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105th Congress                                                   Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

 1st Session                                                    105-243
_______________________________________________________________________


 
               COMPUTER SECURITY ENHANCEMENT ACT OF 1997

_______________________________________________________________________


 September 3, 1997.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on 
            the State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

    Mr. Sensenbrenner, from the Committee on Science, submitted the 
                               following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 1903]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Science, to whom was referred the bill 
(H.R. 1903) to amend the National Institute of Standards and 
Technology Act to enhance the ability of the National Institute 
of Standards and Technology to improve computer security, and 
for other purposes, having considered the same, report 
favorably thereon with an amendment and recommend that the bill 
as amended do pass.

                            C O N T E N T S

                                                                   Page
   I. Amendment.......................................................2
  II. Purpose of the Bill.............................................5
 III. Background and Need for the Legislation.........................5
  IV. Summary of Hearings.............................................6
   V. Committee Actions..............................................10
  VI. Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill........................10
 VII. Section-by-Section Analysis (By Title and Section) and Committee 
      Views..........................................................12
VIII. Committee Cost Estimate........................................18
  IX. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate......................19
   X. Compliance with Public Law 104-4...............................21
  XI. Committee Oversight Findings and Recommendations...............21
 XII. Oversight Findings and Recommendations by the Committee on 
      Government Reform and Oversight................................21
XIII. Constitutional Authority Statement.............................21
 XIV. Federal Advisory Committee Statement...........................21
  XV. Congressional Accountability Act...............................21
 XVI. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported..........21
XVII. Committee Recommendations......................................24
XVIII.Proceedings of Subcommittee Markup.............................25

 XIX. Proceedings of Full Committee Markup...........................33

                              I. Amendment

    The amendment is as follows:
    Strike out all after the enacting clause and insert in lieu 
thereof the following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ``Computer Security Enhancement Act of 
1997''.

SEC. 2. FINDINGS AND PURPOSES.

    (a) Findings.--The Congress finds the following:
          (1) The National Institute of Standards and Technology has 
        responsibility for developing standards and guidelines needed 
        to ensure the cost-effective security and privacy of sensitive 
        information in Federal computer systems.
          (2) The Federal Government has an important role in ensuring 
        the protection of sensitive, but unclassified, information 
        controlled by Federal agencies.
          (3) Technology that is based on the application of 
        cryptography exists and can be readily provided by private 
        sector companies to ensure the confidentiality, authenticity, 
        and integrity of information associated with public and private 
        activities.
          (4) The development and use of encryption technologies should 
        be driven by market forces rather than by Government imposed 
        requirements.
          (5) Federal policy for control of the export of encryption 
        technologies should be determined in light of the public 
        availability of comparable encryption technologies outside of 
        the United States in order to avoid harming the competitiveness 
        of United States computer hardware and software companies.
    (b) Purposes.--The purposes of this Act are to--
          (1) reinforce the role of the National Institute of Standards 
        and Technology in ensuring the security of unclassified 
        information in Federal computer systems;
          (2) promote technology solutions based on private sector 
        offerings to protect the security of Federal computer systems; 
        and
          (3) provide the assessment of the capabilities of information 
        security products incorporating cryptography that are generally 
        available outside the United States.

SEC. 3. VOLUNTARY STANDARDS FOR PUBLIC KEY MANAGEMENT INFRASTRUCTURE.

    Section 20(b) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology 
Act (15 U.S.C. 278g-3(b)) is amended--
          (1) by redesignating paragraphs (2), (3), (4), and (5) as 
        paragraphs (3), (4), (7), and (8), respectively; and
          (2) by inserting after paragraph (1) the following new 
        paragraph:
          ``(2) upon request from the private sector, to assist in 
        establishing voluntary interoperable standards, guidelines, and 
        associated methods and techniques to facilitate and expedite 
        the establishment of non-Federal management infrastructures for 
        public keys that can be used to communicate with and conduct 
        transactions with the Federal Government;''.

SEC. 4. SECURITY OF FEDERAL COMPUTERS AND NETWORKS.

    Section 20(b) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology 
Act (15 U.S.C. 278g-3(b)), as amended by section 3 of this Act, is 
further amended by inserting after paragraph (4), as so redesignated by 
section 3(1) of this Act, the following new paragraphs:
          ``(5) to provide guidance and assistance to Federal agencies 
        in the protection of interconnected computer systems and to 
        coordinate Federal response efforts related to unauthorized 
        access to Federal computer systems;
          ``(6) to perform evaluations and tests of--
                  ``(A) information technologies to assess security 
                vulnerabilities; and
                  ``(B) commercially available security products for 
                their suitability for use by Federal agencies for 
                protecting sensitive information in computer 
                systems;''.

SEC. 5. COMPUTER SECURITY IMPLEMENTATION.

    Section 20 of the National Institute of Standards and Technology 
Act (15 U.S.C. 278g-3) is further amended--
          (1) by redesignating subsections (c) and (d) as subsections 
        (f) and (g), respectively; and
          (2) by inserting after subsection (b) the following new 
        subsection:
    ``(c) In carrying out subsection (a)(3), the Institute shall--
          ``(1) emphasize the development of technology-neutral policy 
        guidelines for computer security practices by the Federal 
        agencies;
          ``(2) actively promote the use of commercially available 
        products to provide for the security and privacy of sensitive 
        information in Federal computer systems; and
          ``(3) participate in implementations of encryption 
        technologies in order to develop required standards and 
        guidelines for Federal computer systems, including assessing 
        the desirability of and the costs associated with establishing 
        and managing key recovery infrastructures for Federal 
        Government information.''.

SEC. 6. COMPUTER SECURITY REVIEW, PUBLIC MEETINGS, AND INFORMATION.

    Section 20 of the National Institute of Standards and Technology 
Act (15 U.S.C. 278g-3), as amended by this Act, is further amended by 
inserting after subsection (c), as added by section 5 of this Act, the 
following new subsection:
    ``(d)(1) The Institute shall solicit the recommendations of the 
Computer System Security and Privacy Advisory Board, established by 
section 21, regarding standards and guidelines that are being 
considered for submittal to the Secretary of Commerce in accordance 
with subsection (a)(4). No standards or guidelines shall be submitted 
to the Secretary prior to the receipt by the Institute of the Board's 
written recommendations. The recommendations of the Board shall 
accompany standards and guidelines submitted to the Secretary.
    ``(2) There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of 
Commerce $1,000,000 for fiscal year 1998 and $1,030,000 for fiscal year 
1999 to enable the Computer System Security and Privacy Advisory Board, 
established by section 21, to identify emerging issues related to 
computer security, privacy, and cryptography and to convene public 
meetings on those subjects, receive presentations, and publish reports, 
digests, and summaries for public distribution on those subjects.''.

SEC. 7. EVALUATION OF CAPABILITIES OF FOREIGN ENCRYPTION.

    Section 20 of the National Institute of Standards and Technology 
Act (15 U.S.C. 278g-3), as amended by this Act, is further amended by 
inserting after subsection (d), as added by section 6 of this Act, the 
following new subsection:
    ``(e)(1) If the Secretary has imposed, or proposes to impose, 
export restrictions on a product that incorporates encryption 
technologies, the Institute may accept technical evidence from the 
commercial provider of the product offered to indicate that encryption 
technologies, embodied in the form of software or hardware, that are 
offered and generally available outside the United States for use, 
sale, license, or transfer (whether for consideration or not) provide 
stronger participation for privacy of computer data and transmissions 
of information in digital form than the encryption technologies 
incorporated in the commercial provider's product.
    ``(2) Within 30 days after accepting technical evidence from a 
commercial provider under paragraph (1), the Institute shall evaluate 
the accuracy and completeness of the technical evidence and transmit to 
the Secretary, and to the Committee on Science of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate, a report containing the results of that 
evaluation. The Institute may obtain assistance from other Federal and 
private sector entities in carrying out evaluations under this 
paragraph.
    ``(3) Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of 
the Computer Security Enhancement Act of 1997, the Institute shall 
develop standard procedures and tests for determining the capabilities 
of encryption technologies, and shall provide information regarding 
those procedures and tests to the public.
    ``(4) The Institute may require a commercial provider seeking 
evaluation under this subsection to follow procedures and carry out 
tests developed by the Institute pursuant to paragraph (3).''.

SEC. 8. LIMITATION ON PARTICIPATION IN REQUIRING ENCRYPTION STANDARDS.

    Section 20 of the National Institute of Standards and Technology 
Act (15 U.S.C. 278g-3), as amended by this Act, is further amended by 
adding at the end the following new subsection:
    ``(h) The Institute shall not promulgate, enforce, or otherwise 
adopt standards, or carry out activities or policies, for the Federal 
establishment of encryption standards required for use in computer 
systems other than Federal Government computer systems.''.

SEC. 9. MISCELLANEOUS AMENDMENTS.

    Section 20 of the National Institute of Standards and Technology 
Act (15 U.S.C. 278g-3), as amended by this Act, is further amended--
          (1) in subsection (b)(8), as so redesignated by section 3(1) 
        of this Act, by inserting ``to the extent that such 
        coordination will improve computer security and to the extent 
        necessary for improving such security for Federal computer 
        systems'' after ``Management and Budget)'';
          (2) in subsection (f), as so redesignated by section 5(1) of 
        this Act, by striking ``shall draw upon'' and inserting in lieu 
        thereof ``may draw upon'';
          (3) in subsection (f)(2), as so redesignated by section 5(1) 
        of this Act, by striking ``(b)(5)'' and inserting in lieu 
        thereof ``(b)(8)''; and
          (4) in subsection (g)(1)(B)(i), as so redesignated by section 
        5(1) of this Act, by inserting ``and computer networks'' after 
        ``computers''.

SEC. 10. FEDERAL COMPUTER SYSTEM SECURITY TRAINING.

    Section 5(b) of the Computer Security Act of 1987 (49 U.S.C. 759 
note) is amended--
          (1) by striking ``and'' at the end of paragraph (1);
          (2) by striking the period at the end of paragraph (2) and 
        inserting in lieu thereof ``; and''; and
          (3) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
          ``(3) to include emphasis on protecting sensitive information 
        in Federal databases and Federal computer sites that are 
        accessible through public networks.''.

SEC. 11. COMPUTER SECURITY FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM.

    There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of 
Commerce $250,000 for fiscal year 1998 and $500,000 for fiscal year 
1999 for the Director of the National Institute of Standards and 
Technology for fellowships, subject to the provisions of section 18 of 
the National Institute of Standards and Technology Act (15 U.S.C. 278g-
1), to support students at institutions of higher learning in computer 
security. Amounts authorized by this section shall not be subject to 
the percentage limitation stated in such section 18.

SEC. 12. STUDY OF PUBLIC KEY INFRASTRUCTURE BY THE NATIONAL RESEARCH 
                    COUNCIL.

