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COMMITTEE RULES 2019-2020 (Adopted February 7, 2019)
[House Prints, 116th Congress]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office]









   116th Congress  }
                              COMMITTEE PRINT
   1st Session     }   
_______________________________________________________________________

                                     







 
                            COMMITTEE RULES

                               2019-2020

                       (Adopted February 7, 2019)



                               ----------                              



                            PREPARED BY THE

                              COMMITTEE ON
                          HOUSE ADMINISTRATION

                     U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES








[GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]







                             FEBRUARY 2019





















   116th Congress  }
                              COMMITTEE PRINT
   1st Session     }   
_______________________________________________________________________

                                     








                            COMMITTEE RULES

                               2019-2020

                       (Adopted February 7, 2019)



                               ----------                              



                            PREPARED BY THE

                              COMMITTEE ON
                          HOUSE ADMINISTRATION

                     U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES








[GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]







                             FEBRUARY 2019






                                   ______

		 
                     U.S. GOVERNMENT PUBLISHING OFFICE 
		 
35-561                    WASHINGTON : 2019                 


















                   COMMITTEE ON HOUSE ADMINISTRATION
                             116th Congress

                  ZOE LOFGREN, California, Chairperson
JAMIE RASKIN, Maryland               RODNEY DAVIS, Illinois,
SUSAN A. DAVIS, California             Ranking Member
G. K. BUTTERFIELD, North Carolina    MARK WALKER, North Carolina
MARCIA L. FUDGE, Ohio                BARRY LOUDERMILK, Georgia
PETE AGUILAR, California  




















             RULES OF THE COMMITTEE ON HOUSE ADMINISTRATION

                       (Adopted February 7, 2019)

