NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRANSITION AUTHORIZATION ACT OF 2017; Congressional Record Vol. 163, No. 39
(House of Representatives - March 07, 2017)

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NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRANSITION AUTHORIZATION 
                              ACT OF 2017

  Mr. BABIN. Mr. Speaker, I move to suspend the rules and pass the bill 
(S. 442) to authorize the programs of the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration, and for other purposes.
  The Clerk read the title of the bill.
  The text of the bill is as follows:

                                 S. 442

       Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
     the United States of America in Congress assembled,

     SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.

       (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``National 
     Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition Authorization 
     Act of 2017''.
       (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents of this Act 
     is as follows:

Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.
Sec. 2. Definitions.

                TITLE I--AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS

Sec. 101. Fiscal year 2017.

            TITLE II--SUSTAINING NATIONAL SPACE COMMITMENTS

Sec. 201. Sense of Congress on sustaining national space commitments.
Sec. 202. Findings.

    TITLE III--MAXIMIZING UTILIZATION OF THE ISS AND LOW-EARTH ORBIT

Sec. 301. Operation of the ISS.
Sec. 302. Transportation to ISS.
Sec. 303. ISS transition plan.
Sec. 304. Space communications.
Sec. 305. Indemnification; NASA launch services and reentry services.

            TITLE IV--ADVANCING HUMAN DEEP SPACE EXPLORATION

  Subtitle A--Human Space Flight and Exploration Goals and Objectives

Sec. 411. Human space flight and exploration long-term goals.
Sec. 412. Key objectives.
Sec. 413. Vision for space exploration.
Sec. 414. Stepping stone approach to exploration.
Sec. 415. Update of exploration plan and programs.
Sec. 416. Repeals.
Sec. 417. Assured access to space.

         Subtitle B--Assuring Core Capabilities for Exploration

Sec. 421. Space Launch System, Orion, and Exploration Ground Systems.

                      Subtitle C--Journey to Mars

Sec. 431. Findings on human space exploration.
Sec. 432. Human exploration roadmap.
Sec. 433. Advanced space suit capability.
Sec. 434. Asteroid robotic redirect mission.
Sec. 435. Mars 2033 report.

                    Subtitle D--TREAT Astronauts Act

Sec. 441. Short title.
Sec. 442. Findings; sense of Congress.
Sec. 443. Medical monitoring and research relating to human space 
              flight.

                    TITLE V--ADVANCING SPACE SCIENCE

Sec. 501. Maintaining a balanced space science portfolio.
Sec. 502. Planetary science.
Sec. 503. James Webb Space Telescope.
Sec. 504. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope.
Sec. 505. Mars 2020 rover.
Sec. 506. Europa.
Sec. 507. Congressional declaration of policy and purpose.
Sec. 508. Extrasolar planet exploration strategy.
Sec. 509. Astrobiology strategy.
Sec. 510. Astrobiology public-private partnerships.
Sec. 511. Near-Earth objects.
Sec. 512. Near-Earth objects public-private partnerships.
Sec. 513. Assessment of science mission extensions.
Sec. 514. Stratospheric observatory for infrared astronomy.
Sec. 515. Radioisotope power systems.
Sec. 516. Assessment of Mars architecture.
Sec. 517. Collaboration.

                         TITLE VI--AERONAUTICS

Sec. 601. Sense of Congress on aeronautics.
Sec. 602. Transformative aeronautics research.
Sec. 603. Hypersonic research.
Sec. 604. Supersonic research.
Sec. 605. Rotorcraft research.

                      TITLE VII--SPACE TECHNOLOGY

Sec. 701. Space technology infusion.
Sec. 702. Space technology program.

                   TITLE VIII--MAXIMIZING EFFICIENCY

      Subtitle A--Agency Information Technology and Cybersecurity

Sec. 811. Information technology governance.
Sec. 812. Information technology strategic plan.
Sec. 813. Cybersecurity.
Sec. 814. Security management of foreign national access.
Sec. 815. Cybersecurity of web applications.

 Subtitle B--Collaboration Among Mission Directorates and Other Matters

Sec. 821. Collaboration among mission directorates.
Sec. 822. NASA launch capabilities collaboration.
Sec. 823. Detection and avoidance of counterfeit parts.
Sec. 824. Education and outreach.
Sec. 825. Leveraging commercial satellite servicing capabilities across 
              mission directorates.
Sec. 826. Flight opportunities.
Sec. 827. Sense of Congress on small class launch missions.
Sec. 828. Baseline and cost controls.
Sec. 829. Commercial technology transfer program.
Sec. 830. Avoiding organizational conflicts of interest in major 
              administration acquisition programs.
Sec. 831. Protection of Apollo landing sites.
Sec. 832. NASA lease of non-excess property.
Sec. 833. Termination liability.
Sec. 834. Independent reviews.
Sec. 835. NASA Advisory Council.
Sec. 836. Cost estimation.
Sec. 837. Facilities and infrastructure.
Sec. 838. Human space flight accident investigations.
Sec. 839. Orbital debris.
Sec. 840. Review of orbital debris removal concepts.
Sec. 841. Space Act Agreements.

     SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.

       In this Act:
       (1) Administration.--The term ``Administration'' means the 
     National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
       (2) Administrator.--The term ``Administrator'' means the 
     Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space 
     Administration.
       (3) Appropriate committees of congress.--The term 
     ``appropriate committees of Congress'' means--
       (A) the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation 
     of the Senate; and
       (B) the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the 
     House of Representatives.
       (4) Cis-lunar space.--The term ``cis-lunar space'' means 
     the region of space from the Earth out to and including the 
     region around the surface of the Moon.
       (5) Deep space.--The term ``deep space'' means the region 
     of space beyond low-Earth orbit, to include cis-lunar space.
       (6) Government astronaut.--The term ``government 
     astronaut'' has the meaning given the term in section 50902 
     of title 51, United States Code.
       (7) ISS.--The term ``ISS'' means the International Space 
     Station.
       (8) ISS management entity.--The term ``ISS management 
     entity'' means the organization with which the Administrator 
     has a cooperative agreement under section 504(a) of the 
     National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization 
     Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18354(a)).
       (9) NASA.--The term ``NASA'' means the National Aeronautics 
     and Space Administration.
       (10) Orion.--The term ``Orion'' means the multipurpose crew 
     vehicle described under section 303 of the National 
     Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 
     2010 (42 U.S.C. 18323).
       (11) Space launch system.--The term ``Space Launch System'' 
     has the meaning given the term in section 3 of the National 
     Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 
     2010 (42 U.S.C. 18302).
       (12) United states government astronaut.--The term ``United 
     States government astronaut'' has the meaning given the term 
     ``government astronaut'' in section 50902 of title 51, United 
     States Code, except it does not include an individual who is 
     an international partner astronaut.

                TITLE I--AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS

     SEC. 101. FISCAL YEAR 2017.

       There are authorized to be appropriated to NASA for fiscal 
     year 2017, $19,508,000,000, as follows:
       (1) For Exploration, $4,330,000,000.
       (2) For Space Operations, $5,023,000,000.
       (3) For Science, $5,500,000,000.
       (4) For Aeronautics, $640,000,000.
       (5) For Space Technology, $686,000,000.
       (6) For Education, $115,000,000.
       (7) For Safety, Security, and Mission Services, 
     $2,788,600,000.
       (8) For Construction and Environmental Compliance and 
     Restoration, $388,000,000.
       (9) For Inspector General, $37,400,000.

            TITLE II--SUSTAINING NATIONAL SPACE COMMITMENTS

     SEC. 201. SENSE OF CONGRESS ON SUSTAINING NATIONAL SPACE 
                   COMMITMENTS.

       It is the sense of Congress that--

[[Page H1554]]

       (1) honoring current national space commitments and 
     building upon investments in space across successive 
     Administrations demonstrates clear continuity of purpose by 
     the United States, in collaboration with its international, 
     academic, and industry partners, to extend humanity's reach 
     into deep space, including cis-lunar space, the Moon, the 
     surface and moons of Mars, and beyond;
       (2) NASA leaders can best leverage investments in the 
     United States space program by continuing to develop a 
     balanced portfolio for space exploration and space science, 
     including continued development of the Space Launch System, 
     Orion, Commercial Crew Program, space and planetary science 
     missions such as the James Webb Space Telescope, Wide-Field 
     Infrared Survey Telescope, and Europa mission, and ongoing 
     operations of the ISS and Commercial Resupply Services 
     Program;
       (3) a national, government-led space program that builds on 
     current science and exploration programs, advances human 
     knowledge and capabilities, and opens the frontier beyond 
     Earth for ourselves, commercial enterprise, and science, and 
     with our international partners, is of critical importance to 
     our national destiny and to a future guided by United States 
     values and freedoms;
       (4) continuity of purpose and effective execution of core 
     NASA programs are essential for efficient use of resources in 
     pursuit of timely and tangible accomplishments;
       (5) NASA could improve its efficiency and effectiveness by 
     working with industry to streamline existing programs and 
     requirements, procurement practices, institutional footprint, 
     and bureaucracy while preserving effective program oversight, 
     accountability, and safety;
       (6) it is imperative that the United States maintain and 
     enhance its leadership in space exploration and space 
     science, and continue to expand freedom and economic 
     opportunities in space for all Americans that are consistent 
     with the Constitution of the United States; and
       (7) NASA should be a multi-mission space agency, and should 
     have a balanced and robust set of core missions in space 
     science, space technology, aeronautics, human space flight 
     and exploration, and education.

     SEC. 202. FINDINGS.

       Congress makes the following findings:
       (1) Returns on the Nation's investments in science, 
     technology, and exploration accrue over decades-long 
     timeframes, and a disruption of such investments could 
     prevent returns from being fully realized.
       (2) Past challenges to the continuity of such investments, 
     particularly threats regarding the cancellation of authorized 
     programs with bipartisan and bicameral support, have 
     disrupted completion of major space systems thereby--
       (A) impeding planning and pursuit of national objectives in 
     space science and human space exploration;
       (B) placing such investments in space science and space 
     exploration at risk; and
       (C) degrading the aerospace industrial base.
       (3) The National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
     Authorization Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-155; 119 Stat. 
     2895), National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
     Authorization Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-422; 122 Stat. 
     4779), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
     Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18301 et seq.) reflect a 
     broad, bipartisan agreement on the path forward for NASA's 
     core missions in science, space technology, aeronautics, 
     human space flight and exploration, and education, that 
     serves as the foundation for the policy updates by this Act.
       (4) Sufficient investment and maximum utilization of the 
     ISS and ISS National Laboratory with our international and 
     industry partners is--
       (A) consistent with the goals and objectives of the United 
     States space program; and
       (B) imperative to continuing United States global 
     leadership in human space exploration, science, research, 
     technology development, and education opportunities that 
     contribute to development of the next generation of American 
     scientists, engineers, and leaders, and to creating the 
     opportunity for economic development of low-Earth orbit.
       (5) NASA has made measurable progress in the development 
     and testing of the Space Launch System and Orion exploration 
     systems with the near-term objectives of the initial 
     integrated test flight and launch in 2018, a human mission in 
     2021, and continued missions with an annual cadence in cis-
     lunar space and eventually to the surface of Mars.
       (6) The Commercial Crew Program has made measurable 
     progress toward reestablishing the capability to launch 
     United States government astronauts from United States soil 
     into low-Earth orbit by the end of 2018.
       (7) The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel, in its 2015 Annual 
     Report, urged continuity of purpose noting concerns over the 
     potential for cost overruns and schedule slips that could 
     accompany significant changes to core NASA programs.

    TITLE III--MAXIMIZING UTILIZATION OF THE ISS AND LOW-EARTH ORBIT

     SEC. 301. OPERATION OF THE ISS.

       (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
       (1) after 15 years of continuous human presence in low-
     Earth orbit, the ISS continues to overcome challenges and 
     operate safely;
       (2) the ISS is a unique testbed for future space 
     exploration systems development, including long-duration 
     space travel;
       (3) the expansion of partnerships, scientific research, and 
     commercial applications of the ISS is essential to ensuring 
     the greatest return on investments made by the United States 
     and its international space partners in the development, 
     assembly, and operations of that unique facility;
       (4) utilization of the ISS will sustain United States 
     leadership and progress in human space exploration by--
       (A) facilitating the commercialization and economic 
     development of low-Earth orbit;
       (B) serving as a testbed for technologies and a platform 
     for scientific research and development; and
       (C) serving as an orbital facility enabling research upon--
       (i) the health, well-being, and performance of humans in 
     space; and
       (ii) the development of in-space systems enabling human 
     space exploration beyond low-Earth orbit; and
       (5) the ISS provides a platform for fundamental, 
     microgravity, discovery-based space life and physical 
     sciences research that is critical for enabling space 
     exploration, protecting humans in space, increasing pathways 
     for commercial space development that depend on advances in 
     basic research, and contributes to advancing science, 
     technology, engineering, and mathematics research.
       (b) Objectives.--The primary objectives of the ISS program 
     shall be--
       (1) to achieve the long term goal and objectives under 
     section 202 of the National Aeronautics and Space 
     Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18312); 
     and
       (2) to pursue a research program that advances knowledge 
     and provides other benefits to the Nation.
       (c) Continuation of the ISS.--Section 501 of the National 
     Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 
     2010 (42 U.S.C. 18351) is amended to read as follows:

     ``SEC. 501. CONTINUATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION.

       ``(a) Policy of the United States.--It shall be the policy 
     of the United States, in consultation with its international 
     partners in the ISS program, to support full and complete 
     utilization of the ISS through at least 2024.
       ``(b) NASA Action.--In furtherance of the policy set forth 
     in subsection (a), NASA shall--
       ``(1) pursue international, commercial, and 
     intragovernmental means to maximize ISS logistics supply, 
     maintenance, and operational capabilities, reduce risks to 
     ISS systems sustainability, and offset and minimize United 
     States operations costs relating to the ISS;
       ``(2) utilize, to the extent practicable, the ISS for the 
     development of capabilities and technologies needed for the 
     future of human space exploration beyond low-Earth orbit; and
       ``(3) utilize, if practical and cost effective, the ISS for 
     Science Mission Directorate missions in low-Earth orbit.''.

     SEC. 302. TRANSPORTATION TO ISS.

       (a) Findings.--Congress finds that reliance on foreign 
     carriers for United States crew transfer is unacceptable, and 
     the Nation's human space flight program must acquire the 
     capability to launch United States government astronauts on 
     vehicles using United States rockets from United States soil 
     as soon as is safe, reliable, and affordable to do so.
       (b) Sense of Congress on Commercial Crew Program and 
     Commercial Resupply Services Program.--It is the sense of 
     Congress that--
       (1) once developed and certified to meet the 
     Administration's safety and reliability requirements, United 
     States commercially provided crew transportation systems can 
     serve as the primary means of transporting United States 
     government astronauts and international partner astronauts to 
     and from the ISS and serving as ISS crew rescue vehicles;
       (2) previous budgetary assumptions used by the 
     Administration in its planning for the Commercial Crew 
     Program assumed significantly higher funding levels than were 
     authorized and appropriated by Congress;
       (3) credibility in the Administration's budgetary estimates 
     for the Commercial Crew Program can be enhanced by an 
     independently developed cost estimate;
       (4) such credibility in budgetary estimates is an important 
     factor in understanding program risk;
       (5) United States access to low-Earth orbit is paramount to 
     the continued success of the ISS and ISS National Laboratory;
       (6) a stable and successful Commercial Resupply Services 
     Program and Commercial Crew Program are critical to ensuring 
     timely provisioning of the ISS and to reestablishing the 
     capability to launch United States government astronauts from 
     United States soil into orbit, ending reliance upon Russian 
     transport of United States government astronauts to the ISS 
     which has not been possible since the retirement of the Space 
     Shuttle program in 2011;
       (7) NASA should build upon the success of the Commercial 
     Orbital Transportation Services Program and Commercial 
     Resupply Services Program that have allowed private sector 
     companies to partner with NASA to

[[Page H1555]]

     deliver cargo and scientific experiments to the ISS since 
     2012;
       (8) the 21st Century Launch Complex Program has enabled 
     significant modernization and infrastructure improvements at 
     launch sites across the United States to support NASA's 
     Commercial Resupply Services Program and other civil and 
     commercial space flight missions; and
       (9) the 21st Century Launch Complex Program should be 
     continued in a manner that leverages State and private 
     investments to achieve the goals of that program.
       (c) Reaffirmation.--Congress reaffirms--
       (1) its commitment to the use of a commercially developed, 
     private sector launch and delivery system to the ISS for crew 
     missions as expressed in the National Aeronautics and Space 
     Administration Authorization Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-155; 
     119 Stat. 2895), the National Aeronautics and Space 
     Administration Authorization Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-422; 
     122 Stat. 4779), and the National Aeronautics and Space 
     Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18301 et 
     seq.); and
       (2) the requirement under section 50111(b)(1)(A) of title 
     51, United States Code, that the Administration shall make 
     use of United States commercially provided ISS crew transfer 
     and crew rescue services to the maximum extent practicable.
       (d) Use of Non-United States Human Space Flight 
     Transportation Capabilities.--Section 201(a) of the National 
     Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 
     2010 (42 U.S.C. 18311(a)) is amended to read as follows:
       ``(a) Use of Non-United States Human Space Flight 
     Transportation Services.--
       ``(1) In general.--The Federal Government may not acquire 
     human space flight transportation services from a foreign 
     entity unless--
       ``(A) no United States Government-operated human space 
     flight capability is available;
       ``(B) no United States commercial provider is available; 
     and
       ``(C) it is a qualified foreign entity.
       ``(2) Definitions.--In this subsection:
       ``(A) Commercial provider.--The term `commercial provider' 
     means any person providing human space flight transportation 
     services, primary control of which is held by persons other 
     than the Federal Government, a State or local government, or 
     a foreign government.
       ``(B) Qualified foreign entity.--The term `qualified 
     foreign entity' means a foreign entity that is in compliance 
     with all applicable safety standards and is not prohibited 
     from providing space transportation services under other law.
       ``(C) United states commercial provider.--The term `United 
     States commercial provider' means a commercial provider, 
     organized under the laws of the United States or of a State, 
     that is more than 50 percent owned by United States 
     nationals.
       ``(3) Arrangements with foreign entities.--Nothing in this 
     subsection shall prevent the Administrator from negotiating 
     or entering into human space flight transportation 
     arrangements with foreign entities to ensure safety of flight 
     and continued ISS operations.''.
       (e) Commercial Crew Program.--
       (1) Objective.--The objective of the Commercial Crew 
     Program shall be to assist in the development and 
     certification of commercially provided transportation that--
       (A) can carry United States government astronauts safely, 
     reliably, and affordably to and from the ISS;
       (B) can serve as a crew rescue vehicle; and
       (C) can accomplish subparagraphs (A) and (B) as soon as 
     practicable.
       (2) Primary consideration.--The objective described in 
     paragraph (1) shall be the primary consideration in the 
     acquisition strategy for the Commercial Crew Program.
       (3) Safety.--
       (A) In general.--The Administrator shall protect the safety 
     of government astronauts by ensuring that each commercially 
     provided transportation system under this subsection meets 
     all applicable human rating requirements in accordance with 
     section 403(b)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space 
     Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 
     18342(b)(1)).
       (B) Lessons learned.--Consistent with the findings and 
     recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board, 
     the Administration shall ensure that safety and the 
     minimization of the probability of loss of crew are the 
     critical priorities of the Commercial Crew Program.
       (4) Cost minimization.--The Administrator shall strive 
     through the competitive selection process to minimize the 
     life cycle cost to the Administration through the planned 
     period of commercially provided crew transportation services.
       (f) Commercial Cargo Program.--Section 401 of the National 
     Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 
     2010 (42 U.S.C. 18341) is amended by striking ``Commercial 
     Orbital Transportation Services'' and inserting ``Commercial 
     Resupply Services''.
       (g) Competition.--It is the policy of the United States 
     that, to foster the competitive development, operation, 
     improvement, and commercial availability of space 
     transportation services, and to minimize the life cycle cost 
     to the Administration, the Administrator shall procure 
     services for Federal Government access to and return from the 
     ISS, whenever practicable, via fair and open competition for 
     well-defined, milestone-based, Federal Acquisition 
     Regulation-based contracts under section 201(a) of the 
     National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization 
     Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18311(a)).
       (h) Transparency.--
       (1) Sense of congress.--It is the sense of Congress that 
     cost transparency and schedule transparency aid in effective 
     program management and risk assessment.
       (2) In general.--The Administrator shall, to the greatest 
     extent practicable and in a manner that does not add costs or 
     schedule delays to the program, ensure all Commercial Crew 
     Program and Commercial Resupply Services Program providers 
     provide evidence-based support for their costs and schedules.
       (i) ISS Cargo Resupply Services Lessons Learned.--Not later 
     than 120 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the 
     Administrator shall submit to the appropriate committees of 
     Congress a report that--
       (1) identifies the lessons learned to date from previous 
     and existing Commercial Resupply Services contracts;
       (2) indicates whether changes are needed to the manner in 
     which the Administration procures and manages similar 
     services prior to the issuance of future Commercial Resupply 
     Services procurement opportunities; and
       (3) identifies any lessons learned from the Commercial 
     Resupply Services contracts that should be applied to the 
     procurement and management of commercially provided crew 
     transfer services to and from the ISS or to other future 
     procurements.