    (a) Review by National Research Council.--Not later than 90 days 
after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Commerce 
shall enter into a contract with the National Research Council of the 
National Academy of Sciences to conduct a study of public key 
infrastructures for use by individuals, businesses, and government.
    (b) Contents.--The study referred to in subsection (a) shall--
          (1) assess technology needed to support public key 
        infrastructures;
          (2) assess current public and private plans for the 
        deployment of public key infrastructures;
          (3) assess interoperability, scalability, and integrity of 
        private and public entities that are elements of public key 
        infrastructures;
          (4) make recommendations for Federal legislation and other 
        Federal actions required to ensure the national feasibility and 
        utility of public key infrastructures; and
          (5) address such other matters as the National Research 
        Council considers relevant to the issues of public key 
        infrastructure.
    (c) Interagency Cooperation With Study.--All agencies of the 
Federal Government shall cooperate fully with the National Research 
Council in its activities in carrying out the study under this section, 
including access by properly cleared individuals to classified 
information if necessary.
    (d) Report.--Not later than 18 months after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Commerce shall transmit to the 
Committee on Science of the House of Representatives and the Committee 
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report setting 
forth the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the National 
Research Council for public policy related to public key 
infrastructures for use by individuals, businesses, and government. 
Such report shall be submitted in unclassified form.
    (e) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to the Secretary of Commerce $450,000 for fiscal year 
1998, to remain available until expended, for carrying out this 
section.

SEC. 13. PROMOTION OF NATIONAL INFORMATION SECURITY.

    The Under Secretary of Commerce for Technology shall--
          (1) promote the more widespread use of applications of 
        cryptography and associated technologies to enhance the 
        security of the Nation's information infrastructure;
          (2) establish a central clearinghouse for the collection by 
        the Federal Government and dissemination to the public of 
        information to promote awareness of information security 
        threats; and
          (3) promote the development of the national, standards-based 
        infrastructure needed to support commercial and private uses of 
        encryption technologies for confidentiality and authentication.

SEC. 14. DIGITAL SIGNATURE INFRASTRUCTURE.

    (a) National Policy Panel.--The Under Secretary of Commerce for 
Technology shall establish a National Policy Panel for Digital 
Signatures. The Panel shall be composed of nongovernment and government 
technical and legal experts on the implementation of digital signature 
technologies, individuals from companies offering digital signature 
products and services, State officials, including officials from States 
which have enacted statutes establishing digital signature 
infrastructures, and representative individuals from the interested 
public.
    (b) Responsibilities.--The Panel established under subsection (a) 
shall serve as a forum for exploring all relevant factors associated 
with the development of a national digital signature infrastructure 
based on uniform standards that will enable the widespread availability 
and use of digital signature systems. The Panel shall develop--
          (1) model practices and procedures for certification 
        authorities to ensure accuracy, reliability, and security of 
        operations associated with issuing and managing certificates;
          (2) standards to ensure consistency among jurisdictions that 
        license certification authorities; and
          (3) audit standards for certification authorities.
    (c) Administrative Support.--The Under Secretary of Commerce for 
Technology shall provide administrative support to the Panel 
established under subsection (a) of this section as necessary to enable 
the Panel to carry out its responsibilities.

SEC. 15. SOURCE OF AUTHORIZATIONS.

    Amounts authorized to be appropriated by this Act shall be derived 
from amounts authorized under the National Institute of Standards and 
Technology Authorization Act of 1997.

                        II. Purpose of the Bill

    The purpose of this bill is to update the Computer Security 
Act of 1987 to improve computer security for federal civilian 
agencies and the private sector.

              III. Background and Need for the Legislation

    The Computer Security Act of 1987 gave authority over 
computer and communication security standards in federal 
civilian agencies to NIST. The Computer Security Enhancement 
Act of 1997 strengthens that authority and directs funds to 
implement practices and procedures which will ensure that the 
federal standards setting process remains open to public input 
and analysis and that will provide guidance and assistance on 
protection of electronic information to federal civilian 
agencies. H.R. 1903 promotes open and public discussion, as 
well as the use of commercially available products to meet the 
information security needs of the federal civilian agencies.
    The need for this renewed emphasis on the security of 
federal civilian agencies is underscored by the General 
Accounting Office's (GAO) recently released High Risk Series. 
The series ``Report on Information Management and Technology'' 
highlighted information security as a government-wide, high-
risk issue. The report stated that despite their sensitive and 
critical functions, federal systems and data are not being 
adequately protected.
    Since June of 1993, the GAO has issued over 30 reports 
describing serious information security weaknesses at major 
federal agencies. In September of 1996 GAO reported that, 
during the previous 2 years, serious information security 
control weaknesses had been reported for 10 of the 15 largest 
federal agencies. For half of these agencies, the weakness had 
been reported repeatedly for 5 years or longer.
    Much has changed in the 10 years since the Computer 
Security Act of 1987 was enacted. The proliferation of 
networked systems, the Internet, and web access are just a few 
of the dramatic advances in information technology that have 
occurred. The Computer Security Enhancement Act of 1997 
addresses these changes and provides for greater security for 
the federal civilian agencies that base their procurement 
decisions for computer security hardware and software on NIST 
standards. H.R. 1903 also promotes the use of commercially 
available products and encourages an open exchange of 
information between NIST and the private sector. This renewed 
emphasis on open discussion should help facilitate better 
security in all communities.
    H.R. 1903 also emphasizes the need for strong encryption. 
The widespread use of strong encryption will promote safety, 
security, and privacy.

                        IV. Summary of Hearings

    The Subcommittee on Technology held a briefing on February 
11, 1997, on the subject of secure electronic communications. 
The Subcommittee heard testimony from Daniel Geer, Director of 
Engineering, Open Market, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts; 
Daniel Lynch, Chairman, CyberCash, Redwood City, California; 
Tsutomu Shimomura, Senior Fellow, San Diego Supercomputing 
Center, La Jolla, California; Geoff Mulligan, Senior Staff 
Engineer, Security Products Group, SunSoft, Colorado Springs, 
Colorado; Daniel Farmer, Independent Security Consultant, 
Berkeley, California; and Eugene Spafford, Associate Professor 
of Computer Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 
Indiana.
    In his testimony, Mr. Geer stressed that the conversion 
from a physical to an electronic world is not only well 
underway, but also unstoppable. He cited a need for rules to 
ensure and govern this new world. Before substantial 
investments produce diverse and conflicting interests, Congress 
should provide rules that are well understood and enable the 
``game'' to develop at its own pace. Early action, by Congress, 
would produce the most attractive environment for the 
electronic world to develop. He stated that ``there is really 
very little time remaining for Congress to itself choose 
whether to lead, follow or get out of the way. Where it is 
crucial that government lead is in setting the rules of the 
game.'' Later he went on to note: ``Do not let anyone make it 
more complex or argue that we need to go slow or that we first 
have to let foreign governments or domestic law enforcement 
catch up. By the time that happens, you will definitely be 
somewhere between follow and get out of the way.''
    Mr. Lynch testified that the Internet system thrives like a 
biological element, where people add value, hopes, and ideas, 
then wait to see if other people like them. While considerably 
lowering the cost of the communication infrastructure, the 
Internet has also increased the visibility of activity that had 
once been conducted over dedicated lines. Lynch suggested the 
elimination of the ``old laws'' that protected us against the 
``bad guys,'' in order that Internet business might flourish. 
He envisions the Internet as an invaluable tool for business in 
the future, and does not want this to be lost to foreign 
markets.
    While providing examples of communications security 
problems, Mr. Shimomura testified on the inherent risks that 
are posed to Internet users as a result of the evolved system 
that currently exists. Shimomura cited, as a cause of the 
pernicious security problems, a failure of Internet users to 
recognize the fact that much of their data (stored and 
communicated) is at risk. The technologies to better protect 
users does exist; however, full-scale deployment has not yet 
occurred.
    Mr. Mulligan discussed the three major types of security 
attacks: interception (where one attempts to gain valuable 
information by monitoring communications), intrusion (a break-
in to change or steal information), and denial of service 
(interaction that serves to restrict the access to one's own 
information). In addition, he provided a summary of the primary 
means of protection currently available: the firewall (a 
perimeter defense that restricts entry access to a network, yet 
allows unlimited freedom once inside) and the ``sandbox'' 
(application containment that restricts certain executions from 
being performed by a user). Mr. Mulligan stressed that 
plentiful opportunities to violate communication security 
exist, and maintained that protection can only be ensured by 
``unconstrained'' freedom to use any and all available security 
technologies.
    Mr. Farmer commented on the current state of Internet 
security. Revisiting the widespread security compromise that 
was caused by the Internet Morris Worm program, Farmer stressed 
the need for a paradigm shift among all computer users, from a 
prevailing blindness to all issues of computer security, to an 
acceptance of the fact that one must protect his property (both 
physical and virtual.)
    Finally, Mr. Spafford cited a lack of funding support, from 
both the government and industry, for educational endeavors in 
the area of computer security. Of the 5,500 Ph.D.s granted in 
computer science and engineering, a scant 16 pertained to 
computer security, of which only 50% were given to U.S. 
nationals. Mr. Spafford urged Congress to provide graduate 
fellowships that not only promoted the study of computer 
security, but also enticed the students to remain in academia 
upon the completion of their degree program.
    On Thursday, June 19, 1997, the Subcommittee on Technology 
conducted a legislative hearing on H.R. 1903, the Computer 
Security Enhancement Act of 1997. Testimony was given by the 
Honorable Gary Bachula, Acting Under Secretary for Technology, 
Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Washington, DC; Dr. Whitfield Diffie, Distinguished Engineer, 
Sun Microsystems, Mountain View, California; Mr. Stephen T. 
Walker, President and CEO, Trusted Information Systems, Inc., 
Glenwood, Maryland; Mr. James Bidzos, President and CEO, RSA 
Data Security, Redwood City, California; and Marc Rotenberg, 
Esquire, Director, Electronic Privacy Information Center, 
Washington, DC.
    In his testimony, Mr. Bachula described an electronic world 
of the future, whereby one keystroke, performed by a consumer, 
would initiate an elaborate, electronically controlled process, 
resulting in the delivery of a custom good to the end user. 
This would require a ``reliable, secure and trustworthy 
environment . . . We need to have access to public information 
but also assurance that the wrong people will not have access 
to classified or private information.'' In addressing the 
sections of the bill, Mr. Bachula, speaking on behalf of the 
Administration, strongly supported portions of the bill that 
augment NIST's role in assisting the establishment of non-
federal public key management infrastructures, as well as 
providing guidance and assistance to federal agencies. Support 
of Section 5 was also given. The intent of Section 6 and 
Section 8 was supported, yet Mr. Bachula suggested that the 
language needed to be improved. Mr. Bachula indicated that the 
Administration opposed Section 7, which gives NIST a role in 
the assessment of the strength of foreign encryption 
technologies thereby providing guidance to DoC in granting 
export licenses for domestic encryption products.
    Mr. Diffie testified on the historical development of the 
government's role in computer security. In tracing the 
development of the interaction between National Security Agency 
(NSA) and NIST, Mr. Diffie spoke very highly of the intent of 
the Computer Security Act of 1987; however, he noted that the 
provision which called for NIST to consult with NSA, later 
modified by an inter-agency Memorandum of Understanding, 
resulted in a separation of authority (NIST) and funding (NSA). 
Mr. Diffie highlighted the problems caused by the NIST/NSA 
interaction, and contended that NIST autonomy would eliminate 
this predicament. Citing its timeliness, Mr. Diffie strongly 
supported H.R. 1903, which he stated would bring back the 
spirit of the Computer Security Act of 1987.
    Mr. Walker also testified in support of H.R. 1903. He 
strongly supported the provisions that strengthened and 
augmented the role of the Computer System Security and Privacy 
Advisory Board (CSSPAB), which was created by the 1987 Act. He 
pointed out the public good that was done by CSSPAB allowing 
public debate on the widely criticized Clipper initiative and 
defended H.R. 1903's enhancement of the board's interaction 
with NIST. Mr. Walker, though, was opposed to the portions of 
the bill that direct NIST to conduct evaluations of encryption 
technology, both domestically (Section 4, paragraph 6) and 
internationally (Section 7). He questioned the ability of NIST 
to conduct such evaluations, not because of inadequacies of 
NIST, rather, the fact that ``no one in government or industry 
has been able to perform effectively at this point'' such an 
evaluation.
    Mr. Bidzos disagreed with Mr. Walker's contention regarding 
evaluation of encryption technologies. He stated that the 
provisions of section 7 were both doable and needed. Also, Mr. 
Bidzos praised the bill's provisions that increased the private 
sector's role in establishing computer security of civilian 
government agencies. While implementation of the 1987 Act 
missed the opportunity for NIST to work closely with industry, 
``we have an opportunity now to correct it. And, I think that's 
what [H.R.] 1903 does.'' Concluding, Mr. Bidzos found no 
shortcomings with the bill, and strongly supported its contents 
and timing.
    Mr. Rotenberg concluded oral testimony with an overall 
appraisal of H.R. 1903. Citing the merits of the 1987 Act, Mr. 
Rotenberg supported the bill as powerful and timely legislation 
that furthers the intent of its predecessor, while eliminating 
the inefficacy induced by NIST's Memorandum of Understanding 
with NSA for consultation on computer security matters under 
the Act.
    Mr. Rotenberg stated that the Advisory Board (CSSPAB) has 
played a pivotal role since passage of the Computer Security 
Act of 1987 in providing public input into the decision-making 
process. He stated that he felt it appropriate to build on the 
success of the Board and ensure that it continues to have the 
resources necessary to evaluate important concerns about 
computer security and privacy. He made clear that the Board has 
played a critical role since passage of the Computer Security 
Act, and continues to provide the critical link between the 
public user community and the agency.
    On the issue of Section 7 of the bill, he was extremely 
supportive. He stated that H.R. 1903 recognizes that the United 
States is not grappling with the issues of data security and 
privacy in a vacuum. Advanced knowledge of foreign encryption 
technologies would enable the Secretary of Commerce to analyze 
export restrictions while possessing a firm understanding of 
the availability of strong foreign encryption products.
    He expressed the hope that an awareness of technologies 
available outside the United States will influence decision-
makers to adopt a policy on encryption that will help U.S. 
computer hardware and software manufacturers to be competitive 
in what is essentially a global market. It is simply not wise 
to make recommendations without consideration of the full range 
of relevant data.
    He testified that the experience with the Digital Signature 
Standard confirms his belief that the best technological 
development is driven by openness and public accountability. He 
stated that H.R. 1903 creates a framework that will ensure a 
responsive, open decision-making process that will promote 
technical standards compatible with the interests of civilian 
agencies and the commercial sector.
    Finally, Mr. Rotenberg complimented the National Research 
Council's (NRC's) work in reviewing cryptography policy in the 
1996 Cryptography's Role In Securing The Information Society 
report, and suggested that the proposed study (Section 12) be 
expanded to include: ``new techniques to promote privacy and 
security on-line, techniques to promote anonymous or pseudo-
anonymous commerce, and communications that are now being 
explored in other countries.''
    He stated that it is very important for the NRC to look at 
privacy enhancing technologies that may enable the growth of 
electronic commerce on the Internet and strengthen public 
confidence in Internet communication. Similar work has been 
carried out in other countries, but the United States has still 
not looked closely at the significant opportunities that such 
technologies provide. A report from the NRC, setting out the 
basic research and policy issues with some preliminary 
recommendations, would be very useful.
    In addition, Mr. Willis Ware submitted written testimony 
for the record on behalf of the Computer System Security and 
Privacy Advisory Board (CSSPAB), which he chairs. In reviewing 
the 1987 Computer Security Act 10 years after its enactment, 
CSSPAB heard presentations from a variety of government and 
private sector representatives who criticized the Act's 
implementation, rather than its structure or wording. For 
example, Mr. Ware noted that NIST is not providing federal 
civilian agencies the support they need to ensure computer 
security. Ware stated that NIST should focus on providing 
``general system-level security advice and overall assistance 
to civil agencies,'' not just technical assistance in 
implementing standards and guidelines. In June 1997, CSSPAB 
adopted two resolutions. The first calls for NIST to increase 
its assistance to civilian federal agencies. The second 
recommends that NIST develop a repository for data from 
civilian agencies on computer security and privacy violations.