Rule No. 1--General Provisions
    (a) The Rules of the House of Representatives are the rules 
of the Committee so far as applicable, except that a motion to 
recess from day to day is a privileged motion in the Committee.
    (b) The Committee is authorized at any time to conduct such 
investigations and studies as it may consider necessary or 
appropriate in the exercise of its responsibilities under rule 
X of the Rules of the House of Representatives and, subject to 
the adoption of expense resolutions as required by clause 6 of 
rule X of the Rules of the House of Representatives, to incur 
expenses (including travel expenses) in connection therewith.
    (c) The Committee is authorized to have printed and bound 
testimony and other data presented at hearings held by the 
Committee, and to make such information available to the 
public. All costs of stenographic services and transcripts in 
connection with any meeting or hearing of the Committee shall 
be paid from the appropriate House account.
    (d) The Committee shall submit to the House, not later than 
January 2 of each odd-numbered year, a report on the activities 
of the committee under rules X and XI of the Rules of the House 
of Representatives.
    (e) The Committee's rules shall be made publicly available 
in electronic form and published in the Congressional Record 
not later than 60 days after the Committee is elected in each 
odd-numbered year.
Rule No. 2--Regular and Special Meetings
    (a)(1) The regular meeting date of the Committee shall be 
the second Tuesday of every month when the House is in session 
in accordance with clause 2(b) of rule XI of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives. If the House is not in session on the 
second Tuesday of a month, the regular meeting date shall be 
the third Tuesday of that month.
    (2) Additional meetings may be called by the Chairperson of 
the full Committee as the Chairperson considers necessary, or 
at the request of a majority of the members of the Committee in 
accordance with clause 2(c) of rule XI of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives.
    (3) The determination of the business to be considered at 
each meeting shall be made by the Chairperson subject to clause 
2(c) of rule XI of the Rules of the House of Representatives. A 
regularly scheduled meeting may be dispensed with if, in the 
judgment of the Chairperson, there is no need for the meeting.
    (b) If the Chairperson is not present at any meeting of the 
Committee, the ranking member of the majority party who is 
present shall preside at the meeting.
    (c) The Chairperson, in the case of meetings to be 
conducted by the Committee shall make public announcement of 
the date, place, and subject matter of any meeting to be 
conducted on any measure or matter. Such meeting shall not 
commence earlier than the third calendar day (excluding 
Saturdays, Sundays, or legal holidays except when the House is 
in session on such a day) on which members have notice thereof. 
If the Chairperson, with the concurrence of the ranking 
minority member, determines that there is good cause to begin 
the meeting sooner, or if the Committee so determines by 
majority vote, a quorum being present, the Chairperson shall 
make the announcement at the earliest possible date. The 
announcement shall promptly be made publicly available in 
electronic form and published in the Daily Digest.
    (d) The Chairperson, in the case of meetings to be 
conducted by the Committee shall make available on the 
Committee's web site the text of any legislation to be marked 
up at a meeting at least 24 hours before such meeting (or at 
the time of an announcement made within 24 hours of such 
meeting). This requirement shall also apply to any resolution 
or regulation to be considered at a meeting.
Rule No. 3--Open Meetings
    As required by clause 2(g), of rule XI of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, each meeting for the transaction of 
business, including the markup of legislation of the Committee 
shall be open to the public except when the Committee in open 
session and with a quorum present determines by record vote 
that all or part of the remainder of the meeting on that day 
shall be closed to the public because disclosure of matters to 
be considered would endanger national security, would 
compromise sensitive law enforcement information, or would tend 
to defame, degrade or incriminate any person, or otherwise 
would violate any law or rule of the House. Provided, however, 
that no person other than members of the Committee, and such 
congressional staff and such other persons as the Committee may 
authorize, shall be present in any business or markup session 
which has been closed to the public. To the maximum extent 
practicable, the Chairperson shall cause to be provided audio 
and video coverage of each hearing or meeting that allows the 
public to easily listen to and view the proceedings and 
maintain the recordings of such coverage in a manner that is 
easily accessible to the public.
Rule No. 4--Records and Rollcalls
    (a)(1) A record vote shall be held if requested by any 
member of the Committee.
    (2) The result of each record vote in any meeting of the 
Committee shall be made available for inspection by the public 
at reasonable times at the Committee offices, including a 
description of the amendment, motion, order or other 
proposition; the name of each member voting for and against; 
and the members present but not voting.
    (3) The Chairperson shall make the record of the votes on 
any question on which a record vote is demanded available on 
the Committee's website not later than 48 hours after such vote 
is taken (excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays). 
Such record shall include a description of the amendment, 
motion, order, or other proposition, the name of each member 
voting for and each member voting against such amendment, 
motion, order, or proposition, and the names of those members 
of the Committee present but not voting.
    (4) The Chairperson shall make available on the Committee's 
website not later than 24 hours (excluding Saturdays, Sundays, 
and legal holidays) after the adoption of any amendment to a 
measure or matter the text of such amendment.
    (b)(1) Subject to subparagraph (2), the Chairperson may 
postpone further proceedings when a record vote is ordered on 
the question of approving any measure or matter or adopting an 
amendment. The Chairperson may resume proceedings on a 
postponed request at any time.
    (2) In exercising postponement authority under subparagraph 
(1), the Chairperson shall take all reasonable steps necessary 
to notify members on the resumption of proceedings on any 
postponed record vote.
    (3) When proceedings resume on a postponed question, 
notwithstanding any intervening order for the previous 
question, an underlying proposition shall remain subject to 
further debate or amendment to the same extent as when the 
question was postponed.
    (c) All Committee hearings, records, data, charts, and 
files shall be kept separate and distinct from the 
congressional office records of the member serving as 
Chairperson; and such records shall be the property of the 
House and all members of the House shall have access thereto.
    (d) House records of the Committee which are at the 
National Archives shall be made available pursuant to rule VII 
of the Rules of the House of Representatives. The Chairperson 
shall notify the ranking minority member of any decision to 
withhold a record pursuant to the rule, and shall present the 
matter to the Committee upon written request of any Committee 
member.
    (e) To the maximum extent feasible, the Committee shall 
make its publications available in electronic form.

Rule No. 5--Proxies

    No vote by any member in the Committee may be cast by 
proxy.