     SEC. 303. ISS TRANSITION PLAN.

       (a) Findings.--Congress finds that--
       (1) NASA has been both the primary supplier and consumer of 
     human space flight capabilities and services of the ISS and 
     in low-Earth orbit; and
       (2) according to the National Research Council report 
     ``Pathways to Exploration: Rationales and Approaches for a 
     U.S. Program of Human Space Exploration'' extending ISS 
     beyond 2020 to 2024 or 2028 will have significant negative 
     impacts on the schedule of crewed missions to Mars, without 
     significant increases in funding.
       (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
       (1) an orderly transition for United States human space 
     flight activities in low-Earth orbit from the current regime, 
     that relies heavily on NASA sponsorship, to a regime where 
     NASA is one of many customers of a low-Earth orbit commercial 
     human space flight enterprise may be necessary; and
       (2) decisions about the long-term future of the ISS impact 
     the ability to conduct future deep space exploration 
     activities, and that such decisions regarding the ISS should 
     be considered in the context of the human exploration roadmap 
     under section 432 of this Act.
       (c) Reports.--Section 50111 of title 51, United States 
     Code, is amended by adding at the end the following:
       ``(c) ISS Transition Plan.--
       ``(1) In general.--The Administrator, in coordination with 
     the ISS management entity (as defined in section 2 of the 
     National Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition 
     Authorization Act of 2017), ISS partners, the scientific user 
     community, and the commercial space sector, shall develop a 
     plan to transition in a step-wise approach from the current 
     regime that relies heavily on NASA sponsorship to a regime 
     where NASA could be one of many customers of a low-Earth 
     orbit non-governmental human space flight enterprise.
       ``(2) Reports.--Not later than December 1, 2017, and 
     biennially thereafter until 2023, the Administrator shall 
     submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
     Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Science, 
     Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives a 
     report that includes--
       ``(A) a description of the progress in achieving the 
     Administration's deep space human exploration objectives on 
     ISS and prospects for accomplishing future mission 
     requirements, space exploration objectives, and other 
     research objectives on future commercially supplied low-Earth 
     orbit platforms or migration of those objectives to cis-lunar 
     space;
       ``(B) the steps NASA is taking and will take, including 
     demonstrations that could be conducted on the ISS, to 
     stimulate and facilitate commercial demand and supply of 
     products and services in low-Earth orbit;
       ``(C) an identification of barriers preventing the 
     commercialization of low-Earth orbit, including issues 
     relating to policy, regulations, commercial intellectual 
     property, data, and confidentiality, that could inhibit the 
     use of the ISS as a commercial incubator;
       ``(D) the criteria for defining the ISS as a research 
     success;
       ``(E) the criteria used to determine whether the ISS is 
     meeting the objective under section 301(b)(2) of the National 
     Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition Authorization 
     Act of 2017;
       ``(F) an assessment of whether the criteria under 
     subparagraphs (D) and (E) are consistent with the research 
     areas defined in, and recommendations and schedules under, 
     the current National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and 
     Medicine Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences 
     in Space;
       ``(G) any necessary contributions that ISS extension would 
     make to enabling execution of the human exploration roadmap 
     under section 432 of the National Aeronautics and

[[Page H1556]]

     Space Administration Transition Authorization Act of 2017;
       ``(H) the cost estimates for operating the ISS to achieve 
     the criteria required under subparagraphs (D) and (E) and the 
     contributions identified under subparagraph (G);
       ``(I) the cost estimates for extending operations of the 
     ISS to 2024, 2028, and 2030;
       ``(J) an evaluation of the feasible and preferred service 
     life of the ISS beyond the period described in section 503 of 
     the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
     Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18353), through at least 
     2028, as a unique scientific, commercial, and space 
     exploration-related facility, including--
       ``(i) a general discussion of international partner 
     capabilities and prospects for extending the partnership;
       ``(ii) the cost associated with extending the service life;
       ``(iii) an assessment on the technical limiting factors of 
     the service life of the ISS, including a list of critical 
     components and their expected service life and availability; 
     and
       ``(iv) such other information as may be necessary to fully 
     describe the justification for and feasibility of extending 
     the service life of the ISS, including the potential 
     scientific or technological benefits to the Federal 
     Government, public, or to academic or commercial entities;
       ``(K) an identification of the necessary actions and an 
     estimate of the costs to deorbit the ISS once it has reached 
     the end of its service life;
       ``(L) the impact on deep space exploration capabilities, 
     including a crewed mission to Mars in the 2030s, if the 
     preferred service life of the ISS is extended beyond 2024 and 
     NASA maintains a flat budget profile; and
       ``(M) an evaluation of the functions, roles, and 
     responsibilities for management and operation of the ISS and 
     a determination of--
       ``(i) those functions, roles, and responsibilities the 
     Federal Government should retain during the lifecycle of the 
     ISS;
       ``(ii) those functions, roles, and responsibilities that 
     could be transferred to the commercial space sector;
       ``(iii) the metrics that would indicate the commercial 
     space sector's readiness and ability to assume the functions, 
     roles, and responsibilities described in clause (ii); and
       ``(iv) any necessary changes to any agreements or other 
     documents and the law to enable the activities described in 
     subparagraphs (A) and (B).
       ``(3) Demonstrations.--If additional Government crew, 
     power, and transportation resources are available after 
     meeting the Administration's requirements for ISS activities 
     defined in the human exploration roadmap and related 
     research, demonstrations identified under paragraph (2) may--
       ``(A) test the capabilities needed to meet future mission 
     requirements, space exploration objectives, and other 
     research objectives described in paragraph (2)(A); and
       ``(B) demonstrate or test capabilities, including 
     commercial modules or deep space habitats, Environmental 
     Control and Life Support Systems, orbital satellite assembly, 
     exploration space suits, a node that enables a wide variety 
     of activity, including multiple commercial modules and 
     airlocks, additional docking or berthing ports for commercial 
     crew and cargo, opportunities for the commercial space sector 
     to cost share for transportation and other services on the 
     ISS, other commercial activities, or services obtained 
     through alternate acquisition approaches.''.

     SEC. 304. SPACE COMMUNICATIONS.

       (a) Plan.--The Administrator shall develop a plan, in 
     consultation with relevant Federal agencies, to meet the 
     Administration's projected space communication and navigation 
     needs for low-Earth orbit and deep space operations in the 
     20-year period following the date of enactment of this Act.
       (b) Contents.--The plan shall include--
       (1) the lifecycle cost estimates and a 5-year funding 
     profile;
       (2) the performance capabilities required to meet the 
     Administration's projected space communication and navigation 
     needs;
       (3) the measures the Administration will take to sustain 
     the existing space communications and navigation 
     architecture;
       (4) an identification of the projected space communications 
     and navigation network and infrastructure needs;
       (5) a description of the necessary upgrades to meet the 
     needs identified in paragraph (4), including--
       (A) an estimate of the cost of the upgrades;
       (B) a schedule for implementing the upgrades; and
       (C) an assessment of whether and how any related missions 
     will be impacted if resources are not secured at the level 
     needed;
       (6) the cost estimates for the maintenance of existing 
     space communications network capabilities necessary to meet 
     the needs identified in paragraph (4);
       (7) the criteria for prioritizing resources for the 
     upgrades described in paragraph (5) and the maintenance 
     described in paragraph (6);
       (8) an estimate of any reimbursement amounts the 
     Administration may receive from other Federal agencies;
       (9) an identification of the projected Tracking and Data 
     Relay Satellite System needs in the 20-year period following 
     the date of enactment of this Act, including in support of 
     relevant Federal agencies, and cost and schedule estimates to 
     maintain and upgrade the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite 
     System to meet the projected needs;
       (10) the measures the Administration is taking to meet 
     space communications needs after all Tracking and Data Relay 
     Satellite System third-generation communications satellites 
     are operational; and
       (11) the measures the Administration is taking to mitigate 
     threats to electromagnetic spectrum use.
       (c) Schedule.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
     enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit the 
     plan to the appropriate committees of Congress.

     SEC. 305. INDEMNIFICATION; NASA LAUNCH SERVICES AND REENTRY 
                   SERVICES.

       (a) In General.--Subchapter III of chapter 201 of title 51, 
     United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the 
     following:

     ``Sec. 20148. Indemnification; NASA launch services and 
       reentry services

       ``(a) In General.--Under such regulations in conformity 
     with this section as the Administrator shall prescribe taking 
     into account the availability, cost, and terms of liability 
     insurance, any contract between the Administration and a 
     provider may provide that the United States will indemnify 
     the provider against successful claims (including reasonable 
     expenses of litigation or settlement) by third parties for 
     death, bodily injury, or loss of or damage to property 
     resulting from launch services and reentry services carried 
     out under the contract that the contract defines as unusually 
     hazardous or nuclear in nature, but only to the extent the 
     total amount of successful claims related to the activities 
     under the contract--
       ``(1) is more than the amount of insurance or demonstration 
     of financial responsibility described in subsection (c)(3); 
     and
       ``(2) is not more than the amount specified in section 
     50915(a)(1)(B).
       ``(b) Terms of Indemnification.--A contract made under 
     subsection (a) that provides indemnification shall provide 
     for--
       ``(1) notice to the United States of any claim or suit 
     against the provider for death, bodily injury, or loss of or 
     damage to property; and
       ``(2) control of or assistance in the defense by the United 
     States, at its election, of that claim or suit and approval 
     of any settlement.
       ``(c) Liability Insurance of the Provider.--
       ``(1) In general.--The provider under subsection (a) shall 
     obtain liability insurance or demonstrate financial 
     responsibility in amounts to compensate for the maximum 
     probable loss from claims by--
       ``(A) a third party for death, bodily injury, or property 
     damage or loss resulting from a launch service or reentry 
     service carried out under the contract; and
       ``(B) the United States Government for damage or loss to 
     Government property resulting from a launch service or 
     reentry service carried out under the contract.
       ``(2) Maximum probable losses.--
       ``(A) In general.--The Administrator shall determine the 
     maximum probable losses under subparagraphs (A) and (B) of 
     paragraph (1) not later than 90 days after the date that the 
     provider requests such a determination and submits all 
     information the Administrator requires.
       ``(B) Revisions.--The Administrator may revise a 
     determination under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph if the 
     Administrator determines the revision is warranted based on 
     new information.
       ``(3) Amount of insurance.--For the total claims related to 
     one launch or reentry, a provider shall not be required to 
     obtain insurance or demonstrate financial responsibility of 
     more than--
       ``(A)(i) $500,000,000 under paragraph (1)(A); or
       ``(ii) $100,000,000 under paragraph (1)(B); or
       ``(B) the maximum liability insurance available on the 
     world market at reasonable cost.
       ``(4) Coverage.--An insurance policy or demonstration of 
     financial responsibility under this subsection shall protect 
     the following, to the extent of their potential liability for 
     involvement in launch services or reentry services:
       ``(A) The Government.
       ``(B) Personnel of the Government.
       ``(C) Related entities of the Government.
       ``(D) Related entities of the provider.
       ``(E) Government astronauts.
       ``(d) No Indemnification Without Cross-waiver.--
     Notwithstanding subsection (a), the Administrator may not 
     indemnify a provider under this section unless there is a 
     cross-waiver between the Administration and the provider as 
     described in subsection (e).
       ``(e) Cross-Waivers.--
       ``(1) In general.--The Administrator, on behalf of the 
     United States and its departments, agencies, and 
     instrumentalities, shall reciprocally waive claims with a 
     provider under which each party to the waiver agrees to be 
     responsible, and agrees to ensure that its related entities 
     are responsible, for damage or loss to its property, or for 
     losses resulting from any injury or death sustained by its 
     employees or agents, as a result of activities arising out of 
     the performance of the contract.
       ``(2) Limitation.--The waiver made by the Government under 
     paragraph (1) shall apply only to the extent that the claims 
     are more than the amount of insurance or demonstration of 
     financial responsibility required under subsection (c)(1)(B).
       ``(f) Willful Misconduct.--Indemnification under subsection 
     (a) may exclude claims

[[Page H1557]]

     resulting from the willful misconduct of the provider or its 
     related entities.
       ``(g) Certification of Just and Reasonable Amount.--No 
     payment may be made under subsection (a) unless the 
     Administrator or the Administrator's designee certifies that 
     the amount is just and reasonable.
       ``(h) Payments.--
       ``(1) In general.--Upon the approval by the Administrator, 
     payments under subsection (a) may be made from funds 
     appropriated for such payments.
       ``(2) Limitation.--The Administrator shall not approve 
     payments under paragraph (1), except to the extent provided 
     in an appropriation law or to the extent additional 
     legislative authority is enacted providing for such payments.
       ``(3) Additional appropriations.--If the Administrator 
     requests additional appropriations to make payments under 
     this subsection, then the request for those appropriations 
     shall be made in accordance with the procedures established 
     under section 50915.
       ``(i) Rules of Construction.--
       ``(1) In general.--The authority to indemnify under this 
     section shall not create any rights in third persons that 
     would not otherwise exist by law.
       ``(2) Other authority.--Nothing in this section may be 
     construed as prohibiting the Administrator from indemnifying 
     a provider or any other NASA contractor under other law, 
     including under Public Law 85-804 (50 U.S.C. 1431 et seq.).
       ``(3) Anti-deficiency act.--Notwithstanding any other 
     provision of this section--
       ``(A) all obligations under this section are subject to the 
     availability of funds; and
       ``(B) nothing in this section may be construed to require 
     obligation or payment of funds in violation of sections 1341, 
     1342, 1349 through 1351, and 1511 through 1519 of title 31, 
     United States Code (commonly referred to as the `Anti-
     Deficiency Act').
       ``(j) Relationship to Other Laws.--The Administrator may 
     not provide indemnification under this section for an 
     activity that requires a license or permit under chapter 509.
       ``(k) Definitions.--In this section:
       ``(1) Government astronaut.--The term `government 
     astronaut' has the meaning given the term in section 50902.
       ``(2) Launch services.--The term `launch services' has the 
     meaning given the term in section 50902.
       ``(3) Provider.--The term `provider' means a person that 
     provides domestic launch services or domestic reentry 
     services to the Government.
       ``(4) Reentry services.--The term `reentry services' has 
     the meaning given the term in section 50902.
       ``(5) Related entity.--The term `related entity' means a 
     contractor or subcontractor.
       ``(6) Third party.--The term `third party' means a person 
     except--
       ``(A) the United States Government;
       ``(B) related entities of the Government involved in launch 
     services or reentry services;
       ``(C) a provider;
       ``(D) related entities of the provider involved in launch 
     services or reentry services; or
       ``(E) a government astronaut.''.
       (b) Conforming Amendment.--The table of contents for 
     subchapter III of chapter 201 of title 51, United States 
     Code, is amended by inserting after the item relating to 
     section 20147 the following:

``20148. Indemnification; NASA launch services and reentry services.''.

            TITLE IV--ADVANCING HUMAN DEEP SPACE EXPLORATION

  Subtitle A--Human Space Flight and Exploration Goals and Objectives

     SEC. 411. HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT AND EXPLORATION LONG-TERM GOALS.

       Section 202(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space 
     Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18312(a)) 
     is amended to read as follows:
       ``(a) Long-term Goals.--The long-term goals of the human 
     space flight and exploration efforts of NASA shall be--
       ``(1) to expand permanent human presence beyond low-Earth 
     orbit and to do so, where practical, in a manner involving 
     international, academic, and industry partners;
       ``(2) crewed missions and progress toward achieving the 
     goal in paragraph (1) to enable the potential for subsequent 
     human exploration and the extension of human presence 
     throughout the solar system; and
       ``(3) to enable a capability to extend human presence, 
     including potential human habitation on another celestial 
     body and a thriving space economy in the 21st Century.''.

     SEC. 412. KEY OBJECTIVES.

