits to sugar producers who have not received such benefits because of processor insolvencies.

Title X: General Commodity Provisions - Subtitle A: Miscellaneous Commodity Provisions - Limits 1986 through 1990 individual annual payments to: (1) $100,000 for disaster payments; and (2) $50,000 for other program payments. Exempts from such limits publicly-owned land formed primarily in furtherance of a public function.

Authorizes the following for the 1986 through 1990 crop years: (1) advance deficiency payments; (2) advance recourse commodity loans; (3) interest payment certificates; (4) wheat and feed grain export incentive (certificate) program; (5) CCC sales price restrictions; (6) multiyear set-asides; (7) supplemental set-asides and acreage limitations; (8) special grazing and hay program; (9) normally planted acreage provisions; (10) the National Agricultural Cost of Production Standards Review Board; and (11) the food security wheat reserve.

Amends provisions regarding the wheat and feed grain producer reserve program to: (1) repeal the five-year maximum loan repayment; (2) provide participation incentives when stocks fall below specified levels; and (3) revise upper limit storage provisions.

Redesignates the corn marketing year from October 1-September 30 to September 1-August 31.

Directs the Secretary to: (1) conduct a study of whether to include winterkill of winter wheat as a Federal crop insurance covered loss; and (2) report to the appropriate congressional committees within 180 days.

Makes permanent the Secretary's authority to use CCC funds in situations of insufficient Federal crop insurance funds.

Directs the CCC to make its commodity stocks available for liquid fuels conversion.

Subtitle B: Uniform Base Acreage and Yield Provisions - Amends the Agricultural Act of 1949 to establish a system for determining farm acreage bases, crop acreage bases, and program yields for the 1986 through 1990 crops of wheat, feed grain, upland cotton, and rice.

Subtitle C: Honey - Amends the Agricultural Act of 1949 to make loans and purchases available for the 1986 through 1990 crops of honey. Sets 1986 and 1987 levels at $.64 per pound and $.63 per pound, respectively. Reduces such level by five percent each year in 1988 through 1990. Authorizes reduced loan repayments.

Makes any person who knowingly pledges adulterated or imported honey as loan collateral ineligible for price supports for three years.

Title XI: Trade - Subtitle A: Public Law 480 and Use of Surplus Commodities in International Programs - Amends the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 (Public Law 480) to change title II (of such Act) programs from a calendar year to a fiscal year basis.

Authorizes the President to waive the program authorization ceiling to meet urgent humanitarian needs.

Sets forth FY 1987 through 1990 minimum commodity quantities for title II distribution. Requires that specified amounts of such commodities be in processed or fortified forms.

Requires a nonprofit voluntary agency food assistance program to provide for foreign currency use.

Extends Public Law 480 authorities through 1990.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that the President should work with the People's Republic of China to facilitate agricultural exports to such country.

Obligates specified FY 1986 and 1987 funds for the farmer-to-farmer program. Requires an implementation report to the Congress within 120 days.

Lowers from 15 percent to ten percent the aggregate value of title III Food for Development agreements.

Increases the Secretary's distribution authority under the Agricultural Act of 1949 to include: (1) dairy products, grains, and oilseeds acquired by the CCC through price support operations; and (2) other edible commodities acquired in the normal course of operations. Provides for: (1) the safe guarding of normal markets; (2) cash or in-kind payments for handling; (3) local currency sales; and (4) specified FY 1986 through 1990 minimum tonnage commodity dispositions.

Food for Progress Act of 1985 - Authorizes the President to enter into agreements (which may be multiyear) to provide food to countries in order to promote free enterprise agricultural development.

Authorizes agreements with foreign financial intermediaries under which foreign currencies accruing from title I (Public Law 480) sales shall be loaned to such intermediaries to promote private enterprise. Authorizes agreements for foreign currency commodity sales convertible to dollars for use in private development. Requires that at least ten percent of title I funds for FY 1986 through 1990 be used for such purposes.

Includes child immunization as one of the self-help measures that the President must consider before making a Public Law 480 commodity assistance agreement. Authorizes the use of title II funds for immunization programs.

Directs the President to appoint a Special Assistant to the President for Agricultural Trade and Food Aid to serve in the Executive Office of the President.

Subtitle B: Maintenance and Development of Export Markets - Expresses the sense of the Congress that the President should negotiate with other parties to GATT with the goal of reducing agricultural export subsidies and other tariff barriers to trade.

Directs the Secretary to: (1) pursue agricultural trade consultations with other major agricultural countries; and (2) report annually to the Congress through FY 1990.