                          V. Committee Actions

    On Monday, July 29, 1997, the Committee on Science, 
Subcommittee on Technology convened to mark up H.R. 1903, The 
Computer Security Enhancement Act of 1997, to amend the 
National Institute of Standards and Technology Act to enhance 
the ability of the National Institute of Standards and 
Technology to improve computer security, and for other 
purposes. Two amendments were offered at the markup. Both 
amendments were adopted by voice vote.
    1. Mrs. Morella offered an amendment to increase the amount 
of funding for the Computer Security Fellowships Program, as 
administered by the National Institute of Standards and 
Technology, from $250,000 to $500,000 in Fiscal Year 1999. The 
amendment was adopted by a voice vote.
    2. Mr. Gordon offered an amendment to further increase 
public awareness of security threats and to accelerate 
corrective action by using the Technology Administration in the 
Commerce Department to actively promote greater use of 
cryptography and associated technologies by the private sector. 
The amendment also establishes a national forum for 
coordination of policies for building a digital signature 
infrastructure by establishing a national panel, under the 
auspices of the Technology Administration, to develop model 
practices and procedures, uniformity among jurisdictions that 
license certification authorities, and uniform audit standards 
for certification authorities. The amendment was adopted by a 
voice vote.
    With a quorum present, Mr. Gordon moved that H.R. 1903, as 
amended, be reported. The motion was adopted by a voice vote.
    On July 29, 1997, the Committee on Science convened to mark 
up H.R. 1903. An amendment by Representatives Morella and 
Gordon was offered and adopted by voice vote.
    1. Mrs. Morella and Mr. Gordon offered an amendment which 
consisted of the text of H.R. 1903 as reported by the 
Subcommittee on Technology. The amendment was agreed to by a 
voice vote.
    With a quorum present, Mr. Gordon moved that H.R. 1903, as 
amended, be reported. The motion was adopted by a voice vote.

              VI. Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill

    The Computer Security Enhancement Act of 1997 updates the 
Computer Security Act to take into account the evolution of 
computer networks and their use by both the Federal Government 
and the private sector. Specifically, H.R. 1903:
    1. Requires NIST to encourage the acquisition of commercial 
off-the-shelf (COTS) products to meet civilian agency computer 
security needs. This measure should reduce the cost and improve 
the availability of computer security technologies for federal 
agencies.
    2. Enhances the role of the independent Computer System 
Security and Privacy Advisory Board in NIST's decision-making 
process by requiring the Board, which is made up of 
representatives from industry, federal agencies and other 
external organizations, to make formal recommendations 
regarding proposed security standards and provide guidance to 
NIST on emerging computer security issues.
    3. Requires NIST to develop standard tests and procedures 
to determine the capabilities of encryption technologies. 
Through such tests and procedures, NIST may assist private 
sector entities, by request, in evaluating the relative 
strength of foreign encryption products, thereby defusing some 
of the concerns associated with the export of domestically 
produced encryption products.
    4. The bill clarifies that NIST standards and guidelines 
are to be used for the acquisition of computer security 
technologies for the Federal Government and are not intended as 
restrictions on the production or use of encryption by the 
private sector.
    5. Updates the Computer Security Act by including 
references to computer networking which has become an 
increasingly important component of the Federal Government 
information technology system.
    6. Establishes a new computer science fellowship program 
for graduate and undergraduate students studying computer 
security. The bill sets aside $250,000 for the first year and 
$500,000 for the second year, to enable NIST to finance 
computer security fellowships under an existing NIST grant 
program.
    7. Requires the National Research Council (NRC) to conduct 
a study to assess the desirability of public key 
infrastructures. The NRC would also research the technologies 
required for the establishment of such key infrastructures.
    8. Requires the Under Secretary of Commerce for Technology 
to actively promote the use of technologies by the Federal 
Government that will enhance the security of federal 
communications networks and information in electronic form; to 
establish a clearinghouse of information available to the 
public on information security threats; and to promote 
development of a market driven consensus standards-based 
infrastructure that will enable more widespread use of 
encryption technologies for confidentiality and authentication.
    9. Establishes a National Panel for Digital Signatures for 
the purpose of exploring all relevant factors associated with 
the development of a national digital signature infrastructure 
based on uniform standards and of developing model practices 
and standards associated with certification authorities. The 
Technology Administration of the Department of Commerce shall 
appoint the National Panel and provide necessary administrative 
support.

 VII. Section-by-Section Analysis (by Title and Section) and Committee 
                                 Views

                         Section 1. Short Title

    Cites this title as the ``Computer Security Enhancement Act 
of 1997.''

                    Section 2. Findings and Purposes

    The Committee finds:
    (1) The National Institute of Standards and Technology has 
responsibility for developing standards and guidelines needed 
to ensure the cost-effective security and privacy of sensitive 
information in the federal computer systems.
    (2) The Federal Government has an important role in 
ensuring the protection of sensitive, but unclassified, 
information controlled by federal agencies.
    (3) Technology that is based on the application of 
cryptography exists and can be readily provided by private 
sector companies to ensure the confidentiality, authenticity, 
and integrity of information associated with public and private 
activities.
    (4) The development and use of encryption technologies 
should be driven by market forces rather than by Government 
imposed requirements.
    (5) Federal policy for control of the export of encryption 
technologies should be determined in light of the public 
availability of comparable encryption technologies outside of 
the United States in order to avoid harming the competitiveness 
of United States computer hardware and software companies.
    The purposes of this Act are to:
    (1) reinforce the role of the National Institute of 
Standards and Technology in ensuring the security of 
unclassified information in federal computer systems;
    (2) promote technology solutions based on private sector 
offerings to protect the security of federal computer systems; 
and
    (3) provide the assessment of capabilities of information 
security products incorporating cryptography that are generally 
available outside the United States.

       Section 3. Voluntary Standards for Public Key Management 
                            Infrastructures

    Section 20 of the NIST Act is amended by authorizing NIST 
to assist (upon request from the private sector) in 
establishing voluntary interoperable standards, guidelines, and 
associated methods and techniques to facilitate and expedite 
the establishment of non-federal public key management 
infrastructures.