       Section 202(b) of the National Aeronautics and Space 
     Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18312(b)) 
     is amended--
       (1) in paragraph (3), by striking ``; and'' and inserting a 
     semicolon;
       (2) in paragraph (4), by striking the period at the end and 
     inserting ``; and''; and
       (3) by adding at the end the following:
       ``(5) to achieve human exploration of Mars and beyond 
     through the prioritization of those technologies and 
     capabilities best suited for such a mission in accordance 
     with the stepping stone approach to exploration under section 
     70504 of title 51, United States Code.''.

     SEC. 413. VISION FOR SPACE EXPLORATION.

       Section 20302 of title 51, United States Code, is amended--
       (1) in subsection (a), by inserting ``in cis-lunar space 
     or'' after ``sustained human presence'';
       (2) by amending subsection (b) to read as follows:
       ``(b) Future Exploration of Mars.--The Administrator shall 
     manage human space flight programs, including the Space 
     Launch System and Orion, to enable humans to explore Mars and 
     other destinations by defining a series of sustainable steps 
     and conducting mission planning, research, and technology 
     development on a timetable that is technically and fiscally 
     possible, consistent with section 70504.''; and
       (3) by adding at the end the following:
       ``(c) Definitions.--In this section:
       ``(1) Orion.--The term `Orion' means the multipurpose crew 
     vehicle described under section 303 of the National 
     Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 
     2010 (42 U.S.C. 18323).
       ``(2) Space launch system.--The term `Space Launch System' 
     means has the meaning given the term in section 3 of the 
     National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization 
     Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18302).''.

     SEC. 414. STEPPING STONE APPROACH TO EXPLORATION.

       Section 70504 of title 51, United States Code, is amended 
     to read as follows:

     ``Sec. 70504. Stepping stone approach to exploration

       ``(a) In General.--The Administration--
       ``(1) may conduct missions to intermediate destinations in 
     sustainable steps in accordance with section 20302(b) of this 
     title, and on a timetable determined by the availability of 
     funding, in order to achieve the objective of human 
     exploration of Mars specified in section 202(b)(5) of the 
     National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization 
     Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18312(b)(5)); and
       ``(2) shall incorporate any such missions into the human 
     exploration roadmap under section 432 of the National 
     Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition Authorization 
     Act of 2017.
       ``(b) Cost-effectiveness.--In order to maximize the cost-
     effectiveness of the long-term space exploration and 
     utilization activities of the United States, the 
     Administrator shall take all necessary steps, including 
     engaging international, academic, and industry partners, to 
     ensure that activities in the Administration's human space 
     exploration program balance how those activities might also 
     help meet the requirements of future exploration and 
     utilization activities leading to human habitation on the 
     surface of Mars.
       ``(c) Completion.--Within budgetary considerations, once an 
     exploration-related project enters its development phase, the 
     Administrator shall seek, to the maximum extent practicable, 
     to complete that project without undue delays.
       ``(d) International Participation.--In order to achieve the 
     goal of successfully conducting a crewed mission to the 
     surface of Mars, the President may invite the United States 
     partners in the ISS program and other nations, as 
     appropriate, to participate in an international initiative 
     under the leadership of the United States.''.

     SEC. 415. UPDATE OF EXPLORATION PLAN AND PROGRAMS.

       Section 70502(2) of title 51, United States Code, is 
     amended to read as follows:
       ``(2) implement an exploration research and technology 
     development program to enable human and robotic operations 
     consistent with section 20302(b) of this title;''.

     SEC. 416. REPEALS.

       (a)  Space Shuttle Capability Assurance.--Section 203 of 
     the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
     Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18313) is amended--
       (1) by striking subsection (b);
       (2) in subsection (d), by striking ``subsection (c)'' and 
     inserting ``subsection (b)''; and
       (3) by redesignating subsections (c) and (d) as subsections 
     (b) and (c), respectively.
       (b) Shuttle Pricing Policy for Commercial and Foreign 
     Users.--Chapter 703 of title 51, United States Code, and the 
     item relating to that chapter in the table of chapters for 
     that title, are repealed.
       (c) Shuttle Privatization.--Section 50133 of title 51, 
     United States Code, and the item relating to that section in 
     the table of sections for chapter 501 of that title, are 
     repealed.

     SEC. 417. ASSURED ACCESS TO SPACE.

       Section 70501 of title 51, United States Code, is amended--
       (1) by amending subsection (a) to read as follows:
       ``(a) Policy Statement.--In order to ensure continuous 
     United States participation and leadership in the exploration 
     and utilization of space and as an essential instrument of 
     national security, it is the policy of the United States to 
     maintain an uninterrupted capability for human space flight 
     and operations--
       ``(1) in low-Earth orbit; and
       ``(2) beyond low-Earth orbit once the capabilities 
     described in section 421(f) of the National Aeronautics and 
     Space Administration Transition Authorization Act of 2017 
     become available.''; and
       (2) in subsection (b), by striking ``Committee on Science 
     and Technology of the

[[Page H1558]]

     House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, 
     Science, and Transportation of the Senate describing the 
     progress being made toward developing the Crew Exploration 
     Vehicle and the Crew Launch Vehicle'' and inserting 
     ``Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the 
     Senate and the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of 
     the House of Representatives describing the progress being 
     made toward developing the Space Launch System and Orion''.

         Subtitle B--Assuring Core Capabilities for Exploration

     SEC. 421. SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEM, ORION, AND EXPLORATION GROUND 
                   SYSTEMS.

       (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
       (1) NASA has made steady progress in developing and testing 
     the Space Launch System and Orion exploration systems with 
     the successful Exploration Flight Test of Orion in December 
     of 2014, the final qualification test firing of the 5-segment 
     Space Launch System boosters in June 2016, and a full thrust, 
     full duration test firing of the RS-25 Space Launch System 
     core stage engine in August 2016.
       (2) Through the 21st Century Launch Complex program and 
     Exploration Ground Systems programs, NASA has made 
     significant progress in transforming exploration ground 
     systems infrastructure to meet NASA's mission requirements 
     for the Space Launch System and Orion and to modernize NASA's 
     launch complexes to the benefit of the civil, defense, and 
     commercial space sectors.
       (b) Space Launch System.--
       (1) Sense of congress.--It is the sense of Congress that 
     use of the Space Launch System and Orion, with contributions 
     from partnerships with the private sector, academia, and the 
     international community, is the most practical approach to 
     reaching the Moon, Mars, and beyond.
       (2) Reaffirmation.--Congress reaffirms the policy and 
     minimum capability requirements for the Space Launch System 
     under section 302 of the National Aeronautics and Space 
     Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18322).
       (c) Sense of Congress on Space Launch System, Orion, and 
     Exploration Ground Systems.--It is the sense of Congress 
     that--
       (1) as the United States works to send humans on a series 
     of missions to Mars in the 2030s, the United States national 
     space program should continue to make progress on its 
     commitment by fully developing the Space Launch System, 
     Orion, and related Exploration Ground Systems;
       (2) using the Space Launch System and Orion for a wide 
     range of contemplated missions will facilitate the national 
     defense, science, and exploration objectives of the United 
     States;
       (3) the United States should have continuity of purpose for 
     the Space Launch System and Orion in deep space exploration 
     missions, using them beginning with the uncrewed mission, EM-
     1, planned for 2018, followed by the crewed mission, EM-2, in 
     cis-lunar space planned for 2021, and for subsequent missions 
     beginning with EM-3 extending into cis-lunar space and 
     eventually to Mars;
       (4) the President's annual budget requests for the Space 
     Launch System and Orion development, test, and operational 
     phases should strive to accurately reflect the resource 
     requirements of each of those phases;
       (5) the fully integrated Space Launch System, including an 
     upper stage needed to go beyond low-Earth orbit, will safely 
     enable human space exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond; 
     and
       (6) the Administrator should budget for and undertake a 
     robust ground test and uncrewed and crewed flight test and 
     demonstration program for the Space Launch System and Orion 
     in order to promote safety and reduce programmatic risk.
       (d) In General.--The Administrator shall continue the 
     development of the fully integrated Space Launch System, 
     including an upper stage needed to go beyond low-Earth orbit, 
     in order to safely enable human space exploration of the 
     Moon, Mars, and beyond over the course of the next century as 
     required in section 302(c) of the National Aeronautics and 
     Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 
     18322(c)).
       (e) Report.--
       (1) In general.--Not later than 60 days after the date of 
     enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the 
     appropriate committees of Congress a report addressing the 
     ability of Orion to meet the needs and the minimum capability 
     requirements described in section 303(b)(3) of the National 
     Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 
     2010 (42 U.S.C. 18323(b)(3)).
       (2) Contents.--The report shall detail--
       (A) those components and systems of Orion that ensure it is 
     in compliance with section 303(b)(3) of that Act (42 U.S.C. 
     18323(b)(3));
       (B) the expected date that Orion, integrated with a vehicle 
     other than the Space Launch System, could be available to 
     transport crew and cargo to the ISS;
       (C) any impacts to the deep space exploration missions 
     under subsection (f) of this section due to enabling Orion to 
     meet the minimum capability requirements described in section 
     303(b)(3) of that Act (42 U.S.C. 18323(b)(3)) and conducting 
     the mission described in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph; 
     and
       (D) the overall cost and schedule impacts associated with 
     enabling Orion to meet the minimum capability requirements 
     described in section 303(b)(3) of that Act (42 U.S.C. 
     18323(b)(3)) and conducting the mission described in 
     subparagraph (B) of this paragraph.
       (f) Exploration Missions.--The Administrator shall continue 
     development of--
       (1) an uncrewed exploration mission to demonstrate the 
     capability of both the Space Launch System and Orion as an 
     integrated system by 2018;
       (2) subject to applicable human rating processes and 
     requirements, a crewed exploration mission to demonstrate the 
     Space Launch System, including the Core Stage and Exploration 
     Upper Stages, by 2021;
       (3) subsequent missions beginning with EM-3 at operational 
     flight rate sufficient to maintain safety and operational 
     readiness using the Space Launch System and Orion to extend 
     into cis-lunar space and eventually to Mars; and
       (4) a deep space habitat as a key element in a deep space 
     exploration architecture along with the Space Launch System 
     and Orion.
       (g) Other Uses.--The Administrator shall assess the utility 
     of the Space Launch System for use by the science community 
     and for other Federal Government launch needs, including 
     consideration of overall cost and schedule savings from 
     reduced transit times and increased science returns enabled 
     by the unique capabilities of the Space Launch System.
       (h) Utilization Report.--
       (1) In general.--The Administrator, in consultation with 
     the Secretary of Defense and the Director of National 
     Intelligence, shall prepare a report that addresses the 
     effort and budget required to enable and utilize a cargo 
     variant of the 130-ton Space Launch System configuration 
     described in section 302(c) of the National Aeronautics and 
     Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 
     18322(c)).
       (2) Contents.--In preparing the report, the Administrator 
     shall--
       (A) consider the technical requirements of the scientific 
     and national security communities related to a cargo variant 
     of the Space Launch System; and
       (B) directly assess the utility and estimated cost savings 
     obtained by using a cargo variant of the Space Launch System 
     for national security and space science missions.
       (3) Submission to congress.--Not later than 180 days after 
     the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall 
     submit the report to the appropriate committees of Congress.

                      Subtitle C--Journey to Mars

     SEC. 431. FINDINGS ON HUMAN SPACE EXPLORATION.

       Congress makes the following findings:
       (1) In accordance with section 204 of the National 
     Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 
     2010 (124 Stat. 2813), the National Academies of Sciences, 
     Engineering, and Medicine, through its Committee on Human 
     Spaceflight, conducted a review of the goals, core 
     capabilities, and direction of human space flight, and 
     published the findings and recommendations in a 2014 report 
     entitled, ``Pathways to Exploration: Rationales and 
     Approaches for a U.S. Program of Human Space Exploration''.
       (2) The Committee on Human Spaceflight included leaders 
     from the aerospace, scientific, security, and policy 
     communities.
       (3) With input from the public, the Committee on Human 
     Spaceflight concluded that many practical and aspirational 
     rationales for human space flight together constitute a 
     compelling case for continued national investment and pursuit 
     of human space exploration toward the horizon goal of Mars.
       (4) According to the Committee on Human Spaceflight, the 
     rationales include economic benefits, national security, 
     national prestige, inspiring students and other citizens, 
     scientific discovery, human survival, and a sense of shared 
     destiny.
       (5) The Committee on Human Spaceflight affirmed that Mars 
     is the appropriate long-term goal for the human space flight 
     program.
       (6) The Committee on Human Spaceflight recommended that 
     NASA define a series of sustainable steps and conduct mission 
     planning and technology development as needed to achieve the 
     long-term goal of placing humans on the surface of Mars.
       (7) Expanding human presence beyond low-Earth orbit and 
     advancing toward human missions to Mars requires early 
     planning and timely decisions to be made in the near-term on 
     the necessary courses of action for commitments to achieve 
     short-term and long-term goals and objectives.
       (8) In addition to the 2014 report described in paragraph 
     (1), there are several independently developed reports or 
     concepts that describe potential Mars architectures or 
     concepts and identify Mars as the long-term goal for human 
     space exploration, including NASA's ``The Global Exploration 
     Roadmap'' of 2013, ``NASA's Journey to Mars-Pioneering Next 
     Steps in Space Exploration'' of 2015, NASA Jet Propulsion 
     Laboratory's ``Minimal Architecture for Human Journeys to 
     Mars'' of 2015, and Explore Mars' ``The Humans to Mars Report 
     2016''.

     SEC. 432. HUMAN EXPLORATION ROADMAP.

       (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
       (1) expanding human presence beyond low-Earth orbit and 
     advancing toward human missions to Mars in the 2030s requires 
     early strategic planning and timely decisions to be made in 
     the near-term on the necessary courses of action for 
     commitments to achieve short-term and long-term goals and 
     objectives;

[[Page H1559]]

       (2) for strong and sustained United States leadership, a 
     need exists to advance a human exploration roadmap, 
     addressing exploration objectives in collaboration with 
     international, academic, and industry partners;
       (3) an approach that incrementally advances toward a long-
     term goal is one in which nearer-term developments and 
     implementation would influence future development and 
     implementation; and
       (4) a human exploration roadmap should begin with low-Earth 
     orbit, then address in greater detail progress beyond low-
     Earth orbit to cis-lunar space, and then address future 
     missions aimed at human arrival and activities near and then 
     on the surface of Mars.
       (b) Human Exploration Roadmap.--
       (1) In general.--The Administrator shall develop a human 
     exploration roadmap, including a critical decision plan, to 
     expand human presence beyond low-Earth orbit to the surface 
     of Mars and beyond, considering potential interim 
     destinations such as cis-lunar space and the moons of Mars.
       (2) Scope.--The human exploration roadmap shall include--
       (A) an integrated set of exploration, science, and other 
     goals and objectives of a United States human space 
     exploration program to achieve the long-term goal of human 
     missions near or on the surface of Mars in the 2030s;
       (B) opportunities for international, academic, and industry 
     partnerships for exploration-related systems, services, 
     research, and technology if those opportunities provide cost-
     savings, accelerate program schedules, or otherwise benefit 
     the goals and objectives developed under subparagraph (A);
       (C) sets and sequences of precursor missions in cis-lunar 
     space and other missions or activities necessary--
       (i) to demonstrate the proficiency of the capabilities and 
     technologies identified under subparagraph (D); and
       (ii) to meet the goals and objectives developed under 
     subparagraph (A), including anticipated timelines and 
     missions for the Space Launch System and Orion;
       (D) an identification of the specific capabilities and 
     technologies, including the Space Launch System, Orion, a 
     deep space habitat, and other capabilities, that facilitate 
     the goals and objectives developed under subparagraph (A);
       (E) a description of how cis-lunar elements, objectives, 
     and activities advance the human exploration of Mars;
       (F) an assessment of potential human health and other 
     risks, including radiation exposure;
       (G) mitigation plans, whenever possible, to address the 
     risks identified in subparagraph (F);
       (H) a description of those technologies already under 
     development across the Federal Government or by other 
     entities that facilitate the goals and objectives developed 
     under subparagraph (A);
       (I) a specific process for the evolution of the 
     capabilities of the fully integrated Orion with the Space 
     Launch System and a description of how these systems 
     facilitate the goals and objectives developed under 
     subparagraph (A) and demonstrate the capabilities and 
     technologies described in subparagraph (D);
       (J) a description of the capabilities and technologies that 
     need to be demonstrated or research data that could be gained 
     through the utilization of the ISS and the status of the 
     development of such capabilities and technologies;
       (K) a framework for international cooperation in the 
     development of all capabilities and technologies identified 
     under this section, including an assessment of the risks 
     posed by relying on international partners for capabilities 
     and technologies on the critical path of development;
       (L) a process for partnering with nongovernmental entities 
     using Space Act Agreements or other acquisition instruments 
     for future human space exploration; and
       (M) include information on the phasing of planned 
     intermediate destinations, Mars mission risk areas and 
     potential risk mitigation approaches, technology requirements 
     and phasing of required technology development activities, 
     the management strategy to be followed, related ISS 
     activities, planned international collaborative activities, 
     potential commercial contributions, and other activities 
     relevant to the achievement of the goal established in this 
     section.
       (3) Considerations.--In developing the human exploration 
     roadmap, the Administrator shall consider--
       (A) using key exploration capabilities, namely the Space 
     Launch System and Orion;
       (B) using existing commercially available technologies and 
     capabilities or those technologies and capabilities being 
     developed by industry for commercial purposes;
       (C) establishing an organizational approach to ensure 
     collaboration and coordination among NASA's Mission 
     Directorates under section 821, when appropriate, including 
     to collect and return to Earth a sample from the Martian 
     surface;
       (D) building upon the initial uncrewed mission, EM-1, and 
     first crewed mission, EM-2, of the Space Launch System and 
     Orion to establish a sustainable cadence of missions 
     extending human exploration missions into cis-lunar space, 
     including anticipated timelines and milestones;
       (E) developing the robotic and precursor missions and 
     activities that will demonstrate, test, and develop key 
     technologies and capabilities essential for achieving human 
     missions to Mars, including long-duration human operations 
     beyond low-Earth orbit, space suits, solar electric 
     propulsion, deep space habitats, environmental control life 
     support systems, Mars lander and ascent vehicle, entry, 
     descent, landing, ascent, Mars surface systems, and in-situ 
     resource utilization;
       (F) demonstrating and testing 1 or more habitat modules in 
     cis-lunar space to prepare for Mars missions;
       (G) using public-private, firm fixed-price partnerships, 
     where practicable;
       (H) collaborating with international, academic, and 
     industry partners, when appropriate;
       (I) any risks to human health and sensitive onboard 
     technologies, including radiation exposure;
       (J) any risks identified through research outcomes under 
     the NASA Human Research Program's Behavioral Health Element; 
     and
       (K) the recommendations and ideas of several independently 
     developed reports or concepts that describe potential Mars 
     architectures or concepts and identify Mars as the long-term 
     goal for human space exploration, including the reports 
     described under section 431.
       (4) Critical decision plan on human space exploration.--As 
     part of the human exploration roadmap, the Administrator 
     shall include a critical decision plan--
       (A) identifying and defining key decisions guiding human 
     space exploration priorities and plans that need to be made 
     before June 30, 2020, including decisions that may guide 
     human space exploration capability development, precursor 
     missions, long-term missions, and activities;
       (B) defining decisions needed to maximize efficiencies and 
     resources for reaching the near, intermediate, and long-term 
     goals and objectives of human space exploration; and
       (C) identifying and defining timelines and milestones for a 
     sustainable cadence of missions beginning with EM-3 for the 
     Space Launch System and Orion to extend human exploration 
     from cis-lunar space to the surface of Mars.
       (5) Reports.--
       (A) Initial human exploration roadmap.--The Administrator 
     shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress--
       (i) an initial human exploration roadmap, including a 
     critical decision plan, before December 1, 2017; and
       (ii) an updated human exploration roadmap periodically as 
     the Administrator considers necessary but not less than 
     biennially.
       (B) Contents.--Each human exploration roadmap under this 
     paragraph shall include a description of--
       (i) the achievements and goals accomplished in the process 
     of developing such capabilities and technologies during the 
     2-year period prior to the submission of the human 
     exploration roadmap; and
       (ii) the expected goals and achievements in the following 
     2- year period.
       (C) Submission with budget.--Each human exploration roadmap 
     under this section shall be included in the budget for that 
     fiscal year transmitted to Congress under section 1105(a) of 
     title 31, United States Code.