Authorizes FY 1986 through 1990 appropriations for: (1) targeted export assistance; and (2) short-term export credit.

Directs the Secretary to implement a program to provide CCC commodities at no cost to U.S. exporters, users, and processors, and to foreign purchasers in order to develop and expand U.S. export markets. Authorizes the Secretary to make transferable export certificates (green dollar export certificates) available to commercial exporters. Terminates program authority on September 30, 1990.

Directs the Secretary to expand the export sales of poultry, beef, pork, and meat products.

Directs the Secretary to carry out a pilot program in FY 1986 and 1987 to barter U.S. agricultural commodities for strategic materials. Requires a report to the Congress not later than 60 days after the end of each fiscal year.

Extends the Agricultural Export Credit Revolving Fund through FY 1990.

Directs the CCC to make specified funds available for FY 1986 through 1990 for intermediate export credit guarantees.

Requires annual agricultural attache reports.

Declares it to be the policy of the United States not to restrict the export of U.S. commodities except under the most compelling circumstances.

Amends the Agriculture and Food Act of 1981 to repeal the requirement that producers of embargoed commodities receive 100 percent parity payments.

Directs the Secretary to: (1) conduct a study to reduce the risk of foreign exchange fluctuations on purchasers of commodities under U.S. export credit promotion programs; and (2) report to the appropriate congressional committees within six months.

Subtitle C: Export Transportation of Agricultural Commodities - States that the cargo preference laws do not apply to export activities of the Secretary or the CCC: (1) under which CCC stocks are made available to develop or expand U.S. agricultural export markets; (2) under which CCC credit guarantees are blended with direct credits to reduce the effective export interest rates; (3) under which CCC credit or credit guarantees are not extended for more than three years; and (4) under which commodities are bartered at prevailing world prices.

Increases the cargo preference requirements for specified other commodities. Changes the compliance period from a calendar year to 12-month periods beginning on April 1 (the first such period to begin on April 1, 1986).

Directs the Secretary of Transportation to: (1) preserve the historical port range share of cargo preference commodities; (2) preserve, during FY 1986 through 1989, the percentage or tonnage of specified commodities exported from Great Lakes ports; and (3) finance any resulting ocean freight charge increases. Authorizes appropriations.

Establishes the National Advisory Commission on Agricultural Export Transportation Policy.

Subtitle D: Agricultural Imports - Requires consultation between the Foreign Agricultural Service and other Department of Agriculture agencies before relaxing or removing any agricultural import restrictions.

Directs the Secretary to conduct studies of: (1) apricot imports; (2) Brazilian ethanol imports; and (3) oat imports.

Subtitle E: Trade Practices - Amends the Dairy and Tobacco Adjustment Act of 1983 to require that all flue-cured or Burley tobacco imported into the United States shall be certified by the importer that such tobacco does not contain any prohibited pesticide residue or, if uncertified, inspected by the Secretary at the point of entry. Subjects importers to civil and criminal penalties for fraudulent certifications.

Directs the Secretary, for FY 1986 through 1988, to sell specified amounts of CCC dairy products (including butter and cheese). Requires semiannual reports to the appropriate congressional committees.

Directs the President to take appropriate action to resolve certain subsidy and tariff issues regarding U.S. exports and the European Community.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that the Secretary of Commerce should give immediate consideration to a certain countervailing duty petition regarding imported rice from Thailand.

Directs the Secretary of Agriculture to report by April 1, 1986, to the appropriate congressional committees regarding end users of imported tobacco.

Amends the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act to require the CCC to accept strategic and critical materials (including petroleum for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve) produced abroad in exchange for CCC commodities.

Title XII: Conservation - Subtitle A: Definitions - Defines specified terms for purposes of this title.

Subtitle B: Highly Erodible Land Conservation - Disqualifies from agricultural program benefits, with specified exceptions, any person who produces an agricultural commodity on highly erodible land.

Directs the Secretary to complete certain soil capability surveys as soon as practicable.

Subtitle C: Wetland Conservation - Disqualifies from agricultural program benefits, with specified exceptions, any person who produces an agricultural commodity on converted wetland.

Subtitle D: Conservation Reserve - Directs the Secretary, for the 1986 through 1990 crop years, to carry out a conservation acreage reserve program under which farmers agreeing to perform long-term (ten to 15 years) conservation measures on highly erodible land shall receive payments to help offset the cost of such measures.

Subtitle E: Administration - Requires the use of CCC funds to carry out the conservation reserve program in FY 1986 and 1987. Authorizes such use of CCC funds in subsequent fiscal years only if such funds have been appropriated for such program.