Committee views

    Historically, NIST has been most effective when helping the 
commercial sector, in a consensus process, to establish 
standards. The Committee supports such efforts, so long as they 
are fully voluntary and reflect a true consensus process.

         Section 4. Security of Federal Computers and Networks

    Section 20 of the NIST Act is amended by authorizing NIST 
to:
    (1) provide guidance and assistance to federal agencies in 
the protection of interconnected computer systems and 
coordinate federal response efforts related to unauthorized 
access to federal computer systems; and
    (2) perform evaluations and tests of information 
technologies to assess security vulnerabilities and of 
commercially available security products for their suitability 
for use by federal agencies for protecting sensitive 
information in computer systems.

Committee views

    The Committee continues to support NIST's role in 
evaluating the products used for information technology 
security for the federal civilian agencies. It is important 
that NIST remain the lead agency in securing the information 
technology infrastructure of federal civilian agencies. NIST 
must place greater emphasis on its duties in this area. NIST 
should provide guidance and assistance to federal civilian 
agencies in helping to secure their information technology 
systems. To do this, NIST must evaluate and perform tests to 
determine which of the commercially available security products 
available are the least vulnerable and the best suited to 
protect electronic data.

              Section 5. Computer Security Implementation

    Section 20 of the NIST Act is amended to specify the 
approaches to be taken by NIST in carrying out its existing 
responsibilities for developing standards and guidelines for 
the security and privacy of sensitive information in federal 
computer systems. Specifically, NIST must emphasize technology-
neutral policy guidelines for computer security practices, and 
must actively promote commercially available products for 
meeting the security and privacy requirements of federal 
agencies. Also, NIST is tasked to participate in 
implementations of encryption technologies to develop necessary 
standards and guidelines for federal computer systems, 
including assessing the desirability of, and the costs 
associated with, establishing and managing a key recovery 
infrastructure.

Committee views

    The Committee affirms NIST's lead role in setting policy 
guidelines for computer security practices implemented by 
federal civilian agencies. The Committee encourages the greater 
use of commercially available security products by federal 
agencies by directing NIST to promote the use of such products 
whenever feasible and appropriate.
    The Committee is not convinced of the necessity of the 
establishment of a national key management infrastructure. In 
the process of looking at a national key management 
infrastructure it is also necessary to examine whether one is 
needed at all. The Committee believes more information is 
needed about the costs and vulnerabilities of key management 
infrastructures. The NRC study will provide valuable 
information on the costs and vulnerabilities of such an 
infrastructure. The Committee expects NIST to participate in 
the implementation of encryption technologies in the Federal 
Government, including assessment of the desirability of, andthe 
costs associated with, establishing and managing key recovery 
infrastructures for Federal Government information.

 Section 6. Computer Security Review, Public Meetings, and Information

    Section 20 of the NIST Act is amended by requiring NIST to 
solicit recommendations from the Computer System Security and 
Privacy Advisory Board regarding standards and guidelines that 
are under consideration for submittal to the Secretary of 
Commerce for promulgation as regulations and include such 
recommendations with any subsequent submission to the 
Secretary. Funds are also authorized for the Board ($1,000,000 
for Fiscal Year 1998 and $1,030,000 for Fiscal Year 1999) to 
enable it to act as a forum for public discussion on emerging 
issues related to computer security, privacy and cryptography. 
The Board is authorized to convene public meetings and to 
publish reports and other information for public distribution.

Committee views

    The Committee believes that an open and transparent system 
should be used by NIST in promulgating federal standards. The 
Computer System Security and Privacy Advisory Board (CSSPAB), 
acting as an independent board, is uniquely positioned to make 
recommendations to the Department of Commerce. This Board will 
be charged with submitting its recommendations along with 
NIST's proposals to the Secretary of Commerce for promulgation 
as regulations. The Board is being provided with resources and 
specific direction by the Committee to allow it to operate in 
an independent and autonomous fashion to pursue public policy 
issues that are important for assuring the security and 
integrity of computing and network systems, and the information 
they contain. The Board is authorized to convene public 
meetings and to publish reports and other information for 
public distribution.
    The CSSPAB is to report directly to the Committee on 
Science of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate. The 
Committee emphasizes that CSSPAB reports do not require prior 
clearance by OMB or the Commerce Department before they are 
transmitted to the Congressional Committees.

      Section 7. Evaluation Of Capabilities of Foreign Encryption

    Section 20 of the NIST Act is amended to enable NIST to 
accept technical information from commercial encryption 
providers whose products are the subject of export restrictions 
demonstrating that stronger encryption products than their own 
already exist outside the United States. NIST is then required 
to analyze the information and within 30 days provide a report 
on its accuracy and completeness to the Secretary of Commerce 
and Congress.
    In order to facilitate the evaluation process, within 180 
days of enactment of this Act, NIST is required to develop 
standard procedures and tests to measure the capabilities of 
encryption technologies. NIST must make information regarding 
those procedures and tests available to the public. NIST is 
given the authority to require commercial providers seeking an 
evaluation to follow the procedures and tests it has developed.

Committee views

    NIST currently assesses domestic products in its mission to 
set appropriate federal standards and to assist civilian 
federal agencies in the area of computer security. By directing 
NIST to develop standard procedures and tests that can be used 
by commercial encryption providers whose products are the 
subject of export restrictions to evaluate the strength of 
foreign encryption, the bill will allow the Administration and 
Congress to make informed decisions on criteria for exporting 
U.S. encryption products.
    The Committee believes that providing accurate and 
verifiable information on the availability of strong security 
products will also assist U.S. companies to remain competitive 
in the international market.

    Section 8. Limitation on Participation in Requiring Encryption 
                               Standards

    Section 20 of the NIST Act is amended by prohibiting NIST 
from promulgating, enforcing, or otherwise adopting standards, 
or carrying out activities or policies, for the federal 
establishment of encryption standards required for use in 
computer systems other than Federal Government computer 
systems.

Committee views

    NIST does not currently promulgate, enforce or otherwise 
adopt standards, or carry out activities or policies, for the 
federal establishment of encryption, or computer security 
standards required for use in computer systems other than 
Federal Government computer systems. It is the Committee's 
intention that NIST not be used for such purposes in the 
future.

                  Section 9. Miscellaneous Amendments

    Technical and conforming amendments to Section 20 of the 
NIST Act as well as a language change which reasserts NIST's 
role as the lead agency for handling standards for civilian 
agency computer security.

Committee views

    The Committee affirms NIST's role as the lead agency for 
handling standards for federal civilian agency computer 
security. The Committee believes that it is imperative that 
this function remain open to public scrutiny. NIST is the 
agency historically charged with setting the standards for 
computer security in the civilian agencies and it is the 
Committee's intention that NIST direct appropriate resources 
and expertise to this area.

         Section 10. Federal Computer System Security Training

    Section 5(b) of the Computer Security Act of 1987 is 
amended by adding an emphasis on protecting sensitive 
information in federal databases and federal computer sites 
that are accessible through public networks.

Committee views

    The Committee wishes to focus NIST's attention on security 
matters which have come about because of the changes in 
networked information technology systems that have taken place 
since theenactment of the Computer Security Act of 1987. The 
World Wide Web is just one example of new developments in networked 
information technology programs which raise unique security concerns.

            Section 11. Computer Security Fellowship Program

    Funds are authorized under Section 18 of the NIST Act to 
provide grants for research on computer security to students at 
institutions of higher learning ($250,000 for Fiscal Year 1998 
and $500,000 for Fiscal Year 1999).

Committee views

    The Committee supports efforts to increase the number of 
college and graduate students in the field of computer 
security. NIST can play an important, although limited, role in 
this effort through its section 18 fellowship program.

Section 12. Study of Public Key Infrastructure by the National Research 
                                Council

    This section authorizes funds ($450,000 for Fiscal Year 
1998 to remain available until expended) and sets terms for the 
National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences 
to conduct a study of public key infrastructures for use by 
individuals, businesses, and government.

Committee views

    In the opinion of the Committee, the NRC study on 
Cryptography ``Cryptography's Role In Securing the Information 
Society'' has been an important addition to the cryptography 
debate. The issues arising from the debate of public key 
infrastructures could similarly benefit from an NRC report.

         Section 13. Promotion of National Information Security

    Requires the Under Secretary of Commerce for Technology to 
actively promote the use of technologies that will enhance the 
security of federal communications networks and information in 
electronic form; to establish a clearinghouse of information 
available to the public on information security threats; and to 
promote development of the standards-based infrastructure that 
will enable the more widespread use of encryption technologies 
for confidentiality and authentication.

Committee views

    Through the requirements of section 13, the Committee 
intends to designate a central government focus for increasing 
public awareness of the need for improving the security of 
communications networks and the information accessed through 
such networks. The Committee notes that one of the central 
findings of the comprehensive 1996 report from the National 
Academy of Sciences, Cryptography's Role in Securing the 
Information Society, is the relative lack of attention paid to 
securing electronic information. Although the technical 
solutions for enhancing information security are available, the 
public has not been energized about the importance of utilizing 
these tools.
    H.R. 1903 encourages greater use of commercially available 
cryptography products for protection of government information, 
which may have the indirect effect of enhancing the general 
availability of such technologies. To further increase public 
awareness of security threats and to accelerate corrective 
action, section 13 of the bill charges the Technology 
Administration in the Commerce Department to actively promote 
greater use of cryptography and associated technologies by the 
private sector. One specific requirement is for the Technology 
Administration to establish a clearinghouse of information for 
the public on information security threats to networked 
computers, including information about procedural and technical 
approaches to guard against such threats.
    The Committee intends that the Technology Administration 
actively promote the development of a national, standards-based 
infrastructure to support the uses of encryption technologies 
for confidentiality and authentication by working closely with 
the private sector and by assisting and supporting the 
development of standards through a private-sector oriented, 
consensus-based process.

              Section 14. Digital Signature Infrastructure

    Establishes a National Panel for Digital Signatures for the 
purpose of exploring all relevant factors associated with the 
development of a national digital signature infrastructure 
based on uniform market driven consensus standards and of 
developing model practices and standards associated with 
certification authorities. The Technology Administration of the 
Department of Commerce shall appoint the National Panel and 
provide necessary administrative support.

Committee views

    The Committee finds that digital signature technology is 
essential for the full use of public networks, such as the 
Internet, for commerce and for private communications. Digital 
signatures verify the identity of a business or individual that 
is accessed via a network and assure the integrity of the 
information being exchanged. In order for digital signature 
technology to be deployed, in most cases, a trusted guarantor 
of the public identifier, or public key, of the digital 
signature must exist. This is the role of the certification 
authority.
    The Committee is aware that several States have enacted 
statutes to regulate certification authorities. Unfortunately, 
this has largely been an uncoordinated process resulting in the 
placement of varying requirements on certification authorities. 
In order for a truly national system to develop, which is 
required if use of digital signatures is to become widespread, 
the Committee believes that uniform market driven consensus 
standards must be in place for the practices and procedures of 
the certification authorities. Otherwise, variations in the 
requirements for certification authorities will degrade the 
overall level of reliability and security of digital 
signatures.
    To promote the required uniformity, section 14 of the bill 
establishes a national panel, under the auspices of the 
Technology Administration, to develop private voluntary model 
practices and procedures, promote uniformity among 
jurisdictions that license certification authorities, and 
private voluntary uniform audit standards for certification 
authorities. This national panel, with broadly based 
representation, including users of digital signature 
technology, will provide for the coordination needed to put in 
place thenational legal and technical infrastructure that is a 
prerequisite for the widespread use of digital signatures.