     SEC. 433. ADVANCED SPACE SUIT CAPABILITY.

       Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this 
     Act, the Administrator shall submit to the appropriate 
     committees of Congress a detailed plan for achieving an 
     advanced space suit capability that aligns with the crew 
     needs for exploration enabled by the Space Launch System and 
     Orion, including an evaluation of the merit of delivering the 
     planned suit system for use on the ISS.

     SEC. 434. ASTEROID ROBOTIC REDIRECT MISSION.

       (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
       (1) NASA initially estimated that the Asteroid Robotic 
     Redirect Mission would launch in December 2020 and cost no 
     more than $1,250,000,000, excluding launch and operations.
       (2) On July 15, 2016, NASA conducted its Key Decision 
     Point-B review of the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission or 
     approval for Phase B in mission formulation.
       (3) During the Key Decision Point-B review, NASA estimated 
     that costs have grown to $1,400,000,000 excluding launch and 
     operations for a launch in December 2021 and the agency must 
     evaluate whether to accept the increase or reduce the 
     Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission's scope to stay within the 
     cost cap set by the Administrator.
       (4) In April 2015, the NASA Advisory Council--
       (A) issued a finding that--
       (i) high-performance solar electric propulsion will likely 
     be an important part of an architecture to send humans to 
     Mars; and
       (ii) maneuvering a large test mass is not necessary to 
     provide a valid in-space test of a new solar electric 
     propulsion stage;
       (B) determined that a solar electric propulsion mission 
     will contribute more directly to the goal of sending humans 
     to Mars if the mission is focused entirely on development and 
     validation of the solar electric propulsion stage; and
       (C) determined that other possible motivations for 
     acquiring and maneuvering a boulder, such as asteroid science 
     and planetary defense, do not have value commensurate with 
     their probable cost.
       (5) The Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission is competing for 
     resources with other critical exploration development 
     programs, including the Space Launch System, Orion, 
     commercial crew, and a habitation module.

[[Page H1560]]

       (6) In 2014, the NASA Advisory Council recommended that 
     NASA conduct an independent cost and technical assessment of 
     the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission.
       (7) In 2015, the NASA Advisory Council recommended that 
     NASA preserve the following key objectives if the program 
     needed to be descoped:
       (A) Development of high power solar electric propulsion.
       (B) Ability to maneuver in a low gravity environment in 
     deep space.
       (8) In January 2015 and July 2015, the NASA Advisory 
     Council expressed its concern to NASA about the potential for 
     growing costs for the program and highlighted that choices 
     would need to be made about the program's content.
       (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
       (1) the technological and scientific goals of the Asteroid 
     Robotic Redirect Mission have not been demonstrated to 
     Congress to be commensurate with the cost; and
       (2) alternative missions may provide a more cost effective 
     and scientifically beneficial means to demonstrate the 
     technologies needed for a human mission to Mars that would 
     otherwise be demonstrated by the Asteroid Robotic Redirect 
     Mission.
       (c) Evaluation and Report.--Not later than 180 days after 
     the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall--
       (1) conduct an evaluation of--
       (A) alternative approaches to the Asteroid Robotic Redirect 
     Mission for demonstrating the technologies and capabilities 
     needed for a human mission to Mars that would otherwise be 
     demonstrated by the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission;
       (B) the scientific and technical benefits of the 
     alternative approaches under subparagraph (A) to future human 
     space exploration compared to scientific and technical 
     benefits of the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission;
       (C) the commercial benefits of the alternative approaches 
     identified in subparagraph (A), including the impact on the 
     development of domestic solar electric propulsion technology 
     to bolster United States competitiveness in the global 
     marketplace; and
       (D) a comparison of the estimated costs of the alternative 
     approaches identified in subparagraph (A); and
       (2) submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a 
     report on the evaluation under paragraph (1), including any 
     recommendations.

     SEC. 435. MARS 2033 REPORT.

       (a) In General.--Not later than 120 days after the date of 
     enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall contract with 
     an independent, non-governmental systems engineering and 
     technical assistance organization to study a Mars human space 
     flight mission to be launched in 2033.
       (b) Contents.--The study shall include--
       (1) a technical development, test, fielding, and operations 
     plan using the Space Launch System, Orion, and other systems 
     to successfully launch such a Mars human space flight mission 
     by 2033;
       (2) an annual budget profile, including cost estimates, for 
     the technical development, test, fielding, and operations 
     plan to carry out a Mars human space flight mission by 2033; 
     and
       (3) a comparison of the annual budget profile to the 5-year 
     budget profile contained in the President's budget request 
     for fiscal year 2017 under section 1105 of title 31, United 
     States Code.
       (c) Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
     enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the 
     appropriate committees of Congress a report on the study, 
     including findings and recommendations regarding the Mars 
     2033 human space flight mission described in subsection (a).
       (d) Assessment.--Not later than 60 days after the date the 
     report is submitted under subsection (c), the Administrator 
     shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress an 
     assessment by the NASA Advisory Council of whether the 
     proposal for a Mars human space flight mission to be launched 
     in 2033 is in the strategic interests of the United States in 
     space exploration.

                    Subtitle D--TREAT Astronauts Act

     SEC. 441. SHORT TITLE.

       This subtitle may be cited as the ``To Research, Evaluate, 
     Assess, and Treat Astronauts Act'' or the ``TREAT Astronauts 
     Act''.

     SEC. 442. FINDINGS; SENSE OF CONGRESS.

       (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
       (1) Human space exploration can pose significant challenges 
     and is full of substantial risk, which has ultimately claimed 
     the lives of 24 NASA astronauts serving in the line of duty.
       (2) As United States government astronauts participate in 
     long-duration and exploration space flight missions they may 
     experience increased health risks, such as vision impairment, 
     bone demineralization, and behavioral health and performance 
     risks, and may be exposed to galactic cosmic radiation. 
     Exposure to high levels of radiation and microgravity can 
     result in acute and long-term health consequences that can 
     increase the risk of cancer and tissue degeneration and have 
     potential effects on the musculoskeletal system, central 
     nervous system, cardiovascular system, immune function, and 
     vision.
       (3) To advance the goal of long-duration and exploration 
     space flight missions, United States government astronaut 
     Scott Kelly participated in a 1-year twins study in space 
     while his identical twin brother, former United States 
     government astronaut Mark Kelly, acted as a human control 
     specimen on Earth, providing an understanding of the 
     physical, behavioral, microbiological, and molecular reaction 
     of the human body to an extended period of time in space.
       (4) Since the Administration currently provides medical 
     monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment for United States 
     government astronauts during their active employment, given 
     the unknown long-term health consequences of long-duration 
     space exploration, the Administration has requested statutory 
     authority from Congress to provide medical monitoring, 
     diagnosis, and treatment to former United States government 
     astronauts for psychological and medical conditions 
     associated with human space flight.
       (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
       (1) the United States should continue to seek the unknown 
     and lead the world in space exploration and scientific 
     discovery as the Administration prepares for long-duration 
     and exploration space flight in deep space and an eventual 
     mission to Mars;
       (2) data relating to the health of astronauts will become 
     increasingly valuable to improving our understanding of many 
     diseases humans face on Earth;
       (3) the Administration should provide the type of 
     monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment described in subsection 
     (a) only for conditions the Administration considers unique 
     to the training or exposure to the space flight environment 
     of United States government astronauts and should not require 
     any former United States Government astronauts to participate 
     in the Administration's monitoring;
       (4) such monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment should not 
     replace a former United States government astronaut's private 
     health insurance;
       (5) expanded data acquired from such monitoring, diagnosis, 
     and treatment should be used to tailor treatment, inform the 
     requirements for new space flight medical hardware, and 
     develop controls in order to prevent disease occurrence in 
     the astronaut corps; and
       (6) the 340-day space mission of Scott Kelly aboard the 
     ISS--
       (A) was pivotal for the goal of the United States for 
     humans to explore deep space and Mars as the mission 
     generated new insight into how the human body adjusts to 
     weightlessness, isolation, radiation, and the stress of long-
     duration space flight; and
       (B) will help support the physical and mental well-being of 
     astronauts during longer space exploration missions in the 
     future.

     SEC. 443. MEDICAL MONITORING AND RESEARCH RELATING TO HUMAN 
                   SPACE FLIGHT.

       (a) In General.--Subchapter III of chapter 201 of title 51, 
     United States Code, as amended by section 305 of this Act, is 
     further amended by adding at the end the following:

     ``Sec. 20149. Medical monitoring and research relating to 
       human space flight

       ``(a) In General.--Notwithstanding any other provision of 
     law, the Administrator may provide for--
       ``(1) the medical monitoring and diagnosis of a former 
     United States government astronaut or a former payload 
     specialist for conditions that the Administrator considers 
     potentially associated with human space flight; and
       ``(2) the treatment of a former United States government 
     astronaut or a former payload specialist for conditions that 
     the Administrator considers associated with human space 
     flight, including scientific and medical tests for 
     psychological and medical conditions.
       ``(b) Requirements.--
       ``(1) No cost sharing.--The medical monitoring, diagnosis, 
     or treatment described in subsection (a) shall be provided 
     without any deductible, copayment, or other cost sharing 
     obligation.
       ``(2) Access to local services.--The medical monitoring, 
     diagnosis, and treatment described in subsection (a) may be 
     provided by a local health care provider if it is unadvisable 
     due to the health of the applicable former United States 
     government astronaut or former payload specialist for that 
     former United States government astronaut or former payload 
     specialist to travel to the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 
     as determined by the Administrator.
       ``(3) Secondary payment.--Payment or reimbursement for the 
     medical monitoring, diagnosis, or treatment described in 
     subsection (a) shall be secondary to any obligation of the 
     United States Government or any third party under any other 
     provision of law or contractual agreement to pay for or 
     provide such medical monitoring, diagnosis, or treatment. Any 
     costs for items and services that may be provided by the 
     Administrator for medical monitoring, diagnosis, or treatment 
     under subsection (a) that are not paid for or provided under 
     such other provision of law or contractual agreement, due to 
     the application of deductibles, copayments, coinsurance, 
     other cost sharing, or otherwise, are reimbursable by the 
     Administrator on behalf of the former United States 
     government astronaut or former payload specialist involved to 
     the extent such items or services are authorized to be 
     provided by the Administrator for such medical monitoring, 
     diagnosis, or treatment under subsection (a).
       ``(4) Conditional payment.--The Administrator may provide 
     for conditional payments

[[Page H1561]]

     for or provide medical monitoring, diagnosis, or treatment 
     described in subsection (a) that is obligated to be paid for 
     or provided by the United States or any third party under any 
     other provision of law or contractual agreement to pay for or 
     provide such medical monitoring, diagnosis, or treatment if--
       ``(A) payment for (or the provision of) such medical 
     monitoring, diagnosis, or treatment services has not been 
     made (or provided) or cannot reasonably be expected to be 
     made (or provided) promptly by the United States or such 
     third party, respectively; and
       ``(B) such payment (or such provision of services) by the 
     Administrator is conditioned on reimbursement by the United 
     States or such third party, respectively, for such medical 
     monitoring, diagnosis, or treatment.
       ``(c) Exclusions.--The Administrator may not--
       ``(1) provide for medical monitoring or diagnosis of a 
     former United States government astronaut or former payload 
     specialist under subsection (a) for any psychological or 
     medical condition that is not potentially associated with 
     human space flight;
       ``(2) provide for treatment of a former United States 
     government astronaut or former payload specialist under 
     subsection (a) for any psychological or medical condition 
     that is not associated with human space flight; or
       ``(3) require a former United States government astronaut 
     or former payload specialist to participate in the medical 
     monitoring, diagnosis, or treatment authorized under 
     subsection (a).
       ``(d) Privacy.--Consistent with applicable provisions of 
     Federal law relating to privacy, the Administrator shall 
     protect the privacy of all medical records generated under 
     subsection (a) and accessible to the Administration.
       ``(e) Regulations.--The Administrator shall promulgate such 
     regulations as are necessary to carry out this section.
       ``(f) Definition of United States Government Astronaut.--In 
     this section, the term `United States government astronaut' 
     has the meaning given the term `government astronaut' in 
     section 50902, except it does not include an individual who 
     is an international partner astronaut.
       ``(g) Data Use and Disclosure.--The Administrator may use 
     or disclose data acquired in the course of medical 
     monitoring, diagnosis, or treatment of a former United States 
     government astronaut or a former payload specialist under 
     subsection (a), in accordance with subsection (d). Former 
     United States government astronaut or former payload 
     specialist participation in medical monitoring, diagnosis, or 
     treatment under subsection (a) shall constitute consent for 
     the Administrator to use or disclose such data.''.
       (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for chapter 
     201 of title 51, United States Code, as amended by section 
     305 of this Act, is further amended by inserting after the 
     item relating to section 20148 the following:

``20149. Medical monitoring and research relating to human space 
              flight.''.

       (c) Annual Reports.--
       (1) In general.--Each fiscal year, not later than the date 
     of submission of the President's annual budget request for 
     that fiscal year under section 1105 of title 31, United 
     States Code, the Administrator shall publish a report, in 
     accordance with applicable Federal privacy laws, on the 
     activities of the Administration under section 20149 of title 
     51, United States Code.
       (2) Contents.--Each report under paragraph (1) shall 
     include a detailed cost accounting of the Administration's 
     activities under section 20149 of title 51, United States 
     Code, and a 5-year budget estimate.
       (3) Submission to congress.--The Administrator shall submit 
     to the appropriate committees of Congress each report under 
     paragraph (1) not later than the date of submission of the 
     President's annual budget request for that fiscal year under 
     section 1105 of title 31, United States Code.
       (d) Cost Estimate.--
       (1) Requirement.--Not later than 90 days after the date of 
     enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall enter into an 
     arrangement with an independent external organization to 
     undertake an independent cost estimate of the cost to the 
     Administration and the Federal Government to implement and 
     administer the activities of the Administration under section 
     20149 of title 51, United States Code. The independent 
     external organization may not be a NASA entity, such as the 
     Office of Safety and Mission Assurance.
       (2) Submittal to congress.--Not later than 1 year after the 
     date of the enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall 
     submit to the appropriate committees of Congress the 
     independent cost estimate under paragraph (1).
       (e) Privacy Study.--
       (1) Study.--The Administrator shall carry out a study on 
     any potential privacy or legal issues related to the possible 
     sharing beyond the Federal Government of data acquired under 
     the activities of the Administration under section 20149 of 
     title 51, United States Code.
       (2) Report.--Not later than 270 days after the date of 
     enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the 
     appropriate committees of Congress a report containing the 
     results of the study carried out under paragraph (1).
       (f) Inspector General Audit.--The Inspector General of NASA 
     shall periodically audit or review, as the Inspector General 
     considers necessary to prevent waste, fraud, and abuse, the 
     activities of the Administration under section 20149 of title 
     51, United States Code.

                    TITLE V--ADVANCING SPACE SCIENCE

     SEC. 501. MAINTAINING A BALANCED SPACE SCIENCE PORTFOLIO.

       (a) Sense of Congress on Science Portfolio.--Congress 
     reaffirms the sense of Congress that--
       (1) a balanced and adequately funded set of activities, 
     consisting of research and analysis grant programs, 
     technology development, suborbital research activities, and 
     small, medium, and large space missions, contributes to a 
     robust and productive science program and serves as a 
     catalyst for innovation and discovery; and
       (2) the Administrator should set science priorities by 
     following the guidance provided by the scientific community 
     through the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and 
     Medicine's decadal surveys.
       (b) Policy.--It is the policy of the United States to 
     ensure, to the extent practicable, a steady cadence of large, 
     medium, and small science missions.

     SEC. 502. PLANETARY SCIENCE.

       (a) Findings.--Congress finds that--
       (1) Administration support for planetary science is 
     critical to enabling greater understanding of the solar 
     system and the origin of the Earth;
       (2) the United States leads the world in planetary science 
     and can augment its success in that area with appropriate 
     international, academic, and industry partnerships;
       (3) a mix of small, medium, and large planetary science 
     missions is required to sustain a steady cadence of planetary 
     exploration; and
       (4) robotic planetary exploration is a key component of 
     preparing for future human exploration.
       (b) Mission Priorities.--
       (1) In general.--In accordance with the priorities 
     established in the most recent Planetary Science Decadal 
     Survey, the Administrator shall ensure, to the greatest 
     extent practicable, the completion of a balanced set of 
     Discovery, New Frontiers, and Flagship missions at the 
     cadence recommended by the most recent Planetary Science 
     Decadal Survey.
       (2) Mission priority adjustments.--Consistent with the set 
     of missions described in paragraph (1), and while maintaining 
     the continuity of scientific data and steady development of 
     capabilities and technologies, the Administrator may seek, if 
     necessary, adjustments to mission priorities, schedule, and 
     scope in light of changing budget projections.

     SEC. 503. JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE.