Authorizes appropriations for subtitles A through E of this Act.

Subtitle F: Other Conservation Provisions - Authorizes the Secretary to: (1) provide technical assistance for water resources; and (2) report to the appropriate congressional committees by February 15, 1987.

Extends the Soil and Water Resources Conservation Act of 1977 to December 3, 2008.

Provides for energy and water conservation through dry land farming under the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act.

Authorizes the Secretary to implement a program for the amortization of delinquent FmHA loans using revenues from softwood timber crops planted on former cropland. Limits such program to 50,000 acres.

Title XIII: Credit - Amends the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act to prohibit the Secretary from restricting ownership and operating loans eligibility to only those borrowers with outstanding loans.

Authorizes grants to private nonprofit organizations for water and waste disposal technical assistance.

Directs the Secretary to: (1) conduct a study regarding the effectiveness of constructing rural water and waste disposal facilities at individual, rather than central, locations; and (2) report to the appropriate congressional committees within 120 days.

Prohibits the consideration of mineral rights as farm ownership loan collateral unless specifically included as part of such collateral. Permits prospective loan payments from mineral sales or leases.

Requires: (1) a study of FmHA loan appeals procedure; and (2) a report to the appropriate congressional committees by September 1, 1986.

Requires the release of funds from normal income security in amounts sufficient to pay the borrower's essential household and farm expenses until a liquidation determination has been made.

Authorizes FY 1986 through 1988 appropriations for: (1) farm ownership loans; (2) operating loans; (3) emergency loans; and (4) water and waste disposal facility loans.

Provides security interest protection for purchasers of farm products.

Authorizes the Secretary to purchase conservation easements on wetland or highly erodible land used as security for FmHA loans.

Requires: (1) a study of FmHA's Farm and Home Plan; and (2) a report to the appropriate congressional committees within 120 days.

Establishes an interest rate reduction program through FY 1988.

Amends the Farm Credit Act of 1971 to expand the category of eligible rural utility borrowers.

Requires a Farm Credit System study.

Title XIV: Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching - Subtitle A: General Provisions - National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act Amendments of 1985 - Extends through FY 1990: (1) the Joint Council on Food and Agricultural Sciences; (2) the National Agricultural Research and Extension Users Advisory Board; (3) competitive research grants; (4) research facilities grants; (5) food and agricultural sciences education; (6) the Animal Health Science Research Advisory Board; (7) animal health and disease research; (8) agricultural research; (9) Extension Service programs; (10) State agricultural experiment stations; (11) development of new agricultural technology; (12) aquaculture assistance; (13) the Rangeland Research Advisory Board; (14) rangeland research; (15) land-grant college grants (including Tuskegee Institute); and (16) dairy goat research.

Provides for: (1) agricultural information exchange with Ireland; (2) repeal of the Aquaculture Advisory Board; (3) market expansion research; (4) Africanized honeybee research; (5) a pesticide resistance study; (6) an expansion of the agricultural education study; (7) grants for financially stressed or dislocated farmers; (8) an agricultural productivity research program; and (9) demonstration projects to promote native agricultural crops for strategic and industrial uses.

Title XV: Food Stamp and Related Provisions - Subtitle A: Food Stamp Provisions - Amends the Food Stamp Act of 1977 to permit certain publicly operated community mental health centers to accept food stamps from residents participating in drug or alcohol abuse, or mental health programs, and made such persons eligible Food Stamp Program (Program) participants.

Adds four categories of "disabled" persons for Program purposes.

Prohibits a State which collects sales tax on food stamp purchases from Program participation.

Repeals the bar against operating a food stamp program and a commodity distribution program in the same area.

Directs States to consider households containing only persons receiving AFDC or SSI benefits as automatically meeting the food stamp income and resource eligibility tests through FY 1989.

Requires Federal education grants, loans, and scholarships, to the extent they provide assistance beyond that for tuition and mandatory fees, to be counted as income if they are provided in the form of vendor payments.

Excludes from income AFDC-excluded child support payments if the State agrees to pay the additional Program costs caused by such exclusion.

Increases the income deduction from 18 percent to 20 percent.

Increases the shelter and dependent care deductions. Establishes a separate dependent care deduction limit.

Revises utility expense provisions.

Requires retrospective budgeting and monthly reporting for all households with earnings or a recent work history. Grants States the option of using either prospective or retrospective budgeting and requiring periodic reports for all other types of households.

Increases family resource limitations. Excludes from resources the value of a burial plot for each household member.

Requires the establishment of a disaster task force.