                  Section 15. Source of Authorizations

    Amounts authorized to be appropriated by this Act are from 
amounts authorized by the NIST Authorization Act of 1997.

Committee views

    The Committee and the full House of Representatives have 
passed H.R. 1274, the National Institute of Standards and 
Technology Authorization Act of 1997. That bill includes 
authorizations which, if enacted, are sufficient to cover all 
responsibilities given to NIST in H.R. 1903.

                     VIII. Committee Cost Estimate

    Clause 7(a) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires each Committee report accompanying 
each bill or joint resolution of a public character to contain: 
(1) an estimate, made by such Committee, of the costs which 
would be incurred in carrying out such bill or joint resolution 
in the fiscal year in which it is reported, and in each of the 
5 fiscal years following such fiscal year (or for the 
authorized duration of any program authorized by such bill or 
joint resolution, if less than 5 years); (2) a comparison of 
the estimate of costs described in subparagraph (1) of this 
paragraph made by such Committee with an estimate of such costs 
made by any Government agency and submitted to such Committee; 
and (3) when practicable, a comparison of the total estimated 
funding level for the relevant program (or programs) with the 
appropriate levels under current law. However, clause 7(d) of 
that Rule provides that this requirement does not apply when a 
cost estimate and comparison prepared by the Director of the 
Congressional Budget Office under section 403 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974 has been timely submitted 
prior to the filing of the report and included in the report 
pursuant to clause 2(l)(3)(C) of rule XI. A cost estimate and 
comparison prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget 
Office under section 403 of the Congressional Budget Act of 
1974 has been timely submitted prior to the filing of this 
report and included in Section XI of this report pursuant to 
clause 2(l)(3)(C) of rule XI.
    Clause 2(l)(3)(B) of rule XI of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires each Committee report that accompanies 
a measure providing new budget authority (other than continuing 
appropriations), new spending authority, or new credit 
authority, or changes in revenues or tax expenditures to 
contain a cost estimate, as required by section 308(a)(1) of 
the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 and, when practicable with 
respect to estimates of new budget authority, a comparison of 
the total estimated funding level for the relevant program (or 
programs) to the appropriate levels under current law. H.R. 
1903 does not contain any new budget authority, credit 
authority, or changes in revenues or tax expenditures. Assuming 
that the sums authorized under the bill are appropriated, H.R. 
1903 does authorize additional discretionary spending, as 
described in the Congressional Budget Office report on the 
bill, which is contained in Section XI of this report.

             IX. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                   Washington, DC, August 12, 1997.
Hon. F. James Sensenbrenner, Jr.,
Chairman, Committee on Science,
U.S. House of Representatives,
Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 1903, the Computer 
Security Enhancement Act of 1997.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Rachel 
Forward, who can be reached at 226-2860.
            Sincerely,
                                                    June E. O'Neill
    Enclosure

          H.R. 1903--Computer Security Enhancement Act of 1997

    Summary: H.R. 1903 would direct the National Institute of 
Standards and Technology (NIST) located in the Department of 
Commerce to develop policies to improve computer security for 
federal computer systems. CBO estimates that implementing the 
bill would cost $35 million over the 1998-2002 period, assuming 
appropriation of the necessary amounts.
    The bill would authorize the appropriation of $3.2 million 
to NIST to (1) enable the Computer System Security and Privacy 
Advisory Board (CSSPAB) administered by NIST to conduct public 
forums to identify emerging issues related to computer 
security, (2) contract for a study by the National Research 
Council on computer security issues, and (3) award computer 
security fellowships. In addition, CBO estimates that 
implementing other provisions of the bill would require 
expenditures of about $33 million over the 1998-2002 period.
    H.R. 1903 would not affect direct spending or receipts; 
therefore, pay-as-you go procedures would not apply. H.R. 1903 
contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as 
defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (UMRA) and 
would not affect the budgets of state, local, or tribal 
governments.
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: For the purposes 
of this estimate, CBO assumes that H.R. 1903 will be enacted by 
the end of Fiscal Year 1997, and that the estimated amounts 
necessary to implement the bill will be appropriated by the 
start of each fiscal year. Outlays have been estimated on the 
basis of historical spending patterns for NIST and information 
provided by the agency. The estimated budgetary impact of H.R. 
1903 is shown in the following table.

                                  CHANGES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION                                  
                                    [By fiscal year, in millions of dollars]                                    
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                       1998     1999     2000     2001     2002 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Estimated Authorization Level......................................        9        8        7        6        6
Estimated Outlays..................................................        7        8        7        7        6
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    NIST received an appropriation of $582 million for Fiscal 
Year 1997, and its 1997 outlays are estimated to be about $640 
million.
    The costs of this legislation fall within budget function 
370 (commerce and housing credit).

                           BASIS OF ESTIMATE

    Based on information from NIST, CBO estimates that enacting 
H.R. 1903 would result in total costs to the government of 
about $35 million over the 1998-2002 period. Of that amount, 
$3.2 million is specifically authorized in the bill for the 
activities of the CSSPAB and the National Research Council, as 
well as for the computer security fellowship program at NIST.
    CBO estimates that NIST would need additional 
appropriations of $6 million to $7 million in each fiscal year 
over the 1998-2002 period to implement the remaining provisions 
of the bill. Of those amounts, CBO estimates that NIST would 
spend about $5 million a year to evaluate commercial encryption 
products subject to export restrictions and to report the 
results to the Secretary of Commerce and the Congress. We 
further estimate that NIST would spend between $1 million and 
$2 million in each year to test computer security products for 
use by federal agencies, provide information on computer 
security threats to the public, establish a National Panel for 
Digital Signatures, and carry out the remaining provisions of 
the bill.
    H.R. 1903 directs that the sums necessary to implement this 
bill, including the $3.2 million explicitly authorized by the 
bill, should be derived from amounts authorized to be 
appropriated in H.R. 1274, the National Institute of Standards 
and Technology Authorization Act of 1997. That act has been 
passed by the House of Representatives but has not yet been 
enacted into law.
    Pay-as-you-go considerations: None.

              INTERGOVERNMENTAL AND PRIVATE-SECTOR IMPACT

    H.R. 1903 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in UMRA and would not affect the budgets of 
state, local, or tribal governments.
    Estimate prepared by: Rachel Forward (226-2860).
    Estimate approved by: Robert A. Sunshine, Deputy Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.

                  X. Compliance With Public Law 104-4

    H.R. 1903 contains no unfunded mandates.

          XI. Committee Oversight Findings and Recommendations

    Clause 2(l)(3)(A) of rule XI of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires each Committee report to include 
oversight findings and recommendations required pursuant to 
clause 2(b)(1) of rule X. The Committee has no oversight 
findings.

    XII. Oversight Findings and Recommendations by the Committee on 
                    Government Reform and Oversight

    Clause 2(l)(3)(D) of rule XI of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires each Committee report to contain a 
summary of the oversight findings and recommendations made by 
the House Government Reform and Oversight Committee pursuant to 
clause 4(c)(2) of rule X, whenever such findings and 
recommendations have been submitted to the Committee in a 
timely fashion. The Committee on Science has received no such 
findings or recommendations from the Committee on Government 
Reform and Oversight.

                XIII. Constitutional Authority Statement

    Clause 2(l)(4) of rule XI of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires each report of a Committee on a bill 
or joint resolution of a public character to include a 
statement citing the specific powers granted to the Congress in 
the Constitution to enact the law proposed by the bill or joint 
resolution. Article I, section 8 of the Constitution of the 
United States grants Congress the authority to enact H.R. 1903.

               XIV. Federal Advisory Committee Statement

    The functions of the two advisory committees, the Computer 
System Security and Privacy Advisory Board and the National 
Panel for Digital Signatures, authorized in H.R. 1903 are not 
currently, nor could they be, performed by one or more agencies 
or by enlarging the mandate of another existing advisory 
committee.

                  XV. Congressional Accountability Act

    The Committee finds that H.R. 1903 does not relate to the 
terms and conditions of employment or access to public services 
or accommodations within the meaning of section 102(b)(3) of 
the Congressional Accountability Act (Public Law 104-1).

       XVI. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

  In compliance with clause 3 of rule XIII of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by the 
bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law proposed 
to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new matter is 
printed in italics, existing law in which no change is proposed 
is shown in roman):