       It is the sense of Congress that--
       (1) the James Webb Space Telescope will--
       (A) significantly advance our understanding of star and 
     planet formation, and improve our knowledge of the early 
     universe; and
       (B) support United States leadership in astrophysics;
       (2) consistent with annual Government Accountability Office 
     reviews of the James Webb Space Telescope program, the 
     Administrator should continue robust surveillance of the 
     performance of the James Webb Space Telescope project and 
     continue to improve the reliability of cost estimates and 
     contractor performance data and other major space flight 
     projects in order to enhance NASA's ability to successfully 
     deliver the James Webb Space Telescope on-time and within 
     budget;
       (3) the on-time and on-budget delivery of the James Webb 
     Space Telescope is a high congressional priority; and
       (4) the Administrator should ensure that integrated testing 
     is appropriately timed and sufficiently comprehensive to 
     enable potential issues to be identified and addressed early 
     enough to be handled within the James Webb Space Telescope's 
     development schedule and prior to its launch.

     SEC. 504. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY TELESCOPE.

       (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
       (1) the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (referred to 
     in this section as ``WFIRST'') mission has the potential to 
     enable scientific discoveries that will transform our 
     understanding of the universe; and
       (2) the Administrator, to the extent practicable, should 
     make progress on the technologies and capabilities needed to 
     position the Administration to meet the objectives, as 
     outlined in the 2010 National Academies' Astronomy and 
     Astrophysics Decadal Survey, in a way that maximizes the 
     scientific productivity of meeting those objectives for the 
     resources invested.
       (b) Continuity of Development.--The Administrator shall 
     ensure that the concept definition and pre-formulation 
     activities of the WFIRST mission continue while the James 
     Webb Space Telescope is being completed.

     SEC. 505. MARS 2020 ROVER.

       It is the sense of Congress that--
       (1) the Mars 2020 mission, to develop a Mars rover and to 
     enable the return of samples to Earth, should remain a 
     priority for NASA; and
       (2) the Mars 2020 mission--
       (A) should significantly increase our understanding of 
     Mars;
       (B) should help determine whether life previously existed 
     on that planet; and

[[Page H1562]]

       (C) should provide opportunities to gather knowledge and 
     demonstrate technologies that address the challenges of 
     future human expeditions to Mars.

     SEC. 506. EUROPA.

       (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
       (1) Studies of Europa, Jupiter's moon, indicate that Europa 
     may provide a habitable environment, as it contains key 
     ingredients known to support life.
       (2) In 2012, using the Hubble Space Telescope, NASA 
     scientists observed water vapor around the south polar region 
     of Europa, which provides potential evidence of water plumes 
     in that region.
       (3) For decades, the Europa mission has consistently ranked 
     as a high priority mission for the scientific community.
       (4) The Europa mission was ranked as the top priority 
     mission in the previous Planetary Science Decadal Survey and 
     ranked as the second-highest priority in the current 
     Planetary Science Decadal Survey.
       (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
       (1) the Europa mission could provide another avenue in 
     which to capitalize on our Nation's current investment in the 
     Space Launch System that would significantly reduce the 
     transit time for such a deep space mission; and
       (2) a scientific, robotic exploration mission to Europa, as 
     prioritized in both Planetary Science Decadal Surveys, should 
     be supported.

     SEC. 507. CONGRESSIONAL DECLARATION OF POLICY AND PURPOSE.

       Section 20102(d) of title 51, United States Code, is 
     amended by adding at the end the following:
       ``(10) The search for life's origin, evolution, 
     distribution, and future in the universe.''.

     SEC. 508. EXTRASOLAR PLANET EXPLORATION STRATEGY.

       (a) Strategy.--
       (1) In general.--The Administrator shall enter into an 
     arrangement with the National Academies to develop a science 
     strategy for the study and exploration of extrasolar planets, 
     including the use of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey 
     Satellite, the James Webb Space Telescope, a potential Wide-
     Field Infrared Survey Telescope mission, or any other 
     telescope, spacecraft, or instrument, as appropriate.
       (2) Requirements.--The strategy shall--
       (A) outline key scientific questions;
       (B) identify the most promising research in the field;
       (C) indicate the extent to which the mission priorities in 
     existing decadal surveys address the key extrasolar planet 
     research and exploration goals;
       (D) identify opportunities for coordination with 
     international partners, commercial partners, and not-for-
     profit partners; and
       (E) make recommendations regarding the activities under 
     subparagraphs (A) through (D), as appropriate.
       (b) Use of Strategy.--The Administrator shall use the 
     strategy--
       (1) to inform roadmaps, strategic plans, and other 
     activities of the Administration as they relate to extrasolar 
     planet research and exploration; and
       (2) to provide a foundation for future activities and 
     initiatives related to extrasolar planet research and 
     exploration.
       (c) Report to Congress.--Not later than 18 months after the 
     date of enactment of this Act, the National Academies shall 
     submit to the Administrator and to the appropriate committees 
     of Congress a report containing the strategy developed under 
     subsection (a).

     SEC. 509. ASTROBIOLOGY STRATEGY.

       (a) Strategy.--
       (1) In general.--The Administrator shall enter into an 
     arrangement with the National Academies to develop a science 
     strategy for astrobiology that would outline key scientific 
     questions, identify the most promising research in the field, 
     and indicate the extent to which the mission priorities in 
     existing decadal surveys address the search for life's 
     origin, evolution, distribution, and future in the Universe.
       (2) Recommendations.--The strategy shall include 
     recommendations for coordination with international partners.
       (b) Use of Strategy.--The Administrator shall use the 
     strategy developed under subsection (a) in planning and 
     funding research and other activities and initiatives in the 
     field of astrobiology.
       (c) Report to Congress.--Not later than 18 months after the 
     date of enactment of this Act, the National Academies shall 
     submit to the Administrator and to the appropriate committees 
     of Congress a report containing the strategy developed under 
     subsection (a).

     SEC. 510. ASTROBIOLOGY PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS.

       Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this 
     Act, the Administrator shall submit to the appropriate 
     committees of Congress a report describing how the 
     Administration can expand collaborative partnerships to study 
     life's origin, evolution, distribution, and future in the 
     universe.

     SEC. 511. NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS.

       Section 321 of the National Aeronautics and Space 
     Administration Authorization Act of 2005 (51 U.S.C. note 
     prec. 71101) is amended by adding at the end the following:
       ``(e) Program Report.--The Director of the Office of 
     Science and Technology Policy and the Administrator shall 
     submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
     Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Science, 
     Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives, not 
     later than 1 year after the date of enactment of the National 
     Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition Authorization 
     Act of 2017, an initial report that provides--
       ``(1) recommendations for carrying out the Survey program 
     and an associated proposed budget;
       ``(2) an analysis of possible options that the 
     Administration could employ to divert an object on a likely 
     collision course with Earth; and
       ``(3) a description of the status of efforts to coordinate 
     and cooperate with other countries to discover hazardous 
     asteroids and comets, plan a mitigation strategy, and 
     implement that strategy in the event of the discovery of an 
     object on a likely collision course with Earth.
       ``(f) Annual Reports.--After the initial report under 
     subsection (e), the Administrator shall annually transmit to 
     the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the 
     Senate and the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of 
     the House of Representatives a report that includes--
       ``(1) a summary of all activities carried out under 
     subsection (d) since the date of enactment of the National 
     Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition Authorization 
     Act of 2017, including the progress toward achieving 90 
     percent completion of the survey described in subsection (d); 
     and
       ``(2) a summary of expenditures for all activities carried 
     out under subsection (d) since the date of enactment of the 
     National Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition 
     Authorization Act of 2017.
       ``(g) Assessment.--The Administrator, in collaboration with 
     other relevant Federal agencies, shall carry out a technical 
     and scientific assessment of the capabilities and resources--
       ``(1) to accelerate the survey described in subsection (d); 
     and
       ``(2) to expand the Administration's Near-Earth Object 
     Program to include the detection, tracking, cataloguing, and 
     characterization of potentially hazardous near-Earth objects 
     less than 140 meters in diameter.
       ``(h) Transmittal.--Not later than 270 days after the date 
     of enactment of the National Aeronautics and Space 
     Administration Transition Authorization Act of 2017, the 
     Administrator shall transmit the results of the assessment 
     under subsection (g) to the Committee on Commerce, Science, 
     and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on 
     Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
     Representatives.''.

     SEC. 512. NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS.

       (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that 
     the Administration should seek to leverage the capabilities 
     of the private sector and philanthropic organizations to the 
     maximum extent practicable in carrying out the Near-Earth 
     Object Survey Program in order to meet the goal of that 
     program under section 321(d)(1) of the National Aeronautics 
     and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2005 (51 U.S.C. 
     note prec. 71101(d)(1)).
       (b) Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
     enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the 
     appropriate committees of Congress a report describing how 
     the Administration can expand collaborative partnerships to 
     detect, track, catalogue, and categorize near-Earth objects.

     SEC. 513. ASSESSMENT OF SCIENCE MISSION EXTENSIONS.

       Section 30504 of title 51, United States Code, is amended 
     to read as follows:

     ``Sec. 30504. Assessment of science mission extensions

       ``(a) Assessments.--
       ``(1) In general.--The Administrator shall carry out 
     triennial reviews within each of the Science divisions to 
     assess the cost and benefits of extending the date of the 
     termination of data collection for those missions that exceed 
     their planned missions' lifetime.
       ``(2) Considerations.--In conducting an assessment under 
     paragraph (1), the Administrator shall consider whether and 
     how extending missions impacts the start of future missions.
       ``(b) Consultation and Consideration of Potential Benefits 
     of Instruments on Missions.--When deciding whether to extend 
     a mission that has an operational component, the 
     Administrator shall--
       ``(1) consult with any affected Federal agency; and
       ``(2) take into account the potential benefits of 
     instruments on missions that are beyond their planned mission 
     lifetime.
       ``(c) Reports.--The Administrator shall submit to the 
     Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the 
     Senate and the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of 
     the House of Representatives, at the same time as the 
     submission to Congress of the Administration's annual budget 
     request for each fiscal year, a report detailing any 
     assessment under subsection (a) that was carried out during 
     the previous year.''.

     SEC. 514. STRATOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY FOR INFRARED ASTRONOMY.

       The Administrator may not terminate science operations of 
     the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy before 
     December 31, 2017.

     SEC. 515. RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS.

       (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
       (1) exploration of the outer reaches of the solar system is 
     enabled by radioisotope power systems;

[[Page H1563]]

       (2) establishing continuity in the production of the 
     material needed for radioisotope power systems is essential 
     to maintaining the availability of such systems for future 
     deep space exploration missions; and
       (3) Federal agencies supporting the Administration through 
     the production of such material should do so in a cost 
     effective manner so as not to impose excessive reimbursement 
     requirements on the Administration.
       (b) Analysis of Requirements and Risks.--The Director of 
     the Office of Science and Technology Policy and the 
     Administrator, in consultation with the heads of other 
     Federal agencies, shall conduct an analysis of--
       (1) the requirements of the Administration for radioisotope 
     power system material that is needed to carry out planned, 
     high priority robotic missions in the solar system and other 
     surface exploration activities beyond low-Earth orbit; and
       (2) the risks to missions of the Administration in meeting 
     those requirements, or any additional requirements, due to a 
     lack of adequate radioisotope power system material.
       (c) Contents of Analysis.--The analysis conducted under 
     subsection (b) shall--
       (1) detail the Administration's current projected mission 
     requirements and associated timeframes for radioisotope power 
     system material;
       (2) explain the assumptions used to determine the 
     Administration's requirements for the material, including--
       (A) the planned use of advanced thermal conversion 
     technology such as advanced thermocouples and Stirling 
     generators and converters; and
       (B) the risks and implications of, and contingencies for, 
     any delays or unanticipated technical challenges affecting or 
     related to the Administration's mission plans for the 
     anticipated use of advanced thermal conversion technology;
       (3) assess the risk to the Administration's programs of any 
     potential delays in achieving the schedule and milestones for 
     planned domestic production of radioisotope power system 
     material;
       (4) outline a process for meeting any additional 
     Administration requirements for the material;
       (5) estimate the incremental costs required to increase the 
     amount of material produced each year, if such an increase is 
     needed to support additional Administration requirements for 
     the material;
       (6) detail how the Administration and other Federal 
     agencies will manage, operate, and fund production facilities 
     and the design and development of all radioisotope power 
     systems used by the Administration and other Federal agencies 
     as necessary;
       (7) specify the steps the Administration will take, in 
     consultation with the Department of Energy, to preserve the 
     infrastructure and workforce necessary for production of 
     radioisotope power systems and ensure that its reimbursements 
     to the Department of Energy associated with such preservation 
     are equitable and justified; and
       (8) detail how the Administration has implemented or 
     rejected the recommendations from the National Research 
     Council's 2009 report titled ``Radioisotope Power Systems: An 
     Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space 
     Exploration.''
       (d) Report to Congress.--Not later than 180 days after the 
     date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit 
     the results of the analysis to the appropriate committees of 
     Congress.

     SEC. 516. ASSESSMENT OF MARS ARCHITECTURE.

       (a) Assessment.--The Administrator shall enter into an 
     arrangement with the National Academies of Sciences, 
     Engineering, and Medicine to assess--
       (1) the Administration's Mars exploration architecture and 
     its responsiveness to the strategies, priorities, and 
     guidelines put forward by the National Academies' planetary 
     science decadal surveys and other relevant National Academies 
     Mars-related reports;
       (2) the long-term goals of the Administration's Mars 
     Exploration Program and such program's ability to optimize 
     the science return, given the current fiscal posture of the 
     program;
       (3) the Mars exploration architecture's relationship to 
     Mars-related activities to be undertaken by foreign agencies 
     and organizations; and
       (4) the extent to which the Mars exploration architecture 
     represents a reasonably balanced mission portfolio.
       (b) Report to Congress.--Not later than 18 months after the 
     date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit 
     the results of the assessment to the appropriate committees 
     of Congress.

     SEC. 517. COLLABORATION.

       The Administration shall continue to develop first-of-a-
     kind instruments that, once proved, can be transitioned to 
     other agencies for operations. Whenever responsibilities for 
     the development of sensors or for measurements are 
     transferred to the Administration from another agency, the 
     Administration shall seek, to the extent possible, to be 
     reimbursed for the assumption of such responsibilities.

                         TITLE VI--AERONAUTICS

     SEC. 601. SENSE OF CONGRESS ON AERONAUTICS.

       It is the sense of Congress that--
       (1) a robust aeronautics research portfolio will help 
     maintain the United States status as a leader in aviation, 
     enhance the competitiveness of the United States in the world 
     economy, and improve the quality of life of all citizens;
       (2) aeronautics research is essential to the 
     Administration's mission, continues to be an important core 
     element of the Administration's mission, and should be 
     supported;
       (3) the Administrator should coordinate and consult with 
     relevant Federal agencies and the private sector to minimize 
     duplication of efforts and leverage resources; and
       (4) carrying aeronautics research to a level of maturity 
     that allows the Administration's research results to be 
     transferred to the users, whether private or public sector, 
     is critical to their eventual adoption.

     SEC. 602. TRANSFORMATIVE AERONAUTICS RESEARCH.

       It is the sense of Congress that the Administrator should 
     look strategically into the future and ensure that the 
     Administration's Center personnel are at the leading edge of 
     aeronautics research by encouraging investigations into the 
     early-stage advancement of new processes, novel concepts, and 
     innovative technologies that have the potential to meet 
     national aeronautics needs.

     SEC. 603. HYPERSONIC RESEARCH.

       (a) Roadmap for Hypersonic Research.--Not later than 1 year 
     after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator, 
     in consultation with the heads of other relevant Federal 
     agencies, shall develop and submit to the appropriate 
     committees of Congress a research and development roadmap for 
     hypersonic aircraft research.
       (b) Objective.--The objective of the roadmap is to explore 
     hypersonic science and technology using air-breathing 
     propulsion concepts, through a mix of theoretical work, basic 
     and applied research, and development of flight research 
     demonstration vehicles.
       (c) Contents.--The roadmap shall recommend appropriate 
     Federal agency contributions, coordination efforts, and 
     technology milestones.

     SEC. 604. SUPERSONIC RESEARCH.

       (a) Findings.--Congress finds that--
       (1) the ability to fly commercial aircraft over land at 
     supersonic speeds without adverse impacts on the environment 
     or on local communities could open new global markets and 
     enable new transportation capabilities; and
       (2) continuing the Administration's research program is 
     necessary to assess the impact in a relevant environment of 
     commercial supersonic flight operations and provide the basis 
     for establishing appropriate sonic boom standards for such 
     flight operations.
       (b) Roadmap for Supersonic Research.--
       (1) In general.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
     enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall develop and 
     submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a roadmap 
     that allows for flexible funding profiles for supersonic 
     aeronautics research and development.
       (2) Objective.--The objective of the roadmap is to develop 
     and demonstrate, in a relevant environment, airframe and 
     propulsion technologies to minimize the environmental impact, 
     including noise, of supersonic overland flight in an 
     efficient and economical manner.
       (3) Contents.--The roadmap shall include--
       (A) the baseline research as embodied by the 
     Administration's existing research on supersonic flight;
       (B) a list of specific technological, environmental, and 
     other challenges that must be overcome to minimize the 
     environmental impact, including noise, of supersonic overland 
     flight;
       (C) a research plan to address the challenges under 
     subparagraph (B), including a project timeline for 
     accomplishing relevant research goals;
       (D) a plan for coordination with stakeholders, including 
     relevant government agencies and industry; and
       (E) a plan for how the Administration will ensure that 
     sonic boom research is coordinated as appropriate with 
     relevant Federal agencies.

     SEC. 605. ROTORCRAFT RESEARCH.

       (a) Roadmap for Rotorcraft Research.--Not later than 1 year 
     after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator, 
     in consultation with the heads of other relevant Federal 
     agencies, shall prepare and submit to the appropriate 
     committees of Congress a roadmap for research relating to 
     rotorcraft and other runway-independent air vehicles.
       (b) Objective.--The objective of the roadmap is to develop 
     and demonstrate improved safety, noise, and environmental 
     impact in a relevant environment.
       (c) Contents.--The roadmap shall include specific goals for 
     the research, a timeline for implementation, metrics for 
     success, and guidelines for collaboration and coordination 
     with industry and other Federal agencies.

                      TITLE VII--SPACE TECHNOLOGY

     SEC. 701. SPACE TECHNOLOGY INFUSION.