Disqualifies an entire household if the head of such household fails to fulfill Program work requirements.

Disqualifies a person for refusing, without good cause, to participate in an employment and training program. Requires States, by April 1, 1987, to implement such a program. Obligates specified FY 1986 through 1990 Program appropriations for such purpose.

Authorizes staggered coupon issuance.

Requires (current law authorizes) alternative methods of coupon issuance in order to improve Program integrity.

Authorizes credit unions to accept coupons for deposit from member food stores.

Prohibits charges for coupon redemption.

Provides for review of office hour operations.

Requires one adult member of a household to certify under penalty of perjury the truth of all submitted information.

Requires State agencies to establish and operate fraud detection units in all project areas with 5,000 or more participating households.

Requires States to encourage participation in the expanded food and nutrition education program.

Makes a retail food store or wholesale food concern that has been disqualified under the Program ineligible to participate in the special supplemental food program for women, infants, and children (WIC).

Subjects retail and wholesale food stores that are sold during a disqualification period to a civil money penalty. Prohibits the buyer of the store from accepting food stamps until the penalty is fully paid if the buyer had actual or constructive notice of the penalty when the store was sold.

Requires States to use other means of collection to collect claims arising from intentional program violations which are not collected through cash payment or allotment reduction unless the State agency can demonstrate that other collection methods are not cost effective. Permits State agencies to reduce household allotments to collect claims arising from State agencies' errors.

Authorizes the intercept of unemployment compensation benefits by State agencies to collect claims arising from a food stamp overissuance.

Requires a retail or wholesale food store or State agency to show that it will suffer irreparable harm and that it is likely to prevail on the merits of its case in order to obtain a judicial stay of an administrative action.

Reduces a State's fiscal sanctions for payment errors due to federally-provided data. Directs the Secretary to: (1) develop a model data system plan; and (2) conduct a quality control system. Establishes a six-month penalty moratorium.

Authorizes special certification procedures in high-error project areas.

Authorizes Program appropriations (with specified ceilings) for FY 1986 through 1990.

Prohibits Program funds from being transferred to the Department of Agriculture's Office of the Inspector General or Office of the General Counsel.

Allocates specified FY 1986 through 1990 funds for the Puerto Rico block grant program.

Subtitle B: Commodity Distribution Provisions - Amends the Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973 to extend through FY 1990: (1) the commodity distribution program; and (2) the commodity supplemental food program.

Extends the temporary emergency food assistance program through FY 1987.

Authorizes the transfer of perishable commodities under section 32 of Public Law 74-320 among nonprofit organizations in order to provide low-income nutrition assistance. Makes such commodities available for the temporary emergency food assistance program.

Repeals specified wheat replacement provisions relating to the food security wheat reserve.

Directs the Secretary to report to the Congress by April 1, 1987, regarding the temporary emergency food assistance program.

Subtitle C: Nutrition and Miscellaneous Provisions - Authorizes an eligible school district to receive school lunch assistance in lieu of commodities in cash or commodity letters of credit form. States that bonuses for choosing such alternative assistance shall be only in commodity form.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that: (1) food producers who permit gleaning of their fields and nonprofit organizations which glean fields and distribute the resulting harvest to help alleviate hunger should be commended for their efforts; and (2) State and local governments should be encouraged to offer tax and other incentives for such purposes.

Authorizes FY 1986 through 1990 appropriations for expanded food, nutrition, and consumer education programs.

Directs the Secretary to provide for nutrition monitoring and continue to maintain the Department's nutrient data base.

Title XVI: Marketing - Subtitle A: Beef Promotion and Research Act of 1985 - Beef Promotion and Research Act of 1985 - Amends the Beef Research and Information Act to provide for the establishment of: (1) a Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research Board made up of producers and importers to administer marketing orders; and (2) a Beef Promotion Operating Committee to develop promotion, research, advertising, and consumer and industry information.

Sets forth related marketing order provisions.

Subtitle B: Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information - Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Act of 1985 - Provides for the establishment of: (1) a National Pork Producers Delegate Body made up of producers and importers to nominate members for the National Pork Board; (2) a body to be known as the National Pork Producer Directors to provide liaison services; and (3) a National Pork Board to develop promotion, research, and consumer information plans.

Sets forth related marketing order provisions

Subtitle C: Watermelon Research and Promotion Act - Watermelon Research and Promotion Act - Provides for the establishment of a Watermelon Promotion Board.

Sets forth related marketing order provisions.

Authorizes appropriations.

Subtitle D: Marketing Orders - Increases the maximum penalty for marketing order violations from $500 to $5,000.