  Section 20 of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Act

    Sec. 20. (a) * * *
          * * * * * * *
  (b) In fulfilling subsection (a) of this section, the 
Institute is authorized--
          (1) to assist the private sector, upon request, in 
        using and applying the results of the programs and 
        activities under this section;
          (2) upon request from the private sector, to assist 
        in establishing voluntary interoperable standards, 
        guidelines, and associated methods and techniques to 
        facilitate and expedite the establishment of non-
        Federal management infrastructures for public keys that 
        can be used to communicate with and conduct 
        transactions with the Federal Government;
          [(2)] (3) as requested, to provide to operators of 
        Federal computer systems technical assistance in 
        implementing the standards and guidelines promulgated 
        pursuant to section5131 of the Information Technology 
Management Reform Act of 1996;
          [(3)] (4) to assist, as appropriate, the Office of 
        Personnel Management in developing regulations 
        pertaining to training, as required by section 5 of the 
        Computer Security Act of 1987;
          (5) to provide guidance and assistance to Federal 
        agencies in the protection of interconnected computer 
        systems and to coordinate Federal response efforts 
        related to unauthorized access to Federal computer 
        systems;
          (6) to perform evaluations and tests of--
                  (A) information technologies to assess 
                security vulnerabilities; and
                  (B) commercially available security products 
                for their suitability for use by Federal 
                agencies for protecting sensitive information 
                in computer systems;
          [(4)] (7) to perform research and to conduct studies, 
        as needed, to determine the nature and extent of the 
        vulnerabilities of, and to devise techniques for the 
        cost-effective security and privacy of sensitive 
        information in Federal computer systems; and
          [(5)] (8) to coordinate closely with other agencies 
        and offices (including, but not limited to, the 
        Departments of Defense and Energy, the National 
        Security Agency, the General Accounting Office, the 
        Office of Technology Assessment, and the Office of 
        Management and Budget) to the extent that such 
        coordination will improve computer security and to the 
        extent necessary for improving such security for 
        Federal computer systems--
                  (A) to assure maximum use of all existing and 
                planned programs, materials, studies, and 
                reports relating to computer systems security 
                and privacy, in order to avoid unnecessary and 
                costly duplication of effort; and
                  (B) to assure, to the maximum extent 
                feasible, that standards developed pursuant to 
                subsection (a) (3) and (5) are consistent and 
                compatible with standards and procedures 
                developed for the protection of information in 
                Federal computer systems which is authorized 
                under criteria established by Executive order 
                or an Act of Congress to be kept secret in the 
                interest of national defense or foreign policy.
      (c) In carrying out subsection (a)(3), the Institute 
shall--
          (1) emphasize the development of technology-neutral 
        policy guidelines for computer security practices by 
        the Federal agencies;
          (2) actively promote the use of commercially 
        available products to provide for the security and 
        privacy of sensitive information in Federal computer 
        systems; and
          (3) participate in implementations of encryption 
        technologies in order to develop required standards and 
        guidelines for Federal computer systems, including 
        assessing the desirability of and the costs associated 
        with establishing and managing key recovery 
        infrastructures for Federal Government information.
    (d)(1) The Institute shall solicit the recommendations of 
the Computer System Security and Privacy Advisory Board, 
established by section 21, regarding standards and guidelines 
that are being considered for submittal to the Secretary of 
Commerce in accordance with subsection (a)(4). No standards or 
guidelines shall be submitted to the Secretary prior to the 
receipt by the Institute of the Board's written 
recommendations. The recommendations of the Board shall 
accompany standards and guidelines submitted to the Secretary.
    (2) There are authorized to be appropriated to the 
Secretary of Commerce $1,000,000 for fiscal year 1998 and 
$1,030,000 for fiscal year 1999 to enable the Computer System 
Security and Privacy Advisory Board, established by section 21, 
to identify emerging issues related to computer security, 
privacy, and cryptography and to convene public meetings on 
those subjects, receive presentations, and publish reports, 
digests, and summaries for public distribution on those 
subjects.
    (e)(1) If the Secretary has imposed, or proposes to impose, 
export restrictions on a product that incorporates encryption 
technologies, the Institute may accept technical evidence from 
the commercial provider of the product offered to indicate that 
encryption technologies, embodied in the form of software or 
hardware, that are offered and generally available outside the 
United States for use, sale, license, or transfer (whether for 
consideration or not) provide stronger participation for 
privacy of computer data and transmissions of information in 
digital form than the encryption technologies incorporated in 
the commercial provider's product.
    (2) Within 30 days after accepting technical evidence from 
a commercial provider under paragraph (1), the Institute shall 
evaluate the accuracy and completeness of the technical 
evidence and transmit to the Secretary, and to the Committee on 
Science of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, a report 
containing the results of that evaluation. The Institute may 
obtain assistance from other Federal and private sector 
entities in carrying out evaluations under this paragraph.
    (3) Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment 
of the Computer Security Enhancement Act of 1997, the Institute 
shall develop standard procedures and tests for determining the 
capabilities of encryption technologies, and shall provide 
information regarding those procedures and tests to the public.
    (4) The Institute may require a commercial provider seeking 
evaluation under this subsection to follow procedures and carry 
out tests developed by the Institute pursuant to paragraph (3).
    [(c)] (f) For the purposes of--
          (1) developing standards and guidelines for the 
        protection of sensitive information in Federal computer 
        systems under subsections (a)(1) and (a)(3), and
          (2) performing research and conducting studies under 
        subsection [(b)(5)] (b)(8),
the Institute [shall draw upon] may draw upon computer system 
technical security guidelines developed by the National 
Security Agency to the extent that the Institute determines 
that such guidelines are consistent with the requirements for 
protecting sensitive information in Federal computer systems.
    [(d)] (g) As used in this section--
          (1) the term ``computer system''--
                  (A) * * *
                  (B) includes--
                          (i) computers and computer networks;
          * * * * * * *
    (h) The Institute shall not promulgate, enforce, or 
otherwise adopt standards, or carry out activities or policies, 
for the Federal establishment of encryption standards required 
for use in computer systems other than Federal Government 
computer systems.
                              ----------                              


             Section 5 of the Computer Security Act of 1987

SEC. 5. FEDERAL COMPUTER SYSTEM SECURITY TRAINING.

    (a) * * *
          * * * * * * *
    (b) Training Objectives.--Training under this section shall 
be started within 60 days after the issuance of the regulations 
described in subsection (c). Such training shall be designed--
          (1) to enhance employees' awareness of the threats to 
        and vulnerability of computer systems; [and]
          (2) to encourage the use of improved computer 
        security practices[.]; and
          (3) to include emphasis on protecting sensitive 
        information in Federal databases and Federal computer 
        sites that are accessible through public networks.
          * * * * * * *

                    XVII. Committee Recommendations

    On July 29, 1997, a quorum being present, the Committee 
favorably reported The Computer Security Enhancement Act of 
1997 by a voice vote and recommends its enactment.
               XVIII. Proceedings of Subcommittee Markup



 SUBCOMMITTEE MARKUP OF H.R. 1903--TO AMEND THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF 
  STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY ACT TO ENHANCE THE ABILITY OF THE NATIONAL 
INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE COMPUTER SECURITY, AND 
                           FOR OTHER PURPOSES