Rule No. 6--Power to Sit and Act; Subpoena Power

    (a) For the purpose of carrying out any of its functions 
and duties under rules X and XI of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives, the Committee is authorized (subject to 
subparagraph (b)(1) of this paragraph)--
          (1) to sit and act at such times and places within 
        the United States, whether the House is in session, has 
        recessed, or has adjourned, and to hold such hearings; 
        and
          (2) to require, by subpoena or otherwise, the 
        attendance and testimony of such witnesses and the 
        production of such books, records, correspondence, 
        memorandums, papers, documents and other materials as 
        it deems necessary, including materials in electronic 
        form. The Chairperson, or any member designated by the 
        Chairperson, may administer oaths to any witness.
    (b)(1) A subpoena may be authorized and issued by the 
Chairperson of the full Committee, in accordance with clause 
2(m) of rule XI of the House of Representatives, in the conduct 
of any investigation or activity or series of investigations or 
activities within the jurisdiction of the Committee, following 
consultation with the ranking minority member.
    (2) In addition, a subpoena may be authorized and issued by 
the Committee in accordance with clause 2(m) of rule XI of the 
Rules of the House of Representatives, in the conduct of any 
investigation or activity or series of investigations or 
activities, when authorized by a majority of the Members 
voting, a majority of the Committee being present. Authorized 
subpoenas shall be signed by the Chairperson or by any Member 
designated by the Committee.
    (3) At least two business days before issuing any subpoena 
pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Chairperson 
shall consult with the ranking minority member regarding the 
authorization and issuance of such subpoena, and the 
Chairperson shall provide a full copy of the proposed subpoena, 
including any proposed document schedule, at that time.
    (4) The requirements of paragraph (3) may be waived in the 
event of an exigent circumstance that does not reasonably allow 
for advance written notice.

Rule No. 7--Quorums

    No measure or recommendation shall be reported to the House 
unless a majority of the Committee is actually present. For the 
purposes of taking any action other than reporting any measure, 
issuance of a subpoena, closing meetings, promulgating 
Committee orders, or changing the rules of the Committee, one-
third of the members of the Committee shall constitute a 
quorum. For purposes of taking testimony and receiving 
evidence, two members shall constitute a quorum.

Rule No. 8--Amendments

    Any amendment offered to any pending legislation before the 
Committee must be made available in written form when requested 
by any member of the Committee. If such amendment is not 
available in written form when requested, the Chairperson will 
allow an appropriate period of time for the provision thereof.

Rule No. 9--Hearing Procedures

    (a) The Chairperson shall make public announcement of the 
date, place, and subject matter of any hearing to be conducted 
on any measure or matter at least one week before the 
commencement of that hearing. If the Chairperson, with the 
concurrence of the ranking minority member, determines that 
there is good cause to begin the hearing sooner, or if the 
Committee so determines by majority vote, a quorum being 
present, the Chairperson shall make the announcement at the 
earliest possible date. The clerk of the Committee shall 
promptly notify the Daily Digest Clerk of the Congressional 
Record as soon as possible after such public announcement is 
made.
    (b) Unless excused by the Chairperson, each witness who is 
to appear before the Committee shall file with the clerk of the 
Committee, at least 48 hours in advance of his or her 
appearance, a written statement of his or her proposed 
testimony and shall limit his or her oral presentation to a 
summary of his or her statement.
    (c) When any hearing is conducted by the Committee upon any 
measure or matter, the minority party members on the Committee 
shall be entitled, upon request to the Chairperson by a 
majority of those minority members before the completion of 
such hearing, to call witnesses selected by the minority to 
testify with respect to that measure or matter during at least 
one day of hearings thereon.
    (d) All other members of the Committee may have the 
privilege of sitting with any subcommittee during its hearing 
or deliberations and may participate in such hearings or 
deliberations, but no member who is not a member of the 
subcommittee shall count for a quorum or offer any motion or 
amendment or vote on any matter before the subcommittee.
    (e) Committee members may question witnesses only when they 
have been recognized by the Chairperson for that purpose, and 
only for a 5-minute period until all members present have had 
an opportunity to question a witness. The 5-minute period for 
questioning a witness by any one member can be extended as 
provided by clause 2(j) of rule XI of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives. The questioning of a witness in Committee 
hearings shall be initiated by the Chairperson, followed by the 
ranking minority member and all other members alternating 
between the majority and minority. In recognizing members to 
question witnesses in this fashion, the Chairperson shall take 
into consideration the ratio of the majority to minority 
members present and shall establish the order of recognition 
for questioning in such a manner as not to disadvantage the 
members of the majority. The Chairperson may accomplish this by 
recognizing two majority members for each minority member 
recognized.
    (f) The following additional rules shall apply to hearings 
of the Committee as applicable:
          (1) The Chairperson at a hearing shall announce in an 
        opening statement the subject of the investigation.
          (2) A copy of the Committee rules and this clause 
        shall be made available to each witness as provided by 
        clause 2(k)(2) of rule XI of the Rules of the House of 
        Representatives.
          (3) Witnesses at hearings may be accompanied by their 
        own counsel for the purpose of advising them concerning 
        their constitutional rights.
          (4) The Chairperson may punish breaches of order and 
        decorum, and of professional ethics on the part of 
        counsel, by censure and exclusion from the hearings; 
        and the Committee may cite the offender to the House 
        for contempt.
          (5) If the Committee determines that evidence or 
        testimony at a hearing may tend to defame, degrade, or 
        incriminate any person, it shall--
                  (A) afford such person an opportunity 
                voluntarily to appear as a witness;
                  (B) receive such evidence or testimony in 
                executive session; and
                  (C) receive and dispose of requests from such 
                person to subpoena additional witnesses.
          (6) Except as provided in paragraph (5) of this 
        subsection, the Chairperson shall receive, and the 
        Committee shall dispose of, requests to subpoena 
        additional witnesses.
          (7) No evidence or testimony taken in executive 
        session may be released or used in public sessions 
        without the consent of the Committee.
          (8) In the discretion of the Committee, witnesses may 
        submit brief and pertinent sworn statements in writing 
        for inclusion in the record. The Committee is the sole 
        judge of the pertinence of testimony and evidence 
        adduced at its hearing.
          (9) A witness may obtain a transcript copy of his 
        testimony given at a public session or, if given at an 
        executive session, when authorized by the Committee.