       (a) Sense of Congress on Space Technology.--It is the sense 
     of Congress that space technology is critical--
       (1) to developing technologies and capabilities that will 
     make the Administration's core missions more affordable and 
     more reliable;
       (2) to enabling a new class of Administration missions 
     beyond low-Earth orbit; and
       (3) to improving technological capabilities and promote 
     innovation for the Administration and the Nation.
       (b) Sense of Congress on Propulsion Technology.--It is the 
     sense of Congress

[[Page H1564]]

     that advancing propulsion technology would improve the 
     efficiency of trips to Mars and could shorten travel time to 
     Mars, reduce astronaut health risks, and reduce radiation 
     exposure, consumables, and mass of materials required for the 
     journey.
       (c) Policy.--It is the policy of the United States that the 
     Administrator shall develop technologies to support the 
     Administration's core missions, as described in section 2(3) 
     of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
     Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18301(3)), and support 
     sustained investments in early stage innovation, fundamental 
     research, and technologies to expand the boundaries of the 
     national aerospace enterprise.
       (d) Propulsion Technologies.--A goal of propulsion 
     technologies developed under subsection (c) shall be to 
     significantly reduce human travel time to Mars.

     SEC. 702. SPACE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM.

       (a) Space Technology Program Authorized.--The Administrator 
     shall conduct a space technology program (referred to in this 
     section as the ``Program'') to research and develop advanced 
     space technologies that could deliver innovative solutions 
     across the Administration's space exploration and science 
     missions.
       (b) Considerations.--In conducting the Program, the 
     Administrator shall consider--
       (1) the recommendations of the National Academies' review 
     of the Administration's Space Technology roadmaps and 
     priorities; and
       (2) the applicable enabling aspects of the stepping stone 
     approach to exploration under section 70504 of title 51, 
     United States Code.
       (c) Requirements.--In conducting the Program, the 
     Administrator shall--
       (1) to the extent practicable, use a competitive process to 
     select research and development projects;
       (2) to the extent practicable and appropriate, use small 
     satellites and the Administration's suborbital and ground-
     based platforms to demonstrate space technology concepts and 
     developments; and
       (3) as appropriate, partner with other Federal agencies, 
     universities, private industry, and foreign countries.
       (d) Small Business Programs.--The Administrator shall 
     organize and manage the Administration's Small Business 
     Innovation Research Program and Small Business Technology 
     Transfer Program within the Program.
       (e) Nonduplication Certification.--The Administrator shall 
     submit a budget for each fiscal year, as transmitted to 
     Congress under section 1105(a) of title 31, United States 
     Code, that avoids duplication of projects, programs, or 
     missions conducted by Program with other projects, programs, 
     or missions conducted by another office or directorate of the 
     Administration.
       (f) Collaboration, Coordination, and Alignment.--
       (1) In general.--The Administrator shall--
       (A) ensure that the Administration's projects, programs, 
     and activities in support of technology research and 
     development of advanced space technologies are fully 
     coordinated and aligned;
       (B) ensure that the results the projects, programs, and 
     activities under subparagraph (A) are shared and leveraged 
     within the Administration; and
       (C) ensure that the organizational responsibility for 
     research and development activities in support of human space 
     exploration not initiated as of the date of enactment of this 
     Act is established on the basis of a sound rationale.
       (2) Sense of congress.--It is the sense of Congress that 
     projects, programs, and missions being conducted by the Human 
     Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate in support of 
     research and development of advanced space technologies and 
     systems focusing on human space exploration should continue 
     in that Directorate.
       (g) Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
     enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall provide to the 
     appropriate committees of Congress a report--
       (1) comparing the Administration's space technology 
     investments with the high-priority technology areas 
     identified by the National Academies in the National Research 
     Council's report on the Administration's Space Technology 
     Roadmaps; and
       (2) including--
       (A) identification of how the Administration will address 
     any gaps between the agency's investments and the recommended 
     technology areas, including a projection of funding 
     requirements; and
       (B) identification of the rationale described in subsection 
     (f)(1)(C).
       (h) Annual Report.--The Administrator shall include in the 
     Administration's annual budget request for each fiscal year 
     the rationale for assigning organizational responsibility 
     for, in the year prior to the budget fiscal year, each 
     initiated project, program, and mission focused on research 
     and development of advanced technologies for human space 
     exploration.

                   TITLE VIII--MAXIMIZING EFFICIENCY

      Subtitle A--Agency Information Technology and Cybersecurity

     SEC. 811. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY GOVERNANCE.

       (a) In General.--The Administrator shall, in a manner that 
     reflects the unique nature of NASA's mission and expertise--
       (1) ensure the NASA Chief Information Officer, Mission 
     Directorates, and Centers have appropriate roles in the 
     management, governance, and oversight processes related to 
     information technology operations and investments and 
     information security programs for the protection of NASA 
     systems;
       (2) ensure the NASA Chief Information Officer has the 
     appropriate resources and insight to oversee NASA information 
     technology and information security operations and 
     investments;
       (3) provide an information technology program management 
     framework to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of 
     information technology investments, including relying on 
     metrics for identifying and reducing potential duplication, 
     waste, and cost;
       (4) improve the operational linkage between the NASA Chief 
     Information Officer and each NASA mission directorate, 
     center, and mission support office to ensure both agency and 
     mission needs are considered in agency-wide information 
     technology and information security management and oversight;
       (5) review the portfolio of information technology 
     investments and spending, including information technology-
     related investments included as part of activities within 
     NASA mission directorates that may not be considered 
     information technology, to ensure investments are recognized 
     and reported appropriately based on guidance from the Office 
     of Management and Budget;
       (6) consider appropriate revisions to the charters of 
     information technology boards and councils that inform 
     information technology investment and operation decisions; 
     and
       (7) consider whether the NASA Chief Information Officer 
     should have a seat on any boards or councils described in 
     paragraph (6).
       (b) GAO Study.--
       (1) Study.--The Comptroller General of the United States 
     shall conduct a study of the effectiveness of the 
     Administration's Information Technology Governance in 
     ensuring information technology resources are aligned with 
     agency missions and are cost effective and secure.
       (2) Contents.--The study shall include an assessment of--
       (A) the resources available for overseeing Administration-
     wide information technology operations, investments, and 
     security measures and the NASA Chief Information Officer's 
     visibility and involvement into information technology 
     oversight and access to those resources;
       (B) the effectiveness and challenges of the 
     Administration's information technology structure, decision 
     making processes and authorities, including impacts on its 
     ability to implement information security; and
       (C) the impact of NASA Chief Information Officer approval 
     authority over information technology investments that exceed 
     a defined monetary threshold, including any potential impacts 
     of such authority on the Administration's missions, flights 
     programs and projects, research activities, and Center 
     operations.
       (3) Report.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
     enactment of this Act, the Comptroller General shall submit 
     to the appropriate committees of Congress a report detailing 
     the results of the study under paragraph (1), including any 
     recommendations.

     SEC. 812. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STRATEGIC PLAN.

       (a) In General.--Subject to subsection (b), the 
     Administrator shall develop an information technology 
     strategic plan to guide NASA information technology 
     management and strategic objectives.
       (b) Requirements.--In developing the strategic plan, the 
     Administrator shall ensure that the strategic plan 
     addresses--
       (1) the deadline under section 306(a) of title 5, United 
     States Code; and
       (2) the requirements under section 3506 of title 44, United 
     States Code.
       (c) Contents.--The strategic plan shall address, in a 
     manner that reflects the unique nature of NASA's mission and 
     expertise--
       (1) near and long-term goals and objectives for leveraging 
     information technology;
       (2) a plan for how NASA will submit to Congress of a list 
     of information technology projects, including completion 
     dates and risk level in accordance with guidance from the 
     Office of Management and Budget;
       (3) an implementation overview for an agency-wide approach 
     to information technology investments and operations, 
     including reducing barriers to cross-center collaboration;
       (4) coordination by the NASA Chief Information Officer with 
     centers and mission directorates to ensure that information 
     technology policies are effectively and efficiently 
     implemented across the agency;
       (5) a plan to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of 
     information technology investments, including a description 
     of how unnecessarily duplicative, wasteful, legacy, or 
     outdated information technology across NASA will be 
     identified and eliminated, and a schedule for the 
     identification and elimination of such information 
     technology;
       (6) a plan for improving the information security of agency 
     information and agency information systems, including 
     improving security control assessments and role-based 
     security training of employees; and
       (7) submission by NASA to Congress of information regarding 
     high risk projects and cybersecurity risks.
       (d) Congressional Oversight.--The Administrator shall 
     submit to the appropriate committees of Congress the 
     strategic plan under subsection (a) and any updates thereto.

[[Page H1565]]

  


     SEC. 813. CYBERSECURITY.

       (a) Finding.--Congress finds that the security of NASA 
     information and information systems is vital to the success 
     of the mission of the agency.
       (b) Information Security Plan.--
       (1) In general.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
     enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall implement the 
     information security plan developed under paragraph (2) and 
     take such further actions as the Administrator considers 
     necessary to improve the information security system in 
     accordance with this section.
       (2) Information security plan.--Subject to paragraphs (3) 
     and (4), the Administrator shall develop an agency-wide 
     information security plan to enhance information security for 
     NASA information and information infrastructure.
       (3) Requirements.--In developing the plan under paragraph 
     (2), the Administrator shall ensure that the plan--
       (A) reflects the unique nature of NASA's mission and 
     expertise;
       (B) is informed by policies, standards, guidelines, and 
     directives on information security required for Federal 
     agencies;
       (C) is consistent with the standards and guidelines under 
     section 11331 of title 40, United States Code; and
       (D) meets applicable National Institute of Standards and 
     Technology information security standards and guidelines.
       (4) Contents.--The plan shall address--
       (A) an overview of the requirements of the information 
     security system;
       (B) an agency-wide risk management framework for 
     information security;
       (C) a description of the information security system 
     management controls and common controls that are necessary to 
     ensure compliance with information security-related 
     requirements;
       (D) an identification and assignment of roles, 
     responsibilities, and management commitment for information 
     security at the agency;
       (E) coordination among organizational entities, including 
     between each center, facility, mission directorate, and 
     mission support office, and among agency entities responsible 
     for different aspects of information security;
       (F) the need to protect the information security of 
     mission-critical systems and activities and high-impact and 
     moderate-impact information systems; and
       (G) a schedule of frequent reviews and updates, as 
     necessary, of the plan.

     SEC. 814. SECURITY MANAGEMENT OF FOREIGN NATIONAL ACCESS.

       The Administrator shall notify the appropriate committees 
     of Congress when the agency has implemented the information 
     technology security recommendations from the National Academy 
     of Public Administration on foreign national access 
     management, based on reports from January 2014 and March 
     2016.

     SEC. 815. CYBERSECURITY OF WEB APPLICATIONS.

       Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this 
     Act, the Administrator shall, in a manner that reflects the 
     unique nature of NASA's mission and expertise--
       (1) develop a plan, including such actions and milestones 
     as are necessary, to fully remediate security vulnerabilities 
     of NASA web applications within a timely fashion after 
     discovery; and
       (2) provide an update on its plan to implement the 
     recommendation from the NASA Inspector General in the audit 
     report dated July 10, 2014, (IG-14-023) to remove from the 
     Internet or otherwise secure all NASA web applications in 
     development or testing mode.

 Subtitle B--Collaboration Among Mission Directorates and Other Matters

     SEC. 821. COLLABORATION AMONG MISSION DIRECTORATES.

       The Administrator shall encourage an interdisciplinary 
     approach among all NASA mission directorates and divisions, 
     whenever appropriate, for projects or missions--
       (1) to improve coordination, and encourage collaboration 
     and early planning on scope;
       (2) to determine areas of overlap or alignment;
       (3) to find ways to leverage across divisional perspectives 
     to maximize outcomes; and
       (4) to be more efficient with resources and funds.

     SEC. 822. NASA LAUNCH CAPABILITIES COLLABORATION.

       (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
       (1) The Launch Services Program is responsible for the 
     acquisition, management, and technical oversight of 
     commercial launch services for NASA's science and robotic 
     missions.
       (2) The Commercial Crew Program is responsible for the 
     acquisition, management, and technical oversight of 
     commercial crew transportation systems.
       (3) The Launch Services Program and Commercial Crew Program 
     have worked together to gain exceptional technical insight 
     into the contracted launch service providers that are common 
     to both programs.
       (4) The Launch Services Program has a long history of 
     oversight of 12 different launch vehicles and over 80 
     launches.
       (5) Co-location of the Launch Services Program and 
     Commercial Crew Program has enabled the Commercial Crew 
     Program to efficiently obtain the launch vehicle technical 
     expertise of and provide engineering and analytical support 
     to the Commercial Crew Program.
       (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
       (1) the Launch Services Program and Commercial Crew Program 
     each benefit from communication and coordination of launch 
     manifests, technical information, and common launch vehicle 
     insight between the programs; and
       (2) such communication and coordination is enabled by the 
     co-location of the programs.
       (c) In General.--The Administrator shall pursue a strategy 
     for acquisition of crewed transportation services and non-
     crewed launch services that continues to enhance 
     communication, collaboration, and coordination between the 
     Launch Services Program and the Commercial Crew Program.

     SEC. 823. DETECTION AND AVOIDANCE OF COUNTERFEIT PARTS.

       (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
       (1) A 2012 investigation by the Committee on Armed Services 
     of the Senate of counterfeit electronic parts in the 
     Department of Defense supply chain from 2009 through 2010 
     uncovered 1,800 cases and over 1,000,000 counterfeit parts 
     and exposed the threat such counterfeit parts pose to service 
     members and national security.
       (2) Since 2010, the Comptroller General of the United 
     States has identified in 3 separate reports the risks and 
     challenges associated with counterfeit parts and counterfeit 
     prevention at both the Department of Defense and NASA, 
     including inconsistent definitions of counterfeit parts, 
     poorly targeted quality control practices, and potential 
     barriers to improvements to these practices.
       (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that 
     the presence of counterfeit electronic parts in the NASA 
     supply chain poses a danger to United States government 
     astronauts, crew, and other personnel and a risk to the 
     agency overall.
       (c) Regulations.--
       (1) In general.--Not later than 270 days after the date of 
     enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall revise the 
     NASA Supplement to the Federal Acquisition Regulation to 
     improve the detection and avoidance of counterfeit electronic 
     parts in the supply chain.
       (2) Contractor responsibilities.--In revising the 
     regulations under paragraph (1), the Administrator shall--
       (A) require each covered contractor--
       (i) to detect and avoid the use or inclusion of any 
     counterfeit parts in electronic parts or products that 
     contain electronic parts;
       (ii) to take such corrective actions as the Administrator 
     considers necessary to remedy the use or inclusion described 
     in clause (i); and
       (iii) including a subcontractor, to notify the applicable 
     NASA contracting officer not later than 30 calendar days 
     after the date the covered contractor becomes aware, or has 
     reason to suspect, that any end item, component, part or 
     material contained in supplies purchased by NASA, or 
     purchased by a covered contractor or subcontractor for 
     delivery to, or on behalf of, NASA, contains a counterfeit 
     electronic part or suspect counterfeit electronic part; and
       (B) prohibit the cost of counterfeit electronic parts, 
     suspect counterfeit electronic parts, and any corrective 
     action described under subparagraph (A)(ii) from being 
     included as allowable costs under agency contracts, unless--
       (i)(I) the covered contractor has an operational system to 
     detect and avoid counterfeit electronic parts and suspect 
     counterfeit electronic parts that has been reviewed and 
     approved by NASA or the Department of Defense; and

       (II) the covered contractor has provided the notice under 
     subparagraph (A)(iii); or

       (ii) the counterfeit electronic parts or suspect 
     counterfeit electronic parts were provided to the covered 
     contractor as Government property in accordance with part 45 
     of the Federal Acquisition Regulation.
       (3) Suppliers of electronic parts.--In revising the 
     regulations under paragraph (1), the Administrator shall--
       (A) require NASA and covered contractors, including 
     subcontractors, at all tiers--
       (i) to obtain electronic parts that are in production or 
     currently available in stock from--

       (I) the original manufacturers of the parts or their 
     authorized dealers; or
       (II) suppliers who obtain such parts exclusively from the 
     original manufacturers of the parts or their authorized 
     dealers; and

       (ii) to obtain electronic parts that are not in production 
     or currently available in stock from suppliers that meet 
     qualification requirements established under subparagraph 
     (C);
       (B) establish documented requirements consistent with 
     published industry standards or Government contract 
     requirements for--
       (i) notification of the agency; and
       (ii) inspection, testing, and authentication of electronic 
     parts that NASA or a covered contractor, including a 
     subcontractor, obtains from any source other than a source 
     described in subparagraph (A);
       (C) establish qualification requirements, consistent with 
     the requirements of section 2319 of title 10, United States 
     Code, pursuant to which NASA may identify suppliers that have 
     appropriate policies and procedures in place to detect and 
     avoid counterfeit electronic parts and suspect counterfeit 
     electronic parts; and

[[Page H1566]]

       (D) authorize a covered contractor, including a 
     subcontractor, to identify and use additional suppliers 
     beyond those identified under subparagraph (C) if--
       (i) the standards and processes for identifying such 
     suppliers comply with established industry standards;
       (ii) the covered contractor assumes responsibility for the 
     authenticity of parts provided by such suppliers under 
     paragraph (2); and
       (iii) the selection of such suppliers is subject to review 
     and audit by NASA.
       (d) Definitions.--In this section:
       (1) Covered contractor.--The term ``covered contractor'' 
     means a contractor that supplies an electronic part, or a 
     product that contains an electronic part, to NASA.
       (2) Electronic part.--The term ``electronic part'' means a 
     discrete electronic component, including a microcircuit, 
     transistor, capacitor, resistor, or diode, that is intended 
     for use in a safety or mission critical application.

     SEC. 824. EDUCATION AND OUTREACH.

       (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
       (1) United States competitiveness in the 21st century 
     requires engaging the science, technology, engineering, and 
     mathematics (referred to in this section as ``STEM'') talent 
     in all States;
       (2) the Administration is uniquely positioned to educate 
     and inspire students and the broader public on STEM subjects 
     and careers;
       (3) the Administration's Education and Communication 
     Offices, Mission Directorates, and Centers have been 
     effective in delivering educational content because of the 
     strong engagement of Administration scientists and engineers 
     in the Administration's education and outreach activities;
       (4) the Administration's education and outreach programs, 
     including the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive 
     Research (EPSCoR) and the Space Grant College and Fellowship 
     Program, reflect the Administration's successful commitment 
     to growing and diversifying the national science and 
     engineering workforce; and
       (5) in order to grow and diversify the Nation's engineering 
     workforce, it is vital for the Administration to bolster 
     programs, such as High Schools United with NASA to Create 
     Hardware (HUNCH) program, that conduct outreach activities to 
     underserved rural communities, vocational schools, and tribal 
     colleges and universities and encourage new participation in 
     the STEM workforce.
       (b) Continuation of Education and Outreach Activities and 
     Programs.--
       (1) In general.--The Administrator shall continue 
     engagement with the public and education opportunities for 
     students via all the Administration's mission directorates to 
     the maximum extent practicable.
       (2) Report.--Not later than 60 days after the date of 
     enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the 
     appropriate committees of Congress a report on the 
     Administration's near-term outreach plans for advancing space 
     law education.