                              ----------                              


                         MONDAY, JULY 28, 1997

             U.S. House of Representatives,
                              Committee on Science,
                                Subcommittee on Technology,
                                                    Washington, DC.
    The Subcommittee met at 4:10 p.m., in room 2318 of the 
Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Constance A. Morella, 
Chairwoman of the Subcommittee, presiding.
    Chairwoman Morella. I am going to convene the Technology 
Subcommittee of the Science Committee.
    Pursuant to notice, the Subcommittee on Technology is 
meeting today to consider the following measure: H.R. 1903, the 
Computer Security Enhancement Act of 1997.
    I would ask unanimous consent for the authority to recess.
    [No response.]
    Chairwoman Morella. No objection? I think someone needs to 
move that we have the authority to recess, just in case. We do 
not anticipate it.
    Mr. Ehlers. So moved.
    Chairwoman Morella. Thank you. It has been so moved. No 
objection?
    [No response.]
    Chairwoman Morella. I thank you very much.
    I will proceed with some opening comments that deal with 
the nature of the bill that we have before us that we are going 
to be marking up.
    I want to commend my colleagues, first of all, who have 
helped in crafting H.R. 1903: the Ranking Member of the 
Subcommittee on Technology, Bart Gordon; the Chairman of the 
Full Committee, Jim Sensenbrenner; Ranking Member of the Full 
Committee, George Brown; and the rest of the original co-
sponsors.
    It is very impressive. We currently have 25 co-sponsors on 
the bill, 24 of them from the Committee. I want to especially 
thank my fellow Subcommittee members for co-sponsoring H.R. 
1903: Mr. Davis, Ms. Stabenow, Mr. Ehlers, Mr. Cook, Mr. 
Cannon, Mr. Gutknecht, Mr. Brady, Ms. Tauscher, Mr. Weldon, Mr. 
Doyle, Mr. Barcia, Mr. Ewing, and Mr. Bartlett and Ms. Rivers. 
The list includes all of the Subcommittee Republicans and just 
about all of the Democrats.
    The Computer Security Enhancement Act will strengthen the 
National Institute of Standards and Technology's historic role 
established by the Computer Security Act of 1987 in setting 
standards for computer security at federal and civilian 
agencies.
    The bill updates the decade-old Act while giving NIST the 
tools it requires to ensure that appropriate attention and 
effort is concentrated on securing our federal information 
technology infrastructure.
    We all know the need for these changes is great. Today we 
are faced with a world where telecommunications' services 
retailing in the electric power grid are all dependent on large 
networked computer systems.
    This dependence has allowed us an incredible amount of 
flexibility, spurred an extraordinary increase in productivity, 
and improved the very way that we conduct business.
    The extraordinary success in technological advances in 
computing power is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, as 
the cost of computer power plummets, cryptographic systems that 
once offered adequate protection for data become insecure.
    On the other hand, these advances will allow users to 
secure information more inexpensively and more effectively with 
encryption and firewalls.
    The Federal Government's dependence in computer systems' 
networks and electronic records has grown tremendously in the 
last decade.
    Information systems are now integral to nearly every aspect 
of over $1.5 trillion in annual Federal Government operations 
and spending. And yet, despite years of experience in 
developing systems, agencies across the government continue to 
have chronic problems ensuring the security of their 
information technology system.
    The bottom line is that theft or corruption of proprietary 
data is a real threat to our national security. Not 
withstanding the reluctance to disclose details of security 
compromises or related losses, some estimates of the extent of 
financial fraud in security-related attacks have been 
assembled.
    Information Week in August of 1995 reported on-line 
information theft, including calling card and credit card 
numbers, pirated software and corporate secrets, totalling $10 
billion annually in the United States alone.
    Ernst & Young in their Third Annual Information Security 
Survey for 1996 stated that nearly 50 percent of organizations 
suffered an information security-related financial loss in the 
last 2 years.
    This survey went on to state that 10 percent of users 
reported an attempted or successful break-in to their system 
via the Internet in the past year. Even more alarming is their 
discovery that over 50 percent of those surveyed claimed they 
would not know if someone broke into their systems through the 
Internet.
    And according to the July 1995 issue of Open Computing, 20 
percent of organizations that have external network access have 
been hacked.
    The risks inherent in electronic commerce can only be 
mitigated by the use of appropriate security countermeasures in 
conjunction with the establishment of the necessary business 
and legal frameworks.
    So H.R. 1903 will help address these issues by promoting a 
more secure information technology network in the federal 
civilian agencies and assisting American companies in their 
efforts to protect private systems.
    The Computer Security Enhancement Act of 1997 accomplishes 
these goals by updating the Computer Security Act to take into 
account the evolution of computer networks and their increased 
use by both the Federal Government and the private sector.
    So specifically the bill will:
    Number one, require NIST to encourage the acquisition of 
off-the-shelf products to meet civilian agency computer 
security needs. This measure should reduce the cost and improve 
the availability of computer security technologies for federal 
agencies.
    Second, the bill increases the input of the Independent 
Computer System Security and Privacy Advisory Board into NIST's 
decision-making process. The Board, which is made up of 
representatives from industry, federal agencies, and other 
external organizations, should assist NIST in its developments 
of standards and guidelines for federal systems.
    Thirdly, the bill requires NIST to develop standardized 
tests and procedures to evaluate the strength of foreign 
encryption products. Through such tests and procedures, NIST 
with assistance from the private sector, will be able to judge 
the relative strength of foreign encryption, thereby defusing 
some of the concerns associated with the export of domestically 
produced encryption products.
    Fourth, the bill limits NIST's involvement to the 
development of standards and guidelines for federal civilian 
systems. The bill clarifies the NIST's standards and guidelines 
are to be used for the acquisition of security technologies for 
the Federal Government and are not intended as restrictions on 
the production or use of encryption by the private sector.
    Also, the bill updates the Computer Security Act to address 
changes in technology over the last decade. Significant changes 
in the manner in which information technology is used by the 
Federal Government have occurred since the enactment of the 
Computer Security Act. So this bill updates the Act by 
including references to computer networking which has become an 
increasingly important component of the Federal Government's 
information technology system.
    The bill also establishes a new Computer Science Fellowship 
Program for graduate and undergraduate students studying 
computer security. It sets aside $250,000 a year for each of 
the next 2 fiscal years to enable NIST to finance computer 
security fellowships under an existing NIST grant program.
    The bill also requires the National Research Council to 
conduct a study to assess the desirability of public key 
infrastructures. The NRC would also research the technologies 
required for the establishment of such key infrastructures.
    I am personally committed to increasing awareness on issues 
of information technology security, and this Subcommittee has 
held three briefings and hearings on the issue; has met with 
scores of knowledgeable experts in the field; and so I am 
pleased to be one of the original co- sponsors on H.R. 1903.
    I thank all of the members who are here today for their 
staunch support.
    I would now like to recognize the Distinguished Ranking 
Member of the Subcommittee on Technology, Mr. Gordon.
    Mr. Gordon. Thank you.
    Chairwoman Morella has explained the provisions of H.R. 
1903. Many of us are co-sponsors of this legislation; 
therefore, I will keep my statement very brief.
    I want to highlight the underlying purpose of this 
legislation: to encourage the use of encryption products both 
by the Federal Government and the private sector.
    I am convinced that we must have a trustworthy and secure 
electronic network system to foster the growth of electronic 
commerce.
    Although many might consider this a piece of esoteric 
legislation, it is not. The issue of computer security and 
privacy in electronic networks and the Internet is a pressing 
issue for every American.
    This week there was an article on the Internet on privacy 
not in The Wall Street Journal or Business Week or PC World, 
but in People Magazine.
    The overall conclusion of the article was that most people 
simply are not aware of the need to secure information on the 
Net, or how easily accessible information is unless appropriate 
precautions are taken.
    This bill builds on the successful track record of the 
National Institute of Standards and Technology in working with 
industry and other federal agencies to develop a consensus on 
the necessary standards and protocols required for electronic 
commerce.
    I intend to offer an amendment which will further 
strengthen this legislation by including a government-industry 
partnership to begin to address the issue of digital 
signatures, something that should have been started 2 or 3 
years ago.
    This legislation is consistent with recommendations to the 
Office of Technology Assessment, the National Research Council, 
and independent experts who have appeared before this 
Subcommittee.
    Finally, the underlying principle of H.R. 1903 is that it 
recognizes that the Government and private sector security 
needs are similar. Hopefully the result will be lower cost and 
better security for everyone.
    This bill is the result of bipartisan cooperation and it 
has been a pleasure working with Chairwoman Morella on this 
issue.
    I urge my colleagues to support this legislation.
    Chairwoman Morella. Thank you, Mr. Gordon.
    Do we have any other members who would like to offer any 
opening statements?
    [No response.]
    Chairwoman Morella. Hearing none, I ask unanimous consent 
that the bill be considered as read and open to amendment at 
any point.
    [No response.]
    Chairwoman Morella. I would ask members to proceed with the 
amendments in the order of the roster.
    I have an amendment which the Clerk will report.
    Mr. Bell. Amendment to H.R. 1903 offered by Mrs. Morella:
    ``Page 10, line 8, strike `$250,000' and insert in lieu 
thereof `$500,000.' ''
    Chairwoman Morella. This amendment will allow an increase 
so that NIST can continue funding in Fiscal Year 1999 
fellowships that were begun in Fiscal Year 1998, while still 
allowing for new candidates to begin fellowships in Fiscal Year 
1999.
    It is my understanding that the amendment has been cleared 
by the Minority and is noncontroversial.
    Is there any discussion on that amendment?
    Yes, Mr. Bartlett?
    Mr. Bartlett. Madam Chairwoman, do we need an offset for 
this? Or will they simply provide the funds by reprogramming 
within the agency?
    Chairwoman Morella. Yes. My understanding, and we tried to 
work this out with regard to the amendment, is that the offset 
is within the bill itself. The money is already there, so it 
does not require any additional money.
    Mr. Bartlett. Thank you, very much.
    Chairwoman Morella. Does everybody approve of the 
amendment?
    [No response.]
    Chairwoman Morella. If there is no further discussion on 
the amendment, then the vote occurs on the amendment.
    All in favor will designate by saying, aye.
    [Chorus of ayes.]
    Chairwoman Morella. Opposed?
    [No response.]
    Chairwoman Morella. The ayes have it unanimously.
    I note that there is another amendment, Mr. Gordon. I will 
recognize you for an amendment.
    Mr. Gordon. Madam Chairwoman, I have an amendment at the 
desk.
    Chairwoman Morella. All right. The Clerk will read the 
amendment.
    Mr. Bell. ``Amendment to H.R. 1903 offered by Mr. Gordon:
    ``Page 12, after line 11''
    Mr. Gordon. Madam Chairwoman, I move that we dispense with 
the reading of the amendment.
    Chairwoman Morella. So moved.
    Mr. Gordon. Madam Chairwoman, I will just give a brief 
overview of the purpose of this amendment. I understand that 
you intend to support this amendment and the staff have been 
working together.
    This amendment adds two additional provisions to H.R. 1903.
    First, it increases public awareness of the need for 
improving the security of communications networks by including 
a requirement that the Technology Administration establish a 
clearinghouse of public information on electronic security 
threats.
    Second, it establishes a coordination mechanism in the 
development of a national digital signature infrastructure by 
establishing a national panel of state, business, and technical 
legal experts.
    I became interested in this issue of digital signature 
technology as a result of press articles on the electronic 
commerce and the fact that States are beginning to regulate 
this aspect of electronic commerce.
    If we are to create a seamless electronic network, then we 
need uniform rules of the road. Digital signature technology is 
essential to ensuring public trust of networks such as the 
Internet.
    Digital signature verifies that the business or individual 
you are communicating with is who you think they are, and that 
the information being exchanged has not been altered in 
transit.
    For this technology to be developed, a trusted guarantor of 
the digital signature must exist such as a certification 
authority.
    Several States already have statutes in place to regulate 
certification authorities. However, for a national system to 
develop, uniform standards must be in place for the practices 
and procedures of certification.
    Without this national uniformity, variations will exist 
among different state requirements for certification 
authorities which could affect the reliability and security of 
the operations associated with issuing and managing 
certifications.
    This amendment does not give the Federal Government the 
authority to establish standards or procedures. This amendment 
creates a national panel of public and private representatives 
to begin to address how to develop and integrate national 
policy regarding digital signatures.
    It is entirely consistent with the recommendations of the 
National Academy of Science study and the testimony of 
witnesses at our June 19th hearings.
    I urge my colleagues to support this amendment.
    Chairwoman Morella. I would like to comment that I do 
support the Gordon Amendment to H.R. 1903. It strives to 
promote uniformity in the formation of digital signature 
standards by establishing a national panel under the auspices 
of the Technology Administration.
    While having no authority to develop standards governing 
the private sector, the panel does provide for a formal 
structure that ensures policies critical for the widespread use 
of digital signatures.
    I am pleased that Mr. Gordon has offered this amendment. I 
support it.
    I wonder, is there any further discussion on the Gordon 
amendment?
    [No response.]
    Chairwoman Morella. Hearing none, then, the vote will occur 
on the amendment.
    All in favor will designate, aye.
    [Chorus of ayes.]
    Chairwoman Morella. Opposed?
    [No response.]
    Chairwoman Morella. Hearing no opposition, the amendment is 
reported unanimously favorably.
    Are there any further amendments that members seek to 
offer?
    [No response.]
    Chairwoman Morella. Hearing none then the question is on 
the bill, on H.R. 1903, the Computer Security Enhancement Act 
of 1997, as amended.
    All those in favor will designate by, aye.
    [Chorus of ayes.]
    Chairwoman Morella. Opposed, no?
    [No response.]
    Chairwoman Morella. In the opinion of the Chair, the ayes 
have it.
    I would like to recognize the Honorable Ranking Member, 
Bart Gordon, for a motion.
    Mr. Gordon. Madam Chairwoman, I move the Subcommittee 
report the bill, H.R. 1903, as amended, and that the Chairwoman 
take all necessary steps to bring the bill before the Full 
Committee for consideration.
    Chairwoman Morella. The Subcommittee has heard the motion. 
Those in favor will say aye.
    [Chorus of ayes.]
    Chairwoman Morella. Opposed, no?
    [No response.]
    Chairwoman Morella. The ayes have it. The motion is agreed 
to without objection. The motion to reconsider is laid upon the 
table.
    This concludes our Subcommittee markup on H.R. 1903. The 
Chair declares the Subcommittee adjourned and thanks all of the 
members for their wonderful attendance.
    [Whereupon, at 4:27 p.m., Monday, July 28, 1997, the markup 
was adjourned.]
               XIX. Proceedings of Full Committee Markup



FULL COMMITTEE MARKUP OF H.R. 1903--TO AMEND THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF 
  STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY ACT TO ENHANCE THE ABILITY OF THE NATIONAL 
INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE COMPUTER SECURITY, AND 
                           FOR OTHER PURPOSES

                              ----------                              


                         TUESDAY, JULY 29, 1997

                     U.S. House of Representatives,
                                      Committee on Science,
                                                    Washington, DC.
    The Committee met at 1:10 p.m., in room 2318 of the Rayburn 
House Office Building, Hon. F. James Sensenbrenner, Jr., 
Chairman of the Committee, presiding.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. The Committee will come to order.
    Pursuant to notice, the Committee on Science is meeting 
today to consider the following measures:
    H.R. 1903, the Computer Security Enhancement Act of 1997, 
As amended;
    H.R. 2249, To Authorize Appropriations for Carrying Out The 
Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977 For Fiscal Years 1997, 
1998 and 1999, and For Other Purposes; and
    H.R. 922, the Human Cloning Research Prohibition Act.
    I ask unanimous consent for the Chair to declare authority 
to recess during votes.
    [No response.]
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. Without objection, so ordered.
    I am informed that the Democrats have all been invited to 
go down to the White House to celebrate the balanced budget. I 
know that is something they really ought to do because it is 
really new for them.
    So I am going to forego opening statements. I would request 
all of the members to forego opening statements, particularly 
those on my side of the aisle, because I think if they get in 
the mood of celebrating balanced budgets, then we can stick to 
this agreement for the next 5 fiscal years and actually get the 
balanced budget.
    So the first bill up, since there are going to be no 
opening statements so that can happen, will be H.R. 1903, the 
Computer Security Enhancement Act of 1997.
    I ask unanimous consent that the bill be considered as read 
and open for amendment at any point.
    [The text of the bill and supporting materials follow:]





    Chairman Sensenbrenner. I ask the members to proceed with 
the amendments in the order on the roster.
    Without objection, all members' opening statements will be 
placed in the record at this point.
    [The opening statement and attachment of Chairman 
Sensenbrenner and the opening statements of Mr. Brown, Mr. 
Gordon, and Mr. Doyle follow:]
                  Statement of Chairman Sensenbrenner
   Markup of H.R. 1903, the Computer Security Enhancement Act of 1997
    On June 17, 1997, I introduced H.R. 1903, the Computer Security 
Enhancement Act of 1997, with Ranking Member Brown, Technology 
Subcommittee Chairwoman Morella and Ranking Member Gordon and nine 
other members of the Committee. Since its introduction, an additional 
13 members of the Committee have cosponsored the bill.
    H.R. 1903 updates the Computer Security Act of 1987 to take into 
account the evolution of computer networks and their use by both the 
Federal Government and the private sector. The bill recognizes that the 
current lack of security for electronic data at federal agencies is a 
major national security risk. Using the National Institute of Standards 
and Technology (NIST), H.R. 1903 attempts to harness the power of the 
private sector to help improve computer security at federal civilian 
agencies.
    In the interest of brevity, and with the knowledge that a majority 
of the Committee already supports the bill, I will not recapitulate all 
the reasons to vote for H.R. 1903. However, if you are interested, I 
would commend you to read the article by Congressman Brown and me which 
appeared in yesterday's Roll Call.
    In closing, I would like to thank Congressman Brown, and the 
members of the Technology Subcommittee--especially Chairwoman Morella 
and Ranking Member Gordon--for their hard work in crafting a bill that 
promises to improve computer security throughout the Federal 
Government.