Prohibits the Secretary from terminating any marketing order agreement for which termination takes effect prior to January 15, 1986. Requires at least 60-day notice of any such action.

Prohibits the disclosure of marketing order information categorized as trade secrets and commercial or financial information covered under the Freedom of Information Act. Stipulates that such information may be released on the proper authorization of a milk handler. Requires the Secretary to notify the appropriate congressional committees at least ten days prior to any such disclosure.

Subtitle E: Grain Inspection - Directs the Secretary to: (1) develop new grain classifications; and (2) report semiannually to the appropriate congressional committees.

Directs the Office of Technology Assessment to conduct a study of U.S. grain export quality standards and grain handling practices, including the impact of new seed varieties and grain reclassifications.

Title XVII: Related and Miscellaneous Matters - Subtitle A: Processing, Inspection, and Labeling - Amends the Poultry Products Inspection Act to subject imported poultry and poultry products to the same standards as apply to domestically produced poultry products.

Amends the Federal Meat Inspection Act to prohibit the entry of imported meat unless accompanied by a certificate issued by the Secretary stating that the country of origin maintains an appropriate program to assure compliance with U.S. residue standards.

Directs the Comptroller General to conduct a study of Department of Health and Human Services and Department of Agriculture product purity and inspection requirements currently in effect for imported food products and agricultural commodities.

Directs the Secretary of Agriculture to: (1) make spot checks of imported potatoes entering northeastern ports; and (2) report to the appropriate congressional committees.

Subtitle B: Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Committees - Amends the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act regarding Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation committees to: (1) increase local committee terms of office from one to three years; and (2) increase county committee compensation rates, including travel reimbursement.

Subtitle C: National Agricultural Policy Commission Act of 1985 - National Agricultural Policy Commission Act of 1985 - Establishes a National Commission on Agricultural Policy to study U.S. agricultural policies and programs. Requires annual reports to the President and to the Congress. Terminates the Commission four years after enactment of this Act. Authorizes appropriations.

Subtitle D: National Aquaculture Improvement Act of 1985 - National Aquaculture Improvement Act of 1985 - Amends the National Aquaculture Act of 1985 to provide the Department of Agriculture with primary responsibility for aquaculture development. Authorizes FY 1986 through 1988 appropriations.

Subtitle E: Special Study and Pilot Projects on Futures Trading - Directs the Secretary to: (1) conduct a study to determine how producers might use agricultural commodity futures and option markets to provide price stability and income protection; (2) report to the appropriate congressional committees by December 31, 1988; and (3) conduct a related pilot program involving option trading of imported wheat, feed grains, soybeans, and cotton.

Subtitle F: Animal Welfare - Amends the Animal Welfare Act to revise the humane standards for animals transported in commerce. Requires research facilities to establish: (1) institutional animal committees; and (2) staff training programs.

Directs the Secretary to establish an information service at the National Agricultural Library to provide information on improved methods of animal experimentation.

Suspends Federal funding for noncompliance.

Provides for facility inspections.

Imposes penalties for the release of trade secrets or confidential information.

Increases penalties for violations of such Act.

Subtitle G: Miscellaneous - Revises specified CCC storage contract provisions.

States that it is the public interest to maintain Federal involvement in providing agricultural weather and climate information.

Expands eligibility under the emergency feed program.

Makes any person convicted of planting, storing, harvesting, or growing a controlled substance ineligible for price supports or other program benefits for five years.

Directs the Secretary and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to jointly conduct a study (including a monitoring program) of unleaded fuel in agricultural machinery. Authorizes appropriations.

Expresses the sense of the Congress that the Secretary should consider specified recommendations of the potato advisory commission.

Amends the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act to make it illegal to ship in intrastate, as interstate, commerce contaminated or dangerous viruses, serums, or analogous products intended for the treatment of domestic animals. Authorizes an expedited license procedure for emergency or other special situations. Expands Federal inspection authority.

Amends the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act of authorize FY 1986 appropriations.

Increases the Secretary's user fee authority.

Directs the Secretary to convey certain land to the Board of Education of Irwin County, Georgia.

States that certain fees received by the National Tree Seed Laboratory shall be retained to cover related costs.

Directs the Secretary to carry out a program to control grasshoppers and Mormon Crickets on all Federal lands.

Directs the Secretary to: (1) conduct a feasibility study for a Strategic Ethanol Reserve; and (2) establish such Reserve if deemed appropriate.

Title XVIII: General Effective Date - Makes the provisions of this Act effective upon enactment, unless otherwise provided for.