Rule No. 10--Procedures for Reporting Measures or Matters

    (a)(1) It shall be the duty of the Chairperson to report or 
cause to be reported promptly to the House any measure approved 
by the Committee and to take or cause to be taken necessary 
steps to bring the matter to a vote.
    (2) In any event, the report of the Committee on a measure 
which has been approved by the Committee shall be filed within 
7 calendar days (exclusive of days on which the House is not in 
session) after the day on which there has been filed with the 
clerk of the Committee a written request, signed by a majority 
of the members of the Committee, for the reporting of that 
measure. Upon the filing of any such request, the clerk of the 
Committee shall transmit immediately to the Chairperson notice 
of the filing of that request.
    (b)(1) No measure or recommendation shall be reported to 
the House unless a majority of the Committee is actually 
present.
    (2) With respect to each record vote on a motion to report 
any measure or matter of a public character, and on any 
amendment offered to the measure or matter, the total number of 
votes cast for and against, and the names of those members 
voting for and against, shall be included in the Committee 
report on the measure or matter.
    (c) The report of the Committee on a measure or matter 
which has been approved by the Committee shall include the 
matters required by clause 3(c) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives.
    (d)(1) If, at the time any measure or matter is ordered 
reported by the Committee, any member of the Committee gives 
notice of intention to file supplemental, minority, additional, 
or dissenting views, that member shall be entitled to not less 
than two additional calendar days after the day of such notice, 
commencing on the day on which the measure or matter(s) was 
approved, excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays, in 
which to file such views, in writing and signed by that member, 
with the clerk of the Committee.
    (2) All such views so filed by one or more members of the 
Committee shall be included within, and shall be a part of, the 
report filed by the Committee with respect to that measure or 
matter.
    (3) The report of the Committee upon that measure or matter 
shall be printed in a single volume which----
          (A) shall include all supplemental, minority, 
        additional or dissenting views, in the form submitted, 
        by the time of the filing of the report, and
          (B) shall bear upon its cover a recital that any such 
        supplemental, minority, additional, or dissenting views 
        (and any material submitted under subparagraph (c)) are 
        included as part of the report. This paragraph does not 
        preclude----
                  (i) the immediate filing or printing of a 
                Committee report unless timely request for the 
                opportunity to file supplemental, minority, 
                additional, or dissenting views has been made 
                as provided by subsection (c); or
                  (ii) the filing of any supplemental report 
                upon any measure or matter which may be 
                required for the correction of any technical 
                error in a previous report made by the 
                Committee upon that measure or matter.
    (4) shall, when appropriate, contain the documents required 
by clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House.
    (e) The Chairperson, following consultation with the 
ranking minority member, is directed to offer a motion under 
clause 1 of rule XXII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives relating to going to conference with the 
Senate, whenever the Chairperson considers it appropriate.
    (f) If hearings have been held on any such measure or 
matter so reported, the Committee shall make every reasonable 
effort to have such hearings published and available to the 
members of the House prior to the consideration of such measure 
or matter in the House.
    (g) The Chairperson may designate any majority member of 
the Committee to act as floor manager of a bill or resolution 
during its consideration in the House.