    [The article referred to follows:]





                 Statement of Hon. George E. Brown, Jr.
    Mr. Chairman, I am pleased to have joined you as an original 
cosponsor of H.R. 1903, the Computer Security Enhancement Act of 1997, 
and applaud you for bringing the bill expeditiously before the 
Committee for its consideration.
    H.R 1903 was developed as a collaborative initiative by Majority 
and Minority members of the Science Committee. In particular, I would 
like to acknowledge the valuable contributions of Mrs. Morella, the 
Technology Subcommittee Chairwoman, and Mr. Gordon, the Ranking 
Democratic Member of the Subcommittee, in crafting the bill and in 
working together to report it from the Technology Subcommittee.
    I will defer to Mrs. Morella and to Mr. Gordon for an explanation 
of the provisions of H.R. 1903, but will say a few words about the 
intent of the legislation.
    A decade ago, the Committee was instrumental in the passage of a 
measure that gave NIST the responsibility for the protection of 
unclassified information in federal computer systems. The Computer 
Security Act of 1987 charged NIST to develop appropriate technical 
standards and administrative guidelines, as well as guidelines for 
training federal employees in security practices.
    Overall, NIST has received mixed reviews on its performance in 
carrying out its responsibilities under the 1987 statute. The agency 
has been criticized for allowing the National Security Agency to 
exercise too much influence on the development of standards for 
unclassified federal computer systems, and for developing standards 
that were inconsistent with emerging market standards. Also, according 
to NIST's external advisory committee, more effort should be devoted to 
providing advice and assistance to federal agencies in meeting their 
information security needs.
    H.R. 1903 seeks to elevate NIST's commitment to meeting its 
responsibilities under the Computer Security Act. It also reinforces 
that NIST has the primary responsibility for the protection of 
unclassified federal computer systems and networks.
    Two main themes of the bill are to expand the use of validated, 
commercially available cryptography technologies and to ensure greater 
public input into the development of standards and guidelines for 
federal systems.
    The threats to electronic information are much greater than when 
the 1987 legislation was considered by the Committee. H.R. 1903 is an 
important step toward addressing this vulnerability. I encourage my 
colleagues to support reporting the bill from Committee.
                                  _____
                                 
                     Statement of Hon. Bart Gordon
    Chairman Sensenbrenner has explained the provisions of H.R. 1903 
and many of us are co-sponsors of this legislation. Therefore, I will 
keep my statement very brief.
    I want to highlight the underlying purpose of this legislation--to 
encourage the use of encryption products, both by the Federal 
Government and the private sector. I am convinced that we must have a 
trustworthy and secure electronic network system to foster the growth 
of electronic commerce. This bill builds on the successful track record 
of the National Institute of Standards and Technology in working with 
industry and other federal agencies to develop a consensus on the 
necessary standards and protocols required for electronic commerce.
    The Technology Subcommittee marked-up this bill yesterday 
and approved two amendments which strengthen H.R. 1903. Chair 
Morella has mentioned her amendment and I would like to take a 
few moments to explain the provisions that I added to this 
legislation.
    First: they increase public awareness of the need to 
improve the security of communication networks by requiring the 
Technology Administration to establish a clearinghouse of 
public information on electronic security threats; and
    Second: they establish a coordination mechanism in the 
development of a national digital signature infrastructure by 
establishing a national panel of federal, state, business, 
technical and legal experts.
    Digital signature technology is essential to ensure public 
trust of networks such as the Internet. Digital signature 
verifies that the business or individual you are communicating 
with is who you think they are and that the information being 
exchanged has not been altered in transit.
    For this technology to be deployed, a trusted guarantor of 
the digital signature must exist--a certification authority. 
Several States already have statutes in place to regulate this 
technology. However, for a national system to develop uniform 
standards must be in place. Without this national uniformity, 
variations will exist among different state requirements for 
certification authorities which could affect the reliability 
and security of the operations associated with issuing and 
managing certificates.
    These provisions do not give the Federal Government the 
authority to establish standards or procedures. We simply 
create a national panel of public and private representatives 
to begin to address how to develop and integrate a national 
policy regarding digital signatures.
    This legislation is consistent with recommendations of the 
Office of Technology Assessment, the National Research Councils 
and independent experts who have appeared before the 
Subcommittee.
    Finally, the underlying principle of H.R. 1903 is that it 
recognizes that government and the private sector security 
needs are similar. Hopefully the result will be lower cost and 
better security for everyone.
    This bill is the result of bipartisan cooperation and it 
has been a pleasure working with Chair Morella on this issue. I 
urge my colleagues to support this legislation.
                                ------                                


                  Statement of Hon. Mike Doyle (PA-18)

    I am pleased that the Committee on Science is moving 
forward with H.R. 1903, the Computer Security Enhancement Act, 
of which I am a cosponsor.
    As our society becomes more and more reliant on information 
technology, it is imperative that public policy keep pace with 
technological advancement. This is quite a challenge for a 
deliberative body like Congress, given the phrenetic pace with 
which information-related advancements have occurred.
    In Pittsburgh, we are quite proud of the Software 
Engineering Institute, which has been--and continues to be--a 
global leader in bringing together encryption capability and 
encryption policy.  I have drawn on their expertise often 
throughout my service on the Science Committee, and I would 
encourage the Committee to look towards SKI as a resource in 
any future considerations on this or related issues.
    Through the extensive hearings held by the Technology 
Subcommittee, we have identified that the basic encryption 
needs of government and the private sector are quite similar. 
Furthermore, recent events have demonstrated that encryption 
methods currently billed as intelligent solutions to these 
problems are inadequate and inconsistent. This legislation is 
the first effort to engage the Federal Government in certifying 
the effectiveness and consistency in the setting of encryption 
standards.
    The Computer Security Enhancement Act is measured approach 
to the issues that are within the Committee on Science's 
jurisdiction. I want to express my appreciation to Chairman 
Sensenbrenner for introducing this legislation, and to the 
Technology Subcommittee Chairwoman Morella and Ranking Member 
Bart Gordon for making sure that the concerns of all members 
were addressed. I must also express my regard for George Brown, 
the Ranking Member of the Full Committee, who has been working 
on this issue for many years and whose wisdom is evident 
throughout this legislation.

    Chairman Sensenbrenner. The gentlewoman from Maryland, Mrs. 
Morella, has an amendment and is recognized for 5 minutes.
    Without objection the amendment is considered as read and 
open for amendment at any point.
    [The Amendment Roster and the text of the amendment 
follow:]





    Mrs. Morella. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    I want to thank all of the members who have aided in the 
support of the Computer Security Enhancement Act. Yesterday the 
Technology Subcommittee, which I chair, reported H.R. 1903 by 
unanimous voice vote. Further, the bill currently has over half 
of the Full Committee as co-sponsors.
    What the bill does is it promotes the maximum protection of 
our federal civilian agency computer system while also 
supporting American companies.
    By encouraging the use of commercially available computer 
security products, H.R. 1903 takes advantage of the wealth of 
commercial expertise on securing information networks.
    It also provides for a wealth of new information-sharing 
between NIST and the private sector which should aid businesses 
and federal agencies in safeguarding their sensitive electronic 
information.
    Most importantly, H.R. 1903 emphasizes the need for strong 
security. The widespread use of strong encryption will promote 
safety, security, and privacy. So I encourage my colleagues to 
support it in our markup.
    I would defer to Mr. Gordon for any comments he may like to 
make on behalf of the amendment.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. The gentleman from Tennessee.
    Mr. Gordon. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    Following the spirit of your earlier request, I will submit 
my statement for the record and just thank Chairwoman Morella 
for the courtesies. It was good to work with her on this bill.
    This is a good bill. It passed unanimously in our 
Subcommittee yesterday.
    Mr. Chairman, I invite you to join us today in celebrating 
the continuation of the deficit reduction package that was 
passed in 1993 with 100 percent of support from Democrats and 
no help from the Republicans. So we hope now that, since that 
has proven to be a success, that, as John Kasich said, if it 
was successful he would become a Democrat, we hope that he will 
join us, and you are welcome to join us also. [Laughter.]
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. Well, if the gentleman would yield, 
there is a big difference. The deficit reduction package 
increased taxes. The Balanced Budget Act decreases taxes, and 
that is what is bringing all the Republicans on board.
    The question is on the amendment in the nature of a 
substitute offered by the gentlewoman from Maryland, Mrs. 
Morella, and the gentleman from Tennessee, Mr. Gordon.
    Is there any further discussion?
    [No response.]
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. Hearing none, all those in favor 
will signify by saying, aye.
    [Chorus of ayes.]
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. Opposed, no?
    [No response.]
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. The ayes have it.
    Are there any further amendments?
    [No response.]
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. There are no further amendments.
    The Chair recognizes the gentleman from Tennessee for a 
motion.
    Mr. Gordon. Mr. Chairman, I move the Committee report the 
bill, H.R. 1903, the Computer Security Enhancement Act of 1997, 
As amended.
    Furthermore, I move to instruct the staff to prepare the 
legislative report, to make technical and conforming 
amendments, and the Chairman to take all the necessary steps to 
bring the bill before the House for consideration.
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. The question is on the motion to 
report the bill favorably. The Chair notes the presence of a 
reporting quorum.
    All those in favor will signify by saying, aye.
    [Chorus of ayes.]
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. Opposed, no?
    [No response.]
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. The ayes have it, and the motion is 
agreed to.
    Without objection, the Motion to Reconsider is laid upon 
the table.
    [No response.]
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. Without objection, all members will 
have 2 subsequent calendar days in which to submit 
Supplemental, Minority or Additional views on the measure.
    [No response.]
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. Without objection, pursuant to 
Clause 1 of Rule 20 of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives, the Committee authorizes the Chairman to offer 
such motions as may be necessary in the House to go to 
Conference with the Senate on the bill.
    Is there objection to any of these unanimous consent 
requests?
    [No response.]
    Chairman Sensenbrenner. Hearing none, so ordered.
    [Whereupon, at 1:18 p.m., the markup of H.R. 1903 was 
completed and the Committee immediately proceeded to 
consideration of H.R. 2249.]