     SEC. 825. LEVERAGING COMMERCIAL SATELLITE SERVICING 
                   CAPABILITIES ACROSS MISSION DIRECTORATES.

       (a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
       (1) Refueling and relocating aging satellites to extend 
     their operational lifetimes is a capacity that NASA will 
     substantially benefit from and is important for lowering the 
     costs of ongoing scientific, national security, and 
     commercial satellite operations.
       (2) The technologies involved in satellite servicing, such 
     as dexterous robotic arms, propellant transfer systems, and 
     solar electric propulsion, are all critical capabilities to 
     support a human exploration mission to Mars.
       (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
       (1) satellite servicing is a vital capability that will 
     bolster the capacity and affordability of NASA's ongoing 
     scientific and human exploration operations while 
     simultaneously enhancing the ability of domestic companies to 
     compete in the global marketplace; and
       (2) future NASA satellites and spacecraft across mission 
     directorates should be constructed in a manner that allows 
     for servicing in order to maximize operational longevity and 
     affordability.
       (c) Leveraging of Capabilities.--The Administrator shall--
       (1) identify orbital assets in both the Science Mission 
     Directorate and the Human Exploration and Operations Mission 
     Directorate that could benefit from satellite servicing-
     related technologies; and
       (2) work across all NASA mission directorates to evaluate 
     opportunities for the private sector to perform such services 
     or advance technical capabilities by leveraging the 
     technologies and techniques developed by NASA programs and 
     other industry programs.

     SEC. 826. FLIGHT OPPORTUNITIES.

       (a) Development of Payloads.--
       (1) In general.--In order to conduct necessary research, 
     the Administrator shall continue and, as the Administrator 
     considers appropriate, expand the development of technology 
     payloads for--
       (A) scientific research; and
       (B) investigating new or improved capabilities.
       (2) Funds.--For the purpose of carrying out paragraph (1), 
     the Administrator shall make funds available for--
       (A) flight testing;
       (B) payload development; and
       (C) hardware related to subparagraphs (A) and (B).
       (b) Reaffirmation of Policy.--Congress reaffirms that the 
     Administrator should provide flight opportunities for 
     payloads to microgravity environments and suborbital 
     altitudes as authorized by section 907 of the National 
     Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 
     2010 (42 U.S.C. 18405).

     SEC. 827. SENSE OF CONGRESS ON SMALL CLASS LAUNCH MISSIONS.

       It is the sense of Congress that--
       (1) Venture Class Launch Services contracts awarded under 
     the Launch Services Program will expand opportunities for 
     future dedicated launches of CubeSats and other small 
     satellites and small orbital science missions; and
       (2) principal investigator-led small orbital science 
     missions, including CubeSat class, Small Explorer (SMEX) 
     class, and Venture class, offer valuable opportunities to 
     advance science at low cost, train the next generation of 
     scientists and engineers, and enable participants to acquire 
     skills in systems engineering and systems integration that 
     are critical to maintaining the Nation's leadership in space 
     and to enhancing United States innovation and competitiveness 
     abroad.

     SEC. 828. BASELINE AND COST CONTROLS.

       Section 30104(a)(1) of title 51, United States Code, is 
     amended by striking ``Procedural Requirements 7120.5c, dated 
     March 22, 2005'' and inserting ``Procedural Requirements 
     7120.5E, dated August 14, 2012''.

     SEC. 829. COMMERCIAL TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM.

       Section 50116(a) of title 51, United States Code, is 
     amended by inserting ``, while protecting national security'' 
     after ``research community''.

     SEC. 830. AVOIDING ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST IN 
                   MAJOR ADMINISTRATION ACQUISITION PROGRAMS.

       (a) Revised Regulations Required.--Not later than 270 days 
     after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator 
     shall revise the Administration Supplement to the Federal 
     Acquisition Regulation to provide uniform guidance and 
     recommend revised requirements for organizational conflicts 
     of interest by contractors in major acquisition programs in 
     order to address the elements identified in subsection (b).
       (b) Elements.--The revised regulations under subsection (a) 
     shall, at a minimum--
       (1) address organizational conflicts of interest that could 
     potentially arise as a result of--
       (A) lead system integrator contracts on major acquisition 
     programs and contracts that follow lead system integrator 
     contracts on such programs, particularly contracts for 
     production;
       (B) the ownership of business units performing systems 
     engineering and technical assistance functions, professional 
     services, or management support services in relation to major 
     acquisition programs by contractors who simultaneously own 
     business units competing to perform as either the prime 
     contractor or the supplier of a major subsystem or component 
     for such programs;
       (C) the award of major subsystem contracts by a prime 
     contractor for a major acquisition program to business units 
     or other affiliates of the same parent corporate entity, and 
     particularly the award of subcontracts for software 
     integration or the development of a proprietary software 
     system architecture; or
       (D) the performance by, or assistance of, contractors in 
     technical evaluations on major acquisition programs;
       (2) require the Administration to request advice on systems 
     architecture and systems engineering matters with respect to 
     major acquisition programs from objective sources independent 
     of the prime contractor;
       (3) require that a contract for the performance of systems 
     engineering and technical assistance functions for a major 
     acquisition program contains a provision prohibiting the 
     contractor or any affiliate of the contractor from 
     participating as a prime contractor or a major subcontractor 
     in the development of a system under the program; and
       (4) establish such limited exceptions to the requirement in 
     paragraphs (2) and (3) as the Administrator considers 
     necessary to ensure that the Administration has continued 
     access to advice on systems architecture and systems 
     engineering matters from highly qualified contractors with 
     domain experience and expertise, while ensuring that such 
     advice comes from sources that are objective and unbiased.

     SEC. 831. PROTECTION OF APOLLO LANDING SITES.

       (a) Assessment.--The Director of the Office of Science and 
     Technology Policy, in consultation with relevant Federal 
     agencies and stakeholders, shall assess the issues relating 
     to protecting and preserving historically important Apollo 
     Program lunar landing sites and Apollo program artifacts 
     residing on the lunar surface, including those pertaining to 
     Apollo 11 and Apollo 17.
       (b) Contents.--In conducting the assessment, the Director 
     shall include--
       (1) a determination of what risks to the protection and 
     preservation of those sites and artifacts exist or may exist 
     in the future;
       (2) a determination of what measures are required to ensure 
     such protection and preservation;

[[Page H1567]]

       (3) a determination of the extent to which additional 
     domestic legislation or international treaties or agreements 
     will be required; and
       (4) specific recommendations for protecting and preserving 
     those lunar landing sites and artifacts.
       (c) Report.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
     enactment of this Act, the Director shall submit to the 
     appropriate committees of Congress the results of the 
     assessment.

     SEC. 832. NASA LEASE OF NON-EXCESS PROPERTY.

       Section 20145(g) of title 51, United States Code, is 
     amended by striking ``10 years after December 26, 2007'' and 
     inserting ``December 31, 2018''.

     SEC. 833. TERMINATION LIABILITY.

       It is the sense of Congress that--
       (1) the ISS, the Space Launch System, and the Orion will 
     enable the Nation to continue operations in low-Earth orbit 
     and to send its astronauts to deep space;
       (2) the James Webb Space Telescope will revolutionize our 
     understanding of star and planet formation and how galaxies 
     evolved, and will advance the search for the origins of our 
     universe;
       (3) as a result of their unique capabilities and their 
     critical contribution to the future of space exploration, 
     these systems have been designated by Congress and the 
     Administration as priority investments;
       (4) contractors are currently holding program funding, 
     estimated to be in the hundreds of millions of dollars, to 
     cover the potential termination liability should the 
     Government choose to terminate a program for convenience;
       (5) as a result, hundreds of millions of taxpayer dollars 
     are unavailable for meaningful work on these programs;
       (6) according to the Government Accountability Office, the 
     Administration procures most of its goods and services 
     through contracts, and it terminates very few of them;
       (7) in fiscal year 2010, the Administration terminated 28 
     of 16,343 active contracts and orders, a termination rate of 
     about 0.17 percent; and
       (8) the Administration should vigorously pursue a policy on 
     termination liability that maximizes the utilization of its 
     appropriated funds to make maximum progress in meeting 
     established technical goals and schedule milestones on these 
     high-priority programs.

     SEC. 834. INDEPENDENT REVIEWS.

       Not later than 270 days after the date of enactment of this 
     Act, the Administrator shall submit to the appropriate 
     committees of Congress a report describing--
       (1) the Administration's procedures for conducting 
     independent reviews of projects and programs at lifecycle 
     milestones;
       (2) how the Administration ensures the independence of the 
     individuals who conduct those reviews prior to their 
     assignment;
       (3) the internal and external entities independent of 
     project and program management that conduct reviews of 
     projects and programs at life cycle milestones; and
       (4) how the Administration ensures the independence of such 
     entities and their members.

     SEC. 835. NASA ADVISORY COUNCIL.

       (a) Assessment.--The Administrator shall enter into an 
     arrangement with the National Academy of Public 
     Administration to assess the effectiveness of the NASA 
     Advisory Council and to make recommendations to Congress for 
     any change to--
       (1) the functions of the Council;
       (2) the appointment of members to the Council;
       (3) the qualifications for members of the Council;
       (4) the duration of terms of office for members of the 
     Council;
       (5) the frequency of meetings of the Council;
       (6) the structure of leadership and Committees of the 
     Council; and
       (7) the levels of professional staffing for the Council.
       (b) Considerations.--In carrying out the assessment under 
     subsection (a), the National Academy of Public Administration 
     shall--
       (1) consider the impacts of broadening the Council's role 
     to include providing consultation and advice to Congress 
     under section 20113(g) of title 51, United States Code;
       (2) consider the past activities of the Council and the 
     activities of other analogous Federal advisory bodies; and
       (3) any other issues that the National Academy of Public 
     Administration determines could potentially impact the 
     effectiveness of the Council.
       (c) Report.--The National Academy of Public Administration 
     shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress the 
     results of the assessment, including any recommendations.
       (d) Consultation and Advice.--
       (1) In general.--Section 20113(g) of title 51, United 
     States Code, is amended by inserting ``and Congress'' after 
     ``advice to the Administration''.
       (2) Sunset.--Effective September 30, 2017, section 20113(g) 
     of title 51, United States Code, is amended by striking ``and 
     Congress''.

     SEC. 836. COST ESTIMATION.

       (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
       (1) realistic cost estimating is critically important to 
     the ultimate success of major space development projects; and
       (2) the Administration has devoted significant efforts over 
     the past 5 years to improving its cost estimating 
     capabilities, but it is important that the Administration 
     continue its efforts to develop and implement guidance in 
     establishing realistic cost estimates.
       (b) Guidance and Criteria.--The Administrator shall provide 
     to its acquisition programs and projects, in a manner 
     consistent with the Administration's Space Flight Program and 
     Project Management Requirements--
       (1) guidance on when to use an Independent Cost Estimate 
     and Independent Cost Assessment; and
       (2) criteria to use to make a determination under paragraph 
     (1).

     SEC. 837. FACILITIES AND INFRASTRUCTURE.

       (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
       (1) the Administration must address, mitigate, and reverse, 
     where possible, the deterioration of its facilities and 
     infrastructure, as their condition is hampering the 
     effectiveness and efficiency of research performed by both 
     the Administration and industry participants making use of 
     Administration facilities, thus harming the competitiveness 
     of the United States aerospace industry;
       (2) the Administration has a role in providing laboratory 
     capabilities to industry participants that are not 
     economically viable as commercial entities and thus are not 
     available elsewhere;
       (3) to ensure continued access to reliable and efficient 
     world-class facilities by researchers, the Administration 
     should establish strategic partnerships with other Federal 
     agencies, State agencies, FAA-licensed spaceports, 
     institutions of higher education, and industry, as 
     appropriate; and
       (4) decisions on whether to dispose of, maintain, or 
     modernize existing facilities must be made in the context of 
     meeting Administration and other needs, including those 
     required to meet the activities supporting the human 
     exploration roadmap under section 432 of this Act, 
     considering other national laboratory needs as the 
     Administrator deems appropriate.
       (b) Policy.--It is the policy of the United States that the 
     Administration maintain reliable and efficient facilities and 
     infrastructure and that decisions on whether to dispose of, 
     maintain, or modernize existing facilities or infrastructure 
     be made in the context of meeting future Administration 
     needs.
       (c) Plan.--
       (1) In general.--The Administrator shall develop a 
     facilities and infrastructure plan.
       (2) Goal.--The goal of the plan is to position the 
     Administration to have the facilities and infrastructure, 
     including laboratories, tools, and approaches, necessary to 
     meet future Administration and other Federal agencies' 
     laboratory needs.
       (3) Contents.--The plan shall identify--
       (A) current Administration and other Federal agency 
     laboratory needs;
       (B) future Administration research and development and 
     testing needs;
       (C) a strategy for identifying facilities and 
     infrastructure that are candidates for disposal, that is 
     consistent with the national strategic direction set forth 
     in--
       (i) the National Space Policy;
       (ii) the National Aeronautics Research, Development, Test, 
     and Evaluation Infrastructure Plan;
       (iii) the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
     Authorization Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-155; 119 Stat. 
     2895), National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
     Authorization Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-422; 122 Stat. 
     4779), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
     Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18301 et seq.); and
       (iv) the human exploration roadmap under section 432 of 
     this Act;
       (D) a strategy for the maintenance, repair, upgrading, and 
     modernization of Administration facilities and 
     infrastructure, including laboratories and equipment;
       (E) criteria for--
       (i) prioritizing deferred maintenance tasks;
       (ii) maintaining, repairing, upgrading, or modernizing 
     Administration facilities and infrastructure; and
       (iii) implementing processes, plans, and policies for 
     guiding the Administration's Centers on whether to maintain, 
     repair, upgrade, or modernize a facility or infrastructure 
     and for determining the type of instrument to be used;
       (F) an assessment of modifications needed to maximize usage 
     of facilities that offer unique and highly specialized 
     benefits to the aerospace industry and the American public; 
     and
       (G) implementation steps, including a timeline, milestones, 
     and an estimate of resources required for carrying out the 
     plan.
       (d) Requirement To Establish Policy.--
       (1) In general.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
     enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall establish and 
     make publicly available a policy that guides the 
     Administration's use of existing authorities to out-grant, 
     lease, excess to the General Services Administration, sell, 
     decommission, demolish, or otherwise transfer property, 
     facilities, or infrastructure.
       (2) Criteria.--The policy shall include criteria for the 
     use of authorities, best practices, standardized procedures, 
     and guidelines for how to appropriately manage property, 
     facilities, and infrastructure.
       (e) Submission to Congress.--Not later than 1 year after 
     the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall 
     submit to the appropriate committees of Congress the plan 
     developed under subsection (c).

[[Page H1568]]

  


     SEC. 838. HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT ACCIDENT INVESTIGATIONS.

       Section 70702 of title 51, United States Code, is amended--
       (1) by amending subsection (a)(3) to read as follows:
       ``(3) any other orbital or suborbital space vehicle 
     carrying humans that is--
       ``(A) owned by the Federal Government; or
       ``(B) being used pursuant to a contract or Space Act 
     Agreement with the Federal Government for carrying a 
     government astronaut or a researcher funded by the Federal 
     Government; or''; and
       (2) by adding at the end the following:
       ``(c) Definitions.--In this section:
       ``(1) Government astronaut.--The term `government 
     astronaut' has the meaning given the term in section 50902.
       ``(2) Space act agreement.--The term `Space Act Agreement' 
     means an agreement entered into by the Administration 
     pursuant to its other transactions authority under section 
     20113(e).''.

     SEC. 839. ORBITAL DEBRIS.

       (a) Findings.--Congress finds that--
       (1) orbital debris poses serious risks to the operational 
     space capabilities of the United States;
       (2) an international commitment and integrated strategic 
     plan are needed to mitigate the growth of orbital debris 
     wherever possible; and
       (3) the delay in the Office of Science and Technology 
     Policy's submission of a report on the status of 
     international coordination and development of orbital debris 
     mitigation strategies is inconsistent with such risks.
       (b) Reports.--
       (1) Coordination.--Not later than 90 days after the date of 
     enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the 
     appropriate committees of Congress a report on the status of 
     efforts to coordinate with foreign countries within the 
     Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee to mitigate 
     the effects and growth of orbital debris under section 
     1202(b)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space 
     Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 
     18441(b)(1)).
       (2) Mitigation strategy.--Not later than 90 days after the 
     date of enactment of this Act, the Director of the Office of 
     Science and Technology Policy shall submit to the appropriate 
     committees of Congress a report on the status of the orbital 
     debris mitigation strategy required under section 1202(b)(2) 
     of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
     Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18441(b)(2)).

     SEC. 840. REVIEW OF ORBITAL DEBRIS REMOVAL CONCEPTS.

       (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
       (1) orbital debris in low-Earth orbit poses significant 
     risks to spacecraft;
       (2) such orbital debris may increase due to collisions 
     between existing debris objects; and
       (3) understanding options to address and remove orbital 
     debris is important for ensuring safe and effective 
     spacecraft operations in low-Earth orbit.
       (b) Review.--
       (1) In general.--Not later than 270 days after the date of 
     enactment of this Act, the Administrator--
       (A) in collaboration with the heads of other relevant 
     Federal agencies, shall solicit and review concepts and 
     options for removing orbital debris from low-Earth orbit; and
       (B) shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress 
     a report on the solicitation and review under subparagraph 
     (A), including recommendations on the best options for 
     decreasing the risks associated with orbital debris.
       (2) Requirements.--The solicitation and review under 
     paragraph (1) shall address the requirements for and 
     feasibility of developing and implementing each of the 
     options.

     SEC. 841. SPACE ACT AGREEMENTS.