Rule No. 11--Committee Oversight

    (a) The Committee shall conduct oversight of matters within 
the jurisdiction of the Committee in accordance with clauses 2 
and 4 of rule X of the Rules of the House of Representatives.
    (b) Not later than March 1 of the first session of a 
Congress and in accordance with clause 2(d) of rule X of the 
Rules of the House of Representatives, the Committee shall 
prepare an oversight plan for that Congress.

Rule No. 12--Review of Continuing Programs; Budget Act Provisions

    (a) The Committee shall, in its consideration of all bills 
and joint resolutions of a public character within its 
jurisdiction, ensure that appropriation for continuing programs 
and activities of the Federal Government will be made annually 
to the maximum extent feasible and consistent with the nature, 
requirement, and objectives of the programs and activities 
involved. For the purposes of this paragraph a Government 
agency includes the organizational units of government listed 
in clause 4(e) of rule X of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives.
    (b) The Committee shall review, from time to time, each 
continuing program within its jurisdiction for which 
appropriations are not made annually in order to ascertain 
whether such program could be modified so that appropriations 
therefore would be made annually.
    (c) The Committee shall, in accordance with clause 4(f)(1) 
of rule X of the Rules of the House of Representatives, submit 
to the Committee on the Budget (1) its views and estimates with 
respect to all matters to be set forth in the concurrent 
resolution on the budget for the ensuing fiscal year which are 
within its jurisdiction or functions, and (2) an estimate of 
the total amounts of new budget authority, and budget outlays 
resulting there from, to be provided or authorized in all bills 
and resolutions within its jurisdiction which it intends to be 
effective during that fiscal year.
    (d) Whenever the Committee is directed in a concurrent 
resolution on the budget to determine and recommend changes in 
laws, bills, or resolutions under the reconciliation process it 
shall promptly make such determination and recommendations, and 
report a reconciliation bill or resolution (or both) to the 
House or submit such recommendations to the Committee on the 
Budget, in accordance with the Congressional Budget Act of 
1974.

Rule No. 13--Broadcasting of Committee Hearings and Meetings

    Whenever any hearing or meeting conducted by the Committee 
is open to the public, those proceedings shall be open to 
coverage by television, radio, and still photography, as 
provided in clause 4 of rule XI of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives, subject to the limitations therein. Operation 
and use of any Committee Internet broadcast system shall be 
fair and nonpartisan and in accordance with clause 4(b) of rule 
XI of the Rules of the house of Representatives and all other 
applicable rules of the Committee and the House.

Rule No. 14--Committee Staff

    The staff of the Committee on House Administration shall be 
appointed as follows:
    (a) The staff shall be appointed by the Chairperson except 
as provided in paragraph (b), and may be removed by the 
Chairperson, and shall work under the general supervision and 
direction of the Chairperson;
    (b) All staff provided to the minority party members of the 
Committee shall be appointed by the ranking minority member, 
and may be removed by the ranking minority member of the 
Committee, and shall work under the general supervision and 
direction of such member;
    (c) The appointment of all professional staff shall be 
subject to the approval of the Committee as provided by, and 
subject to the provisions of, clause 9 of rule X of the Rules 
of the House;
    (d) The Chairperson shall fix the compensation of all staff 
of the Committee, after consultation with the ranking minority 
member regarding any minority party staff, within the budget 
approved for such purposes for the Committee.

Rule No. 15--Travel of Members and Staff

    (a) Consistent with the primary expense resolution and such 
additional expense resolutions as may have been approved, the 
provisions of this rule shall govern travel of Committee 
members and staff. Travel for any member or any staff member 
shall be paid only upon the prior authorization of the 
Chairperson or her or his designee. Travel may be authorized by 
the Chairperson for any member and any staff member in 
connection with the attendance at hearings conducted by the 
Committee and meetings, conferences, and investigations which 
involve activities or subject matter under the general 
jurisdiction of the Committee. Before such authorization is 
given there shall be submitted to the Chairperson in writing 
the following:
          (1) The purpose of the travel;
          (2) The dates during which the travel will occur;
          (3) The locations to be visited and the length of 
        time to be spent in each; and
          (4) The names of members and staff seeking 
        authorization.
    (b)(1) In the case of travel outside the United States of 
members and staff of the Committee for the purpose of 
conducting hearings, investigations, studies, or attending 
meetings and conferences involving activities or subject matter 
under the legislative assignment of the committee, prior 
authorization must be obtained from the Chairperson. Before 
such authorization is given, there shall be submitted to the 
Chairperson, in writing, a request for such authorization. Each 
request, which shall be filed in a manner that allows for a 
reasonable period of time for review before such travel is 
scheduled to begin, shall include the following:
          (A) the purpose of the travel;
          (B) the dates during which the travel will occur;
          (C) the names of the countries to be visited and the 
        length of time to be spent in each;
          (D) an agenda of anticipated activities for each 
        country for which travel is authorized together with a 
        description of the purpose to be served and the areas 
        of committee jurisdiction involved; and
          (E) the names of members and staff for whom 
        authorization is sought.
    (2) At the conclusion of any hearing, investigation, study, 
meeting or conference for which travel outside the United 
States has been authorized pursuant to this rule, members and 
staff attending meetings or conferences shall submit a written 
report to the Chairperson covering the activities and other 
pertinent observations or information gained as a result of 
such travel.
    (c) Members and staff of the Committee performing 
authorized travel on official business shall be governed by 
applicable laws, resolutions, or regulations of the House and 
of the Committee on House Administration pertaining to such 
travel.

Rule No. 16--Staff Deposition Authority

    The Chairperson may authorize the staff of the Committee to 
conduct depositions pursuant to section 3(a) of H. Res. 6, 
116th Congress, and subject to any regulations issued pursuant 
thereto.

Rule No. 17--Number and Jurisdiction of Subcommittees

    (a) There shall be one standing subcommittee, with party 
ratios of members as indicated. The subcommittee shall have 
jurisdiction as stated by these rules, may conduct oversight 
over such subject matter, and may consider such legislation as 
may be referred to them by the Chairperson. The name and 
jurisdiction of the subcommittee shall be:
          (1) Subcommittee on Elections (3/1)--Matters relating 
        to voting rights issues and such other matters as may 
        be referred to the subcommittee.
    (b) No subcommittee shall meet during any full Committee 
meeting or hearing.
    (c) The Chairperson may establish and appoint members, 
consistent with the ratio between majority and minority members 
serving on the Subcommittee on Elections, to serve on task 
forces, panels, special, or select subcommittees of the 
Committee, to perform specific functions for limited periods of 
time, as the Chairperson deems appropriate.

Rule No. 18--Referral of Legislation to Subcommittees

    The Chairperson may refer legislation or other matters to a 
subcommittee as the Chairperson considers appropriate. The 
Chairperson may discharge the subcommittee of any matter 
referred to it.

Rule No. 19--Powers and Duties of Subcommittees

    The subcommittee is authorized to meet, hold hearings, 
receive evidence and report to the full committee on all 
matters referred to it. No subcommittee shall meet during any 
Committee meeting.

Rule No. 20--Other Procedures and Regulations

    The Chairperson may establish such other procedures and 
take such actions as may be necessary to carry out the 
foregoing rules or to facilitate the effective operation of the 
committee.

Rule No. 21--Designation of Clerk of the Committee

    For the purposes of these rules and the Rules of the House 
of Representatives, the staff director of the Committee shall 
act as the clerk of the Committee.

                                  [all]