       (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that, 
     when used appropriately, Space Act Agreements can provide 
     significant value in furtherance of NASA's mission.
       (b) Funded Space Act Agreements.--To the extent 
     appropriate, the Administrator shall seek to maximize the 
     value of contributions provided by other parties under a 
     funded Space Act Agreement in order to advance NASA's 
     mission.
       (c) Non-exclusivity.--
       (1) In general.--The Administrator shall, to the greatest 
     extent practicable, issue each Space Act Agreement--
       (A) except as provided in paragraph (2), on a nonexclusive 
     basis;
       (B) in a manner that ensures all non-government parties 
     have equal access to NASA resources; and
       (C) exercising reasonable care not to reveal unique or 
     proprietary information.
       (2) Exclusivity.--If the Administrator determines an 
     exclusive arrangement is necessary, the Administrator shall, 
     to the greatest extent practicable, issue the Space Act 
     Agreement--
       (A) utilizing a competitive selection process when 
     exclusive arrangements are necessary; and
       (B) pursuant to public announcements when exclusive 
     arrangements are necessary.
       (d) Transparency.--The Administrator shall publicly 
     disclose on the Administration's website and make available 
     in a searchable format each Space Act Agreement, including an 
     estimate of committed NASA resources and the expected 
     benefits to agency objectives for each agreement, with 
     appropriate redactions for proprietary, sensitive, or 
     classified information, not later than 60 days after such 
     agreement is signed by the parties.
       (e) Annual Reports.--
       (1) Requirement.--Not later than 90 days after the end of 
     each fiscal year, the Administrator shall submit to the 
     appropriate committees of Congress a report on the use of 
     Space Act Agreement authority by the Administration during 
     the previous fiscal year.
       (2) Contents.--The report shall include for each Space Act 
     Agreement in effect at the time of the report--
       (A) an indication of whether the agreement is a 
     reimbursable, non-reimbursable, or funded Space Act 
     Agreement;
       (B) a description of--
       (i) the subject and terms;
       (ii) the parties;
       (iii) the responsible--

       (I) Mission Directorate;
       (II) Center; or
       (III) headquarters element;

       (iv) the value;
       (v) the extent of the cost sharing among Federal Government 
     and non-Federal sources;
       (vi) the time period or schedule; and
       (vii) all milestones; and
       (C) an indication of whether the agreement was renewed 
     during the previous fiscal year.
       (3) Anticipated agreements.--The report shall include a 
     list of all anticipated reimbursable, non-reimbursable, and 
     funded Space Act Agreements for the upcoming fiscal year.
       (4) Cumulative program benefits.--The report shall include, 
     with respect to each Space Act Agreement covered by the 
     report, a summary of--
       (A) the technology areas in which research projects were 
     conducted under that agreement;
       (B) the extent to which the use of that agreement--
       (i) has contributed to a broadening of the technology and 
     industrial base available for meeting Administration needs; 
     and
       (ii) has fostered within the technology and industrial base 
     new relationships and practices that support the United 
     States; and
       (C) the total amount of value received by the Federal 
     Government during the fiscal year under that agreement.

  The SPEAKER pro tempore. Pursuant to the rule, the gentleman from 
Texas (Mr. Babin) and the gentlewoman from Texas (Ms. Eddie Bernice 
Johnson) each will control 20 minutes.
  The Chair recognizes the gentleman from Texas.


                             General Leave

  Mr. BABIN. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent that all Members may 
have 5 legislative days to revise and extend their remarks and to 
include extraneous material on S. 442, the bill now under 
consideration.
  The SPEAKER pro tempore. Is there objection to the request of the 
gentleman from Texas?
  There was no objection.
  Mr. BABIN. Mr. Speaker, I yield myself such time as I may consume.
  Mr. Speaker, I rise today in support of the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration Transition Authorization Act of 2017. This 
bipartisan and bicameral bill grew to maturity through many long and 
serious discussions about the future of our Nation's space program.
  I am encouraged by the bill's persistent emphasis on the continuity 
of purpose and stability. It is crucial that we continue to support 
NASA's ongoing human exploration efforts.
  I am proud to note the inclusion of the To Research Evaluate, Assess, 
and Treat Astronauts Act, better known as the TREAT Astronauts Act, 
which will ensure that our Nation's astronauts receive support for 
medical issues associated with their service. The language of this bill 
is exactly the same as the TREAT Astronauts Act that was passed in the 
House on December 7, 2016.
  As a medical professional myself, I care deeply about this issue. I 
am honored to have sponsored the original legislation, and am proud to 
contribute to an important program that will support the brave men and 
women of our astronaut corps. Outer space poses many medical 
challenges. The human body simply is not designed to thrive in 
microgravity, or weightlessness. We know that spending time in space is 
risky. We want to understand the reasons why the TREAT Astronauts Act 
will ensure the retention of our astronauts' medical data and help to 
continue our research in aerospace medicine, while also providing our 
astronauts with the medical care that they need and deserve after 
risking so much in service to our country.
  This bill continues support for the important work on the Space 
Launch System, the Orion crew vehicle, and commercial cargo and crew 
programs.

[[Page H1569]]

  


                              {time}  1815

  The future of the International Space Station is another key topic 
addressed in this legislation. We are committed to operating the ISS 
until 2024. Beyond that date, however, maintaining NASA's current level 
of support for the ISS will dramatically affect the rest of NASA's 
portfolio, particularly in human spaceflight.
  This bill opens the debate about how and under what circumstances 
NASA's presence in low-Earth orbit can and should be continued beyond 
2024. Balancing NASA's presence and low Earth orbit and beyond low 
Earth orbit will require thoughtful and informed decisionmaking. My 
hope is that NASA will explore unique partnerships that will maintain 
NASA's ability to utilize low Earth orbit in an efficient manner by 
leveraging private sector investment. This bill will help inform and 
frame that imminent debate.
  This bill also addresses NASA's facilities and infrastructure here on 
Earth. NASA must develop a plan so that its labs, tools, facilities, 
and infrastructure can support a robust exploration agenda. Right-
sizing NASA's footprint is a longstanding challenge. We must maintain 
critical capabilities but also find efficiencies where they may exist.
  The bill before us would call on NASA to develop a policy to ensure 
that NASA maintains infrastructure to support bold exploration. If NASA 
determines that facilities are not necessary or could be transferred to 
the private sector, the bill calls on NASA to do so in accordance with 
a transparent and equitable process.
  The bill also urges the administration to pursue a sensible policy on 
termination liability so that NASA makes the best possible use of 
taxpayer dollars rather than the inefficient policy implemented by the 
previous administration.
  This bill sets out clear intentions for NASA as we move forward into 
the next chapter of American space exploration. I invite my colleagues 
to join me in supporting this very important bill, and I reserve the 
balance of my time.
  Ms. EDDIE BERNICE JOHNSON of Texas. Mr. Speaker, yield myself such 
time as I may consume.
  Mr. Speaker, I rise in support of S. 442, the NASA Transition 
Authorization Act of 2017.
  NASA is a catalyst for scientific discovery, innovation, inspiration, 
and economic growth. This bill helps to ensure that NASA continues to 
make significant advances in science, aeronautics, human exploration, 
and space technology.
  During the last Congress, the House passed the NASA Authorization Act 
of 2015, H.R. 810. H.R. 810 was a bipartisan effort and, in particular, 
it set the long-term goal of sending humans to the surface of Mars and 
directed NASA to prepare a human exploration roadmap for what is needed 
to get there.
  I am pleased, Mr. Speaker, that the Senate-passed bill that is before 
us today reflects significant content from H.R. 810. Sending humans to 
deep space destinations and eventually to Mars is a challenge and goal 
that I know will bring out the best of our U.S. industry and 
universities, and it will inspire our young people to seek the 
education and develop the skills needed to help the United States send 
first astronauts to the martian surface.
  Of course, keeping our focus on that goal over multiple Congresses 
and administrations will really not be easy. That is why this bill, S. 
442, comes at a critical time. Witnesses at a recent hearing of the 
Committee on Science, Space, and Technology emphasized the need for 
stability for NASA if it is to carry out the challenging tasks that our 
Nation has given it.
  While S. 442 is a 1-year reauthorization, it enables NASA to continue 
making effective progress on its programs, including on the key systems 
that will enable us to send NASA astronauts beyond low Earth orbit and 
on to Mars.
  The bill also provides policy direction in a number of important 
areas, including astronaut health care, human spaceflight safety, 
protection of Apollo lunar landing sites, orbital debris mitigation, 
and facilities and infrastructure planning.
  Mr. Speaker, while I support S. 442, it is not a perfect bill. It 
does not directly address all of NASA's science programs, namely, earth 
science and heliophysics. Those programs provide the space-based 
measurements to help scientists understand the Earth's systems and 
changing climate to predict space weather events, which can have 
devastating impacts on our terrestrial infrastructure. At the same 
time, I believe that section 501 of the bill reaffirms the importance 
of maintaining a balance and adequately funded science program, which 
includes astrophysics, planetary science, earth science, and 
heliophysics.
  In addition, while the bill reflects the House Appropriations 
Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies' top-
line mark of $19.5 billion for NASA for fiscal year 2017, I am 
disappointed that it authorizes lower levels than the proposals of the 
House Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and 
Related Agencies for NASA's science, aeronautics, and space technology 
accounts. We should be investing more, not less, in these important R&D 
areas.
  Mr. Speaker, we need a strong NASA, and we need to provide it with a 
sustained commitment of vision, resources, and support to carry out the 
challenging tasks our Nation has given it.
  Before I close, I want to recognize the efforts of committee 
leadership, including Chairman Lamar Smith, Space Subcommittee Chairman 
Brian Babin, and the former Subcommittee Ranking Member Donna Edwards 
for their work on H.R. 810, a significant portion of which is included 
in this Senate bill.
  Mr. Speaker, I urge my colleagues to vote ``yes'' on this Senate 
bill, the NASA Transition Authorization Act of 2017, and I reserve the 
balance of my time.
  Mr. BABIN. Mr. Speaker, I yield 5 minutes to the gentleman from Texas 
(Mr. Smith), the chairman of the full committee.
  Mr. SMITH of Texas. Mr. Speaker, I thank the chairman of the 
Subcommittee on Space for yielding me time.

  The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition 
Authorization Act of 2017 provides bipartisan and bicameral guidance 
for NASA as we usher in a new era of space exploration.
  I support this bill and the direction it establishes for America's 
space program. S. 442, which passed the Senate by unanimous consent on 
February 17, includes almost all of the policy provisions from the 
House authorization bills that passed the House in the last Congress 
with broad bipartisan support. In fact, it authorizes the House's 
proposed fiscal year 2017 funding level of $19.5 billion.
  This bill provides a balanced NASA portfolio across all of the 
mission directorates. It maintains congressional direction for priority 
near-term programs, such as the James Webb Space Telescope, the Space 
Launch System, the Orion crew vehicle, the International Space Station, 
and the Commercial Crew and Cargo Programs.
  NASA's exploration projects are vulnerable to changes in the 
political landscape. We must have a flexible space program, but not one 
that is knocked off course. Successfully combining flexibility with 
constancy of purpose requires thoughtful planning.
  This bill directs NASA to create a roadmap for human exploration. An 
exploration roadmap will help NASA inform Congress and the President, 
as well as direct the future path and tempo of exploration for decades 
to come.
  This legislation also looks to the future of scientific exploration. 
It provides support for NASA's Mars 2020 rover, the Wide Field Infrared 
Survey Telescope, and a mission to Europa, Jupiter's icy moon that 
possibly harbors the building blocks of life. It establishes that one 
of NASA's fundamental objectives is ``the search for life's origin, 
evolution, distribution, and future in the universe.''
  Toward that end, this legislation directs the NASA Administrator to 
develop both an exoplanet exploration strategy and an astrobiology 
strategy within 18 months after the bill is signed into law. It also 
directs the NASA Administrator to report on how the Administration can 
expand collaborative partnerships for these scientific endeavors.
  Just 2 weeks ago, NASA announced that it had confirmed the existence 
of

[[Page H1570]]

seven planets around a nearby star, three of which are in the 
``habitable zone.'' This bill builds upon these awe-inspiring 
discoveries and will help ``unlock the mysteries of space,'' as 
President Trump said in his inaugural address.
  Part of achieving success in space exploration is making sure that 
NASA is not burdened with funding other agency missions. For example, 
there are 17 agencies with responsibility for studying climate change, 
but only 1 agency, NASA, is responsible for space exploration. This 
bill directs the NASA Administrator to seek reimbursement whenever 
responsibilities are transferred to NASA from another agency or when 
NASA funds another agency's activities.
  Finally, I would like to thank my colleague and Texas friend Dr. 
Brian Babin, the chairman of the Space Subcommittee, for his work on 
the TREAT Astronauts Act, which is included in this authorization. 
Chairman Babin's legislation gives NASA the ability to care for our 
astronauts and enhance our understanding of the effects of spaceflight 
on the human body.
  I would also like to thank the Science, Space, and Technology 
Committee staff for their years of effort on this bill, especially the 
Space Subcommittee director, Tom Hammond, who has worked diligently to 
ensure that this bill became a reality. I also recognize the minority 
staff who were essential to the process as well.
  Mr. Speaker, I encourage my colleagues to support this bill.
  Ms. EDDIE BERNICE JOHNSON of Texas. Mr. Speaker, I yield 3 minutes to 
the gentleman from California, (Mr. Bera), the current ranking member 
of the Space Subcommittee.
  Mr. BERA. Mr. Speaker, I want to thank the ranking member and the 
chairman for this bill.
  This bicameral and bipartisan bill that we are considering today, the 
NASA Transition Authorization Act of 2017, authorizes NASA's 
appropriations for the fiscal year 2017.
  If enacted, the bill's provisions will provide important stability 
and funding and consistent vision that we need for NASA to succeed as 
they continue to make progress across disciplines of space and earth 
science, in human exploration and spaceflight, innovative technologies, 
biomedical research, and in aeronautics.
  Mr. Speaker, NASA truly is a symbol of American excellence and 
ingenuity. For NASA to continue doing the great things that it does, 
including preparation for flying SLS and Orion, launching the James 
Webb Space Telescope, and landing humans on Mars, it is critical that 
S. 442 be enacted.
  And while I would have preferred a more comprehensive outlook of 
NASA's science discipline--namely, in earth science, planetary science, 
astrophysics, and heliophysics--I am pleased the bill provides the 
consistent policy direction our Nation's space and aeronautics programs 
require and deserve. Notably, the bill sets the long-term course of 
sending humans to the surface of Mars and directs NASA to provide a 
human exploration roadmap outlining the capabilities and milestones 
needed to achieve the goal.
  In closing, Mr. Speaker, NASA's space and aeronautics programs help 
maintain our competitiveness, stimulate innovation and economic growth, 
and inspire the next generation to dream big and garner the skills to 
turn those dreams into action.
  NASA and our space program have a long history of bipartisan support. 
I urge Members of the House to pass S. 442, the NASA Transition 
Authorization Act of 2017.
  Mr. BABIN. Mr. Speaker, I continue to reserve the balance of my time.
  Ms. EDDIE BERNICE JOHNSON of Texas. Mr. Speaker, I yield 5 minutes to 
the gentleman from Colorado (Mr. Perlmutter.)
  Mr. PERLMUTTER. Mr. Speaker, I thank the gentlewoman, and I hope I 
don't take 5 minutes.
  I rise today in support of S. 442, the NASA Transition Authorization 
Act of 2017.
  I have long been a supporter of our Nation's space program. I have 
seen what we can accomplish when we put our best and brightest in a 
room together and give them the resources they need to solve tough 
scientific, engineering, and mathematical problems to better our 
society and our understanding of the solar system and beyond.
  The bill before us today ensures the hardworking people at NASA and 
the thousands of private aerospace workers in Colorado and across the 
country have a constant sea of purpose and the backing of Congress to 
continue advancing our quest to understand our planet and explore other 
celestial bodies.
  Mr. Speaker, I enjoy serving on the Science, Space, and Technology 
Committee. While we may not agree on every issue, when it comes to our 
space programs, we come together and find the best solutions to the 
problems we face, and this bill does exactly that.

                              {time}  1830

  As my colleagues on this committee know, I am very passionate about 
getting our astronauts to the surface of Mars. This bill will require 
detailed plans from NASA on how to do that and, more importantly, on 
the timelines so that we can get to Mars through the development of a 
human exploration roadmap.
  In addition to this roadmap, section 435 of the bill also requires 
NASA to report back on the feasibility of a human mission to Mars by 
the year 2033. Sixteen years from now, Earth and Mars will be aligned 
for what could be the most significant and inspirational journey in 
history.
  About 18 months ago, our committee heard testimony from former NASA 
leadership about our deep space exploration missions. I asked them to 
provide us a date: When can we get to Mars? As it turns out, the 
planets' orbit and alignment in 2033 is optimal. So as my colleagues on 
the committee know, I have prepared a bumper sticker, Mr. Speaker, just 
for you, showing 2033 as the time we are going to get our astronauts to 
Mars.
  I thank Chairman Smith, Representative Babin, Representative Eddie 
Bernice Johnson of Texas, as well as Representative Bera for allowing 
me to work and to help put section 435 into the bill.
  I know we can do this. This is a mission that all Americans will be 
proud of. They are so proud of our space program, the scientists and 
engineers at NASA. This will give us a real goal and a real project to 
get our astronauts to Mars by 2033.
  Ms. EDDIE BERNICE JOHNSON of Texas. Mr. Speaker, I have no further 
requests for time on the bill.
  I ask my colleagues to support this bill, and I yield back the 
balance of my time.
  Mr. BABIN. Mr. Speaker, I yield myself the balance of my time to 
close.
  I thank all of my colleagues on both sides of the aisle for their 
work: our chairman, the gentleman from Texas (Mr. Smith); and also the 
ranking gentlewoman from Texas (Ms. Eddie Bernice Johnson); my 
counterpart on the subcommittee, Representative Bera; and also 
Representative Perlmutter, the gentleman from Colorado; and all of my 
fellow members on the subcommittee and our entire committee.
  I take a moment to also thank our hardworking staff, and that 
includes Tom Hammond, Mike Mineiro, Jonathan Charlton, Ryan Faith, 
Molly Fromm, and Chris Wydler from the majority staff. I also thank 
Steve Janushkowsky, Jeannie Kranz, Stuart Burns from my congressional 
staff, and Allen Li and Pamela Whitney from the minority staff.
  Mr. Speaker, it is because of their countless hours of hard work, 
negotiation, and finding common ground that we will now send this bill 
from the floor of this House of Representatives to the resolute desk of 
the Oval Office to be signed into law.
  Mr. Speaker, I urge passage of this bill, and I yield back the 
balance of my time.
  The SPEAKER pro tempore. The question is on the motion offered by the 
gentleman from Texas (Mr. Babin) that the House suspend the rules and 
pass the bill, S. 442.
  The question was taken; and (two-thirds being in the affirmative) the 
rules were suspended and the bill was passed.
  A motion to reconsider was laid on the table.

[[Page H1571]]

  

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